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II. Cc thit b b cng sut: 1. B trn li in p Trong mng li h p, b cng sut c thc hin bng : T in vi lng b c nh (b nn).

Thit b iu chnh b t ng hoc mt b t cho php iu chnh lin tc theo yu cu khi ti thay i.

Ch : Khi cng sut phn khng cn b vt qu 800KVAr v ti c tnh lin tc v n nh, vic lp t b t pha trung p thng c hiu qu kinh t tt hn. 2. T b nn B tr b gm mt hoc nhiu t to nn lng b khng i. vic iu khin c th thc hin: Bng tay: dng CB hoc LBS ( load break switch ) Bn t ng: dng contactor Mc trc tip vo ti ng in cho mch b ng thi khi ng ti. Ti v tr u ni ca thit b tiu th in c tnh cm ( ng c in v my bin p ). Ti v tr thanh gp cp ngun cho nhiu ng c nh v cc ph ti c tnh cm khng i vi chng vic b tng thit b mt t ra qu tn km. Trong cc trng hp khi ti khng thay i.

Cc t in c t: -

3. B t b iu khin t ng ( b ng ng ) - B cng sut thng c hin bng cc phng tin iu khin ng ngt tng b phn cng sut. - Thit b ny cho php iu khin b cng sut mt cch t ng, gi h s cng sut trong mt gii hn cho php chung quanh gi tr h s cng sut c chn. - Thit b ny c lp t ti cc v tr m cng sut tc dng v cng sut phn khng thay i trong phm vi rt rng. v d: ti thanh gp ca t phn phi chnh, ti u ni ca cc cp trc chu ti ln. Cc nguyn l v l do s dng b t ng: - B t b gm nhiu phn v mi phn c iu khin bng contactor. Vic ng mt contactor s ng mt s t song song vi cc t vn hnh. V vy lng cng sut b c th tng hay gim theo tng cp bng cch thc hin ng hoc ct contactor iu khin t. Mt rley iu khin kim sot h s cng sut ca mng in s thc hin ng v m cc contactor tng ng h s cng sut c h thng thay i ( vi sai s do iu chnh tng bc ). iu khin rle my bin dng phi t ln mt pha ca dy cp dn in cung cp n mch c iu khin. Khi thc hin b chnh xc bng cc gi tr ti yu cu s trnh c hin tng qu in p khi ti

gim xung thp v do kh b cc iu kin pht sinh qu in p v trnh cc thit hi xy ra cho trang thit b. - Qu in p xut hin do hin tng b d ph thuc mt phn vo gi tr tng tr ngun. Cc qui tc b chung - Nu cng sut b t ( kVar ) nh hn hoc bng 15% cng sut nh mc my bin p cp ngun, nn s dng b nn. - Nu trn mc 15%, nn s dng b kiu t ng. - V tr lp t t p trong mng in c tnh n ch b cng sut; hoc b tp trung, b nhm, b cc b, hoc b kt hp hai phng n sau cng. - V nguyn tc, b l tng c ngha l b p dng cho tng thi im tiu th v vi mc m ph ti yu cu cho mi thi im. - Trong thc tin, vic chn phng cch b da vo cc h s kinh t v k thut. V tr lp t t b: 3.1 B tp trung : p dng cho ti n nh v lin tc. Nguyn l : b t u vo thanh gp h p ca t phn phi chnh v c ng trong thi gian ti hot ng. u im: - Gim tin pht do vn tiu th cng sut phn khng . - Lm gim cng sut biu kin. - Lm nh ti cho my bin p v do n c kh nng pht trin thm cc ph ti cn thit. Nhn xt : - Dng in phn khng tip tc i vo tt c l ra t phn phi chnh ca mng h th. - V l do ny kch c dy dn , cng sut tn hao khng c ci thin ch b tp trung. 3.2 B nhm ( tng phn on ). B nhm nn s dng khi mng in qu ln v khi ch ti tiu th theo thi gian ca cc phn on thay i khc nhau. Nguyn l : b t c u vo t phn phi khu vc . hiu qu do b nhm mang li cho dy dn xut pht t t phn phi chnh n cc t khu vc c t t c th hin r nht. u im: - Lm gim tin pht do vn tiu th cng sut phn khng. - Lm gim cng sut biu kin yu cu.

- Kch thc dy cp i n cc t phn phi khu vc s gim i hoc vi cng dy cp trn c th tng thm ph ti cho t phn phi khu vc. Nhn xt : - Dng in phn khng tip tc i vo tt c dy dn xut pht t t phn phi khu vc. - V l do ny m kch thc v cng sut tn hao trong dy dn ni trn khng c ci thin vi ch b nhm. - Khi c s thay i ng k ca ti, lun lun tn ti nguy c b d v km theo hin tng qu in p. 3.3 B ring: B ring nn c xt n khi cng sut ng c ln ng k so vi mng in. Nguyn l: b t mc trc tip vo u dy ni ca thit b dng in c tnh cm ( ch yu l cc ng c ). B t nh mc ( kVAr) n khong 25% gi tr cng sut ng c. B b sung ti u ngun in cng c th mang li hiu qu tt. u im : Lm gim tin pht do tiu th cng sut phn khng (kVAr) Gim cng sut biu kin yu cu. Gim kch thc v tn hao dy dn i vi tt c dy dn. Nhn xt : Cc dng in phn khng c gi tr ln s khng cn tn ti trong mng in. 3.4 Mc b ti u Phng php chung Bng s liu tnh ton cng sut phn khng cn thit trong giai on thit k. qua c th xc nh cng sut phn khng v cng sut tc dng cho mc b khc nhau. Vn ti u ho kinh t k thut cho mt mng in ang hot ng. Vic tnh ton nh mc b ti u cho mt mng tn ti c th thc hin theo nhng lu sau: + Tin in trc khi t b + Tin in tng lai sau khi lp t b. + Cc chi ph bao gm : Mua t b v mch iu khin. Lp t v bo tr

Tn tht trong t v tn tht trn dy cp, my bin p sau khi lp t b.