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GENERAL

Planet Earth exists since 4.5 Billion Years. Life on Earth started since last 2 Billion Years. Human beings (homo sapiens) came in to existence since last 2 Million years. Civilization began since last 5000 years. Modern Science has been there since last 750 years. Nothing comes from outer space, all are constantly recycled all these years The earth is kept in a state of homeostasis, constantly changing but nothing is lost and nothing is gained Oxygen Cycle 1. 4.5 billion years ago, when earth was young, there was little free oxygen in the atmosphere. 2. Microbes and later plants appeared and they started exhaling oxygen as a waste byproduct. 3. As oxygen levels rose, new species which had the capacity to respire- animalsappeared on earth- oxygen cycle started. 4. A dynamic balance has been maintained for the past 2 billion years- a steady oxygen level in the atmosphere of 21%. Nitrogen Cycle 1. Atmospheric nitrogen is almost 78%, it can seldom be used directly by most organisms. 2. Certain bacteria found in the root nodules of leguminous plants fix this nitrogen and convert into nitrates. 3. Fixed nitrogen is taken up by other plants or eaten up by animals (including social animals). 4. Through excretion from animals nitrogen enters soil and air. Carbon Cycle 1. Building block of life 2. Green plants use CO2 from air for photosynthesis to produce Sugar, carbohydrate. 3. Primary consumers eat these, carbon moves from plants to animals. 4. Carbon returns to air as exhaled CO2. All these are natural cycles that had been occurring on earth over billions of years.
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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES: Environment is nothing but the nature composed of both biotic and abiotic factors It includes air, water and land and its inter relationship with living organism It dimension varies with persons it may be village, city, country etc., Despite physical aspects of earth (land, air and water) now it includes social, economic and political functions. DEFINITION: 1. Encyclopaedia of Science and Technology: A collective term describing the conditions surrounding an organism 2. Boring: A persons environment consists of the sum total of the stimulation which he receives from his conception until his death. Meaning Environment comprises various types of forces such as physical, intellectual, economic, political, cultural, social, moral and emotional. 3. Douglas and Holland: The term environment is used to describe, in the aggregate, all the external forces, influences and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behaviour and the growth, development and maturity of living organisms. TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT: Natural and Man made A. Natural environment: Consist of four interlocking systems namely atmosphere, lithosphere, Biosphere and hydrosphere. These systems are in constant change either by natural or by manmade activities. I. Atmosphere: Blanket of air and its gaseous encircling the earth including nitrogen, oxygen, carbondioxide and other gases. Extend upto 2,000 km from earths surface
(a) It sustains life on the earth. (b) It absorbs most of the cosmic rays and major portion of electromagnetic radiation from the sun and saves earth.

Based on the mass divided into Troposhere: upto 10-15km weather changes occur in this zone. Highly unstable layer contains water vapour, cloud, dust and pollution. Higher elevation in summer than in winter and higher in equator than in polar Stratosphere: 15-50km also called a life layer where ozone is present. Mesosphere: 50-80km Thermosphere : 80-500km Exosphere: 500-2000km Magnetosphere: where influence of earths magnetic field is felt but there is no atmosphere.

II. Hydrosphere: The Hydrosphere comprises all types of water resources oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, reserviour, polar icecaps, glaciers, and ground water.

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(i) Nature 97% of the earths water supply is in the oceans, (ii) About 2% of the water resources is locked in the polar icecaps and glaciers. (iii) Only about 1% is available as fresh surface water-rivers, lakes streams, and ground water fit to be used for human consumption and other uses.

III.

Lithosphere: the solid earth. Divided into three parts based on the composition namely crust, mantle and core:

IV.

Biosphere: includes all living organisms plants, animals and micro organisms

B. Man made environment: They are social, economic and political functions made by man. Element of Environment Environment is constituted by physical, biological and cultural elements (1) Physical elements: Physical elements are as space, landforms, water bodies, soils, etc., (2) Biological elements: plants, animals, microorganisms and men (3) Cultural elements: economic, social and political

SCOPE
Its scope is so wide that it has got relation with every science ES is not new to us In Tolkappiyam five fold physiographical divisions. (1) Kuruiiji or the mountain region, (2) Mullai or the forest region, (3) Marutam or the agricultural region, (4) Neithal or sandy coastal tract and (5) Pallai or the arid desert. In Fourth Century BC. Ashokas enforced law to protect all forms of life In Paripadal eighth century describes how Pandya constructs sluices and river channels in Madurai along Vaigai to regulate the flood But for the past 200 years, the industrialisation and intensive agriculture has largely degraded the environment and its high time to revive our knowledge Such study 1. Provide awareness about renewable and non renewable resources of a region. 2. Knowledge about the ecological system and bio diversity 3. Natural and man induced disasters (flood, landslide, earthquake, cyclone, tsunami etc.,) 4. Knowledge on interrelationships between living and non living organisms 5. Enables environmentally literate citizens (laws, acts, rules etc) to protect and improve the earth 6. Explains the significance of forests and their products 7. Gives information about water conservation, watershed management and the importance of water 3|Page

8. How to sustainable use the resources and pass it over to our Younger generation like our ancestor given to us Importance of environmental study: Day by day number of environment issues are increasing and threatening the survival of mankind on earth. The studies have become significant for the following reasons: 1. Issues like global warming and ozone depletion, acid rain, marine pollution and biodiversity are International issues 2. World population is increasing in alarming stage that too in developing countries there is a
heavy pressure on the natural resources including land

3. Available natural resources are very limited 4. Using modern techniques resources are over exploited 5. Unplanned exploitation leading to pollution of all types in all places 6. Polluted and degraded environment is creating lots of health hazards for all living beings including human beings 7. Urbanisation and industrialisation are main reasons for pollution 8. Education and training are needed to protect biodiversity and species extinction 9. Its is a high time to reorient the academic system and curricula towards it 10. Environment studies is a basic science which teach us to achieve sustainability and stability within and among countries Multidisciplinary approach Eg. Every branch of science has their self concept and methods of study hence it is called as discipline. But all the studies are towards the betterment of human society Eg. Botany plants, zoology animals etc., Multidisciplinary approach is a new method where knowledge of varied disciplines are put together to evolve a solution for sustainable development Science can be broadly categorised into two namely pure/theoretical and applied/practical

Pure science Physical science: physics and chemistry Life science: Biology, Zoology Earth science: Geology, geography Multidisciplinary: Physical chemistry, Biochemistry, Geophysics etc., Environmental study is a multidisciplinary approach integrating biology, chemistry, social science etc.,

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According to Miller (2000) A multidisciplinary endeavour incorporating both natural and social sciences in the study of mans relationship with air, water and land as well as fellow humans and other forms of life and concerned with environmental disturbances and minimisation of the impact by means of societal changes.

Eg, decades before only engineers are consulted for constructing a dam mono or intra disciplinary approach but nowadays its economic impact, removal of forest etc., were studied in conjunction called as interdisciplinary approach.

Merits of multidisciplinary approach No discipline is complete by itself Man made environmental disturbances are multifaceted eg. Removal of trees in forest will directly affect the biodiversity whereas indirectly generates chains of issues viz: increase run off leading to decrease in infiltration, increase soil erosion, degradation of land fertility siltation in downward reservoir, reduced water holding capacity, flooding in the environs etc., Hence hybridisation of disciplines is essential to solve multifaceted environmental problems.

NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS 1. Growing Population Population is growing at 2.11 per cent every year, 17 million people are added each year. It puts pressure on natural resources hence population growth has to be limited. 2. Poverty The poverty and environmental degradation have a nexus between them. Majority of people dependent on the nature resources for their basic needs of food, fuel shelter and fodder, Environment degradation has adversely affected the poor who depend upon the resources 3. Agricultural Growth High yielding varities have caused soil salinity and damage to physical structure of soil. 4. Ground water Factors like community wastes, industrial effluents and chemical fertilizers and pesticides have polluted our surface and groundwater hence keeping water bodies clean is essential. 5. Forests Forests serve catchments for the rivers for developmental activities agriculture, irrigation etc shrinking (Narmada, Bhagirathi) conserve them. 6. Degradation of Land 66 per cent of land is degraded by using fertilizers and pesticides, erosion, water scarcity etc., 7. Genetic Diversity

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At present most wild genetic stocks have been disappearing from nature. The protected areas network like sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves are isolating populations. So, they are decreasing changes of one group breeding with another. 8. Urbanisation Nearly 27 per cent Indians live in urban areas. Urbanisation and industrialisation has given birth to a great number of environmental problem that need urgent attention. Over 30 percent of urban Indians live in slums. Out of Indias 3,245 towns and cities, only 21 have partial or full sewerage and treatment facilities. Hence, coping with rapid urbanization is a major challenge. 9. Air and water Population Majority of our industrial plants are using outdated technologies devoid of any provision of treating their wastes. Acts are enforced but their implement needs public awareness. 10. Reorientation of Institutions Change should be brought in education, in attitudes, in administrative procedures and in institutions. Because it affects way people view technology resources and development. Individuals are responsible for all environmental problems Hence it is essential to create awareness among public to know about the sources of pollution, how to minimise them and finally eradicate them so that save the earth to future generation. CREATING PUBLIC AWARENESS Awareness is a continuous process in which individuals has to be triggered towards sustainable development Individuals of schools, colleges, industries, community centres etc., should realise the importance of day to day environmental issues Individuals should practice environmental conservation and create awareness among family members Expose the problems by writing in dailies and forums Again and again issues should be discussed until the problems are totally eliminated Research, workshops and conferences should be conducted

GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED: World wide fund for nature, New Delhi (WWF-I) Centre for science and Environment, New Delhi (CSE) Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Ahmedabad Environment Education centre, Chennai Wildlife institute of India (WII) Dehradun Botanical Survey of India(BSI) Calcutta Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) etc.,

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NATURAL RESOURCES A resource is everything we get from environment for our needs The economy of a country is based on its resources Resources: Anything from living and non-living environment to satisfy human needs Worlds population is heaping 2% per year; demand for resources is of several fold In 40-50 years maximum resources could be exhausted - to over come New technologies to improve the efficiency: 7 times more electric power from 1 ton of coal Recycling: matter resources copper, lead, tin etc, Replacement: wood, coal, oil replaced by solar, wind and wave energy

Types of Natural Resources (I) Renewable resources (II) Non renewable resources can be recycled (III) Non renewable resources cannot be recycled

1. Renewable resources: replenished by natural cycle Eg: oxygen in air photosynthesis Water hydrological cycle Biological products re growth However if utilization rate exceeds replacement rate then availability will decrease called as Environmental Degradation 2. Non Renewable resources: (can be recycled) All non energy minerals metallic (Cu,Ag, Al, etc.,) or non metallic (Si, K etc.,) Eg. Glass (Si) can be reused 3. Non Renewable resources: (cannot be recycled) Fossil fuels once converted into to energy then exhausted cannot be recycled for replenish will take millions of years In order to avoid environmental degradation - Sustainable yield should be followed if 50 animals in year gives 10 offspring 10 is safe yield

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FOREST RESOURCES Most important renewable NR IMPORTANCE OF FOREST I. PROTECTIVE function Watershed protection: Reduce the rate of run-off Prolonged gradual run-off - prevent flood and drought. Increase groundwater potential (2.5mha forest can store 2.5 time more water than bakhra dam) Atmospheric regulation: Absorption of solar heat during evapo-transpiration. Maintaining the local and global climatic conditions. Absorbing atmospheric CO2 - acts as sinks - regulates green house effect Erosion control: Holding soil by roots - preventing erosion Erosion 0.3 tones/yr Due to shifting cultivation 2.8 tones/yr Removal/forest blank 53.4 tones /yr

Land bank: Holding high nutrient soil II. PRODUCTIVE function Food - gathering plants, fishing, hunting from the forest. Fodder - for cattle. Fuel wood and charcoal for cooking, heating. Timber household articles and construction. Fibre - weaving of baskets, ropes, nets, string, etc. Apiculture - bees for honey and also pollination. Medicinal plants

III. ACCESSORY FUNCTIONS Recreation Aesthetics Habitat for diverse wild life.

FOREST TYPES Precipitation and Temperature Vs Vegetation Low moisture and low temperature 8|Page : Tundra forest

High moisture and Freezing temperature: Deciduous or Coniferous High rainfall and high temperature Moderate rainfall Dry climate Forest resource of India Monitored by Forest Survey of India Classified using remote sensing on the basis of crown density dense forest (>40%), open forest (10-40), Scrub forest (<10%) and mangrove forest 63.73 Million ha which is 19.39% of geographical area (1999) India should have 33 % hence preserving is not alone enough but also to increase forest cover DEFORESTATION Removal of forest cover is called as Deforestation Originally earth encompasses 80% of forest now 39% In the past 15 years 200 million ha removed size of mexico, Indonesia CAUSES FOR DEFORESTATION Slash and Burn Farming Farmers living along margin of forest adopt slash and burn farming method deplete soil fertility Commercial agriculture Removing original forest species commercial plants oil palm (Indonesia), coffee, tea, rubber Cattle ranching and live stock grazing Converting forests into grazing land in tropics Latin America - destroying savannas in Africa & Asia for extensive cattle grazing Mining and Petroleum Exploration Removal of forest for mining and transportation massive cutting of fire wood for smelting process (Brazil, Zambia etc.,) Infrastructure development Construction of new highway roads Eg. Trans Amazonian highway exposed millions of sq.km of forest. Main roads followed by secondary roads cut deep into the forest Fuel wood collection Worldwide 3,000 million people use fuel wood as main source of energy olden days dry wood collection - now is overexploited by artificially cutting particular species. Tree plantation For paper and pulp industry brazil & Indonesia removing forest artificially planting Eucalyptus and acacia - leading to genetic imbalance soil erosion insect and disease. Hydroelectric projects dam projects river valley projects etc., 9|Page : Tropical rain forest : Grassland / savannas : Desert

Effects of deforestation on Tropical forest By 2042 50% of species will extinct 2000 species of herbal plants in India alone 45,000 species of flowering plants During ice age tropical forests serve as house of many species 25% of drug ingredients derived from forest plants including cancer The rosy periwinkle flower is only found in Madagascar. It is used to treat cancer but this plant could be lost if the rainforests are destroyed. Transgenic biotechnology genetically revived form wild varieties (during seeds affected by disease) Drugs from skins of wild frogs acts as painkiller hundred times more efficient than morphine Effects of deforestation on tribal people 5000 tribal cultures are being vanished owing to economic development CONSEQUENCE OF DEFORESTATION Economic loss : Future revenue and employment from timber and other resources will ruin Loss of biodiversity: Extinction of thousands spices of plants and animals Reduction in stream flow Perennial rivers would become seasonal leading to drought and flooding Reduces the stream water quality Accelerates siltation in downstream dam and tanks Destruction of tribal lifestyle Increases the rate of global warming: increase the amount of carbon dioxide resulting in melting of ice, extreme flood and drought, Change in global weather pattern and climate Accelerated soil erosion Degradation of soil: expose soil to sun and rain increase its compaction reduce organic matter leaching out of nutrients increase aluminium toxicity Induce mass movements and landslides - roots of tree hold the materials along the slope Increase runoff flooding Breaks water and nutrient cycle

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DEFORESTATION CASE STUDIES The Rainforest of Amazon Basin One thirds of worlds tree grown here 5300 km long Trans-Amazon Highway timber extraction- exploitation of minerals like iron manganese, gold etc., Number of hydel-power projects The rainforest of Malaysia During colonial period destroyed for rubber plantation (worlds leading exporter) decline in market after artificial rubber - after 1970 shifted to oil palm tree plantation (leading exporter) swan wood export (world third) Timber extraction, Mining and Dams its effect on forest and tribal people: Forest degradation in India India comprises (6,37,297 sq.km) 1.8% of worlds forest cover (seventh largest country, second populous) Contributes 1.7 % of GDP of the country India is poorest as per capita forest land is concerned 0.08 ha world average 0.64 ha Lost 3.4 M ha between 1950-72 due to industrialization dam and road construction 1% of land becoming barren every year due to deforestation In Himalayas 3-4% of decrease in rainfall A person needs oxygen produced by 16 big tree. In India 36 people share a single tree. In cities like Patna over 2500 people share a single tree, in Calcutta 15,000 people do the same. Sustainable forest management Government Initiatives Chimpko movement Wildlife protection act (1972) Forest Conservation act (1980) Creation of Ministry of Environment and Forest (1988) Last fifty nine years 31 M ha of land planted 11 | P a g e

Conservation of Reserve forest: National parks,, sanctuaries, biosphere reserves etc. Public initiatives: Planting of private and community land social forestry/agro forestry/farm forestry - initiated 1980 17 M ha eucalyptus, teak, acacia etc., permitted by government Joint efforts : Under JMF (Joint Forest Management Programme, 1990) involving government and local communities 26 states 10.25 M ha

WATER RESOURCES
74% of the Earths surface is water 97% of the Earths volume of water is in the saline oceans 2.2% in the permanent icecap Only 0.02% is in freshwater streams, river, lakes, reservoirs Remaining water is in:
- underground aquifers (0.6%), - the atmosphere in the form of water vapor (0.001%) Hydrologic cycle

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The movement of water particles from sea atmosphere land and back to sea is called as Hydrologic cycle The energy from solar system and gravitational force which governs the movement Ocean is the major source of water Solar energy converts water in to vapour and forms as clouds in the atmosphere Condensation leads to precipitation on land surface Part forms surface run off flow and part gets recharged into the sub surface Finally drains into the ocean
Water on the land can be classified into two categories

I. SURFACE WATER:
River, Stream, Lakes, Ponds, Ice etc.,

II. SUB SURFACE:


Beneath the ground ORIGIN OF GROUNDWATER

Meteoric water: Derived from Precipitation Connate water: Entrapped in rocks during sedimentation Magmatic water: During the condensation of lava Metamorphic water : Formed during metamorphic activity

VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF WATER

ZONE OF AERATION: Filled mostly with air and water ZONE OF SATURATION: Filled completely with subsurface water Water Table: Upper surface of saturated zone
POROSITY: Ability of rock to store water

Total volume of voids in sediments / Volume of sediment Sedimentary rocks: Grain size and packing Metamorphic rocks: Foliation and lineation Secondary porosity: Joints, Faults etc.,
PERMEABILITY: Ability of rock to transmit water Based on the interconnected pore spaces 13 | P a g e

Aquifer: Rocks with both porosity and permeability Aquifuge: Rocks with no porosity and permeability (Igneous rock) Aquiclude: High porous but no permeability (Igneous Clay, Shale etc.,) Aquitard: with considerable interconnected fractures Eg. Clay lenses interbeded with sand
TYPES OF AQUIFER:

Unconfined: Underlained by imperious layer upper surface is water table Eg. Sand body underlained by hard rock Confined: Under and Overlaid by imperious layer results in artesian well Semiconfined: If the bounding layers are not completely impermeable
INDIAN WATER RESOURCES

India has 2% of worlds land, 4% of freshwater, 16% of population, and cattle. India receives 4000 B cu.m / year 41% lost by evaporation 40% lost by run off (stream flow) 10% retained as soil moisture 9% gets into groundwater Out of 40% stream flow (1869 B cu.m) 8% used for irrigation 2% for domestic use 4% for industry and 12% for electricity generation The overall usable water is 1122 B.cu.m Hence per capita available water resource is 1122 cu.m

10% of its

By 2025 due to various problems the per capita availability will be 748 cu.m If countrys per capita is less than 1700 cu.m water stressed country

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Water Demand

MAIN RIVERS IN INDIA

1. Himalayan water system: Indus, Ganges Brahmaputra, Chinab, Jhelum, Ravi and Beas 2. Deccan plateau water system: Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Periyar 3. Others inland water systems 4. Coastal water systems
RIVER BASIN STATISTICS

Himalayan Rivers Water: 300 utilizable, 1200 BCM available. Himalayan large dams presently store 80 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 90 BCM. Peninsular Rivers Water: 400 utilizable, 700 BCM available. Peninsular large dams presently store 160 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 45 BCM. In all, large dams presently store 240 BCM. New dams under consideration could store 135 BCM. Total storage thus could be 375 BCM only.
WATER RESOURCE IN TAMIL NADU Total Geographical Area : 13.01 M Ha. (4.0% of India) Water Resources : 4.49 M.Ha.m (3.0% of India) Population as on 2001 : 62.11 M (6.4% of India) Districts : 31 Taluks : 206 Blocks (Revenue) : 385 Villages : 17,273 River Basins : 17

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Water Potential Surface Water Ground Water Total Surface Water Utilized : Exploitation of Ground Water : Average Rainfall : : : 95% 78% : 853.0 TMC 733.4 TMC 1586.4 TMC

979 mm

Availability Of Groundwater In Tamil Nadu


Sl. Year of No. Assess ment 1 2 1987 1992 No. of Districts Total No. of Blocks 378 384 Categorization of Blocks Dark Grey (85-100%) (65-85%) 41 89 OverExploited (>100%) 3 4 1998 2003 28 28 385 385 135 135 Critical (90%100%) 35 37 86 86 SemiSafe Critical (<70%) (70%90%) 70 137 105 97

White (65%) 251 209 Saline

19 22

8 8

Supply-Demand Gap in 2001 and 2050

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MANS WATER REQUIREMENT, USE AND OVEREXPLOITATION REQUIREMENT SECTORS Irrigation (70%), Industry(5.7%), Livestock management and domestic (4.3%), power

generation(6.2%), fisheries, navigation and recreational activities. CONSERVATION Reduce over exploitation

More water used that actual need returned as surface flow in impure stage reduce over consumption
Efficient Distribution system

Surplus water can be diverted to deficit areas - Interlinking of rivers and Inter watershed transfer
Efficient Use of Water

Appropriate techniques for optimizing water use efficiency Scientific water management and farm practices Measures to minimize water loss lining canal crop duration incentives to change from wet to dry crops integrated source use well/tank/others
Reduction of pollution and recycling of water

Pollution spoils huge quantities of surface water Polluted water treatment safely discharged into aquatic systems
DESALINATION METHODS Distillation: By boiling, the fresh water is evaporated and salt is retained, the evaporated water is then condensed About three-fourths of worlds production uses this method. The more energy requirement makes this process expensive. Freezing: Ice crystals exclude salts as they form and the ice can be melted for use

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Reverse Osmosis: In this process sea water is forced against a semi permeable membrane at high pressure Fresh water seeps through membranes pores while salt stay behind About quarter of fresh water is produced in this way It requires less energy than other two methods but the membranes are fragile and costly In Middle East, West Africa, Peru, Floridam Texas and California more than 1,500 desalination plants are operating at present and producing about 13.3 billion liters (3.5 billion gallons) of water per day. The largest desalination plant in Saudi Arabia produces 114 million liters (30 million gallon) daily Improving surface storage capacity

Around the world 27,000 c.km water discharged into ocean Desilting tanks, dams improving storage capacity Resurrecting supply canals and rivers Construction of new dams and embankments
Improving subsurface storage capacity

10-15% of total precipitation enters into subsurface Artificial and natural recharge structures (check dam, percolation ponds, recharge wells, subsurface dykes etc,)

Augmentation of existing supplies of fresh water

Desalination of sea water and Artificial rain 20-30% of atmospheric moisture precipitates rain and snow - silver iodide, sodium chloride, dry ice (solid CO2)

Rain Water Harvesting Rain Water Harvesting RWH- process of collecting, conveying & storing water from rainfall in an area for beneficial use 1.Provides self-sufficiency to water supply 2.Reduces the cost for pumping of ground water 3.Provides high quality water, soft and low in minerals 18 | P a g e

4.Improves the quality of ground water through dilution when recharged 5.Reduces soil erosion & flooding in urban areas 6.The rooftop rain water harvesting is less expensive & easy to construct, operate and maintain 7. In desert, RWH is the only relief 8. In saline or coastal areas & Islands, rain water provides good quality water FLOOD Flood is a body of water which rises to overflow land which is not normally submerged (Ward 1978) Types of Floods Flash Floods: Associated with storms of short duration Single Event Flood: Due to heavy rain ( 2 3 days) over a drainage basin Multiple Event Flood: Due to successive Heavy rainfall Seasonal Flood: North India Summer Monsoon (June to September) South India Winter Monsoon ( October to December) Natural Causes Of Floods Excess Rainfall High Coastal waves - tides / storm surge / tsunamis Tropical disturbances hurricane / thunder storm / cyclone Volcanic eruption Snow melt Avalanche Dam / levee failure Man Made Causes of Floods Check in rivers, tanks and irrigation channels Siltation and chocking of reservoirs, river beds and tanks 19 | P a g e

Destruction of forest & vegetal cover Unauthorized cultivation along irrigation channels Unauthorized encroachments of flood plains, irrigation channels, etc., leads to obstruction to free flow of water. Mitigation Measures Reservoirs: Can moderate the intensity and timing of the incoming flood. Embankments : confine the flood flows and prevent spilling, thereby reducing the damage Sea walls: Stopping the sea waves from eroding the valuable coastal beaches and land. Channel/drainage improvement: By desilting, dredging, lining, etc., increase the discharge downstream Diversion of flood waters: Taking a part of the flood discharge from one basin to another Watershed Management: Developing and conserving the vegetative and soil cover and also structural works like check-dams, diversion channels, etc., Modify susceptibility to flooding by: Flood plain regulations DROUGHT Definition: An extended period of deficient rainfall a season, a year or several years The drought of 1987 was one of the worst in the century. The overall deficiency in rainfall was 19% as compared to 26% in 1918 and 25% in 1972 being worst years. Consequence of drought; Desertification: the process by which an area becomes more barren, less capable of retaining vegetation and progress towards becoming desert. Causes: climate failure, abusive land use practice- removal of forest, over grazing Famine: Food shortage due to climate, environment and socioeconomic reason Mitigation: involves three phases

1. Preparedness phase: changing land use pattern 2. Prevention phase; watershed management practice 3. Relief phase: restore families

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DAMS

Water storage is essential because rainfall varies with maximum 10000mm in Cherapunji in Assam and minimum 100 mm in western Rajasthan Over 75% rainfall received in monsoon between June October India has 4291 dams 9% of world dams Out of 178million hectare meter available surface water 16mham is stored in dams

Environmental impacts of dams Impacts will be both within and around the dam

Downstream effects caused by alteration in hydraulic gradient Changes in micro climate, loss of vegetal cover, soil erosion, induced seismicity etc., Socio economic problems Deforestation by laying roads Landslides due to blasting etc., Dam failure will cause severe loss Siltation loss in dam capacity flooding reduction in fertile soil supply in downstream fisheries induced coastal erosion Water logging and salinity: rising water table in dam increase water level in command area water logging problem increased moisture even small rains cause flood

Tehri dam: Tehri district; Rivers Bhagirathi, Jilganga; height of dam: 260.5m; submergence: 112 villages, Tehri town, 36,000 hec forest; 1600 hec agricultural land Sardar Sarovar: Bharuch district of Gujarat : 245 villages will be submerged in MP, maharastra and Gujarat, 75,000 people will be evicted Reservoir induced seismicity: Koyna reservoir caused seismicity during 1967. RIVER WATER DISPUTES: Dispute around the world date back to 5000 years Water resources as reservoir, dam and canal system acted as targets during time of war International dispute: Ganga India, Bangladesh and Nepal ; Bhramaputra: India and Bangladesh Local disputes: Narmada- Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and MP; Krishna- AP,Mh,TN and Karnataka; Cauvery- Karnataka, TN and Kerala Water Pollution: 90% of surface water in India polluted polluting industries sugar, distilleries, textile, tanneries etc., 21 | P a g e

MINERAL RESOURCES GENERAL: A naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid that has a definite chemical composition and possesses characteristic physical properties A countrys economy depends on its mineral wealth it posses Petroleum provides gas and oil for fuel, Limestone for construction, Potash mines contribute to fertilizer, coal to energy production, precious metals and gems for jewelry etc., Industrialisation and population explosion forced to extract more and more resources Unscientific exploitation practised over decades significantly degraded the environment

MINERAL DEPOSIT: Any accumulation of useful minerals which are originally in a diffused state. Metallic Mineral Deposits: Concentration of metals which are originally in a diffused state. Ore Mineral: From which one or more minerals can be extracted at profit. Eg. Galena - mined for Lead A single metal can be extracted from a number of ore minerals Eg: Copper from Chalcopyrite, Chalcocite, Cuprite, Malachite etc., A single ore mineral may contain more than one mineral Eg. Mineral Stannite contains Copper and Tin. Non Metallic Mineral Deposits: The materials of non-metallic deposits consist of solids, liquids and gases. The term ore is not used to refer such deposits. They are referred by the substance itself Eg: Mica, Petroleum, Asbestos etc. DISTRIBUTION : Origin and occurrence of mineral deposits are restricted to certain geological periods and geographical area The geological periods are characterized by formation large number of mineral deposits is termed as Metallogenetic Epochs Eg. Most of the Iron ores in India are formed during Precambrian time

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Chief Metallogenetic Epochs in India 1. Precambrian 2. Late Palaeozoic 3. Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary Precambrian Epoch (3500 1500 million years before) It is an important epoch around the world with large number of mineral deposits In India this epoch contains minerals like Iron ore in Bihar, Orissa, M.P, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa etc., Chromite ., , Gold in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh Copper in Rajasthan, Bihar, M.P etc., Lead and Zinc In Rajasthan, Orissa etc., Manganese, Sillimanite, Gypsum, Kyanite, Gemstones etc Permo-Carboniferous (Late Palaeozoic) Epoch (400 250 M.Y) Hercynian movement introduced marked mountain building activity and initiation of sedimentary era on the surface of the Earth In India this epoch contains richest coal deposits of Lower Gondwana period in Bihar, M.P, A.P Later intrusion of dolerities, basalts, ultra basics gives rise to Fire clay, Iron stone, Ochre etc deposits Late Mosozoic To Early Tertiary Epoch (150-40 M.Y) Deccan trap formation Semi precious stones like rock crystal, amethyst, agate, onyx, chalcedony and also rarely copper mineralisation Igneous activity in extra peninsular (northern India) results in Magnetite, Chromite, Asbestos etc in Manipur, Nagaland, Andamans, Ladakh Metallogenic Province The area dominant by a particular type of mineral is called as Metallogenic province 23 | P a g e

Eg. Gold province, Copper province, Iron ore province, Lead and Zzinc province etc., 1. Gold province of Karnataka Andhra Pradesh - Tamil Nadu (Hutti Kolar Anantpur Godag Wynad Gold province) 2. 3. 4. 5. Copper province of Singhbhum Copper province of Khetri Pur Banera Bhinder Lead and Zinc province of Hesatu Belbathan Iron ore province of Singhbhum Keonjhar Sundergarh Mayurbhanj

6. Iron ore province of Durg bastar Chanda - Ratnagiri 7. Iron ore province of Karnataka and Goa 8. Manganese province of Balghat Bhandara Nagpur USES I. Metallic minerals

Iron: ore mineral Hematite and magnetite Basis for modern industrialization huge variety of products from frying pan to locomotives Copper: important ore chalcopyrite Important industrial mineral Manufacturing electrical wires and equipments, brass etc., Aluminium : Bauxite important ore Manufacturing airplanes, electrical cable, soft drink cans etc., Lead: ore Galena Battery manufacturing

Zinc: ore Sphalerite Used for galvanizing and manufacture of brass and other alloys

Silver: Found as native metal and in sulphide ores and it is common by product of lead and copper Manufacture of coins, tableware, jewellery, photographic films etc.,

Gold: native element

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Jewellery, dentistry, decoration etc.,

Other metallic minerals: chromium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium important in steel industries. II. Non metallic minerals: Gemstones: includes precious stone diamond, ruby, emerald, sapphire and semi precious stones beryl, garnet, topaz, zircon etc Generally used for jewellery

Asbestos: fibrous variety of mineral called serpentine Used for Fireproof fabrics, insulation, brake lining etc.,

Barite: high specific gravity used in drilling for sealing leakages Graphite: lubricants, batteries, pencil etc., Others: phosphate, nitrate and potassium minerals used as fertilizers. III. Mineral fuels: Coal, Natural gas and Petroleum EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES: Opencast mining Underground mining Placer mining MARINE MINERAL RESOURCES Minerals of continental margin: Minerals mined from near shore, beach and continental margin, they are partial derived from erosion of land areas and from marine itself. Sand And Gravel The sand and gravel found along beaches and near-shore sediments are locally extracted for use in construction Placer Deposits Concentration of economically valuable dense minerals along beach and near shore regions by wave and current processes are called as placer deposits.

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Formed by the deposition of dense particles at a site where water velocity remains below that required to transport them further. The most important of these deposits contain gold, platinum, diamonds, etc., Today, much of the world's tin and many of the gem diamonds are recovered by dredging near-shore ocean sediments. Gold has been recovered in the past from such deposits, most notably in Nome, Alaska. Diamond is found in offshore gravel in Australia and Africa and mined by De Beer company using four offshore mining vessels mined 450,000 carats of diamond from Africa.

Heavy Mineral Sands Heavy mineral sands are placer deposits formed most usually in beach environments by concentration due to the specific gravity of the mineral grains. They contain zirconium, titanium, thorium, tungsten, rare earth elements, industrial minerals like diamond, sapphire, garnet, and occasionally precious metals or gemstones Ooids Calcium carbonate occurs as sand size spherical grains called as Ooids in the shallow warm waters of low latitudes. Eg. Bhama of east Florida having extensive ooids accumulation Phosphorite Phosphorite occurs along continental shelf especially near the outer edge of the shelf. Generally concentrated in areas of upwelling where phosphate rich waters rise near the surface Due to warming, the pH increases resulting in precipitation of phosphate minerals Also formed due to decay of remains of marine organism

DEEP SEA MINERALS Manganese Nodules 26 | P a g e The best known deposits of deep sea are manganese nodules This iron and manganese oxide occurs as spheres upto 20 cm in diameter

They occur in ocean basins at about 4 km below sea level covering millions of square kilometer or 25% of deep sea floor. They grow at an average rate of 1 to 10 millimeters per million years one of the slowest chemical reaction in nature

Poly Metallic Nodules Valuable trace elements from sea water can be precipitated directly onto the seabed, forming nodules that are enriched with cobalt, nickel, iron, manganese and copper. MINERALS FROM OCEAN BOTTOM Bottom of ocean contains resources like petroleum, sulfur, coal, iron etc., Petroleum And Natural Gas First offshore oil field was discovered in Louisiania in 1938 Now offshore exploration accounts 35% of crude oil and 26% of natural gas total production Formation Planktonic organisms or soft bodied benthic marine animals get accumulated in quiet basins where oxygen was low The anaerobic bacteria convert the tissues into to simpler insoluble organic compounds They were buried by turbidity currents and later covered by sediments At high temperature and pressure, 2 kms beneath ocean floor, slow cooking will take places for millions of years and finally they were converted into oil If the organic material is cooked too long or at too high temperature, it will turn into methane, the dominant component of natural gas. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES In order to coup the needs, mining activities has substantially increased in last three decades with 42% increase in number of mines, Coal by four fold, Iron ore and Copper 11 times, Bauxite 33 times, Limestone 16 times etc., Overexploitation leads to plethora of environmental issues Water pollution: sliding of loose materials from dumps, tailings, overburden etc., into the adjoining water courses Mine drainage and coal washing operations 27 | P a g e

Air pollution: Gaseous pollution: Release of toxic gases into atmosphere (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon) Suspended particle: Dust pollution (silica, fluoride, asbestos and metallic dust)

Noise pollution: blasting and operation of heavy machineries Land degradation: Large scale removal of overburden and their dumping and Disposal of waste

Landslip/landside/soil erosion: Opencast mining in hilly areas

Others: Deforestation, Disruption of water regime, miners health, economic devaluation of land etc., Case studies: Kudremukh Iron ore mining: Chickmagalur district of Karnataka opencast mining started during 1977 Decrease in forest area Degradation of Kachiga and Kudremukh settlements Water pollution of Bhandra river

The Dehra Dun Mussoorie mine belt: Mining activity started in 1911 area is rich in forest and water resource Deforestation and degradation of forest Reduction of agriculture land Shallowing of river Increasing landslips and slides

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FOOD RESOURCES Food is a nutritive substance consumed by living beings for their growth and work. Amongst 105developing countries, 64 are in deficit with respect to their population Every day 250,000 babies are added to population additional food, cloth and shelter By 2025 worlds population is estimated to be 8.5 billion so in another 15 years we must produce what we have during the past 10,000 years On the earth 8000 edible species are in existence but only 30 types were effectively utilized Wheat, rice, corn and potato are most commonly used 16th October World Food Day WORLD FOOD PROBLEM Food problem involves complex interactions among production, population explosion, poverty, economic and political systems Global food production (quantity) increased substantially over past two decades But achieved through extensive utilization of water, soil resource, fertilizer and pesticides Quality of food grains vary between nations Storage of food grains and others (vegetables fruits meat etc.) differ amongst hot and cold countries Distribution of food grains amongst poverty people Varying subsides for agriculture amongst countries Food production increased 140% between 1950 and 1987 Appreciable quantity of food gets rot and consumed by pests If all food produced in world shared then per capita food will be three times more than need Production is not distributed equally amongst people in the world It is also not equally distributed even between family embers male as working member consume more food than female AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION Two major agriculture systems was followed to raise crop and livestock
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1 Traditional Agriculture Traditional Subsistence agriculture: crops and livestocks are produced for their survival through human labour and draft animals Traditional Intensive agriculture: surplus production chiefly aimed at selling including their family need through excess man power, fertilizer and water 2. Industrialized agriculture; practised in developed countries by using fossil fuel energy, water, commercial fertilizers and pesticides to produce huge quantities through monoculture (single crop) and livestock Green revolution: Increased yield per unit area is called as green revolution Ist green revolution during 1950 achieved through Monoculture or high yielding varieties Lavishing fertilisers, pesticides and water Intensity and frequency of cropping 2nd Green revolution during 1967 Through using specially breed wheat and rice Production increased two to five fold than traditional method A third green revolution is envisaged through biotechnology

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION Domesticated animals: cattle, horses, oxen, sheep, chickens and pigs Provides food, fertilizer, fuel, cloth and transportation Increased to sustain increasing population leads to overgrazing INDIAN AGRICULTURE PERFORMANCE 1998-99 was record of 20.8 million tones 1950-51 I st green revolution 1970 second green revolution M.S Swaminathan father of Indian green revolution Landuse: 99.3 m.ha in 1950 to 127.5 m.ha in 1991 - Increase through deforestation

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Fertilizer consumption: last three decades nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium increased to 9.5% annually fourth largest consumer of fertilizers in the world. Pesticide consumption: 27 thousand tonnes in 1971 to 82 thousand tonnes in 1991. Irrigation: agricultural land increased from 32% in 1970 to 43% in 1990 through extraction of more groundwater in 2025 85 million hectare meter of water will be in demand for agricultural purpose.

CHANGES CAUSED BY OVERGRAZING Domestication of crops started 10,000 years ago Agriculture was subsistence in early stage and later commercialised due to increase in need Invention of new breed, fertilizers and pesticides leads to environmental problems Food production per person dropped 21% between 1960 and 1987- in Africa due to drought, deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion etc., Best lands were used for commercial crops (Coffee and Cacao) export Inland war and increasing population Increased livestock and poor agriculture practice decline in soil quality and overgrazing of marginal lands Anthropogenic problems : Soil erosion in North America, Soil acidification in Europe, Deforstation and desertification in Asia, Africa and Latin America and waste and pollution of water everywhere In forthcoming decades global warming may flood coastal areas Environmental degradation Application of huge quantities of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides Increase irrigational facility water logging Conversion of marginal land and grass land into to agricultural land Deforestation soil erosion loss of soil fertility Replacement of forest by plantation changes its ecosystem Shifting cultivation consumed millions of square kilometre of natural forest Monoculture leading to ecological imbalance

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Fertilizer and pesticide problems Synthetic Organic Compounds Includes pesticides, plastics, solvents etc., DDT - chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide The best known of these pollutants is DDT - Pesticide used during 1950s -1960s Causes reduction in calcium carbonate of organism tissues leads to eggs with vary thin shells easily breakable threatening population of birds.

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PCBs: Polychlorinated biphenyls Fluid used to insulate electrical devices and to strengthen concrete and wood Declining the fertility and immune system Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Typically come from oil pollution and burning wood and coal. These PAHs are responsible for causing genetic chromosomal aberrations Bio Accumulation: If animal receives small quantities of persistent pesticide along with its food, the insoluble matters get accumulated in fatty tissue prolonged consumption will increase the concentration in animal. This process of accumulating higher and higher amounts of material within the cell of an animal is called as bioaccumulation. Bio-Amplification: When a carnivore eats the affected animal then toxins are concentrated within the carnivore continued consumption leads to disease or death. This transformation of toxins from lower to higher order is called as bio-amplification.

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Eg. If an aquatic system receives small amount of DDT in due course the concentration of DDT in aquatic organism will be 250 times more than what is there in aquatic system. If these were eaten by small fishes and then by large fishes the net concentration will be 2000 times more if it is consumed by birds or humans the effect will be .... Environmental limits for increasing food production: Continuing input of fertilizer, water and pesticides and its induced crop yield will obsolete at one stage. Now the increase in productivity has come down from 2.3% in 1950 to 1% in 1984. Loss of genetic diversity limit crop yields: In India once there were 30,000 varieties of rice but now only 10 varieties contributes 75% of total production. We are losing our worlds genetic library Sustainable Agriculture: Combine traditional high yield polyculture and modern monoculture Knowledge of traditional sustainable practices has to be transmitted Grow more perennial crops Minimize soil erosion, salination and water logging Reduce destruction of natural forest, grassland and wetlands Reduce usage of water and fossil fuel Increase usage of organic fertilizers, solar, wind and biomass energy etc., WATER LOGGING AND SALINITY The addition of salts to soil and underlying strata by irrigation water Good quality water contains 200-500 mg/litter soluble salts adds 2-5 mg of salt per year per hectare - excessive usage of water with inadequate drainage facility increases water table water will evaporate leaving salts in the land causing salination. Rising water table in saline aquifers leads to seepage of salts above the surface salination Removal of deep rooted trees increase stream flow salination

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Construction of dams in saline area increase groundwater head releasing more salts in rivers salination in neighbouring lands Impacts: in initial stage reduces soil productivity kills vegetation productive land into barren land - reduce food production economic loss loss of biodiversity Preventive measures: reduction of accession of surface water to groundwater through sprinkler and drip irrigation lining canals - deep rooted trees along canals remove salt from deep soil. Provision of sub surface drainage by excess pumping and lowering the water table Release of dilution flow from reservoirs maintain stream salinity below critical level Reclamation: make sub surface drainage system flush the land with pure water make the water to be drained by sub surface drainage system repeat 4-5 times remove the salts from soil very costlier method.

ENERGY RESOURCES
ENERGY is defined by physicists as the capacity to do work, it is a physical quantity manifested as heat, mechanical work, motion etc., Modern concept of energy developed by Einstein theory of relativity According to First law of thermodynamics energy can neither created nor destroyed

MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY: Joule: General representation of energy Equal to energy dissipated by an electrical current of 1 ampere driven by one volt for one second. Equal to twice the energy of motion in a mass of 1 kilogram moving at 1 meter per second Equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water at its maximum density by one degree Fahrenheit Erg: is the basic unit of energy now largely utilized = 10-7 Joule

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HEAT ENERGY: Fuels are valued by Thermal energy - Btu units Eg. A pound of coal yields 4,000 to 15,000 Btu while a pound of oil releases 19,000 Btu. One Btu = 251 calories = 778.26 foot-pound = 1050.18 joules Calorie: is the basic unit of heat energy = 4.184J defined as energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade BTU (British Thermal Unit): is a measure of large amount of heat energy = 1,506 Joule

Large Units representation: National wide energy is expressed in exajoule = 1018 (billion) joules = 1 quadrillion (Quad) or 1015 Btu 1 Quad = energy released if 172 million barrels (each barrel 159 liters) of oil are burned Us consumes 85 Quads of energy per year.

OTHER MEASUREMENTS OF ENERGY: Electron Volt: unit of energy equal to the energy transferred when an electron having an electron volt Watt: unit of measurement of power (rate at which energy is used). One watt = joule per second or 107 ergs per second Electrical energy is measured in Watt (We). A light bulb operating in 220 volts and using 0.2 ampere of current consumes about 40 watts (220 volts * 0.2amp). Power: defined as the rate at which work is done. Power is measured in foot-pound pre second or horse power. 1HP = 550 foot-pounds per second. Used in automobiles, rail engines, gas turbines, electric motors etc., If an engine lifts 550 pound weight to a height of 5 feet in one second it is said to work at a rate of 2,750 foot-pounds per second delivering a power of 5HP. Biological energy: all living organism have to transform energy to maintain their processes. Human beings are using 2000 calories of energy every day as biological energy to maintain their metabolism.

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Besides biological energy developed countries are using 200,000 calories per person for transportation, heating, television, refrigeration etc., Amongst 88% of energy derived from coal, oil, gas and electricity.

ENERGY RESOURCES: Renewable Nonrenewable Non-Renewable Energy Sources: These consist of the mineral based hydrocarbon fuels coal, oil and natural gas also called fossil fuels . Oil and gas resources however are likely to be used up within the next 50 years. Fossil Fuel: 1. Gas: Natural gas, coal gas etc., 2. Solid Fuel: Anthracite, coke, lignite, peat, charcoal etc., 3. Liquid Fuel: petroleum, Gasoline, kerosene etc., Hydrocarbon: It is a type of oil rich in hydrogen and carbon with very less / no oxygen (Example: Methane, Naphtene) Petroleum: The word PETROLEUM originates from the LATIN word. PETRA and OLEUM meaning ROCK and OIL. It means ROCK OIL or MINERAL OIL It is a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules and lesser quantities of organic molecules containing sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, and some metals. The gas that is associated with petroleum, or found separately under the surface of the earth is known as natural gas The semi-solid or solid part is known as asphalt or tar, Coals, Kerogen, albertite, gilsonite and / or grahamite

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IN INDIA According to ONGC report t 18.5 billion tons upto 200 m water depth and 5 to 9 billion tons in the deep water areas from 200-2000 m isobaths

COAL It is composed mostly of organic (carbon containing) material, with a smaller amount of inorganic minerals Fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived and died about 100 to 400 million years ago

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Types of coal Lignite: The lowest grade of coal Bituminous: Bituminous coal is the most abundant and most widely used coal. It has a higher heating potential and is used for making coke Anthracite: This type of coal has the highest percentage of fixed carbon and a lower percentage of volatile material than all other coals Indian occurrence On the basis of their occurrence relative to geological age, coal deposits of India are often classified in to two groups. Lower Gondwana coals and Tertiary coals, the former being of great economic importance India has only scarce occurrence of lignite type of coal. important deposits reported so for occur in Tamil Nadu Pondichery,Kutch,Kerala and UP

COAL RESERVES OF INDIA The coal reserves of India, up to the depth of 1200m, have been estimated by the Geological Survey of India as 2,11,593.61 million tonnes as on 1.1.2000 Energy Trend Between 1900 and 2000 world population increased three times but energy consumption increased 14 times 39 | P a g e

For almost 200 years, coal was the primary energy source fuelling the industrial revolution in the 19th century. At the close of the 20th century, oil accounted for 39% of the worlds commercial energy consumption, followed by coal (24%) and natural gas (24%), while nuclear (7%) and hydro/renewables (6%) accounted for the rest

Amongst oil and coal creates more environmental problems while gas is almost a clean energy The trend of 21st century is move from fuels with more carbon atoms to few or no carbon atoms called as Decarbonization

Coal = C:H ratio 1:5 Indian scenario

Oil = 1:2

Gas = 1:4

Hydrogen = 0:1

India fourth largest economy with an energy demand of 30% Coal accounts 63.3%; Petroleum-18.6%; Hydro-electricity-8.9; Gas-8.2and Nuclear-1%. Overall energy production was 16.4 Quads. Annually there is a 4.6% demand.

Environmental problems Oil and its environmental impacts: The processes of oil and natural gas drilling, processing, transport and utilisation have serious environmental consequences, such as leaks in which air and water are polluted. Oil powered vehicles emit carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter which is a major cause of air pollution especially in cities with heavy traffic density Coal and its environmental impacts: Coal is the worlds single largest contributor of green house gases and is one of the most important causes of global warming. Burning coal also produces oxides of sulphur and nitrogen which, combined with water vapour, lead to acid rain. Renewable energy Hydroelectric Power This uses water flowing down a natural gradient to turn turbines to generate electricity known as hydroelectric power by constructing dams across rivers.

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In 1882, the first Hydroelectric power dam was built in Appleton, Wisconsin. In India the first hydroelectric power dams were built during 1897 in Darjeeling Between 1950 and 1970, Hydropower generation worldwide increased seven times. Major hydroelectric projects in India: Mettur, Bhakra nangal, Hirakud, Damodar, Nagarjunasagar, Idukki, Tungabadra and Koyna

Advantages: The long life of hydropower plants, the renewable nature of the energy source, very low operating and maintenance costs, and absence of inflationary pressures as in fossil fuels Disadvantages: To produce hydroelectric power, large areas of forest and agricultural lands are submerged Silting of the reservoirs (especially as a result of deforestation) reduces the life of the hydroelectric power installations Water is required for many other purposes besides power generation including domestic, agricultural, industry etc., - gives rise to conflicts. The use of rivers for navigation and fisheries becomes difficult once the water is dammed Large dams can induce seismic activity which will result in earthquakes.

SOLAR ENERGY In one hour, the sun pours as much energy onto the earth as we use in a whole year. Problem with solar energy is its availability during day time, less under cloudy conditions and its non availability in poles Utilization of solar energy: Heat generation: Passive heating system: solar energy directly converted into heat and used at the site where it is collected Solar water heating system: consist of flat plate aluminium or copper with copper tubes (riser), insulated storage tank, insulated pipes for hot/cold water circulation, control instruments. Eg. Solar desalination system - Preparation of distilled water from brackish water. Solar rice cocker.

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SPV (Solar Photo voltaic cells) solar radiation is converted into to DC electricity directly can be used as it is or stored in batteries and can be used at night o Uses: domestic lighting, street light, water pumping, desalination, railway signals, remote telecommunication systems etc., o

Electricity generation: For achieving higher temperature (2000oc) parabolic mirrors are used to focus radiation in a concentrated manner over a collector For still higher temperature series of parabolic mirrors called as heliostats are arranged in such a way the radiation is focused onto a central receiver located on the tower. Active heating system: converted into heat but from places of collection it is transferred to the place of use Solar pond: when water in pond is heated it raises up and losses its energy to atmosphere In solar pond salt is dissolved in the bottom layer which will arrest the upward movement Solar pond has three zones 1. upper convection zone which is at atmospheric temperature and has little salt content 2. Lower convection zone: The bottom zone is at 70-850C and is very salty where solar energy is stored in the form of heat 3. Non convective zone: it is the important gradient zone where salinity or density increases with depth If we consider single layer in this zone water cannot move up since the water in the above layer is lighter or cannot move down since it is heavier due to comparatively more salt content This zone act as transparent insulator permitting the sunlight to reach the bottom zone and tapping the heat energy in the bottom zone Ocean thermal energy: The solar energy absorbed by the tropical oceans in a week could equal the entire oil reserves of the world 60 million square kilometre of tropical sea absorb radiation equivalent to the heat content of 24 billion barrels of oil. 42 | P a g e

Top of the sea will be hot while bottom is with low temperature - difference of 20oC Low boiling liquids like ammonia, butane etc., can be used for extracting this heat and subsequently converted into electrical energy. These plants are known as Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC).

Ocean Currents: Ocean currents are generated due to variation in solar radiation and Coriolis effect. Making circular flow in each basins with clockwise rotation in northern hemisphere and anticlockwise rotation in southern hemisphere These currents are stronger along coastlines. Power can be generated by keeping propeller mounted with gears at a depth of 10 to 20 meters. Tidal Power: The energy of waves in the sea that crash on the land of all the continents is estimated at 2 to 3 million megawatts of energy. Tidal power is tapped by placing a barrage across an estuary and forcing the tidal flow to pass through turbines. In a one-way system the incoming tide is allowed to fill the basin through a sluice, and the water so collected is used to produce electricity during the low tide. In a two way system power is generated from both the incoming as well as the outgoing tide.

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Environmental Impacts: destroy the habitats and nesting places of water birds and interfere with fisheries. A tidal power station at the mouth of a river blocks the flow of polluted water into the sea, thereby creating health and pollution hazards in the estuary Biomass energy: Biomass is organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. In the process of photosynthesis plants converts radiant energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose or sugar Water (6H2O)+ carbon dioxide (6CO2) + Sunlight glucose (C2H12O2) + oxygen 6O2) Biomass includes wood, agricultural waste, sugarcane wastes etc.,

There are three ways to use biomass. 1. burned to produce heat and electricity, 2. changed to a gas-like fuel such as methane or 3. changed to a liquid fuel also called biofuels includes two forms of alcohol: ethanol and methanol. (biodiesel made from vegetable oils) Biomass when burned or converted into energy creates air pollution including carbon dioxide and less sulphur dioxide. Rate of pollution is relatively less compared to fossil fuels. Biogas: Biogas is produced from plant material and animal waste, garbage, waste from households and some types of industrial wastes, such as fish processing, dairies, and sewage treatment plants It is a mixture of gases which includes methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour. In a ton of food waste 85 Cu. M of biogas can be produced and residues can be used as fertilizer. The biogas plants use cowdung, which is converted into a gas which is used as a fuel. The fibrous waste of the sugar industry is the worlds largest potential source of biomass energy. Ethanol produced from sugarcane molasses is a good automobile fuel

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Wind Power: Wind was the earliest energy source used for transportation by sailing ships. Some 2000 years ago, windmills were developed in China, Afghanistan and Persia to draw water for irrigation and grinding grain At present, India is the third largest wind energy producer in the world

Environmental Impacts: bird kills, noise, effect on TV reception, and aesthetic objections Geothermal energy: Geothermal energy comes from the heat within the earth. The word "geothermal" comes from the Greek words geo, meaning earth," and therme, meaning "heat." The earth's core lies almost 4,000 miles beneath the earth's surface. The double-layered core is made up of very hot molten iron surrounding a solid iron center. Estimates of the temperature of the core range from 5,000 to 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit (F). Heat is continuously produced within the earth by the slow decay of radioactive particles that is natural in all rocks. Surrounding the earth's core is the mantle, thought to be partly rock and partly magma. The mantle is about 1,800 miles thick. The outermost layer of the earth, the insulating crust, is not one continuous sheet of rock, like the shell of an egg, but is broken into pieces called plates. These slabs of continents and ocean floor drift apart and push against each other at the rate of about one inch per year in a process called continental drift. Magma (molten rock) may come quite close to the surface where the crust has been thinned, faulted, or fractured by plate tectonics. When this near-surface heat is transferred to water, a usable form of geothermal energy is created Geothermal energy is called a renewable energy source because the water is replenished by rainfall, and the heat is continuously produced by the earth. Some visible features of geothermal energy are volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and fumaroles There are four main kinds of geothermal resources: hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma. Today hydrothermal resources are the only kind in wide use. The other three resources are still in the infant stages of development. Nuclear Power Atom is made up of nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons

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Fission: In 1938 two German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman demonstrated nuclear fission (splitting of atom). They split the nucleus of a uranium atom by bombarding it with neutrons Energy in the form of heat and light is released

Fusion: when tow hydrogen atom combine to produce helium atom (Sun) The first large-scale nuclear power plant in the world became operational in 1957 in Pennsylvania, US. Dr. Homi Bhabha was the father of Nuclear Power development in India. India has 10 nuclear reactors at 5 nuclear power stations that produce 2% of Indias electricity. These are located in Maharashtra (Tarapur), Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and Gujrat. India has uranium from mines in Bihar. There are deposits of thorium in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The nuclear reactors use Uranium 235 to produce electricity. Energy released from 1kg of Uranium 235 is equivalent to that produced by burning 3,000 tons of coal. U235 is made into rods which are fitted into a nuclear reactor. The control rods absorb neutrons and thus adjust the fission which releases energy due to the chain reaction in a reactor unit. The heat energy produced in the reaction is used to heat water and produce steam, which drives turbines that produce electricity. The drawback is that the rods need to be changed periodically. This has impacts on the environment due to disposal of nuclear waste. The reaction releases very hot waste water that damages aquatic ecosystems, even though it is cooled by a water system before it is released. Indian nuclear programme has three stages. Stage I: use of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for nuclear power generation; Stage II: Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR); Stage III: Thorium Based Reactors (TBR). The stage I is operational and Stage II and III are under development. 46 | P a g e

Water reactors of stage I require U-235 as fuel. But Indians Uranium resource is very limited and hence import from other countries is inevitable. However, in Fast Breeder Reactor U-238 and Th-232 are used as primary fuel, but they are not readily fissionable. Therefore in the breeder reactor U-238 and Th-232 are converted into fissionable Plutonium 239 (Pu-239) and U-233 respectively and more fuel is generated and hence called breeder reactor. Stage 3 of Indian Nuclear Programme focuses the use of reactor fuelled by Thorium- 232. India has a sizable quantity of Thorium resources as against Uranium. A prototype fast breeder reactor is functioning at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam and KAMINI (Kalpakkam Mini), a thorium based reactor has been designed and tested at a preliminary level. Atomic Energy Green Energy Among other modes of electricity generation, Nuclear power is environmental friendly in a sense that there is no emission of CO2 or other Green House Gases such as a NOx, SOx, O3 and CFC. Energy Conservation India needs to rapidly move into a policy to reduce energy needs and use cleaner energy production technologies India must reduce its dependency on imported oil. At present we are under-utilizing our natural gas resources We could develop thousands of mini dams to generate electricity Fuel wood plantations need to be enhanced.

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LAND RESOURCES SOIL : Loose (Un-consolidated) material/organic matter capable of supporting Plant growth CLASSIFICATION Non Soil: surface material that donot support plant life (Eg. Salt flat, rock barrens etc.,) Mineral Soil: Formed by dissolving and disintegration of rocks Organic Soil: Develop from accumulation of plant residues that are preserved by low oxygen environment of shallow and stagnant waters (Eg. Tundras, peat bogs, peat soils) PEDOGENESIS is the term used to describe the formation and development of soil profile

SOIL FORMATION

Soil Horizon They are the layers of the different types of soil found at different depths in soil profile. o o o o o Horizonorganic layer A Horizontopsoil B Horizonsubsoil C Horizonsubstratum R Horizonbedrock

SOIL CLASSIFICATION o TAXONOMY: Greek work taxis meaning arrangement or order o SOIL TAXONOMY: Scientific grouping of similar soils. o General soil category is ORDER, all the world soil is placed under 10 order Classification of Indian Soils There are 8 major group of soils in India which are furnished below

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Red Soils Red colour is due to various oxides of iron. They are poor in N, P, K and with pH varying 7 to 7.5. Red soils occurs extensively in Andhra Pradesh , Assam, Bihar, Goa, Parts of kerala, Maharastra, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and West Bengal. Most of the red soils have been classified in the order ' Alfisols'. Seen in high rainfall areas, under high rainfall conditions silica is released and leached down wards and the upper horizons of soils become rich in oxides of iron and aluminum.. They are distributed in summits of hills of Daccan karnataka, Kerala, Madhyapradesh, Ghat regions of Orissa, Andhra pradesh, Maharastra and also in West Bengal, Tamilnadu and Assam. Most of the laterite soils have bee classified in the order ' ultisols' and a few under ' oxisols'. These are the most important soils from the agriculture point of view. The soils are sandy loam to clay loam with light grey colour to dark colour, structure is loose and more fertile. These soils are distributed in Indo-Gangetic plains, Brahmaputra valley and all most all states of North and South. Most of the alluvial soils have been classified in the orders ' Entisols', ' Inceptisols' and ' Alfisols'.

Lateritic Soils

Alluvial Soils

Black Soils This is well known group of soils characterised by dark grey to black colour with high clay content. Major black soils are found in Maharastra, Madhyapradesh, Gujarat and Tamilnadu. Cotton is most favourable crop to be grown in these soils. These soils are classified in the order 'Entisols', ' Inceptisols' and ' vertisols'. This group of soils occur in Himalayas. Soils are dark brown with more sub-soil humus content. They are more acidic. These soils are mostly sandy to loamy fine sand with brown to yellow brown colour, contains large amounts of soluble salts and lime with pH ranging 8.0 to 8.5. The presence of Phosphate and Nitrate make the desert soils fertile and productive under water supply. They are distributed in Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan. They are classified in the order ' Aridisols' and ' Entisols'.

Forest Soils

Desert Soils

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Peaty and Marshy Soils These soils occur in humid regions with accumulation of high organic matter. During monsoons the soils get submerged in water and the water receipts after the monsoon during which period rice is cultivated. Soils are black clay and highly acidic with pH of 3.5. Free alluminium and ferrous sulphate are present. The depressions formed by dried rivers and lakes in alluvial and coastal areas some times give rise to water logged soils and such soils are blue in colour due to the presence of ferrous iron. Peaty soils are found more in Kerala and marshy soils are found more in coastal tracks of Orissa, West Bengal and South - East coast of Tamilnadu. Saline soils contain excess of natural soluble salts dominated by chlorides and sulphates which affects plant growth. Sodic or alkali soils contain high exchangeable sodium salts. Both kinds of salt effected soils occur in different parts of India like Uttarpradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Maharastra, Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Rajastan and Andhra pradesh. These soils are classified under ' Aridisols', ' Entisols' and ' Vertisols'. Process of detachment & Transportation of soil materials by erosion agents! Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids (sediment ,rock and other particles) usually by the agents of currents such as, wind, water, or ice

Saline - Sodic Soils

SOIL EROSION :

Why is it important? Soil loss Nutrient loss Reduction of infiltration (surface sealing) Effects on aquatic organisms Fills reservoirs Effects on drinking water quality high-intensity precipitation, more frequent rainfall, more wind, or more storms Sediment with high sand or silt contents areas with steep slopes highly fractured or weathered rock. Sediment containing more clay tend to erode less than those with sand or silt.

Erosion prone areas

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Effects Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded An area of fertile soil the size of Ukraine is lost every year because of drought, deforestation and climate change When land is overused by animal activities (including humans), there can be mechanical erosion most serious and long-running water erosion problems worldwide is in the china on the middle reaches of the yellow river and the upper reaches of the yangtze river. From the yellow river, over 1.6 billion tons of sediment flows into the ocean each year

SOIL EROSION : TYPES i) Water ii) Wind Soil Erosion by Water : 1.Splash erosion: due to impact of raindrops on the surface. Raindrops fall at a speed of about 20 miles per hour. 2.Sheet erosion: due to surface flow by gravity after raindrop splash 3.Rill erosion : Channel development on recently cultivated soils---due to greater sourcing action by concentrated flow of water 4.Gully erosion : Enlarged features of rillsmay yield tremendous volumes of sediment by large conc. Of run-off .Gullies enlarge until they become permanent topographic features. 5.Channel Erosion : -Introduces gully erosion, -Stream bank erosion, -Valley trenching, -Degradation & flood plain scour. 6. Gross Erosion : -Its the Summation of erosion from all sources within the watershed. Soil erosion by Wind Types of soil movement : 1. Suspension : < 0.05mm diameter - silt size & smaller 2. Saltation : > 0.05 0.5 mm very fine to medium sand 3. Surface creep : > 0.5 mm diameter of particles Controlling factors of soil Erosion
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Erosive potential of an area depends on : Climate: rain drop size, intensity, distribution, fall, velocities, total mass of impact & temperature! Characteristics of soil : texture, structure, permeability, compactness & infiltration capacity! Vegetal cover : vegetation types, density, root systems! Topography : slope length, slope configuration & surficial features! Human activities : landuse, construction practices, agro-applications, landuse conversion to rocky wastes, deforestation, industrial waste disposals, mine & mine waste gushings. MEASUREMENT OF SOIL EROSION The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) designed by two soil scientists namely, Wischmeier and Smith during the year 1978 is to predict the soil loss in the field.

A = Soil loss in tons/ha/year R=rainfall-runoff erosivity factor K=soil erodability factor L=slope length factor S=slope steepness factor C = vegetative cover factor P = conservation practice factor SOIL EROSION : IMPACTS A.Environmental Impacts Suspended Nutrients trigger algal bloom---reduces water clarity---depletes Oxygen---fish kill---Odor creation Stream bank & adjacent areas erosion destroys: -stream vegetation---endangers aquatic & wild life! Excessive stream deposition: Sediment Turbidity: -reduces in-stream Photosynthesis---reduced food supply & habitat!

Suspended coasts: -Abrades coasts & Aquatic organisms Obstructed Vegetal growth -due erosion removes the nutrients

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B) Economic Impacts Excessive sediment accumulation: -reduces reservoir storage capacity Erosion: -Severely diminishes the ability of the soil to support plant growth -thus, the loss in Agricultural Productivity Damages engineering structures: -eg. Abrasion in Hydel dams & reservations SOIL CONSERVATION Why is soil conservation important? "A nation that destroys its soil destroys itself." - President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1937 Worldwide, an estimated 26 billion tons of topsoil are washed or blown off cropland each year. Every year 6 million hectares of productive land become desert Vegetative methods of soil stabilization Vegetal cover reduces erosion by, - absorbing the impact of raindrops - reducing the velocity of run-off - reducing run-off volumes by increasing water percolation in the soil - Binding soil with roots - protecting soil from wind These methods need : - careful selection of plants, Site preparation, seeding, Fertilizing & mulching

on the basis of effectiveness for soil erosion control in that particular terrain. Mechanical methods of soil erosion control Contouring / contour cultivation, contour strip cropping Contour bunds Terracing, Terrace cultivation, Water conveyance structures - Check dams - Pipe slope drains - permanent waterways - Geotextiles
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DESERTIFICATION The processes of conversion of crop or rage land into desert-like land, with a drop in agriculture productivity. Causes: overgrazing, deforestation, surface mining, unscientific farming practice, over cultivation etc.,

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