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442

FOUNDATIONS

computed on the assumption that no piles are present. The ultimate settlement of the pile foundations shown on the right side of the diagrams can be estimated roughly on the basis of the following simplifying assumption. Above the level of the lower third-point of the length of the piles the water content of the clay remains unchanged, and below this level consolidation proceeds as if the building were supported on a flexible raft located at that level. The presence of the piles is disregarded. According to this assumption, the benefit derived from the piles is equivalent to replacing the subsoil by a practically incompressible material that extends from the base of the foundation to a depth equal to two thirds of the length of the piles. If this depth is several times greater than the width of the footings and the footings are widely spaced, the settlement of the pile foundation will be small, no matter how compressible the subsoil may be. On the other hand, if this depth is considerably smaller than the width of the loaded area and the loaded area is large, the ultimate settlement may be excessive even under a moderate load. These conclusions have been confirmed consistently by experience. Both experience and theory have also shown that raft foundations supported by uniformly loaded and equally spaced friction piles, like simple raft foundations, always tend to assume the shape of a shallow bowl. If the structure contains a basement, the load that produces consolidation is equal to the difference between the effective weight of the building and the effective weight of the soil that was excavated to form the basement (Article 5 1.3).
52.5.8 Heave and Lateral Movement due to Pile Ikiving If a pile is driven through silt or clay, the neighboring piles may rise. If the piles were driven to end-bearing on rock or a stratum of hard soil, their points may lose contact with the point-supporting material. Composite or spliced piles may even separate at the joint. Subsequent application of load causes a settlement equal to the preceding rise. Hence, if the rise is excessive, the piles should be redriven. On the other hand, if the piles were driven through weak strata for some distance into a stiffer stratum from which the piles will receive their support by side resistance, displacements may cause the piles to heave, but the heave may not diminish their capacity. Redriving is then unnecessary (Klohn 1963, Koutsoftas 1982). Heave may be reduced by predrilling to remove part of the soil that would otherwise be displaced, or by using a pile, such as an H-pile, that has a small cross-section. However, even H-piles may cause enough displacement to produce large heave under some conditions (Olko 1963), particularly if a plug of soil forms between the flanges. Wherever conditions conducive to heave exist, the elevations of the tops of the piles should be monitored. If

the type of pile permits, tell-tales should be used to detect heave of the points. If it is not obvious that contact with a hard bearing stratum has been lost and that redriving will therefore be needed, load tests should be performed to determine whether the capacity of the heaved piles has been impaired. Criteria for redriving can then be established to control the job. The displacements may cause not only heave but also lateral movements, especially if there are adjacent excavations extending below the level from which the piles are driven (Hagerty and Peck 1971). Where the movements are likely to be objectionable, they can be reduced by removing part of the soil in the space to be occupied by each pile. This is usually done by predrilling with an auger or by coring with a rotary cutting tool combined with water jets that transform the clay into a slurry where the pile is to be located.
52.5.9 Efficiency Equations

The preceding discussions have demonstrated that the settlement of a pile foundation exceeds that of a single pile under a load equal to the load per pile in the foundation. The realization of this fact led to various attempts to express the influence of the number and spacing of the piles on the settlement of the foundation by so-called efficiency equations (Seiler and Keeney 1944, Masters 1943, Feld 1943). However, the extraordinary variety of soils encountered in piling practice excludes the possibility of establishing a limited number of sufficiently accurate efficiency equations of general validity. The effect of the number and spacing of the piles on the ratio between the settlement of a single pile under a given load and that of a group under the same load per pile depends to a large extent on the sequence and properties of the soil strata. Furthermore, at a given length and spacing of the piles the ratio changes to a considerable extent with the load per pile. Nevertheless, in none of the existing theories are these vital facts given adequate consideration. Because of the great number and diversity of the factors involved, it seems very doubtful, to say the least, whether the efficiency equations represent a step in the right direction. Estimates of the ratio based on the theory of elasticity may be logically more defensible but, as discussed in Article 52.5.1, they have inherent shortcomings. At the present state of knowledge it is preferable to consider every case individually and to evaluate the probable settlement of a proposed pile foundation on the basis of the physical properties of the soils onto which the load is transmitted by the piles. Examples of the use of this procedure have been given under the preceding subheadings. If the probable settlement exceeds the tolerable maximum, the design must be modified. The maximum tolerable settlement of pile foundations is determined by

ARTICLE 52

PILE FOUNDATIONS

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the same factors as those that govern the permissible settlement of footing and raft foundations (Articles 50 and 51). If the distribution of the loads over the area to be occupied by a structure is very uneven, the secondary stresses in the structure due to unequal settlement can be appreciably relieved by dividing the structure into blocks separated from each other by continuous vertical joints.
52.5.10 Selection of Type of Pile

Table 52.2 Customary Range of Working Loads on Driven Piles"


Load (MN) 0.1-0.3 0.2-0.6 0.7-2 .O 0.3-0.5 0.4-0.7 0.5-0.8 0.6-0.9 1.0-1.2 0.3-0.5 0.3-0.5 0.4-0.7 0.3-0.6 0.3-0.5 0.5-0.8 0.5-1 .O 1.O-1.6 1.5-2.0

T Pe Y Timber (200 mm tip diam.) Concrete, precast, or prestressed 250 mm diameter 450 mm square Steel pipe or shell, concrete-filled, not mandrel-driven 273 X 4.8 mm pipe 273 X 6.4 mm pipe 324 X 6.4 mm pipe 350 X 7.8 mm pipe 400 X 9.5 mm pipe Monotube, 7-gage Steel pipe or shell, concrete-filled, mandrel-drivenb Raymond Step-taper with 260 mm point Raymond Step-taper with 308 mm point 305 mm corrugated, 16 gage 254 X 3.2 mm pipe Steel H-sectionc HP 10 X 42" HP 12 X 53" HP 14 X 89" HP 14 X 117"

The designer of a pile foundation can choose among several different types of piles, any one of which may provide adequate support for the proposed foundation. The final choice is governed by economic considerations and by conditions imposed by the character of the job. Until the early 1900's untreated timber piles were used almost exclusively. This type of pile is relatively cheap, but it has two major disadvantages. First, an untreated wood pile must be cut off below the lowest water table; if the water table is subsequently lowered on account of a permanent change in groundwater conditions, the uppermost parts of the pile disintegrate within a relatively short time. Second, a wood pile may break if it is driven too hard, although the foreman may not detect anything unusual. The risk of deterioration may be reduced by impregnation with wood preservatives, but the risk of breakage can be reduced only by stopping the driving of the pile while its bearing capacity is still relatively low. Because concrete or steel piles can be driven harder than .vood piles without risk of damage, the safe design load for such piles is considerably greater than that for wood piles. Recognition of this fact in practice is exemplified by the values that represent the loads commonly assigned to piles of various types. Such values are given in Table 52.2. However, under many circumstances the design loads differ widely from those in the table. Although the safe design loads for piles of different types vary, the spacing between piles of all types is practically the same. Therefore, the footings required to transfer a given load onto wood piles are considerably larger and more expensive than footings supported by concrete or steel piles. Furthermore, the bases of footings resting on concrete or steel piles can be established at any convenient elevation, whereas those of footings on untreated wood piles must be located below the lowest position of the water table. These advantages in many instances compensate for the additional cost of concrete or steel piles. Before the beginning of the 20th century all concrete piles were the precast, reinforced type. During the next decade cast-in-place piles became widely used, and the manufacture of concrete piles developed into a highly specialized industry. Later, prestressed concrete piles also entered the field. Structural steel sections and steel pipe have similarly become commonplace. The piles from which the designer may choose differ in their method of

"Indicated maximum loads can be exceeded if freeze or setup (Article 52.3.4) occurs after pile has been driven to resistance corresponding to tabulated value. bUse of the mandrel permits driving these piles to a resistance great enough to warrant working loads based on the full structural capacity of the pile. "When driven with adequate hammer to resistance indicated by wave equation H-piles may be stressed to as much as 90MPa under working loads; in soils likely to deform the tips, the same stress may be allowed if the piles are equipped with drive points. "Nominal width in inches; weights in pounds per lineal foot. installation, their shape, the texture of their surface, and several other aspects. Almost every type of pile has features that make it exceptionally suitable under certain soil conditions and less suitable or inapplicable under others. If vibrations due to pile driving cannot be tolerated for some reason, a pile must be adopted that can be jacked or augered down or else installed in a drill hole. These factors must be considered by the designer in connection with every pile job. Proper choice of a pile type requires