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Motion Detector By Infrared

In General the project all about 4 sections which are:

1.Power Supply
2.IR Detector
3.Filtering operations by op. amp.
4.And The Tone Generator

"it's main use is in the alarm systems ".

"Power Supply":
The voltage of the circuit comes from 9v battery (DC)
we can Regulate the voltage by a Circuit called "voltage Regulator"

"The IR Device":
form of radiated energy in which the wavelength is longer than
the wavelength of the visible light.
if the wavelength goes up, then the freq. goes dowen and v. v.
the wavelength of the IR light ranges from 78 micrometers to100
"the micrometer = 1,000,000 meter".

it contain 2 crystals connected with each other in opposite

polarity(+- ; -+), 1 mm optical space. there location is behind an optical
filter or lens. the o/p power of the crystal is very low so we use the
"FET" Transistor "Field Effect Transistor" to increase the o/p power..

*How we use it physicaly:

the crystals produce a voltage at the gate of the FET, this will causes
a change in Current from Drain to source.
very little power is required at the Gate to control the larger Current
flow from source to drain.

*How we use it in our circuit:

it contain a few components such as "R1 ,R2 ,C1 and the PIR sensor".
now as motion is detected the IR detector will produce a voltage at the gate
of the FET, allowing current to flow from drain to source.
so the voltage at the i/p of U1 pin 13 will change, this changing the o/p
at pin 14. R1 and R2 limit the amount of current flow through the FET...

the Benefits of this type:

1.low radio interference
2.low noise
3.The IR detector is sealed in a metal housing to prevent electromagnetic
interference and to keep them clean.

-When certain materials change temperature, they produce electricity.
if a pyroelectric crystal doesn't change it's temp. for a while then no
voltage will across it's electrodes, but when it's temp. changes a voltage
will produced at the electrodes of it's crystal "this hole idea is used in the IR
-the most important specification neede in choosing a motion detector is
the max. distance and total angle of view.

-"Operations by op. amp.":

The meaning of the amplifire is a device that uses a "small amount of power
to control a larger amount of power".
The amplifier does not create power but it controls the power from a source.
-The Op Amp:
the characteristics of an ideal op-amp are the following:
1.infinite voltage gain (no v in i/p, larg v on o/p)
2.infinite bandwidth (no matter how fast the i/p changes, o/p changes as fast)
3.infinite input impedance (no need power in i/p to change o/p) output impedance (o/p can deliver infinite power)
the op-amp can be used to compare the amplitude of one voltage with another it is
used without feedback and at maximum gain

1.The Low pass
decreases all signals above a certain frequency and passes frequencies below
that freq.
2.The High pass
decreases all signals below a certain frequency and passes frequencies above that
-The Pand Bass Filter:
we can recognize a Pand Bass filter by the compnition between low and high

The op-amp IC1D shapes the frequency response to amplify those frequencies
produced when motion is detected and rejects all others, such as those due to
noise or slow temperature changes. Frequencies above
20Hz and below 1Hz are beyond the bandwidth of the circuit and thus are rejected.
The output at pin 14 is about
1.6V when no motion is detected. As motion is detected, the voltage at the output
will change and trigger either
IC1C or IC1B.
The op-amps IC1A, IC1B and IC1C are configured as voltage comparators. In the
ready state, the output of IC1A
is high and IC1B and IC1C are low. When IC1D outputs a voltage lower than 1.41V,
it will force pin 2 of IC1 high.
When IC1D outputs a voltage higher than 1.67V, it forces pin 8 and pin 2 of IC1 to
go high. A high in with one
of these cases causes the output to go low and allows C9 to discharge through
IC1A. The discharging of C9 will
pull pin 6 of IC2 low and trigger the sound generator.

the C6 (100 mf):

to filter or made it smooth the o/p Voltage