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Fig 1. The Skin

PARTS OF THE SKIN blood vessels - Tubes that carry blood as it circulates. Arteries bring oxygenated blood from the heart and lungs; veins return oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart and lungs. dermis - (also called the cutis) the layer of the skin just beneath the epidermis. epidermis - the outer layer of the skin. hair follicle - a tube-shaped sheath that surrounds the part of the hair that is under the skin. It is located in the epidermis and the dermis. The hair is nourished by the follicle at its base (this is also where the hair grows). hair shaft - The part of the hair that is above the skin. hair erector muscle - a muscle is connected to each hair follicle and the skin - it contracts (in response to cold, fear, etc.), resulting in an erect hair and a "goosebump" on the skin. melanocyte - a cell in the epidermis that produces melanin (a dark-colored pigment that protects the skin from sunlight). Pacinian corpuscle - nerve receptors that respond to pressure and vibration; they are oval capsules of sensory nerve fibers located in the subcutaneous fatty tissue sebaceous gland - a small, sack-shaped gland that releases oily (fatty) liquids onto the hair follicle (the oil lubricated and softens the skin). These glands are located in the dermis, usually next to hair follicles.

sweat gland - (also called sudoriferous gland) a tube-shaped gland that produces perspiration (sweat). The gland is located in the epidermis; it releases sweat onto the skin. subcutaneous tissue - fatty tissue located under the dermis.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Regulates body temperature. Prevents loss of essential body fluids, and penetration of toxic substances. Protection of the body from harmful effects of the sun and radiation. Excretes toxic substances with sweat. Mechanical support. Immunological function mediated by Langerhans cells. Sensory organ for touch, heat, cold, socio-sexual and emotional sensations. Vitamin D synthesis from its precursors under the effect of sunlight and introversion of steroids.

Fig 2. The Nail

PARTS OF THE NAIL Nail Matrix The matrix is the source of the cells that become the keratinized layers of the nail plate. It is located deep in the nail sinus. As new cells grow, it pushes out the nail plate replacing it with new keratin at the proximal part of the nail plate that lies adjacent to the matrix.

Poor circulation, inadequate nutrition and localized or systemic diseases can affect the growth of the new cells to make up the nail plate. Nail Bed The nail bed lies underneath most of the nail plate and is a continuation of the skin around the nail. It contributes to the keratin of the nail plate although it is to a lesser degree than the matrix. Blood in the dermal capillaries of the nail bed give the nail its characteristic light pink color. Nail Plate This the largest part of the nail and is composed of laminated layers of keratin. It is similar in structure to human hair and skin and is made up of dead cells. Nail Folds The nail folds surround and supports the nail plate on all 3 sides. It is the junction of the skin and nail plate and may sometimes be slightly darker in color thereby forming a clearly demarcated margin from the surrounding skin. The proximal fold lies over the nail root and matrix. The lateral nail folds extend from the proximal folds and runs alongside the nail plate to terminate near the tip of the finger or toe. The most distal part of the lateral nail fold is often prone to trauma from mechanical injury, nail biting and ingrown nails as well as bacterial and fungal infections. Inflammation and swelling of the folds is known as paronychia. Nail Cuticle Also known as the eponychium, it is the part of the skin that overlaps onto the proximal part of thenail plate. It provides some, although minor, support for the nail plate but more importantly, the cuticle seals the nail sinus to prevent injury and infection of the nail root or matrix. The cuticle is usually thin, translucent and extends a short distance over the lunula or nail bed. It has neat margins. Ragged cuticles or uneven cuticles may be the sign of excessive manicuring, poor nail care with overuse of the hands or it can be a sign of certain connective tissue diseases. Nail Lunula This is the crescent shaped area at the base of the nail plate and is usually pale white to light pink in color. It is an extension of matrix and if most evident on the thumb. A lunula with a pointy tip is possibly a sign of excessive manicuring.

FUNCTIONS OF THE NAIL 1. 2. Protecting the distal phalanx, the fingertip, and the surrounding soft tissues from injuries. It also serves to enhance precise delicate movements of the distal digits through counter-pressure exerted on the pulp of the finger. Acts as a counterforce when the end of the finger touches an object, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of the fingertip, even though there are no nerve endings in the nail itself.



Functions as a tool, enabling for instance a so called "extended precision grip" (e.g. pulling out a splinter in one's finger).

Fig 3. The Hair


1. The hair follicle is the pore on the scalp from which a hair grows. Inside the follicle, beneath the skin lays the root and bulb, which is where hair growth begins. Surrounding each hair follicle is the arrector pilli muscle, which causes goosebumps.

Bulb and Root

1. The root of the hair begins in the dermal layer of the skin with the bulb. The bulb contains hair stem cells and dermal papillae, which cause and control hair growth. Bulbs of hair receive their blood supply from subcutaneous capillaries and lubrication from a sebaceous gland in the follicle. When hair sheds naturally, it is released from the follicles, and the root is often visible as a tiny white tip.

1. The shaft of the hair is the visible part of the hair that sits above the scalp. The shaft itself contains 3 layers: the medulla, cortex and cuticle.

1. The medulla is the central, most internal portion of the hair shaft that contains excess cells and air. In human hairs, the medulla is generally a spotty, shapeless area in the center of a cross section, though in animal hairs, the medulla appears in specific patterns or shapes.

1. The cortex of the hair surrounds and contains the medulla and lays just under the cuticle. The cortex of the hair shaft contains the proteins keratin and melanin, which give the hair its shape and color, respectively.

1. The cuticle is the scaly outermost layer of the hair shaft that lends protection to the underlying keratin and melanin. The cuticle usually lays in a flat, uniform pattern, though damaged hair will show signs of an irregular or jagged layer.


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Insulation Protection from External Factors Friction Buffer Differentiation and Beautification Redirect Sweat and Water

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Fig 4. Skeletal System


Skull The skull is not one bone, but is made up of several connected bone plates. The bones of the skull protect the brain from trauma and injury. Ribs Twelve pairs of rib bones wrap around the body to protect organs such as the heart and the lungs. Humerus The humerus is the main bone found in the upper arm. This bone allows the body to push and pull objects. Radius and Ulna The forearm, or lower arm, contains two major bones, the radius and ulna. These are parallel to each other and aid in mobility and arm movements. Spine The spine is composed of 26 individual bones, called vertebrae. These bones work together to support the back and protect the spinal cord from injury. Pelvis and Leg Bones

The bones of the pelvis serve as a solid connection point for the joints of the legs. In the leg, the femur--or thigh bone--connects to the lower fibula and tibia bones. These bones are the largest in the body, supporting both weight and movement.

FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 1. Support The skeleton is the framework of the body, it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscles. Protection The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body's internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them. For example, cranial bones protect the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage protects the heart and lungs. Assisting in Movement Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, therefore when the associated muscles contract they cause bones to move. Storage of Minerals Bone tissues store several minerals, including calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). When required, bone releases minerals into the blood - facilitating the balance of minerals in the body. Production of Blood Cells The red bone marrow inside some larger bones (including, for example, the ....) blood cells are produced. Storage of Chemical Energy With increasing age some bone marrow changes from 'red bone marrow' to 'yellow bone marrow'. Yellow bone marrow consists mainly of adipose cells, and a few blood cells. It is an important chemical energy reserve.




5. 6.


Fig 5. The Muscular System


Skeletal Muscles
1. There are over 650 skeletal muscles in the human body. There is some dissent among medical professionals about the total number of muscles in the body. They are constantly being discovered and many cannot agree on the number. But these skeletal muscles are attached to the skeletal system and make it possible for the body to move; they are called voluntary muscles because of one's ability to use them or not. They are made up of tissue fibers and look striated (striped or lined) because thread-like protein called filaments are within the muscle cells.

Smooth Muscles
1. Smooth muscles are involuntary, they do what they do without action or any conscious thought. These muscles are in the stomach lining the walls and in the intestines, They are in the veins and arteries and in many hollow organs.

These muscles help with the digestive process in the stomach and are controlled by the nervous system in the body. These muscles do not have filaments in them and therefore have no striations.

Cardiac Muscles
1. Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. They are like smooth muscle in that they are controlled by the body's nervous system. These muscles form the myocardium, which are the thick muscles forming the walls of the heart. These muscles are strong, ropey and twisted together inside the heart to pump the blood through the body.

FUNCTIONS OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM Movement Movement is one of the major functions of muscular systems. Central nervous system directs the muscles to contract and expand according to the need of the situations. Muscles have the strength to move the bones and perform the required action. These actions are mostly voluntary, which means we direct the muscles to perform the actions. Movement includes running, jumping, climbing, hiking, lifting, biking and other actions. Stability & Posture Skeletal muscles are solely responsible for maintaining the stability and posture. Skeletal muscles are attached with the bones through ligaments and tendons. To perform an action, bone acts like the lever, while the muscles contract or relax, thereby moving the bone. Another remarkable property of skeletal muscles is that they can be stretched further to allow maximum stability and form. No wonder when we feel too much strained at muscles, we cannot stand properly or generally slouch. These muscles are also important to maintain the balance and coordination of the body. Circulation The important functions of the body like pumping of the blood and its circulation through different parts of the body are performed by smooth muscles. These muscles perform involuntarily action, such as contracting and relaxing heart muscles and pumping blood in the body. The same action is performed in the arteries, which further helps in circulation of the blood and oxygen throughout the body. Digestion What happens to the food after you chew and gulp it down? Got any clue? Not the least, we guess. Only till the time the food reaches the throat is it voluntarily after which, the rest movement of the food from throat to anus is involuntary and is performed by smooth muscles. The food is chewed in the mouth by the teeth which are voluntary but once it enters esophagus, it moves down the digestive tract through the process of peristalsis. This food is again churned by the muscles in stomach to absorb energy and nutrients and is then passed down to the rectal region for excretion. Heat Generation The body constantly needs to maintain and regulate its normal body temperature. Whenever it is cold outside, our body involuntarily shivers. In this way, the muscles are contracting and hence producing heat to maintain its normal temperature. Similarly in the summers, when our body is exposed to extreme heat, these muscles redistribute heat to the skin and hence produce sweat to regulate body temperature.


Fig 6. The Respiratory System

PARTS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nose (nostrils) - It is the entrance of the respiratory tract. Pharynx - It is situated behind the mouth, and is the passage to the stomach and the lungs. Larynx - It is present at the top of trachea and contains vocal cords. It is also known as the voice box. Trachea (windpipe) - It is a tube like structure that helps in passing of air from larynx to bronchi. Bronchioles - These are the branches of the bronchi that conduct air into the lungs. Alveoli (air sacs) - Sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. Lungs - The two inverted-cone shaped organs present in the chest of human beings

FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Inhalation When a person breathes air (which contains oxygen), it passes through the nasal passages containing mucus. This mucus helps in filtering out contaminants like dust, pollen and smoke. The nasal epithelium adds moisture and heat to the air. The air then passes through the larynx and enters the trachea or the windpipe. Here, it gets divided into two bronchi that connect the trachea to lungs. The bronchi further split into many smaller tubes known as bronchioles. These bronchioles end in air sacs, also known as alveoli, which contain blood capillaries. These blood capillaries carry blood which comes through veins from all other parts of the body. Here, the carbon dioxide from the blood is exchanged for the oxygen in alveoli. The blood containing oxygen then goes to the heart where it is later pumped to other parts of the body. Exhalation Exhalation in human beings is the process of expelling out of air containing carbon dioxide. The movement of the air while exhalation is through the bronchi, then through the airways, and then it passes out through the nose. The exhaled air is completely depleted of oxygen. Inhalation and exhalation, together, complete the process of respiration. Vocalization

Vocalization is also one of the major respiratory system functions. Vocalization is the process which enables humans to speak and also to make sound. When the air passes through the pharynx and larynx, it makes the vocal cords in larynx to vibrate which helps in production of sound and speech in humans. Cough Production Irritation occurs when any foreign particle enters the nasal passages. Therefore, expelling out these foreign bodies or irritants is one of the functions of the respiratory system. These irritants are forced out of the respiratory tract through cough or sneeze.


Fig 7. The Circulatory System

PARTS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Blood The essence of the circulatory system is what it carries the blood. Blood consists of cells and plasma. Plasma is mostly water, but also carries nutrients and waste to and from the tissues of the body and hormones among tissues. The cells include red blood cells, which carry oxygen, and white blood cells, which aid in immunity and

protective functions. Platelets are also found in the blood and are responsible for healing responses when blood leaks from a vessel, effectively clotting the break to prevent blood loss. The Heart The circulatory system would not function without the heart. This organ is made of a specialized muscle tissue capable of converting electric potential into mechanical movement, specifically acting as a pump. The human heart is divided into four chambers the upper atria and lower ventricles, one each on the right and left sides. Blood is squeezed from chamber to chamber and into blood vessels, forcing the flow through the body. Valves between the chambers and external vessels prevent backflow, maintaining the pressure needed to keep the blood moving. Blood Vessels The major component of the circulatory system is the vessels themselves. Various types of blood vessels are found in the human body. The arteries carry blood away from the heart; veins carry blood to the heart. The large vessels are connected directly to the heart: the aorta is the largest artery through which the left ventricle pumps blood (ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta which consists of the thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta), and the vena cava are the large veins (superior and inferior, draining from the upper body and lower body, respectively).



Transport gases, like oxygen from the lungs to cells around the body and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs.

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Transport nutrients like glucose. Transport wastes from cells to organs that play the role of eliminating them. It contains cells that fight infections and defend against foreign bodies. Maintains the pH levels and ionic concentration of fluids in the body. Helps maintain the body temperature, this is especially important in warm blooded animals like humans.


Fig 8. The Digestive System

PARTS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Mouth The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use. Esophagus Located in your throat near your trachea (windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow. By means of a series of muscular contractions called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to your stomach. Stomach The stomach is a hollow organ, or "container," that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form. Cells in the lining of the stomach secrete a strong acid and powerful enzymes that are responsible for the breakdown process. When the contents of the stomach are sufficiently processed, they are released into the small intestine. Small intestine Made up of three segments the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum the small intestine is a 22-foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bile from the liver. Peristalsis also is at work in this organ, moving food through and mixing it with digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver. The duodenum is largely responsible for the continuous breaking-down process, with the jejunum and ileum mainly responsible for absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. Contents of the small intestine start out semi-solid, and end in a liquid form after passing through the organ. Water, bile, enzymes, and mucous contribute to the change in consistency. Once the nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover-food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine, it then moves on to the large intestine, or colon.

Pancreas The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also makes insulin, secreting it directly into the bloodstream. Insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar. Liver The liver has multiple functions, but its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat. In addition, the liver is the body s chemical "factory." It takes the raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all the various chemicals the body needs to function. The liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. It breaks down and secretes many drugs. Gallbladder The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats. Colon (large intestine) The colon is a 6-foot long muscular tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine is made up of the cecum, the ascending (right) colon, the transverse (across) colon, the descending (left) colon, and the sigmoid colon, which connects to the rectum. The appendix is a small tube attached to the cecum. The large intestine is a highly specialized organ that is responsible for processing waste so that emptying the bowels is easy and convenient. Stool, or waste left over from the digestive process, is passed through the colon by means of peristalsis, first in a liquid state and ultimately in a solid form. As stool passes through the colon, water is removed. Stool is stored in the sigmoid (S-shaped) colon until a "mass movement" empties it into the rectum once or twice a day. It normally takes about 36 hours for stool to get through the colon. The stool itself is mostly food debris and bacteria. These bacteria perform several useful functions, such as synthesizing various vitamins, processing waste products and food particles, and protecting against harmful bacteria. When the descending colon becomes full of stool, or feces, it empties its contents into the rectum to begin the process of elimination. Rectum The rectum (Latin for "straight") is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus. It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let the person know that there is stool to be evacuated, and to hold the stool until evacuation happens. When anything (gas or stool) comes into the rectum, sensors send a message to the brain. The brain then decides if the rectal contents can be released or not. If they can, the sphincters relax and the rectum contracts, disposing its contents. If the contents cannot be disposed, the sphincter contracts and the rectum accommodates so that the sensation temporarily goes away. Anus The anus is the last part of the digestive tract. It is a 2-inch long canal consisting of the pelvic floor muscles and the two anal sphincters (internal and external). The lining of the upper anus is specialized to detect rectal contents. It lets you know whether the contents are liquid, gas, or solid. The anus is surrounded by sphincter muscles that are important in allowing control of stool. The pelvic floor muscle creates an angle between the rectum and the anus that stops stool from coming out when it is not supposed to. The internal sphincter is always tight, except when stool enters the rectum. It keeps us continent when we are asleep or otherwise unaware of the presence of stool. When we get an urge to go to the bathroom, we rely on our external sphincter to hold the stool until reaching a toilet, where it then relaxes to release the contents. FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
1. 2. 3. Break up food into smaller pieces. Transporting food the the GI tract (gastrointestinal) Screeting digestive enzymes

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Absorbing nutrients into the blood Excreting solid waste products (waste)


Fig 9. The Immune System


Natural Immunity
1. The first set of functions is usually called "natural" or "innate" immunity since it does not have to be turned on and is always (under normal circumstances) present. This set of functions is non-specific, which means that it does not single out a specific microbe when defending the body and does not require the body to identify the potential pathogen before it acts.

1. Natural immunity includes things like our skin or other organs that create a barrier between our insides and the infectious outside world. Another type of barrier is a secretion like a tear or mucous that is sloughed off and takes the infectious agent with it.

1. Natural immunity includes proteins called compliments that make it more attractive for a microbe to undergo phagocytosis. These compliments attach themselves to the target microbe to mark it for death by labeling it an unauthorized microbe.

1. Natural immunity includes phagocytes that "eat" microbes appearing to be a threat within the body. Phagocytes are any cell that eats another. The most common of these is the white blood cell. If the

phagocyte cannot identify the microbe, it eats it by surrounding it and dumping digestive enzymes to break it down into digestible pieces.

1. Natural immunity includes inflammation. Inflammation is also referred to as flare, flame and wheal in medical schools. The "flare" is the redness. The "flame" is the inflammation and itch. "Wheal" is the swelling of the area caused by fluid getting under the area and phagocytes migrating into the area which results in puss formation.

Aquired Immunity
1. Acquired immunity includes all of the reactions in the body that need lymph node involvement. Acquired immunity is also known as adaptive immunity or specific immunity. This process is broken into two parts that include what happens in the fluids (humoral immunity) and what happens in the rest of the body (including cellular immunity).


Fig 10. The Lymphatic System


1. Bone Marrow All the specialized cells of the immune system are formed in the bone marrow, where they mature. When they are fully mature they move into the blood stream where they do their work. Thymus This small but important organ is where lymphocyte precursors become thymocytes, which in turn mature into T-cells. In addition, the thymus actually chooses which T-cells are best suited for the immune system. The remaining ones are eliminated by the body, assuring a healthy, effective immunity. Spleen You can think of the spleen as a filter for the blood. It catches foreign material in the blood and activates different types of immune system cells. Lymph Nodes The lymph nodes filter foreign material from the lymph fluid. Fluid that drains from various tissues in the body collects in the lymph system and passes through the nodes, being filtered as it passes.




FUNCTIONS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. the main function of the lymphatic system is to collect and transport tissue fluids from the intercellular spaces in all the tissues of the body, back to the veins in the blood system; it plays an important role in returning plasma proteins to the bloodstream; digested fats are absorbed and then transported from the villi in the small intestine to the bloodstream via the lacteals and lymph vessels. new lymphocytes are manufactured in the lymph nodes; antibodies and anti (manufactures in the lymph nodes) assist the body to build up an effective immunity to infectious diseases; lymph nodes play an important role in the defence mechanism of the body. They filter out microorganisms (such as bacteria) and foreign substances such as toxins, etc. it transports large molecular compounds (such as enzymes and hormones) from their manufactured sites to the bloodstream.


Fig 11. The Endocrine System


The Hypothalamus

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The hypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the primary link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary. The Pituitary Gland The tiny pituitary gland is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior lobe regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands. Among the hormones it produces are: growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body's handling of nutrients and minerals prolactin, which activates milk production in women who are breastfeeding thyrotropin, which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones corticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones The Thyroid and Parathyroids The thyroid, located in the front part of the lower neck, is shaped like a bow tie or butterfly and produces the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy. As the level of thyroid hormones increases in the bloodstream, so does the speed at which chemical reactions occur in the body. The Adrenal Glands The body has two triangular adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function. The outer part, the adrenal cortex, produces hormones called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function. The Pineal Gland and Gonads The pineal body, also called the pineal gland, is located in the middle of the brain. It secretes melatonin, a hormone that may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle. FUNCTIONS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM