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Mobilit Management
in IETF and GPRS Specifications

15h Ma 2000
Sami Ala-Lkko
Depamen of Compe Science and Engineeing
Helinki Uniei of Technolog
Sami.Ala-Lkko@onea.com
Abstract
IP baed eice echnologie ae becoming inceaingl impoan in iele commnicaion.
Cellla neok ill be ed a an acce mehod o he Inene and ohe IP-baed neok.
Thee hae been eeal aemp o opimie cellla neok fo he packe daa. One of hem
i GPRS (Geneal Packe Radio Seice) hich i an enhancemen o he eiing GSM em.
Thi epo die mobili managemen mehod applied in GPRS and ohe iele, non
cellla neok. On maco mobili leel, GPRS nneling poocol and Mobile IP ae
compaed. On mico mobili leel, Cellla IP i compaed o he mehod applied in GPRS.
Whee needed ihin he cope of hi d, chaaceiic of Wiele LAN adio acce (IEEE
802.11) i compaed o he chaaceiic of GPRS adio acce.
Contents
1. Inodcion
2. Maco Mobili Ie
2.1. Mobili Managemen in Mobile IP and GPRS Tnneling Poocol
2.1.1. Tnneling Mehod o Sppo Mobili
2.1.2. Tnneling End-Poin
2.1.3. Defal Roe Fncionali and Connecii o Eenal Neok
2.1.4. Regiaion and Tnnel Eablihmen
2.2. Conegence beeen Mobile IP and GPRS Tnneling Poocol
2.2.1. IP Ho Roaming and Acceing Eenal Neok
2.2.2. PPP Sppo
2.2.3. Dnamic IP Adde Allocaion
2.2.4. Fncion on Cellla Neok Opeao Leel
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2.2.5. Convergence Status in GPRS/UMTS Release '99 Standards
3. Micro Mobility Issues
3.1. Mobility Management States
3.2. Paging Area Concept
3.3. Lower Layer Issues
3.4. Packet Routing
3.5. HandoII Decision
5. Conclusions
5.1. Macro Mobility Management
5.2. Micro Mobility Management


ReIerences


1. Inrodcion
Telecom and Internet technologies have had diIIerent evolution paths. The telephone made its public
debut during year 1876 |1|. AIter that, telecom networks were built and optimized to transport
circuit switched telephony traIIic. Transmission was Iirst based on analogue and later on digital
transmission technology. Compared to telephony, the Internet is a relatively new innovation. Internet
is stated to be an outcome oI the initial research objectives articulated by the Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA) in the late 1960's |1|. There has also been several diIIerent technologies
which have proIoundly aIIected the evolution oI the Internet. These include IP router technology,
Unix operating system, Ethernet local area network technology and Personal Computers |1|.
Nowadays, the Internet is a global network which consists oI various commercial and non-
commercial IP backbones. An open, IP level interconnection between these IP backbones Iorms the
concept oI one, global Internet.
One key component in telecom networks has been an exchange which handles, e.g., call control, call
switching, charging and call routing. On another hand, IP router has been one key building block oI
the Internet. The Iunctionality oI a typical IP router is very diIIerent Irom a telecom exchange. A
basic IP packet Iorwarding applied in the Internet does not require a concept oI end-to-end
connection Irom router's point oI view. The principles oI resource reservation are also very
diIIerent in the Internet and in the telecommunications networks. The Internet has typically worked
by using a best eIIort traIIic model. Every packet is treated (Iorwarded or discarded) equally. This
has been a very simple and eIIicient model and several arguments has been stated against any need
Ior a more complicated system |2|. Telecom networks, on another hand, have traditionally made an
explicit reservation oI transmission resources Ior each call.
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Unfonael, he eiing elecom echange ae no e capable of ppoing b and high
peed daa affic. Hoee, fom commecial poin of ie, a ee of eiing fied acce
echnolog i e impoan. E.g., ammeic digial bcibe line (ADSL) i eing he acce
inface of he eiing pblic iched elecommnicaion neok (PSTN). The eiing
elecom echange do no hae an ole in packe foading fom a ADSL bcibe o an IP
neok (o ie ea). Thee hae alo been eeal aemp opimie cellla neok fo
packe daa. One ch eample i Geneal Packe Radio Seice (GPRS), hich i an enhancemen
o he eiing GSM neok (Global Sem fo Mobile Commnicaion) [3].
IETF Mobile IP oking gop i aiming o ndeand daa eice in cellla em. Hoee,
IETF i no foced onl on cellla neok. One m alo emembe ha no all iele
neok ae cellla neok. If e compae he eiing cellla echnologie, e.g., o Wiele
LAN (WLAN), e can poin eeal diffeence. One impoan diffeence i ha he eiing
cellla echnologie ae commonl bil fo ide aea coeage. Ohe pical diffeence ae he
pinciple of eoce eeaion: cellla neok ca o eplici eoce eeaion oe
he adio ineface. In hi ene, cellla neok can be een a a iele eenion o he PTSN.
WLAN, on anohe hand, ae eing man of he pinciple applied in fied local aea neok
echnologie (e.g. Ehene).
A clea daback of he eiing cellla neok i a limied daa ae: fo eample he mo
commonl applied GSM daa eice i onl a 9.6 kbp cici iched connecion. The coeage
offeed b WLAN echnolog i limied, b he bi ae ae highe. A pical eiing WLAN
implemenaion (complian o IEEE 802.11) offe 2 megabi pe econd in a haed acce manne
[4].
Fige 1 peen he achiece died in hi pape. Thi epo die mobili managemen
mehod applied in GPRS and ohe iele, non cellla neok. On maco mobili leel,
GPRS nneling poocol and Mobile IP ae compaed. On mico mobili leel, Cellla IP i
compaed o he mehod applied in GPRS. Whee needed ihin he cope of hi d,
chaaceiic of Wiele LAN adio acce (IEEE 802.11) i compaed o he chaaceiic of
GPRS adio acce.


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Fige 1. Achiece died in hi pape.
2. Macro Mobilit Issues
Mobile IP ok in IETF applie em maco mobili and mico mobili [5]. The baic
pecificaion fo Mobile IP (RFC 2002) i giing ool fo he maco mobili managemen.
Hoee, he baic Mobile IP i no ha ell ied fo mico mobili [6]. A pical eample of
mico mobili i a handoff among neighbo iele anceie, each of hich i coeing onl
a e mall geogaphic aea.
In GPRS (a in mo cellla em), neok i diided ino o pa: coe neok and adio
acce neok. In GSM, adio acce neok i called bae aion bem. In coe neok,
fom packe foading poin of ie, GPRS pecific fncionali i diided ino o neok
elemen. Fom neok opolog poin of ie, Seing GPRS Sppo Node (SGSN) ha diec
connecii o adio acce neok. Gaea GPRS Sppo Node (GGSN) ha diec
connecii o he eenal IP neok (e.g. Inene and inane). GPRS coe neok in geneal
caie o man imila maco mobili ie hich ae ppoed b Mobile IP. Thi ill be
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diced i Seci 2.1. Mic bii ie i be fhe diced i Seci 3.
2.1. Mobilit Management in Mobile IP and GPRS Tunneling Protocol
Thee i e diffeece i adadiai de aied f GPRS ad Mbie IP. GPRS i a
eie bie e e hee achieca decii ad ieface beee e
eee ae adadied. Mbie IP, ahe had, i a c aied i he IP eie
a bii f IP h. I IETF, i ha bee ica adadie e e
ideede c. F achieca i f ie he IETF de eia a e
feibii. Eecia i bacbe e, IETF c hae bece e ad e
dia. F cea eia ieeai i f ie, a ecificai f eie e
e ad h a cee adi ieface igh hae bee beeficia f ieeabii e.
GPRS eig c (GTP) caie a iia fci a Mbie IP. The fig
eci i e iiaiie ad diffeece he Mbie IP ad GTP ae caed f
bii aagee i f ie.
2.1.1. Tunneling Methods to Support Mobilit
A i i ide , IP ei 4 ae ha de' IP adde ie ideifie he de'
i f aache he IP e [6]. T he bii f IP h, bh Mbie IP ad
GTP a eig ace fadig e he e hich d hae bii
ecific fciai. The Iee e d hae be aae f he IP h bii. A
f eface i f ie i i aa feaibe ha, e.g., high eed bacbe e ae
efig bii aagee ecific fci. Whe aa f he, Mbie IP e
c eig hide a bie de' he adde f ieeig e beee he
e ad h' ce cai [6]. I GPRS, e daa i afeed aae beee he
bie ai ad he eea daa e ig ecaai ad eig. GTP (hich i
iai aied beee GGSN ad SGSN) afe ed e daa hgh e [3].
Thee ae diffee ehd f ieeig he e e ieediae e. I Mbie IP, bh
he age ad feig age eig daaga ig IP i IP ecaai [6].
Oia feig age ad he age a a GRE ad iia ecaai. [6] I
GPRS, GTP f e ae (hich i eig c a ch) i caied e UDP/IP TCP/IP
[3]. TCP/IP i ed if X.25 i caied e GPRS, hich ie i be ide ed
cecia. I cae f IP e GPRS, GTP caied e UDP/IP.

2.1.2. Tunneling End-Point
I Mbie IP, he e f he he age eiae a he bie de' cae-f adde. A he
cae-f adde, he igia daaga i eed f he e ad deieed he bie de.
Mbie IP ca e diffee e f cae-f adde: a "feig age cae-f adde" i a
adde f a feig age ih hich he bie de i egieed, ad a "c-caed cae-f
adde" i a eea baied ca adde hich he bie de ha aciaed ih e f
i e ieface [6]. I cae f feig age cae-f adde, he e i eiaed a
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he feig age.
I cea eie, adi ece ae cace. F a adi ece eecie, ig f a
feig age cae-f addee i e efficie. Thi i becae i c-caed cae-f addee,
he e i eiaed a he bie de [8]. If he e i aed e he adi ieface,
hi ea addiia IP headed ehead hich ce iied cea adi caaci. GTP i
iia a feig age cae-f adde, a GTP e i eiaed bie ai b
SGSN. I GPRS, a e i ideified b a e edi ideifie ad a SGSN/GGSN adde.

2.1.3. Defal Roe Fncionali and Connecii o Eenal Neok
Accdig IETF Mbie IP ig g, feig age i a e a bie h' iied
e hich ide ig eice he bie de hie egieed. The feig age i
caabe f deeig ad deieig daaga he bie de ha ee eed b he
bie de' he age. F daaga e b a bie de, he feig age a ee a a
defa e f egieed bie de [6]. I GPRS, a decibed ei, SGSN i a
caabe f eig ad ecaaig e daa [3]. SGSN ha a e ig fciai, b
i i a defa e f aicai i f ie. Pacica hi ea ha SGSN i
diec ceced eea e (e.g. Iee). I GPRS, e daaga ae aa eed
GGSN.
I Mbie IP, he he age i a e a bie de' he e ad i de hae
e he ace hich ae deied bie de ha hae diec ae 2 ceci. I GPRS,
hee i iia "he e" cce f IP ig i f ie. GGSN aa e IP
ace SGSN.

2.1.4. Regiaion and Tnnel Eablihmen
I Mbie IP, hee i fciai caed egiai. Whe he bie de i aa f he, i
egie i cae-f adde ih i he age. Thi i de hgh echage f a Regiai
Ree ad Regiai Re eage (hich ae e ih UDP ig e be
434). Deedig he ehd f aache, he bie de i egie eihe diec ih i
he age, hgh a feig age hich fad he egiai he he age. The cae-
f adde ca eihe be deeied f a feig age' adeiee (a feig age cae-f
adde), b e eea aige echai ch a DHCP (a c-caed cae-f adde).
Mbie IP eed ICMP Re Dice a i ia echai f age dice. A age
adeiee i fed b icdig a bii age adeiee eei i a ICMP e
adeiee eage [6].
Accdig GPRS ecificai, i i ibe f a bie ai be aached he GPRS
e ee hgh i de hae a aciaed GTP e f daa a. Thi igh be
ecea f eae he a bcibe a be abe eceie h eage ih ig
e ece (e.g. IP adde). A fci iia Mbie IP egiai i bi GPRS
ecific daa ceci aciai cede. Dig hi cede, a GTP e i eabihed
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beee SGSN ad GGSN. I Mbie IP (RFC 2002), i i eici decibed h a e
ae eabihed. If IP-i-IP eig i ed, hee ca be e e f each IP adde ai (e.g.
HA ad FA).

2.2. Conegence beeen Mobile IP and GPRS Tnneling Poocol
A decibed i ei eci, GPRS ce e ad Mbie IP ae caig a iia
fci f bii aagee i f ie. Hee, he baic Mbie IP ecificai
RFC 2002 a ch de ce a he fciai ed b GPRS ce e. 3GPP ha
caied a d cbied GSM ad Mbie IP bii hadig i UMTS ce e. Thi
aied a echica eaiai hee Mbie IP i ed hade bii i he GPRS ad
UMTS ce e [8].
Ee GTP i a bii aagee c. I a caie e.g. e ei
aagee ad e eabihe fci. Thee ae e ia addii Mbie IP
fciai bed baic RFC 2002 hich ae e ia he cideig GTP eacee
b Mbie IP. The fig eci decibe e f he ecea addii.

2.2.1. IP Ho Roaming and Acceing Eenal Neok
Ne Acce Ideifie (NAI) i a adadied ehd f ideifig e. I i defied
ehace he ieeabii f aig ad eig eice. Raig caabii i hi ce
a be e defied a a abii e a Iee eice ide (ISP). Oe ahe eed f
NAI i ece acce cae iae, eabed b eig c ch a PPTP, L2F,
L2TP ad IPec i e de [9]. The NAI ha he fa iia a eai adde hich
ie ideifie he e ad he e' he e [8]. I GPRS, Acce Pi Nae (APN)
ha e iia fciai. I GPRS ce e, Acce Pi Nae i a efeece he
GGSN be ed. Pacica APN i ed decide hich IP adde GTP e i eiaed.
I addii, Acce Pi Nae a, i he GGSN, ideif he eea e. Th, APN ca
a be ed deeie hich IP adde a bee e f GGSN (e.g. PPTP, L2F,
L2TP IPec) i eiaed a. Acce Pi Nae i ced f a: Ne Ideifie
ad Oea Ideifie. Ne Ideifie i a efeece he eea e eice.
Oea Ideifie i a efeece he GPRS e i aig cae. Bh a f APN ae
f aified dai ae accdig he DNS aig cei [3]. NAI ad APN hae
eea diffeece b he acica he ae eed: he ae gie a ed e a
ibii decibe hich eea IP e hd be acceed. Thi i ia eecia
i aig cae. Oe cea fcia diffeece beee NAI ad APN i ha i addii a
ee e ae NAI icde a a e ae.

2.2.2. PPP Sppo
RFC 2002 de ecif h Mbie IP i ed he bie de cec hei ISP (
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iae) ia PPP. RFC 2290 defie a PPP e Mbie IP [10]. Oe cea eed f PPP i
a caibii ih he eiig ISP aheicai fciai. F eae he NAI e id i
bied b he cie dig PPP aheicai ce [9]. PPP ee aheicai i c
aied i a f he eiig ISP ee acce ee. B ig PPP, e ca a ca he
ace c ha IP (e.g. IPX). PPP a a ca IP ace ih ceed TCP/IP
heade. Thee PPP i ae egiaed dig he Ne C Pc eabihe hae
[11]. I GPRS, hee i iia fciai f aae PPP eig beee bie ai
ad GGSN. PPP ca be caied b GTP. Ohe i i ha IP (ih PPP) i caied e GTP.
If IP e GTP i i aied, e f he PPP ecific fciai ae . A ie ee -
ee aheicai baed PPP ee fciai ca be ed b GPRS a he IP i
caied b GTP.

2.2.3. Dnamic IP Address Allocation
I RFC 2002 i i aed ha he bie de icde i (eae) he adde f
egiai. A he adde f he he age i icded i he egiai eage ad he
feig age fad he eage he he age. The NAI eei decibed ei ha
bee ed hade ea aige f he addee. A bie de ca icde a
NAI iead f he adde i he ai a f he Mbie IP Regiai Ree. He age
ca he acae IP adde he bie h ig daic adde acai icie. The
Regiai Re i be e f he he e he feig age, hich eac he
ifai i eed. Thi eage icde e.g. he IP adde acaed f he bie h [8].
Daic adde acai i a a iega a f GPRS. Dig a GPRS ce aciai
cede, a GPRS bie ai ca idicae hehe i eie a aic daic adde.
GGSN ca acae he adde iea e a eea AAA ee (Aheicai,
Ahiai ad Accig). I i a ibe egiae he IP adde afe cei f he
ce aciai cede. Thi egiai i caied b he bie ai ih he eea
IP e ad i ie feaibe i he cae hee PPP i caied e GTP.

2.2.4. Functions on Cellular Network Operator Level
S fa eea iia feae beee GTP ad Mbie IP ha bee ideified. I addii GTP,
GPRS ce e aie a GSM MAP c (Mbie Aicai Pc) hich i
aied beee SGSN ad HLR (He Lcai Regie). Thi c e.g.
aheicai beee cea e ea ad bcibe, cai acig beee cea
e eee ad bcibe daa afe. Ohe cea e hae iia c (e.g.
f he cea e defied i Aeica ae aig ANSI-41 adad). F bacad
caibii i f ie, i i e feaibe ha hee c ae eaced e ic.
Ce, hee IETF c hich cd iediae eace hee c.
Oe eiee f Mbie IP befe i ca be deed i fe cea e i a eed
ie ih ad eae i c-eiece ih eiig c i he cea e [12]. T
a Mbie IP be a bii i hich a diffee id f acce e
echgie, Mbie IP fciai ha be ideede f he acce e echg [12].
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A epaaion of he ahenicaion pocede i moiaed b he fac ha adio eoce ae
cace, and an acce neok opeao ma no an o allo Mobile IP ignaling nil he acce
neok in ielf ha acceped o poide eoce fo a mobile node [12].

2.2.5. Convergence Status in GPRS/UMTS Release '99 Standards
A a el of hee die hee i ome conegence beeen Mobile IP and GTP ppoed b
GPRS eleae '99 andad. The ame applie alo o UMTS (Unieal Mobile
Telecommnicaion Sem) eleae '99. Opionall a foeign agen fncionali can be poided
in he GGSN. The ineface beeen he GGSN and foeign agen, inclding he mapping beeen
he cae of IP adde and he GTP nnel i amed no be andadied a he GGSN and foeign
agen ae conideed o be one inegaed node [3]. In pinciple, one can alo implemen SGSN and
GGSN inegaed. Hoee, in he cae of ine SGSN handoff, GTP ha o be ppoed ana.
Cen Mobile IP pecificaion canno be ed o ene lole handoff [8]. Cen Mobile IP
pecificaion don' eihe ppo anpoaion of GPRS bcibe pecific infomaion beeen
SGSN'.

3. Micro Mobilit Issues
IETF doe no hae e pecie definiion fo maco mobili and mico mobili. Hoee, a
decibed peiol, he baic Mobile IP (RFC 2002) i a pecificaion fo maco mobili
managemen. I i alo aed ha i i le ell ied fo mico mobili managemen [6]. Cellla
IP on anohe hand poide ool o ole mico mobili ie in he neok lae. Cellla IP
ppo local mobili, ha i, mobili inide an acce neok. I can ineok ih Mobile IP
o poide ide aea mobili ppo [7]. Hoee, Cellla IP i no he onl a of oling
mico mobili ie. Mico mobili can alo be handled ing link lae mechanim (i.e. link
lae handoff) [6]. IETF ha alo deeloped ohe mico mobili mechanim ch a egional
egiaion. Cellla IP i no e an RFC b an Inene-daf.
In GSM/GPRS, adio acce neok coni of bae aion and bae aion conolle. Cellla
IP neok coni diffeen kind of node. Bae aion i a Cellla IP node ha ha a iele
ineface. Gaea i a Cellla IP node ha i alo conneced o a egla IP neok. Cellla IP
Gaea ee alo a he mobile ho' foeign agen and i ela i' packe boh p and
donlink [7]. Cellla IP node oe IP packe inide he Cellla IP Neok.
Cellla IP define alo man mobili managemen concep hich ae imila o hoe applied in
eiing cellla neok. The folloing ecion decibe he mico mobili managemen in
eiing IETF docmenaion and compae i o GPRS. Whee needed ihin he cope of hi d,
chaaceiic of WLAN adio acce (IEEE 802.11) i compaed o he chaaceiic of GPRS
adio acce.
3.1. Mobilit Management States
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Cea IP idce a ae cce f bie h. A bie h a eihe be i acie ide
ae. A bie h i i a acie ae if i i aiig eceiig IP ace [7]. Thi ae i
iia ead ae i GPRS a a i GPRS ead ae bie ai a ed ad eceie
ace [3]. The he ae defied b Cea IP i caed ide ad i i aied if a bie h
ha ece aied eceied IP ace [7]. Thi ae ha iiaiie adb ae i
GPRS. I GPRS adb ae, daa ecei ad aii ae ibe [3].
I GPRS, ead ae i eied ih a ie. A bie ai chage f ead ae
adb ae he he ead ie eie. The ead ie i ee he daa i afeed
beee SGSN ad bie ai [3]. A i Cea IP, he bie ai e ide ae
he i ha eceied aied a daa ace f e ie [7]. Bh i GPRS ad i
Cea IP, a ae aii ie i aica defied. Thee id f aaee hae
ica bee a a f cea e aig. Th i GPRS, SGSN a chage he egh f
he ead ie b aiig a e ae [3].
Mbii aagee ae fciai i ia iiie he bae ci i a
bie ai. F eae a GPRS bie ai i adb ae ha i a c
chae. I IEEE 802.11 hee i gica chae eaai ihi e caie. Hee, IEEE
802.11 adad diec addee he ie f e aig ad defie a echai hich
eabe ai g i ee de f g eid f ie ih ig ifai. The bae
ai eidica ai ifai e aig ai if he hae fae bffeed a
he bae ai. If hee i a fae bffeed a he acce i, he he ai ed a ig
eage he bae ai ge hee fae. A he bffeig ifai i e eidica, hi
fci eie ha ai ae chied [4]. Se he adi echg ecific ie ae
decibed i Seci 3.3.

3.2. Paging Area Concep
A a cce f agig i idced i Cea IP. Mbie h ha ae acie aiig
eceiig daa b a be eachabe f icig ace aiai agig cache aig
[7]. The IEEE 802.11 adad de defie h aig hd be efed, b defie he
baic . Thee i a e-aciai cede, hee a ai hich i aig f e bae
ai ahe bece aciaed ih he e e [4]. Bh i GPRS ad Cea IP, he eed
f agig i eaed bii aagee ae. Whe a bie h i i acie ae, he
e f i ee f bae ai bae ai be abe deie ace
ih eachig f he bie h. Th, he h hich ae i acie ae if he
e ab each hadff [7]. Thi baic icie aie f bh Cea IP ad GPRS.
I Cea IP, agig aea i a e f bae ai. Ide bie h cig ce bdaie
ihi a agig aea d eed ai c ace dae hei ii [7]. I GPRS
iia fciai i ided b a ig aea cce. GPRS bie ai eece bii
aagee cede if he SGSN he i ha eeed a e ig aea. The bie
ai de if he SGSN a chage f a ce i he ae ig aea [3]. A Cea IP
ha a iia fciai: a ide bie h ig a e bae ai ai a agig
dae ace if he e bae ai i i a e Pagig Aea [7].
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I Cea IP, ide aea bii cc he he bie h e beee Cea IP
e. The bie h ca ideif Cea IP e b he Cea IP e ideifie
caied i he bae ai' beac iga. The beac iga a cai he IP adde f he
gaea. Whe a bie h ha eceied hi badca ifai, i ca ed a egiai
ee he gaea [7]. Mbie h ca a ed a Mbie IP egiai eage i he
age, ecifig he gaea' IP adde a he cae-f adde. Aeaie, he gaea ca
egie a he he age behaf f he bie h [7]. I GPRS, a bie ai ca iiiae a
ce e-eeci hich a chage he bae ai ce ( bh bae ai ce ad
SGSN). If SGSN i chaged, ia SGSN ig aea dae cede i caied . If SGSN
i chaged, ie SGSN ig aea cede i caied . The ae aa chage he ed
i f a GTP e hich i aciaed hi bie ai.

3.3. Lower Laer Issues
Cea IP ide e e ic bii ie i he e ae. I i
deede a ecific adi echg. Hee, Cea IP de ae ha a ad
acce ae 2 c ce he ai ieface. [7] The ae 2 c hich ae aied e
adi ieface, ica acedge aed daa. Thi i eied a adi ieface ha a
eaie high bi e ae. IP a ch de acedge eceied ace ad ica i i
bee ca eaii a a ibe. F eae MAC ae i 802.11
bh ace acedge ad eaii fciai [4]. A i GPRS, he adi i
c fciai (RLC) ide a eiabe i[3].
I IEEE 802.11, e caie ide a aii edi hich 2 Mb e ecd i
a haed acce ae [4]. I a a, hi aii edi i iia a ege i a
fied LAN. Iead f cii deeci hich i ed i Ehee, IEEE 802.11 aie cii
aidace ih a iie acedge echai [4]. F ece eeai i f ie,
IEEE 802.11 a ch ha a iiaiie fied LAN echg. Tica eici ece
acai ae ade, b he age f adi ece i baed haed acce icie. If a
bie h de hae ahig ed eceie, i e adi ece f c
igaig. A i GPRS, acai f adi ece i baed he eed f aca ace
afe. A GPRS ace daa affic chae ca be acaed f e bie ai a a ie. U
eigh ace daa affic chae a be acaed f e bie ai a he ae ie. GPRS
eeae '97 f cdig chee f ace daa affic chae. The daa ae f hee
cdig chee ae 9.05 b, 13.4 b, 15.6 b, ad 21.4 b [13].
I GPRS, hee ae eaae gica chae f aiig c ifai ad igaig.
Se f he ae aied i haed acce ae b hee ae a gica chae hich ae
aciaed e bie ai. Rad acce chae i ed acae adi ece
ad i i aied i. Acce ga chae i ed ie dieci f adi ece
aige. A agig ha a eaae gica chae, hich i aa a di chae
[13]. I WLAN hee i hi id f gica chae ce. A c ifai ad
igaig i aied e he ae haed chae.
Oe ia fciai hich i caied e adi ieface i badcaig f e
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infomaion. GPRS applie a epaae logical boadca channel heea IEEE 802.11 applie
beacon fame. All hee andad diced in hi pape (Cellla IP, GPRS and IEEE 802.11)
define ome boadca infomaion. Fo eample, Cellla IP bae aion m peiodicall
anmi beacon ignal o allo fo mobile ho o idenif an aailable bae aion. In each
beacon ignal, hee i a paging aea idenifie, hich enable mobile ho o noice hen he
moe ino a ne paging aea [7]. Simila fncionali i alo applied in GPRS fo oing aea [3].
Ohe pical boadca infomaion in cellla neok inclde neok idenificaion, cell
idenificaion and paamee fo cell e-elecion. In Cellla IP, boadca infomaion inclde
bae aion' lae 2 adde and gaea' IP adde.

3.4. Packe Roing
Roe Cache i mainained b all Cellla IP node and i i ed o oe packe o mobile ho.
Packe anmied b he mobile ho ceae and pdae enie in each node' cache. An en map
he mobile ho' IP adde o he neighbo fom hich he packe aied o he node. The chain of
cached mapping efeing o a ingle mobile ho fom a eee pah fo donlink packe
addeed o he ame mobile ho. A an acie ho appoache a ne bae aion, i anmi a
oe pdae packe and ediec i packe fom he old o he ne bae aion. The oe pdae
packe ill confige oe cache along he a fom he ne bae aion o he gaea. Packe
anmied b a mobile ho ae oed fom he bae aion o he gaea b hop-b-hop hoe
pah oing, egadle of he deinaion adde [7].
In GSM/GPRS adio acce neok IP packe i encaplaed oe GPRS pecific fame
ce. Roing of hee fame i paiall baed on opolog. One bae aion i ala
conneced o one bae aion conolle. One bae aion i ala connecion o one SGSN. Thi
opolog infomaion i ed o oe he plink fame. When mobile aion i in ead ae, SGSN
i aae on hich cell mobile aion i aached. Alo bae aion conolle i aae on hich
cell mobile aion i aached. Baed on hi infomaion i i poible o oe he donlink fame
o a mobile aion in ead ae.
In Cellla IP, paging cache i mainained b ome Cellla IP node and i i ed o oe packe
o mobile ho. B deploing o cache (paging cache and oing cache), he ganlai of
locaion acking can be diffeen fo idle and acie mobile ho. Mobile ho ha ae no aciel
anmiing o eceiing b an o be eachable fo incoming packe, le hei oe cache
mapping ime o b mainain paging cache mapping. IP packe addeed o hee mobile ho
ill be oed b paging cache. Paging cache hae a longe ime-o ale han oe cache and
ae no neceail mainained in ee node. On he pah fom he gaea oad he mobile ho,
he paging packe i boadca b all node i pae. The paging packe i an odina IP packe.
The e of cell ha ae eached b he paging packe fom a paging aea [7]. In GPRS, if a mobile
aion i in andb ae, SGSN page i befoe i anfe daa o ha mobile aion. The paging
pocede moe he mobile aion o ead ae and allo he SGSN o foad donlink daa
oad he mobile aion.
Packe acknoledgmen and bffeing fncionali picall hae ineacion. If a packe i no
acknoledged in ceain peiod of ime, i can be eanmied if i i ill oed in a bffe.
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Bffeig ca be caied diffee e eee. I i ica efeabe ha bffeig i
caied e fa aa f ha ace hee hadff ae ace. A decibed ei,
IEEE 802.11 acedge MAC ae. IEEE 802.11 MAC ae i ica ieeed i he
bae ai. Th, e bi cai hee bffeig ca be ieeed i bae ai. H
ch bffeig i be aied, hd be a feibe e cfigai aaee. Thee ae
ceai ii h ch dea diffee highe ee c ad aicai ca eae. F
eae Vice e IP ad eaig echgie eie a ea ie daa a a eceie ih a ic
eace. If hi eace i ied, bffeig de big a addiia beefi. O ahe
had, e he c igh eae ge ace dea b a ace .
I Cea IP, he a bie h iche a e bae ai i ed a e dae ace
ae he chai f cache bidig i he e bae ai. Pace ha ae aeig he
d ah i be deieed he d bae ai ad i be . Ahgh hi a be a i
ca eia degade TCP hgh. Thi id f hadff, he he bie iche a a ce
he e Bae Sai i caed "had" hadff. T ie he eface f eiie
aicai, ahe e f hadff a be idced, caed "ei f" hadff. Dig ei
f hadff a bie h a be i cac ih eihe f he d ad e bae ai ad eceie
ace f he. Pace ieded he bie h ae e bh bae ai, he he
bie h eea e he e cai i ca cie eceie ace ih
iei [7].
3.5. Handoff Deciion
Cea he cce f eae bii i he ce f eabihig i a each e
ceci i. Wheee hi ce eie he afe f ae ifai f he d
ceci i (e.g. a bae ai) he e e, a hadff ha cc. Thee ae e
ehd f efig hadff, a e a he id f ae ifai ha ha bee deiged
f bie de, a e a he id f e eiie ha aiai he ae ifai [14].
The decii aig ce f hadff a be ceaied deceaied (i.e. he hadff
decii a be ade a he bie ai e) [15]. F decii ce i f ie
e ca fid a ea ee diffee id f hadff:
I a e ced hadff c, he e ae a hadff decii baed
eaee f he bie ai a a be f bae ai. I geea, he hadff
ce (icdig daa aii, chae ichig ad e ichig) ae 100-200
. Ifai ab he iga ai f a e i aaiabe a a ige i i he
e. Thi ifai faciiae ece acai. Ne ced hadff i ed
i fi geeai aag e ch a AMPS, TACS ad NMT [15].
I a bie aied hadff ce he bie ai ae eaee, ad he e
ae decii. I cici iched GSM, bae ai ce i i chage f he adi
ieface aagee. Thi ea ai he acai ad eeae f adi chae ad
hadff aagee. The hadff ie (ie beee hadff decii ad eeci) i cici
iched GSM i aiae 1 [15].
I bie ced hadff he bie ai i cee i c f he hadff ce.
Thi e f hadff ha a h eaci ie ( he de f 0.1). The bie ai
eae he iga egh f dig bae ai ad iefeece ee a
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channel. A handoff can be iniiaed if he ignal engh of he eing bae aion i loe
han ha of anohe bae aion b ceain hehold [15].
A decibed befoe, mo cellla neok hae adiionall been opimied fo cici iched
elephon. Epeciall neok conolled and mobile aied handoff ae pical fo handling
cici iched beae (e.g. in NMT, AMPS, GSM, TACS). Mobile IP (RFC 2002) doe no
pecif an eplici conol mechanim fo a foeign agen o iniiae a handoff deciion. Mobile IP
doe no eihe ppo anpo of an adio ineface pecific infomaion (e.g. meaemen daa)
on hich handoff deciion cold be baed. Cellla IP, on anohe hand, eplicil ae ha
handoff i iniiaed b he mobile ho [7]. Alo in GPRS, a mobile aion can aonomol iniiae
a cell eelecion poce. The mobile aion infom he neok hen i e-elec anohe cell
[3]. IEEE 802.11 doe no pecif an eplici conol mechanim fo an neok elemen o
iniiae a handoff deciion.
Thee i one poenial eaoning h GPRS, Cellla IP and IEEE 802.11 all ppo mainl mobile
conolled handoff. All of hem e "on demand" eoce eeaion pinciple. Thi i ofen
eaonable a hoe eoce eeaion pinciple ha ae applied fo cici iched beae do
no poide opimal adio eoce age fo packe iched affic. Th, i i no ha
aighfoad o appl imila handoff mechanim fo packe daa a fo cici iched beae.
In geneal, neok ha o be aae, ha kind of beae o eoce eeaion i aociaed o
each mobile aion. Acall e come back o a peiol peened ie in hi epo. Inene
ha picall oked b ing a be effo affic model. Thi ha been a e imple and efficien
model and eeal agmen ha been aed again an need fo a moe complicaed em [2].
Simila agmen ma alo be applied fo iele Inene acce. Hoee, hi agmen migh
no be a applicable in cellla enionmen hee adio eoce ae cace. In ho po aea,
hee highe bi ae WLAN echnologie ae ed, hi agmen i a lea moe applicable.

5. Conclusions
5.1. Macro Mobilit Management
Mobile IP4 and GTP hae oelapping fncionali. The ae boh deigned o ole maco
mobili ie b nnelling. Poocol oehead in GPRS i GTP oe UDP oe IP. IP-in-IP
encaplaion ed ih Mobile IP ha oehead of IP oe IP. The fncionali of IP6 a no
died in hi docmen, b i poide ool o ole mobili on a ingle IP poocol leel.
GTP i an inegal pa of fi phae GPRS implemenaion. One poible cenaio i ha Mobile
IP ill eplace GTP a ome poin of ime. Thee ae eeal ie beond RFC 2002, hich ae
needed o flfil hi. Man of hee ae elaed on ho o acce eiing eenal neok. One
ch GPRS pecific mechanim i Acce Poin Name. Acce Poin Name i iible o he end e
and i ha a global ignificance beeen opeao neok. Thee all ae ie, hich make he
eplacemen of fncionali moe challenging. Backad compaibili ih GPRS pecific
fncionaliie ch a Acce Poin Name can be one of he ickie pa of GTP eplacemen.

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5.2. Micro Mobilit Management
In micro-mobility level, finding similarities is not that straightforward. In GPRS, IP packet is
encapsulated over the radio access network. There is no IP level routing functionality within the
GPRS radio access network. Thus the “IETF model” which relies heavily on the IP level
functionality and extensions has many differences to the GPRS. On the other hand, there is no single
“IETF solution” for micro mobility management. One key requirement for micro mobility solutions
is that each subsequent registration is not needed to be sent to home agent. One way to solve this
problem is hierarchical mobility management. Another key requirement is to smooth the handoff
from packet forwarding point of view.
Cellular IP is currently an Internet draft. It can be stated that Cellular IP is more applicable in those
environments where hosts are very mobile and the network consists of cells with small radius. The
core part of Cellular IP is mobility management states and paging area concept. In cellular network,
the main reason for introducing this kind of functionality is reducing the control signaling and
limiting the power consumption of the mobile hosts. Cellular IP alone can reduce signaling load but
as such it cannot reduce significantly power consumption. It is up to radio access technology how a
mobile host can apply a sleep mode functionality. For example in IEEE 802.11 this is carried out by
buffering frames in base stations and broadcasting information about these frames periodically in
beacon frames. However, from implementation point of view, it can be discussed how well
PCMCIA card technology can use this sleep mode functionality. PCMCIA cards consume typically
power even if they are only activated from operating systems point of view.
One key question from micro mobility managements point of view is that how much functionality
really should be carried out in IP protocol level. A typical radio access technology provides layer 2
functionality with error correction, buffering, retransmission and acknowledgement. Handoff
functionality can also be built using layer 2 switching functionality. Additional IP level functionality
beyond to basic Mobile IP functionality should be justified with clear benefits relative to additional
complexity. For example hierarchical mobility management can be used to limit the need for
subsequent registrations. Cellular IP can be used to reduce load for control signalling. Some key
functionality such as power consumption reduction requires interaction with layer 2 functionality.
There are also arguments which are more related to installed base issues than pure technical
protocol issues as such. The existing corporate environment relies heavily on layer 2 switching
(Ethernet). For example WLAN implementations in the near future will most likely be optimised
with this kind of environment. Bringing IP level functionality including management of routing tables
at a very low level network element is certainly possible but a significant change to existing
situation.



References
[1] Geoff Huston, ISP Survival Guide. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, 1999. ISBN 0-
471-31499-4
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· Not available online ~
|2| Markus Peuhkuri, IP Quality oI Service, 5.10.1999.
·http://www.tcm.hut.Ii/Opinnot/Tik-110.551/1999/papers/06IPQoS/iwork.html~
|3| 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical SpeciIication Group Services and System
Aspects;
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 2
(3G TS 23.060 version 3.2.1), January 2000
·http://www.3gpp.org/TSG/Dec99¸status¸list.htm~
|4| Brenner, P., A Technical Tutorial on the IEEE 802.11 Protocol, 18.7.1996,
· http://www.breezecom.com/pdIs/802.11Tut.pdI ~
|5| IETF Mobile IP Working Group, IP Routing Ior Wireless/Mobile Hosts. Checked at
10th March 2000.
·http://www.ietI.org/html.charters/mobileip-charter.html ~
|6| C. Perkins, IP Mobility Support, RFC 2002, October 1996.
·http://www.ietI.org/rIc/rIc2002.txt~
|7| A. Campbel et al, Cellular IP, January 2000.
· http://www.ietI.org/internet-draIts/draIt-ietI-mobileip-cellularip-00.txt~
|8| 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical SpeciIication Group Services and System
Aspects;
Combined GSM and MobileIP Mobility Handling in UMTS IP CN
(3G TR 23.923 version 0.8.0), July 1999
·http://www.3gpp.org/TSG/Dec99¸status¸list.htm~
|9| B. Aboba et al, The Network Access IdentiIier, RFC 2486, January 1999.
· http://www.ietI.org/rIc/rIc2486.txt ~
|10| J. Solomon et al, Mobile-IPv4 ConIiguration Option Ior PPP IPCP, RFC 2290,
February 1998.
· http://www.ietI.org/rIc/rIc2290.txt ~
|11| W. Simpson et al, The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), RFC 1661, July 1994.
· http://www.ietI.org/rIc/rIc1661.txt ~
|12| Eva GustaIsson et al, Requirements on Mobile IP Irom a Cellular Perspective, June
1999.
· http://www.ietI.org/internet-draIts/draIt-ietI-mobileip-cellular-requirements-02.txt ~
|13| ETSI, Overall description oI the GPRS radio interIace, Stage 2. GSM 03.64 version
5.2.0.1998.
· Not available online ~
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[14] Charles E. Perkins, Mobile networking in the Internet. 1998.
< http://www.balter.nl/monet/articlesfree/1998/3-4/mnt071.pdf >
[15] Nishith D. Tripathi, Handoff in Cellular Sstems, IEEE Personal Communications.
December 1998.
< Not available online >

IP .2.551/2000/papers/ /iwork.5. I IP ' I .E I . .O .tkk.5.- . In rod c ion T I 1876 [1].3. M 5.T .2.A I .2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks 2. M M M M M I M A C L I R D S GPRS/UMTS R '99 S S R 1. .E [2]. 1960' [1]. .T .1. P 3.A . A . .fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. IP . H 5.T I ) . . M 3.C P U N A .htm . 2/17 I A R .T P IP C IP ..T ( . [1]. .I . T I .4.T . . T www.2. C 3.T .1. - (ARPA) . P 3. . L 3. IP IP I .tml. C 5. O . M M 3.

htm 3/17 . he e i ing elecom e change a e no e capable of ppo ing b and high peed da a affic. f om comme cial poin of ie . IETF Mobile IP o king g o p i aiming o nde and da a e ice in cell la em . Cell la IP i compa ed o he me hod applied in GPRS.tkk. A clea d a back of he e i ing cell la ne o k i a limi ed da a a e: fo e ample he mo commonl applied GSM da a e ice i onl a 9. One m al o emembe ha no all i ele ne o k a e cell la ne o k . Fig e 1 p e en he a chi ec e died in hi pape .g. a e e of e i ing fi ed acce echnolog i e impo an . a mme ic digi al b c ibe line (ADSL) i e ing he acce inf a c e of he e i ing p blic i ched elecomm nica ion ne o k (PSTN). a e e ing man of he p inciple applied in fi ed local a ea ne o k echnologie (e. One ch e ample i Gene al Packe Radio Se ice (GPRS).tml. b he bi a e a e highe . o Wi ele LAN (WLAN). In hi en e.. non cell la ne o k . On mac o mobili le el. Ho e e . cha ac e i ic of Wi ele LAN adio acce (IEEE 802. e. www. e can poin e e al diffe ence . on ano he hand. Whe e needed i hin he cope of hi d . Thi epo die mobili managemen me hod applied in GPRS and o he i ele . A pical e i ing WLAN implemen a ion (complian o IEEE 802. WLAN .11) i compa ed o he cha ac e i ic of GPRS adio acce . The e i ing elecom e change do no ha e an ole in packe fo a ding f om a ADSL b c ibe o an IP ne o k (o i e e a).11) offe 2 megabi pe econd in a ha ed acce manne [4]. cell la ne o k can be een a a i ele e en ion o he PTSN.g. O he pical diffe ence a e he p inciple of e o ce e e a ion: cell la ne o k ca o e plici e o ce e e a ion o e he adio in e face.g.fi/Opinnot/Tik-110.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks Unfo na el .551/2000/papers/ /iwork. The e ha e al o been e e al a emp op imi e cell la ne o k fo packe da a. One impo an diffe ence i ha he e i ing cell la echnologie a e commonl b il fo ide a ea co e age. hich i an enhancemen o he e i ing GSM ne o k (Global S em fo Mobile Comm nica ion ) [3]. E. E he ne ). Ho e e . GPRS nneling p o ocol and Mobile IP a e compa ed.. If e compa e he e i ing cell la echnologie . On mic o mobili le el. IETF i no foc ed onl on cell la ne o k . The co e age offe ed b WLAN echnolog i limi ed.6 kbp ci c i i ched connec ion.

tkk.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks Fig e 1. In GPRS (a in mo cell la em ). Thi ill be www. Se ing GPRS S ppo Node (SGSN) ha di ec connec i i o adio acce ne o k. A pical e ample of mic o mobili i a handoff among neighbo i ele an cei e . In GSM. ne o k i di ided in o o pa : co e ne o k and adio acce ne o k. Ga e a GPRS S ppo Node (GGSN) ha di ec connec i i o he e e nal IP ne o k (e.htm 4/17 .fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. Macro Mobilit Issues Mobile IP o k in IETF applie e m mac o mobili and mic o mobili [5]. In co e ne o k. The ba ic pecifica ion fo Mobile IP (RFC 2002) i gi ing ool fo he mac o mobili managemen .tml. 2. adio acce ne o k i called ba e a ion b em.551/2000/papers/ /iwork. he ba ic Mobile IP i no ha ell i ed fo mic o mobili [6].g. Ho e e . In e ne and in ane ). GPRS pecific f nc ionali i di ided in o o ne o k elemen . each of hich i co e ing onl a e mall geog aphic a ea. A chi ec e died in hi pape . F om ne o k opolog poin of ie . f om packe fo a ding poin of ie . GPRS co e ne o k in gene al ca ie o man imila mac o mobili i e hich a e ppo ed b Mobile IP.

T he bi i f IP h . i a c a ied i he IP e i e a bi i f IP h . GTP ca ied e UDP/IP. he igi a da ag a i e ed f he e a d de i e ed he bi e de. The I e e e d ha e be a a e f he IP h bi i . TCP/IP i ed if X.551/2000/papers/ /iwork. e diffe e e f ca e.F ce a e i a i e e ai i f ie . GPRS i a e i e bi e e e he e a chi ec a de c i i a d i e face be ee e e e e a e a da di ed.f add e : a "f eig age ca e. i ha bee ica a da di e e e i de e de c . GTP f e a e ( hich i ei g c a ch) i ca ied e UDP/IP TCP/IP [3]. M bi e IP. Whe a a f h e.1.ca ed ca e. [6] I GPRS. 2. 2.tml. IETF c ha e bec e ea d e d i a . b h h e age a d f eig age e i g da ag a i g IP i IP e ca a i [6].htm . The f i g i e i i a i ie a d diffe e ce he M bi e IP a d GTP a e c a ed f a age e i f ie . A he . hich i e i be ide ed c e cia .f add e . I IETF.g. high eed bac b e e ae ef i g bi i a age e ecific f c i .f add e M bi e IP ca add e faf add e " i a i e he e f he h e age e i a e a he bi e de' ca e. IP e i 4 a e ha de' IP add e i e ide ifie he de' i f a ach e he IP e [6]. M bi e IP e c e i g hide a bi e de' h e add e f i e e i g e be ee h e e a dh ' c e ca i [6]. e.tkk. I ca e f IP e GPRS. E ecia i bac b e e .f add e " i a eig age i h hich he bi e de i egi e ed. GTP ( hich i i a i a ied be ee GGSN a d SGSN) a fe e d e da a h gh e [3]. ca e. I M bi e IP. he e i e i a ed a 5/17 www.1. a d a "c .1. Mobilit Management in Mobile IP and GPRS Tunneling Protocol The e i e diffe e ce i a da di a i de a ied f GPRS a d M bi e IP. Tunneling End-Point I M bi e IP. I GPRS. b h M bi e IP a d GTP a ei g ac e f a di g e h e e hich d ha e bi i ecific f c i a i . I ca e f f eig age ca e. O i a f eig age a d h e age a a GRE a d i i a e ca a i .25 i ca ied e GPRS. A f ef a ce i f ie i i a a fea ib e ha . Tunneling Methods to Support Mobilit A i i ide . 2. a ecifica i fe i e e e a d h ac e e adi i e face igh ha e bee be eficia f i e e abi i e .F a chi ec a i f ie he IETF de e ia a e f e ibi i .2. GPRS ec i bi i ei g c (GTP) ca ie a i ia f ci a M bi e IP. a he ha d.1.1. Mic bi i i e i be f he di c ed i Sec i 3.f e e a b ai ed ca add e hich he bi e de ha a cia ed i h e f i e face [6].fi/Opinnot/Tik-110.. The e a e diffe e eh d fi e e i g he e e i e edia e e . e da a i a fe ed a a e be ee he bi e a i a d he e e a da a e i g e ca ai a d e i g.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks di c ed i Sec i 2.f add e .

a GTP e i www. adi e ce a e ca ce. he f eig age a e ea a defa e f egi e ed bi e de [6]. I GPRS. A f c i i ia M bi e IP egi a i i b ecific da a c ec i ac i a i ced e. a de c ibed e i . D i g hi ced e. 2.b i i a defa e f a ica i i f ie . The ca ef add e ca ei he be de e i ed f a f eig age ' ad e i e e (a f eig age ca e.4. he e i i i a "h e e " c ce f IP i g i f ie . b e e e a a ig e echa i ch a DHCP (a c .1.htm he GPRS igh be ih i g i GPRS e ab i hed 6/17 .f add e .f add e ). a e i ide ified b a e e d i ide ifie a d a SGSN/GGSN add e .tkk. The f eig age i ca ab e f de e i g a d de i e i g da ag a he bi e de ha e e e ed b he bi e de' h e age . GGSN a a e IP ac e SGSN. a GTP e i e i a ed bi e a i b SGSN.g. hi ea addi i a IP headed e head hich c e i i ed ce a adi ca aci .551/2000/papers/ /iwork.ca ed ca e. Thi ece a f e a e he a b c ibe a be ab e ecei e h e age e e ce (e. I GPRS. i g f a f eig age ca e.fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. If he e i a ed e he adi i e face. SGSN i a ca ab e f e i g a d e ca a i g e da a [3]. Acc di g GPRS ecifica i .f add e i h i h e age . he h e age i a e a bi e de' h e e a di d e ha e e he ac e hich a e de i ed bi e de ha ha e di ec a e 2 c ec i . he e i f c i a i ca ed egi a i . I M bi e IP. f eig age i a e a bi e h ' i i ed e hich ide i g e ice he bi e de hi e egi e ed. Defa l Ro e F nc ionali and Connec i i o E e nal Ne ok Acc di g IETF M bi e IP i gg . Thi i beca e i c . IP add e ). A age ad e i e e i f ed b i c di g a bi i age ad e i e e e e i i a ICMP e ad e i e e e age [6]. Thi i d e h gh e cha ge f a Regi a i Re e a d Regi a i Re e age ( hich a e e i h UDP i g e be 434). I e e ). F a adi e ce e ec i e. he e i e i a ed a he bi e de [8].3. Regi a ion and T nnel E abli hmen I M bi e IP. GTP i i ia a f eig age ca e.tml.g.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks he f eig age .f add e e . 2. De e di g he e h d f a ach e .f add e e i e efficie . F da ag a e b a bi e de. I GPRS. e da ag a a e a a e ed GGSN. I ce a e i e . i i ib e f a bi e a i be a ached e e e h gh i d e ha e a ac i a ed GTP e f da a a . Whe he bi e de i a a f h e. P ac ica hi ea ha SGSN i di ec c ec ed e e a e (e. I GPRS. h gh a f eig age hich f a d he egi a i he h e age . i egi e i ca e.ca ed ca e. M bi e IP e e d ICMP R e Di c e a i i a echa i f age di c e .1.f add e ). SGSN ha a e i gf ci a i . he bi e de i egi e ei he di ec i hi h e age .

Con e gence be een Mobile IP and GPRS T nneling P o ocol A de c ibed i e i ec i . i he GGSN. APN ca a be ed de e i e hich IP add e a b e e e f GGSN (e. he ba ic M bi e IP ecifica i RFC 2002 a ch d e c e a he f c i a i ed b GPRS c e e .2. The NAI ha he f a i ia a e ai add e hich i e ide ifie he e a d he e ' h e e [8]. Ne Ide ifie i a efe e ce he e e a e e ice. L2F. IP Ho Roaming and Acce ing E e nal Ne ok Ne Acce Ide ifie (NAI) i a a da di ed e h d f ide if i g e . 2. The f i g ec i de c ibe e f he ece a addi i . Thi i i a e ecia i a i g ca e . I M bi e IP (RFC 2002).tml. e e ici e f de c ibed h a e each IP add e ai (e.2.551/2000/papers/ /iwork. Acce P i Na e a .tkk. B h a f APN a e f a ified d ai a e acc di g he DNS a i g c e i [3]. GPRS c e e a d M bi e IP a e ca i g a i ia f ci f bi i a age e i f ie . The e a e ei a addi i M bi e IP f c i a i be d ba ic RFC 2002 hich a e e i a he c ide i g GTP e ace e b M bi e IP. O e a Ide ifie i a efe e ce h e GPRS e i a i g ca e . NAI a d APN ha e e e a diffe e ce b he ac ica he a e eed: he a e gi e a e d e a ibi i de c ibe hich e e a IP e h d be acce ed. E e GTP i a bi i a age e c .2. I GPRS c e e .1.fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. PPTP.g. I addi i . O e c ea f c i a diffe e ce be ee NAI a d APN i ha i addi i a e e e a e NAI i c de a a e a e.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks be ee SGSN a d GGSN. i i a e e ab i hed.g. 3GPP ha ca ied a d c bi ed GSM a d M bi e IP bi i ha d i g i UMTS c e e . I a ca ie e. R a i g ca abi i i hi c e a be e defi ed a a abi i e a I e e e ice ide (ISP). Thi ai ed a ech ica ea i a i he e M bi e IP i ed ha d e bi i i he GPRS a d UMTS c e e [8]. Th . I i defi ed e ha ce he i e e abi i f a i g a d e i g e ice . H e e . If IP-i -IP e i gi ed. I GPRS. Acce P i Na e i a efe e ce he GGSN be ed. O e a he eed f NAI i ec e acce c a e i a e . e e i a age e a d e e ab i h e f c i . P ac ica APN i ed decide hich IP add e GTP e i e i a ed. Acce P i Na e (APN) ha e i i a f c i a i .g.htm . PPP S ppo RFC 2002 d e ecif h M bi e IP i ed he bi e de c ec hei ISP ( 7/17 www. Acce P i Na e i c ed f a : Ne Ide ifie a d O e a Ide ifie . L2TP a d IP ec i e de [9]. 2. 2. L2TP IP ec) i e i a ed a .2. he e ca be HA a d FA). e ab ed b ei g c ch a PPTP. ide if he e e a e . L2F.

g. a he ica i be ee ce a e e a a d b c ibe . PPP ca be ca ied b GTP. he e IETF c hich c d i edia e e ace he e c . O e e i e e f M bi e IP bef e i ca be de ed i f e ce a e i a eed i e i h a d e a e i c -e i e ce i h e i i g c i he ce a e [12]. A bi e de ca i c de a NAI i ead f h e add e i he ai a f he M bi e IP Regi a i Re e . GPRS c e e a ie a GSM MAP c (M bi e A ica i P c ) hich i a ied be ee SGSN a d HLR (H e L ca i Regi e ). i i e fea ib e ha he e c a e e aced e ic . e ca a ca he ac e c ha IP (e. PPP a a ca IP ac e i hc e ed TCP/IP heade . A h i a i a d Acc i g).551/2000/papers/ /iwork. GGSN ca a ca e he add e i e a e a e e a AAA e e (A he ica i . f he ce a e defi ed i A e ica a e a i g ANSI-41 a da d). hich e ac he i f a i i eed . Thi c e.A i e e e e e a he ica i ba ed PPP e e f c i a i ca be ed b GPRS a he IP i ca ied b GTP. I GPRS. 2. O he ce a e ha e i i a c (e.fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. M bi e IP f c i a i ha be i de e de f he acce e ech g [12]. If IP e GTP i i a ied.3.g. C e . Thi eg ia i i ca ied b he bi e a i i h he e e a IP e a di i e fea ib e i h e ca e he e PPP i ca ied e GTP. he e i i i a f c i a i f a a e PPP e i g be ee bi e a i a d GGSN. I addi i GTP. B i g PPP.g. 2. Functions on Cellular Network Operator Level S fa e e a i i a fea e be ee GTP a d M bi e IP ha bee ide ified. RFC 2290 defi e a PPP e M bi e IP [10].g.2.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks i a e ) ia PPP. PPP e e a he ica i i c a ied i a f he e i i g ISP e e acce e e . A he add e f he h e age i i c ded i he egi a i e age a d he f eig age f a d he e age he h e age .tml. D i g a GPRS c e ac i a i ced e. IPX). F e a e he NAI e id i b i ed b he c ie d i g PPP a he ica i ce [9]. Thi e age i c de e.htm 8/17 . www. D namic IP Address Allocation I RFC 2002 i i a ed ha he bi e de i c de i ( e a e ) h e add e f egi a i . O e c ea eed f PPP i ac a ibi i i h he e i i g ISP a he ica i f c i a i .2. T a M bi e IP be a bi i i hich a diffe e i d f acce e ech gie . O he i i ha IP ( i h PPP) i ca ied e GTP. e f he PPP ecific f c i a i a e . H e age ca he a ca e IP add e he bi e h i g d a ic add e a ca i i ci e . a GPRS bi e a i ca i dica e he he i e i e a a ic d a ic add e . ca i ac i g be ee ce a e e e e a d b c ibe da a a fe .tkk. The e PPP i a e eg ia ed d i g he Ne C P c e ab i h e ha e [11]. I i a ib e eg ia e he IP add e af e c ei f he c e ac i a i ced e. he IP add e a ca ed f he bi e h [8]. D a ic add e a ca i i a a i eg a a f GPRS.4. The Regi a i Re i be e f he h e e he f eig age . F bac a d c a ibi i i f ie . The NAI e e i de c ibed e i ha bee ed ha d e e a a ig e f h e add e e .

The in e face be een he GGSN and fo eign agen . Op ionall a fo eign agen f nc ionali can be p o ided in he GGSN. The follo ing ec ion de c ibe he mic o mobili managemen in e i ing IETF doc men a ion and compa e i o GPRS. C en Mobile IP pecifica ion don' ei he ppo an po a ion of GPRS b c ibe pecific info ma ion be een SGSN' . Cell la IP on ano he hand p o ide ool o ol e mic o mobili i e in he ne o k la e .fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. Mobilit Management States www. Ho e e . GTP ha o be ppo ed an a . Whe e needed i hin he cope of hi d . Cell la IP node o e IP packe in ide he Cell la IP Ne o k. Cell la IP Ga e a e e al o a he mobile ho ' fo eign agen and i ela i ' packe bo h p and do nlink [7]. Ga e a i a Cell la IP node ha i al o connec ed o a eg la IP ne o k.551/2000/papers/ /iwork.1. he ba ic Mobile IP (RFC 2002) i a pecifica ion fo mac o mobili managemen .11) i compa ed o he cha ac e i ic of GPRS adio acce . Convergence Status in GPRS/UMTS Release '99 Standards A a e l of he e die he e i ome con e gence be een Mobile IP and GTP ppo ed b GPRS elea e '99 anda d . Cell la IP define al o man mobili managemen concep hich a e imila o ho e applied in e i ing cell la ne o k . C en Mobile IP pecifica ion canno be ed o en e lo le handoff [8]. a de c ibed p e io l . 3. Ho e e . and an acce ne o k ope a o ma no an o allo Mobile IP ignaling n il he acce ne o k in i elf ha accep ed o p o ide e o ce fo a mobile node [12]. ha i . Cell la IP i no he onl a of ol ing mic o mobili i e .htm 9/17 . one can al o implemen SGSN and GGSN in eg a ed. I i al o a ed ha i i le ell i ed fo mic o mobili managemen [6]. mobili in ide an acce ne o k. In p inciple. link la e handoff) [6].tkk. Ba e a ion i a Cell la IP node ha ha a i ele in e face. IETF ha al o de eloped o he mic o mobili mechani m ch a egional egi a ion.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks A epa a ion of he a hen ica ion p oced e i mo i a ed b he fac ha adio e o ce a e ca ce. Mic o mobili can al o be handled ing link la e mechani m (i. Ho e e . in he ca e of in e SGSN handoff. Cell la IP ppo local mobili .e.2.tml. In GSM/GPRS. The ame applie al o o UMTS (Uni e al Mobile Telecomm nica ion S em) elea e '99. 2. I can in e o k i h Mobile IP o p o ide ide a ea mobili ppo [7]. cha ac e i ic of WLAN adio acce (IEEE 802. incl ding he mapping be een he ca e of IP add e and he GTP nnel i a med no be anda di ed a he GGSN and fo eign agen a e con ide ed o be one in eg a ed node [3]. Cell la IP ne o k con i diffe en kind of node . Cell la IP i no e an RFC b an In e ne -d af .5. Micro Mobilit Issues IETF doe no ha e e p eci e defini ion fo mac o mobili and mic o mobili . adio acce ne o k con i of ba e a ion and ba e a ion con olle . 3.

M bi i a age e aef ci ai i i a i i i e he ba e c i i a bi e a i . Whe a bi e h i i ac i e a e. h e h hich a e i ac i e a e if he e ab each ha d ff [7]. 3. he eed f agi g i e a ed bi i a age e a e . Th i GPRS. a a e a i i ica bee a a f ce he ead i e b a i i i ed i h a i e . agi g a ea i a e f ba e a i . Th . Thi ba ic i ci e a ie f b h Ce a IP a d GPRS. da a ece i a d a i i ae ib e [3]. I Ce a IP. The IEEE 802. S e he adi ech g ecific i e a e de c ibed i Sec i 3.tml. I GPRS a db a e. The he a e defi ed b Ce a IP i ca ed id e a d i i a ied if a bi e h ha ece a i ed ecei ed IP ac e [7]. Paging Area Concep A a c ce f agi g i i d ced i Ce a IP.htm 10/17 . M bi e h ha a e ac i e a i i g ecei i g da a b a be eachab e f i c i g ac e ai ai agi g cache a i g [7]. IEEE 802. The bi e ai d e i f he SGSN a cha ge f a ce i he a e i g a ea [3]. www.11 a da d d e defi e h a i g h d be e f ed.11 he e i gica cha e e a a i i hi e ca ie . A i Ce a IP.551/2000/papers/ /iwork. The ba e ai e i dica a i i f ai e a i g ai if he ha e f a e b ffe ed a he ba e a i . A Ce a IP ha a i i a f c i a i : a id e bi e h i g a e ba e a i a i a agi g da e ac e if he e ba e a i i i a e Pagi g A ea [7].2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks Ce a IP i d ce a a e c ce f bi e h .3. I GPRS. Thi a e ha i i a i ie a db a e i GPRS.11 a da d di ec add e e he i e f e a i g a d defi e a echa i hich e ab e a i g i ee de f g e i d f i e ih i gi f a i . B h i GPRS a d i i e i a ica defi ed. A bi e h i i a ac i e a e if i i a i i g ecei i g IP ac e [7]. A bi e h a ei he be i ac i e id e a e.tkk. GPRS bi e a i e ec e bi i a age e ced e i f he SGSN he i ha e e ed a e i g a ea. The ead i e i e e he da a i a fe ed a i [3]. ead a e i e a db a e he he ead be ee SGSN a d bi e he i ha ecei ed Ce a IP. A he b ffe i g i f a i i e e i dica . SGSN a cha ge he e g h f ga e a e [3]. The e i a e-a cia i ced e. H e e . hi f ci e i e ha a i ae ch i ed [4]. he e a a i hich i a i gf e ba e ai a he bec e a cia ed i h he e e [4]. If he e i a f a e b ffe ed a he acce i . he e f i e e f ba e a i ba e a i be ab e de i e ac e ih ea chi g f he bi e h . B h i GPRS a d Ce a IP. I GPRS i ia f ci ai i ided b a i g a ea c ce .fi/Opinnot/Tik-110.2. The e i d f a a e e ha e a e a i g. F e a e a GPRS bi e a i i a db a e ha i ac cha e . b defi e he ba ic . he bi e a i e id e a e a i ed a da a ac e f e i e [7]. Thi a e i i ia ead a e i GPRS a a i GPRS ead a e bi e a i a e d a d ecei e ac e [3]. A bi e a i cha ge f ead a e i e e i e . I IEEE 802. Id e bi e h c i g ce b da ie i hi a agi g a ea d eed a i c ac e da e hei i i [7]. he he a i e d a i g e age he ba e a i ge he e f a e .

IEEE 802. he ga e a ca egi e a he h e age beha f f he bi e h [7]. 13.6 b . I GPRS. ecif i g he ga e a ' IP add e a he ca e. Thi i e i ed a adi i e face ha a e a i e high bi e a e.4 b [13]. GPRS e ea e '97 f c di g che e f ac e da a affic cha e . Lower La er Issues Ce a IP ide e e ic bi i i e i he e a e . b he age f adi e ce i ba ed ha ed acce i ci e .11 b h ac e ac edg e a d e a i i f c i a i [4]. 3. he adi i c f c i a i (RLC) ide a e iab e i [3].e ec i hich a cha ge he ba e a i c e ( b h ba e a i c e a d SGSN).11 a ch ha a i i a i ie fi ed LAN ech g . 15. IP a ch d e ac edge ecei ed ac e a d ica i i be e ca e a i i a a ib e. a ca i f adi e ce i ba ed he eed f ac a ac e a fe . Ce a IP d e a e ha a a d acce a e 2 c c e he ai i e face. i a SGSN i g a ea da e ced e i ca ied .4 b .3. Whe a bi e h ha ecei ed hi b adca i f a i . IEEE 802.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks I Ce a IP. a bi e a i ca i i ia e a ce e. A e a i e . hich i a a a d i cha e [13]. I a a . A agi g ha a e a a e gica cha e . The a e a a cha ge he e d i f a GTP e hich i a cia ed hi bi e a i . The bi e h ca ide if Ce a IP e b he Ce a IP e ide ifie c ai ed i he ba e a i ' beac ig a . The beac ig a a c ai he IP add e f he ga e a .htm . U eigh ac e da a affic cha e a be a ca ed f e bi e a i a he a e i e. If SGSN i cha ged. I IEEE 802. i e SGSN i g a ea ced e i ca ied . ide a ea bi i cc he he bi e h e be ee Ce a IP e .f add e . F e ce e e a i i f ie . a d 21. A c i f ai a d ig a i g i a i ed e he a e ha ed cha e .tkk. If SGSN i cha ged. [7] Th e a e 2 c hich a e a ied e adi i e face. The da a a e f he e c di g che e a e 9. A i GPRS. A i GPRS. F e a e MAC a e i 802.tml. T ica e ici e ce a ca i a e ade.551/2000/papers/ /iwork. he e a e e a a e gica cha e f a i i gc i f a i a d ig a i g. O ei a f ci ai hich i ca ied e adi i e face i b adca i g f e 11/17 www. e ca ie ide a a i i edi hich 2 Mb e ec d i a ha ed acce a e [4]. i e adi e ce f c ig a i g. If a bi e h d e ha e a hi g e d ecei e. Ra d acce cha e i ed a ca e adi e ce a d i i a ied i .05 b . Acce g a cha e i ed i e di ec i f adi e ce a ig e . M bi e h ca a e d a M bi e IP egi a i e age i h e age . A GPRS ac e da a affic cha e ca be a ca ed f e bi e a i a a i e. S e f he a e a ied i ha ed acce a e b he e a e a gica cha e hich a e a cia ed e bi e a i . I GPRS. hi a i i edi i i i a a eg e i a fi ed LAN . ica ac edge a ed da a.11 a ie c i i a ida ce i h a i i e ac edge echa i [4]. I ead f c i i de ec i hich i ed i E he e . i ca e d a egi a i e e he ga e a [7]. I WLAN he e i hi i d f gica cha e c e. H e e .fi/Opinnot/Tik-110.11.I i de e de a ecific adi ech g .

11) define ome b oadca info ma ion. One ba e a ion i al a connec ion o one SGSN. In each beacon ignal. he e i a paging a ea iden ifie . The paging p oced e mo e he mobile a ion o ead a e and allo he SGSN o fo a d do nlink da a o a d he mobile a ion. All h ee anda d di c ed in hi pape (Cell la IP. Ro ing of he e f ame i pa iall ba ed on opolog . A an ac i e ho app oache a ne ba e a ion. he paging packe i b oadca b all node i pa e . ega dle of he de ina ion add e [7]. i can be e an mi ed if i i ill o ed in a b ffe . One ba e a ion i al a connec ed o one ba e a ion con olle . Mobile ho ha a e no ac i el an mi ing o ecei ing b an o be eachable fo incoming packe .htm 12/17 .fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. Simila f nc ionali i al o applied in GPRS fo o ing a ea [3]. GPRS applie a epa a e logical b oadca channel he ea IEEE 802. if a mobile a ion i in andb a e. If a packe i no ackno ledged in ce ain pe iod of ime. SGSN page i befo e i an fe da a o ha mobile a ion. On he pa h f om he ga e a o a d he mobile ho . In GPRS. The paging packe i an o dina IP packe . 3. Cell la IP ba e a ion m pe iodicall an mi beacon ignal o allo fo mobile ho o iden if an a ailable ba e a ion. O he pical b oadca info ma ion in cell la ne o k incl de ne o k iden ifica ion. The e of cell ha a e eached b he paging packe fo m a paging a ea [7]. In Cell la IP. Packe an mi ed b he mobile ho c ea e and pda e en ie in each node' cache. Ba ed on hi info ma ion i i po ible o o e he do nlink f ame o a mobile a ion in ead a e. le hei o e cache mapping ime o b main ain paging cache mapping . An en map he mobile ho ' IP add e o he neighbo f om hich he packe a i ed o he node. hich enable mobile ho o no ice hen he mo e in o a ne paging a ea [7].tkk. cell iden ifica ion and pa ame e fo cell e.11 applie beacon f ame . IP packe add e ed o he e mobile ho ill be o ed b paging cache . In Cell la IP.551/2000/papers/ /iwork. In GSM/GPRS adio acce ne o k IP packe i encap la ed o e GPRS pecific f ame c e . Al o ba e a ion con olle i a a e on hich cell mobile a ion i a ached. www. he g an la i of loca ion acking can be diffe en fo idle and ac i e mobile ho . Packe an mi ed b a mobile ho a e o ed f om he ba e a ion o he ga e a b hop-b -hop ho e pa h o ing.4. Fo e ample. SGSN i a a e on hich cell mobile a ion i a ached. Paging cache ha e a longe ime-o al e han o e cache and a e no nece a il main ained in e e node. The o e pda e packe ill config e o e cache along he a f om he ne ba e a ion o he ga e a . B deplo ing o cache (paging cache and o ing cache). GPRS and IEEE 802.elec ion. The chain of cached mapping efe ing o a ingle mobile ho fo m a e e e pa h fo do nlink packe add e ed o he ame mobile ho . b oadca info ma ion incl de ba e a ion' la e 2 add e and ga e a ' IP add e .tml.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks info ma ion. i an mi a o e pda e packe and edi ec i packe f om he old o he ne ba e a ion. Thi opolog info ma ion i ed o o e he plink f ame . Packe ackno ledgmen and b ffe ing f nc ionali picall ha e in e ac ion . When mobile a ion i in ead a e. paging cache i main ained b ome Cell la IP node and i i ed o o e packe o mobile ho . Packe Ro ing Ro e Cache i main ained b all Cell la IP node and i i ed o o e packe o mobile ho .

O a he ha d.1 ). A h gh hi a be a i ca e ia deg ade TCP h gh . The ha d ff i e ( i e be ee ha d ff deci i a d e ec i ) i ci c i i ched GSM i a i a e 1 [15]. The e a e ce ai i i h ch de a diffe e highe e e c a d a ica i ca e a e. he e a e a ha d ff deci i ba ed ea e e f he bi e a i a a be f ba e a i . I bi e c ed ha d ff he bi e a i i c ee i c f he ha d ff ce . Whe e e hi ce e i e he a fe f a e i f ai f he d c ec i i (e. The e a e e eh d f ef i g ha d ff. Th . IEEE 802. If hi e a ce i i ed.551/2000/papers/ /iwork.fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. IEEE 802. a e a he i d f e e i ie ha ai ai he a e i f a i [14]. Pac e i e ded he bi e h a e e b h ba e a i . Thi ea ai he a ca i a d e ea e f adi cha e a d ha d ff a age e . he he bi e i che a a ce he e Ba e S a i i ca ed "ha d" ha d ff. he ha d ff deci i a be ade a he bi e a i e ) [15]. a ha d ff ha cc .tml. T i e he e f a ce f e ii e a ica i . The deci i a i g ce f ha d ff a be ce a i ed dece a i ed (i.11 MAC a e i ica i e e ed i he ba e a i .11 ac edge MAC a e .e. he ha d ff ce (i c di g da a a i i . F e a e V ice e IP a d ea i g ech gie e i e a ea i e da a a a ecei e i h a ic e a ce. The bi e a i ea e he ig a e gh f di g ba e a i a d i e fe e ce e e a www.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks B ffe i g ca be ca ied diffe e e ee e . I Ce a IP. e b i ca i he e b ffe i g ca be i e e ed i ba e a i .tkk. H ch b ffe i g i be a ied. a e a he i d f a e i f a i ha ha bee de ig ed f bi e de . he he bi e h e e a e he e ca i i ca c i e ecei e ac e ih i e i [7]. Thi e f ha d ff ha a h eac i i e ( he de f 0. cha e i chi g a d e i chi g) a e 100-200 .htm 13/17 . I a bi e a i ed ha d ff ce he bi e a i a e ea e e . Ne c ed ha d ff i ed i fi ge e a i a a g e ch a AMPS. I ge e a .I f a i ab he ig a ai f a e i a ai ab e a a i g e i i he e . D i g e i f ha d ff a bi e h a be i c ac i h ei he f he d a d e ba e a i a d ecei e ac e f he . a he e f ha d ff a be i d ced.I i ica efe ab e ha b ffe i g i ca ied e fa a a f ha ace he e ha d ff a e ace. b ffe i g d e b i g a addi i a be efi . F deci i ce i f ie e ca fi d a ea ee diffe e i d f ha d ff: I a e c ed ha d ff c . 3. Thi i f a i faci i a e e ce a ca i . Handoff Deci ion Ce a he c ce f ea e bi i i he ce f e ab i hi g i a each e c ec i i . h d be a f e ib e e c fig a i a a e e .5. a ba e a i ) he e e.g. a d he e a e deci i . Pac e ha a e a e i g he d a h i be de i e ed he d ba e a i a d i be . ba e a i c e i i cha ge f he adi i e face a age e . TACS a d NMT [15]. A de c ibed e i . he a bi e h i che a e ba e a i i e d a e da e ac e a e he chai f cache bi di g i he e ba e a i . e he c igh e ae ge ac e de a b a ac e . Thi i d f ha d ff. I ci c i i ched GSM. ca ed " e i f " ha d ff.

The mobile a ion info m he ne o k hen i e. Cell la IP and IEEE 802. GTP i an in eg al pa of fi pha e GPRS implemen a ion . Acce Poin Name i i ible o he end e and i ha a global ignificance be een ope a o ne o k . on ano he hand. One po ible cena io i ha Mobile IP ill eplace GTP a ome poin of ime. he e highe bi a e WLAN echnologie a e ed. Ac all e come back o a p e io l p e en ed i e in hi epo . The e a e e e al i e be ond RFC 2002. i i no ha aigh fo a d o appl imila handoff mechani m fo packe da a a fo ci c i i ched bea e .551/2000/papers/ /iwork.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks channel .elec ano he cell [3].tml.g. ne o k ha o be a a e.11 doe no pecif an e plici con ol mechani m fo an ne o k elemen o ini ia e a handoff deci ion. Simila a g men ma al o be applied fo i ele In e ne acce . GSM. The a e bo h de igned o ol e mac o mobili i e b nnelling. www. hich make he eplacemen of f nc ionali mo e challenging. Macro Mobilit Management Mobile IP 4 and GTP ha e o e lapping f nc ionali . hich a e needed o f lfil hi .11 all ppo mainl mobile con olled handoff. mo cell la ne o k ha e adi ionall been op imi ed fo ci c i i ched elephon . The f nc ionali of IP 6 a no died in hi doc men . e plici l a e ha handoff i ini ia ed b he mobile ho [7]. Cell la IP. TACS).htm 14/17 .g. ha kind of bea e o e o ce e e a ion i a ocia ed o each mobile a ion. IP-in-IP encap la ion ed i h Mobile IP ha o e head of IP o e IP. E peciall ne o k con olled and mobile a i ed handoff a e pical fo handling ci c i i ched bea e (e. Th . Mobile IP doe no ei he ppo an po of an adio in e face pecific info ma ion (e. Conclusions 5. hi a g men i a lea mo e applicable. Back a d compa ibili i h GPRS pecific f nc ionali ie ch a Acce Poin Name can be one of he ickie pa of GTP eplacemen . One ch GPRS pecific mechani m i Acce Poin Name.tkk. Ho e e . AMPS. In ho po a ea . In e ne ha picall o ked b ing a be effo affic model. hi a g men migh no be a applicable in cell la en i onmen he e adio e o ce a e ca ce. P o ocol o e head in GPRS i GTP o e UDP o e IP. in NMT. 5. The e all a e i e . All of hem e "on demand" e o ce e e a ion p inciple. b i p o ide ool o ol e mobili on a ingle IP p o ocol le el. Mobile IP (RFC 2002) doe no pecif an e plici con ol mechani m fo a fo eign agen o ini ia e a handoff deci ion. The e i one po en ial ea oning h GPRS. mea emen da a) on hich handoff deci ion co ld be ba ed. IEEE 802. Man of he e a e ela ed on ho o acce e i ing e e nal ne o k .1. A de c ibed befo e. Al o in GPRS.fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. Thi ha been a e imple and efficien model and e e al a g men ha been a ed again an need fo a mo e complica ed em [2]. Thi i of en ea onable a ho e e o ce e e a ion p inciple ha a e applied fo ci c i i ched bea e do no p o ide op imal adio e o ce age fo packe i ched affic. In gene al. a mobile a ion can a onomo l ini ia e a cell e elec ion p oce . A handoff can be ini ia ed if he ignal eng h of he e ing ba e a ion i lo e han ha of ano he ba e a ion b ce ain h e hold [15].

It is up to radio access technology how a mobile host can apply a sleep mode functionality. Handoff functionality can also be built using layer 2 switching functionality. Another key requirement is to smooth the handoff from packet forwarding point of view. IP packet is encapsulated over the radio access network. finding similarities is not that straightforward. from implementation point of view. it can be discussed how well PCMCIA card technology can use this sleep mode functionality. Cellular IP is currently an Internet draft. References [1] Geoff Huston. However. PCMCIA cards consume typically power even if they are only activated from operating system s point of view.551/2000/papers/ /iwork. 1999. the main reason for introducing this kind of functionality is reducing the control signaling and limiting the power consumption of the mobile hosts. For example in IEEE 802. Micro Mobilit Management In micro-mobility level. ISBN 0471-31499-4 www. ISP Survival Guide.tkk. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Bringing IP level functionality including management of routing tables at a very low level network element is certainly possible but a significant change to existing situation.htm 15/17 . Additional IP level functionality beyond to basic Mobile IP functionality should be justified with clear benefits relative to additional complexity. One way to solve this problem is hierarchical mobility management.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks 5. Cellular IP alone can reduce signaling load but as such it cannot reduce significantly power consumption. One key requirement for micro mobility solutions is that each subsequent registration is not needed to be sent to home agent. For example hierarchical mobility management can be used to limit the need for subsequent registrations.11 this is carried out by buffering frames in base stations and broadcasting information about these frames periodically in beacon frames. there is no single “IETF solution” for micro mobility management. There is no IP level routing functionality within the GPRS radio access network. New York.fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. For example WLAN implementations in the near future will most likely be optimised with this kind of environment. The core part of Cellular IP is mobility management states and paging area concept. On the other hand. Cellular IP can be used to reduce load for control signalling. Thus the “IETF model” which relies heavily on the IP level functionality and extensions has many differences to the GPRS. In cellular network. The existing corporate environment relies heavily on layer 2 switching (Ethernet). In GPRS. Some key functionality such as power consumption reduction requires interaction with layer 2 functionality. It can be stated that Cellular IP is more applicable in those environments where hosts are very mobile and the network consists of cells with small radius. A typical radio access technology provides layer 2 functionality with error correction. retransmission and acknowledgement. buffering. There are also arguments which are more related to installed base issues than pure technical protocol issues as such.2. One key question from micro mobility management s point of view is that how much functionality really should be carried out in IP protocol level.tml.

GSM 03. J 2000 < :// .1998. / . > G S S [8] 3 G P P .T A . C < :// .2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks <N [2] M < :// P . .64 www. J IP . RFC 2486.T A . .0).10.J -02. G P R S (GPRS). > .tml. P. /TSG/D 99_ _ . J / 2000. . . [11] W. J 1999 < :// .2. O 5. [13] ETSI. IP M .2.M / PPP IPCP. 18. RFC 1661.S C P 1994. /O S . <N .C /06IPQ S/ G 2 S . / IEEE 802. T / G . > IP. . . /M > 1996. . IP Q . T P .htm 16/17 . IP R W . N / / A I 2486. .3 .8. / S .. H . > S [3] 3 G P P . S < :// .-P / / 1661. > .7. P < :// [7] A. [5] IETF M IP W 10 M 2000. A T .T .551/1999/ S .1999. C GSM M IP M H (3G TR 23. 5.3 . /TSG/D 99_ _ [9] B.R (PPP). .923 0. [10] J.C . . . > . > [12] E G 1999. / - 2. > -IP 4 C / 2290.11T .tkk. RFC 2002.1996.060 3. O / 2002. . A < :// . S F 1998. > P M / GPRS > UMTS IP CN . RFC 2290. J O 1999. < :// . S (3G TS 23.551/2000/papers/ /iwork.S - -00.S > .11 P /802. / [6] C. [4] B < :// .fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. < :// . /T -110. < :// . > .0.1).

December 1998. Mobile networking in the Internet. Tripathi.tml.balt er. < http://www. < Not available online > www.fi/Opinnot/Tik-110. IEEE Personal Communications. 1998.551/2000/papers/ /iwork. Handoff in Cellular S stems.nl/monet/articlesfree/1998/3-4/mnt071.2/20/12 Mobility Management in IP Networks [14] Charles E.pdf > [15] Nishith D.htm 17/17 . Perkins.tkk.

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