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Belgium

I INTRODUCTION

Belgium: Flag and Anthem


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Belgium (French Belgique; Dutch België), constitutional monarchy in northwestern Europe. Belgium is one of the
smallest and most densely populated European countries. It is also the most urbanized; 97 percent of its people live in
urban areas. Together with Netherlands and Luxembourg, Belgium forms the Low, or Benelux, Countries. The country’s
name comes from the Belgae, a Celtic people who lived in the region and were conquered by Roman general Julius
Caesar in 57 BC. Its capital and largest city is Brussels.

Antwerp, Belgium
The Gothic-style Cathedral of Notre Dame towers above Antwerp’s Green Square. The statue, foreground, depicts the 17th-century
Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens. Antwerp developed as one of Europe’s foremost trading and manufacturing centers during the
15th and early 16th centuries. Today the city is Belgium’s principal seaport.
Richard Klune/Corbis
Belgium is situated between France and the plains of northern Europe, and it borders the North Sea. Because of its
geographic position as a crossroads of Europe, Belgium has been a major commercial center since the Middle Ages.
The North Sea has been the country’s outlet for trade with the rest of the world. Belgium’s geographic location has
also given it strategic importance, and many battles have been fought for control of the area. Belgium became an
independent country in 1830.

Grand-Place, Brussels, Belgium


The Grand-Place in Brussels is one of Belgium’s most well-known landmarks. The square was destroyed by French bombardment in
1695, but it and the structures surrounding it were quickly rebuilt. Some of the more famous buildings on the Grand-Place include the
Hôtel de Ville, or Town Hall, and the Maison du Roi, which houses a museum. At night the buildings in the Grand-Place are illuminated
by floodlights, which makes for an impressive spectacle.
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Belgium is divided into three regions—Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels. In Flanders, which consists of the provinces to
the north and west of Brussels, most of the people speak Dutch (Flemish) and are known as Flemings. In Wallonia, the
provinces south and east of Brussels, most of the people speak French and are known as Walloons. The population of
the Brussels region comes from both language groups. Each region has a great deal of autonomy (self-rule), but
friction between Flemings and Walloons continues to the present day.

II LAND AND RESOURCES


Geography of Belgium

Area 30,528 sq km
11,787 sq mi
Coastline 66 km
41 mi
Highest Botrange
point 694 m/2,277 ft

Belgium is roughly triangular in shape. It is bounded on the north by Netherlands and the North Sea, on the east by
Germany and Luxembourg, and on the south and southwest by France. Belgium has an area of 30,528 sq km (11,787
sq mi), which makes it slightly smaller than the state of Maryland. The country is about 280 km (about 175 mi) long,
measured in a southeast-northwest direction, and about 145 km (about 90 mi) wide.

A Natural Regions
Loess Belt of Belgium
The Loess Belt, a small portion of central Belgium's agricultural region, encompasses the country's best farmland. The belt is
permeated with a fine sediment of windblown particles called loess, which makes for rich, highly productive soil.
Funderburk/NCGE-GPN

Belgium has three main geographic regions: the coastal plain, the central plateau, and the Ardennes highlands.

Nestled in the Woods


Picturesque Durbuy, which gained city status in the 14th century, perches on the banks of the Ourthe River at the edge of the
Ardennes highlands in southeast Belgium. Here, the cliffs of Sy mark the shift from a farming region to a region of deciduous (and
some conifer) forests.
Ronny Jaques/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Belgium’s coastline, in the northwest, stretches 66 km (41 mi) along the North Sea. A low coastal plain extends inland
16 to 48 km (10 to 30 mi). Nearest the North Sea is a low-lying area consisting mainly of sand dunes and polders. The
polders, sections of land reclaimed from the sea and protected by dikes, were developed between the 13th and 15th
centuries. Lying farther inland is a flat pastureland drained by canals. The coastal plain’s elevation ranges from sea
level to about 20 m (65 ft).
Albert Canal, Belgium
Belgium has an excellent network of waterways that includes canals such as the Albert Canal, shown here, in the province of Limburg
near the Belgian border with the Netherlands.
©photographs Belgium: Uitgeverij Lannoo nv/Daniël Leroy

The central plateau is a gently rolling, slightly elevated area. Irrigated by many waterways, it contains a number of
wide, fertile valleys with a rich, alluvial soil. Caves, grottoes, and ravines are found in parts of this area.

The Ardennes highlands, a densely wooded plateau, extends across southeastern Belgium and into northeastern
France. Located here is Botrange, the highest peak in Belgium, with an elevation of 694 m (2,277 ft). The average
elevation of the Ardennes highlands is 460 m (1,500 ft). The area is generally rocky and poorly suited to agriculture.

B Rivers

Boats on the River Schelde


Belgium’s River Schelde is navigable for almost its entire length. The town of Sint-Amands is picturesquely situated in the
background, on the river’s bank.
©photographs Belgium: Uitgeverij Lannoo nv/Daniël Leroy

The chief rivers are the Schelde (known as the Escaut in French) and the Maas (most commonly known by its French
name, Meuse). The Schelde and Meuse and their tributaries run slowly through the central plateau to the sea in a
generally southwest to northeast direction. Both rise in France and are for the most part navigable throughout
Belgium. On the Schelde, the principal waterway of Belgium, are the ports of Antwerp and Ghent. Although the
Schelde flows through Belgium, the river meets the sea in Netherlands. The chief tributaries of the Schelde are the
Leie (Lys), Dender (Dendre), Zenne (Senne), and Rupel rivers. The Sambre and Ourthe rivers are the main tributaries of
the Meuse.
C Climate

Belgium generally has a temperate climate, with winters that are not excessively cold and with cool, rainy summers.
The climate near the sea is humid and mild. Farther inland, away from the moderating maritime influences, a marked
increase in the range of temperature occurs. In the Ardennes highlands hot summers alternate with cold winters.
Heavy rains are confined almost exclusively to the highlands. Fog and drizzle are common, and April and November
are particularly rainy months.

In Brussels, located at the center of the nation, the average temperatures range from -0° to 5°C (32° to 41°F) in
January and from 13° to 22°C (55° to 72°F) in July. In Oostende, on the coast, the average range is 1° to 5°C (34° to
42°F) in January and 14° to 20°C (56° to 69°F) in July. Rainfall in Brussels is uniformly spread throughout the year, with
a yearly average of 820 mm (32 in); annual precipitation in Oostende averages 580 mm (23 in).

D Natural Resources

Spa, Belgium
The town of Spa in Belgium is noted for its healthful mineral waters, which flow from nearby springs. Spa gave its name to all later
health resorts that offer mineral springs.
Ron Giling/Hutchison Library

The natural resources of Belgium are almost entirely mineral. Coal was mined in abundance for many years, but
supplies have been exhausted and the last mine closed in the early 1990s. Copper, lead, and zinc are still extracted
and refined in Belgium.

E Plants and Animals

Small animals, primarily fox, badger, pheasant, squirrel, weasel, marten, and hedgehog, are found in Belgium. Deer
and wild boar are present in the Ardennes highlands. Abundant plants include the hyacinth, strawberry, goldenrod,
periwinkle, foxglove (see Digitalis), wild arum, and lily of the valley. Forest trees include oak, beech, elm, and stands of
pine that have been planted as part of reforestation programs.
F Environmental Issues

Soignies Forest Path


A leaf-strewn trail leads through woods near the town of Soignies. Forests cover more than one-fifth of Belgium and are used mainly
for recreation. Forestry has increased recently as more conifers have been planted, but Belgium still depends on imports of timber for
its paper industry.
Clive Druett/Papilio/Corbis

Belgium is heavily industrialized and experiences many of the environmental problems common to other industrialized
nations. The country is a significant producer of greenhouse gases and industrial emissions that cause acid rain.
Belgium’s air quality has improved, however, and industrial emissions have steadily decreased since the United
Nations (UN) Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) Sulphur Protocols were implemented, beginning in the 1970s.

European Union (EU) directives aimed at improving Belgium’s environmental conditions concern water treatment and
water quality, both significant issues in such an industrial center. Before these directives were issued, the Meuse River,
a major source of drinking water, had become polluted from steel production wastes. Other rivers were polluted with
animal wastes and fertilizers. However, Belgium failed to meet EU targets set for the early 2000s for protecting its
rivers from farm pollution and for preventing water pollution in its ports.

Some areas of Belgium’s coastal lands were reclaimed and developed from the 13th to the 15th century. With only
concrete dikes separating them from the sea, these lands are especially threatened by flooding. The EU predicted that
flooding was likely to worsen as a result of global warming.

Only 2.6 percent (1997) of Belgium’s land is protected in parks and other reserves. This is a small amount when
compared with neighboring countries such as France (11.7 percent), Netherlands (6.7 percent), and Germany (27
percent).
Belgium is party to international agreements concerning air and water pollution, biodiversity, ozone layer protection
and climate control, endangered species, hazardous wastes, and wetlands.

III POPULATION
People of Belgium

Population 10,392,226 (2007 estimate)


Population density 343 persons per sq km
889 persons per sq mi (2007 estimate)
Urban population distribution 97 percent (2005 estimate)
Rural population distribution 3 percent (2005 estimate)
Largest cities, with population Brussels, 1,024,492 (2006 estimate)
Antwerp, 464,038 (2006 estimate)
Ghent, 233,925 (2006 estimate)
Official languages Dutch, French, German
Chief religious affiliations Roman Catholic, 81 percent
Muslim, 4 percent
Protestant, 1 percent
Life expectancy 78.9 years (2007 estimate)
Infant mortality rate 5 deaths per 1,000 live births (2007 estimate)
Literacy rate 99 percent (1995)

The name Belgae was originally applied to a Celtic (see Celts) people in Gaul who were conquered by the Romans in
the 1st century BC. Later, Germanic elements mingled with the Romanized Celtic strain. In the course of history, the
Franks, the Burgundians, the Spaniards, the Austrians, and the French have introduced new elements into the
population.

Today the people of Belgium are primarily of two ethnic groups, the Flemings (Germanic origin) and the Walloons
(Celtic origin, probably with an admixture of Alpine elements). The most distinguishing characteristic of these two
groups is language. The Flemings speak Dutch (often referred to by its historic regional name, Flemish), and the
Walloons speak French. The predominantly Flemish provinces are in the northern half of Belgium, called Flanders, and
the predominantly Walloon provinces are in the southern half, called Wallonia. The capital of Brussels, an enclave
within the Flanders region, is mixed. In 1993 these three ethnolinguistic areas became official federal regions.
Flower Market in Brussels
Shoppers flock to the colorful flower market on the Grand-Place in the heart of Brussels. The Hôtel de Ville (Town Hall), which
dominates the area with its elaborate Gothic facade, is the only structure on the square that survived the bombardment of the city by
Louis XIV, king of France.
Deni McIntyre/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Friction between Flemings and Walloons has been a stubborn social and political problem since Belgium gained
independence in 1830. French became the official language of government after the Revolution of 1830, which was
directed against Netherlands. In the following decades Belgian cultural life was influenced mainly by France. But this
dominance, along with Walloon social and economic domination, aroused a spirit of nationalism among the Flemings.
They agitated for the equality of their language with French. A series of laws in the 1920s and 1930s achieved this
goal.

Antagonism between the two groups increased after World War II (1939-1945). The Belgian constitution was revised in
1971 and 1980 to provide Flemings with a greater degree of cultural and political autonomy. Today, Flemings continue
to outnumber Walloons in Belgium.

The population of Belgium is 10,392,226 (2007 estimate). Nearly 60 percent live in the Flanders region. The overall
population density, one of the highest in Europe, is 343 persons per sq km (889 per sq mi). The largest concentrations
were in the Brussels, Antwerp, Liège, and Ghent (Gent) industrial areas, as well as in the narrow industrial region
between Mons and Charleroi. In recent decades the Limbourg city region has increased in population because of
industrial expansion in that area. Almost 10 percent of all Belgians live in Brussels, which is also home to vast numbers
of foreign guest workers. Some 97 percent of the population is classified as urban.

A Principal Cities
Ghent, Belgium
The city of Ghent, the capital of East Flanders Province, is a major trading, export, and manufacturing center. It also benefits greatly
from tourism, attracted by Ghent's historic past and many medieval structures. The city, located in western Belgium, is also the site
of the University of Ghent, founded in 1817.
Stan Cedarleaf/ImageQuest

Belgium is highly urbanized. The chief cities and their 2006 populations are Brussels (145,717), Antwerp (464,038),
Ghent (233,925), Charleroi (201,456), and Liège (187,432).

The larger cities of Belgium are generally fascinating combinations of old and new, where ancient guild halls, churches,
and houses contrast with modern office buildings, apartment houses, and factories. Brussels, the capital, is famous for
its beauty, boulevards, restaurants, and stores. The Grand-Place, a square in the center of Brussels, is surrounded by
fine examples of medieval and Renaissance architecture, recalling the opulent splendors of an earlier time. Antwerp, a
Flemish city, first developed as a major port in the 15th century and remains today one of the busiest ports in Europe.
Ghent was a center of the Flemish lace and textile industries and a commercial port during the Middle Ages. The old
part of the town, with its many waterways and bridges and medieval and Renaissance buildings, attracts thousands of
tourists each year. Charleroi grew up near large coal deposits. Today, Charleroi and Liège are industrial centers.

B Language

A law passed in 1963 established three official languages within Belgium: Dutch was recognized as the official
language in the north, French in the south, and German along the eastern border. In the city and suburbs of Brussels,
both French and Dutch are officially recognized, although French speakers are the larger group. In the country as a
whole, strictly Dutch speakers make up about 56 percent, and French speakers 32 percent of the population. Only 1
percent of the people speak German, while some 11 percent speak more than one language. In 1971 a constitutional
change was enacted giving political recognition to these three linguistic communities, providing cultural autonomy for
them, and also revising the administrative status of Brussels.

C Religion
Antwerp's Cathedral of Notre Dame
The Gothic-style cathedral of Notre Dame rises above the city of Antwerp in north-central Belgium. Construction began on the
country’s largest cathedral in 1352 and was not completed for 200 years. Notre Dame houses many artistic treasures, most notably
masterpieces by the 17th-century Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens. Belgium's second largest city and a major European port,
Antwerp lies on the banks of the Schelde River.
Marsha Nordbye/Bruce Coleman, Inc.

About 80 percent of the Belgian population is Roman Catholic. Religious liberty is guaranteed, and part of the stipend
for the ministers of all faiths is paid by the government. Other religions practiced within the country include Islam, a
number of Protestant denominations, and Judaism.

D Education

Although educational freedom was provided by the constitution of 1831, the first law for public elementary education
was not passed until 1842. In 1914 compulsory attendance was enacted for children between the ages of 6 and 14;
compulsory schooling now extends to age 18. Since 1959 the education system has included state secular schools and
private Roman Catholic schools. A number of children attend private schools, most of them under the control of the
Catholic Church. Educational controversies involving language and religion that arose in Belgium in the 19th century
have continued to the present day. Almost the entire adult population is literate.

The oldest and most prestigious Belgian university dates from the Middle Ages: The Catholic University of Leuven was
founded under religious auspices in 1425. Since 1970 it has been divided into independent French- and Dutch-
speaking universities, as has the Free University of Brussels. The latter university opened in 1834 under an enactment
by the newly formed Belgian government. The universities of Ghent and Liège were founded in 1817 during the period
of Dutch rule. Ghent has a Dutch-speaking faculty, Liège a French-speaking one. In 1965 state universities opened in
the cities of Mons and Antwerp; French is the language of instruction at Mons, and Dutch is used at Antwerp.

Royal academies of fine arts and royal conservatories of music are maintained in Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, Liège, and
Mons. A state agricultural institute is maintained in Gembloux and a technical institute in Mons. In the early 2000s the
total enrollment at the universities and other institutions of higher education exceeded 322,300.

E Culture
Pageant of the Golden Tree (Belgium)
Paraders march through Brussels, Belgium, in the Pageant of the Golden Tree, a festival that celebrates the marriage of Charles the
Bold in 1468.
Nat and Yanna Brandt/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Fairs and festivals play an important part in Belgian life. Fairs, usually known by the Flemish name of kermesse, are
held in nearly all the cities and towns of the country during the summer months. On a larger scale, ten world’s fairs
have been held in Belgium, the most recent in 1958. There are also many local festivals, often associated with
religious observances. One of the most famous festivals is the three-day carnival at Binche, near Mons, held just before
Lent. During the carnival, noisemaking and dancing are led by “Gilles,” men dressed in high, plumed hats and bright
costumes. Another famous pageant is the Procession of the Holy Blood, held in Brugge in May. December 6
commemorates Saint Nicholas’s Day, an important children’s holiday.

E1 Libraries and Museums

General and specialized libraries are located in all the principal cities. The main reference collection is the Belgian
National Library (1837) in Brussels, with some 5 million volumes. Large libraries are maintained by the universities of
Ghent, Liège, and Leuven.

The Royal Museums of Fine Arts in Brussels include the Museum of Ancient Art, with collections of paintings, drawings,
and sculptures from the 15th to the 18th centuries, and the Museum of Modern Art, with works from the 19th century
to the present. The Brussels house of Belgian architect Victor Horta, now a museum, exemplifies the turn-of-the-
century art nouveau style. The Royal Institute for Natural Sciences in Brussels has an extensive paleontology
collection.

The Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Antwerp is noted for its collection of paintings by Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens.
The Rubens House in Antwerp is also a museum. Museums in Brugge and Ghent have collections of early Flemish art,
and Brugge has a museum devoted to the paintings of Hans Memling.

E2 Literature
The National Theater (1945) in Brussels is supported by state subsidies. Belgium has contributed to both Flemish and
French literature. Among the outstanding authors of the country are Philippe de Comines and Jean Froissart, who wrote
in French during the Middle Ages. The works of Charles de Coster and Émile Verhaeren, both of whom wrote in French,
and of Hendrik Conscience, who developed the Flemish novel, were popular during the 19th century. Poet and
playwright Maurice Maeterlinck, who wrote in French, won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1911. See Flemish Literature;
French Literature. Important Belgian writers of the later 20th century include the novelist, poet, and playwright Hugo
Claus and novelists Françoise Mallet-Joris and Amélie Nothomb.

E3 Art

Ghent Altarpiece: Adoration of the Lamb


The Ghent Altarpiece consists of 12 panels. The outer panels open to reveal a central panel depicting the Lamb of God (Christ) being
adored by many figures. The other panels include full-length nudes of Adam and Eve and portraits of Joos Vyd (the wealthy citizen of
Ghent who paid for the work) and his wife Elizabeth. Evidence suggests that the work was begun by Hubert van Eyck and completed
after his death by his brother, Jan, in 1432. The remarkable and much-celebrated work of art was commissioned for Vyd’s chapel at
the Ghent Cathedral, where it can still be seen today.
Archivo Iconografico, S.A./Corbis

During the 15th and 16th centuries, northern Europe was one of the centers of the Renaissance. Flemish painters
Hubert van Eyck and Jan van Eyck, Hieronymus Bosch, and Pieter Bruegel the Elder were among the outstanding
artists of this period. Dominant in the 17th century were Rubens and Sir Anthony van Dyck, who are regarded by many
as two of the greatest Flemish painters. Among 20th-century painters and graphic artists of international fame are
James Ensor, Paul Delvaux, and René Magritte. Belgian architect Victor Horta was one of the originators of the art
nouveau style of architecture, which had an important influence on European architects of the 20th century. Modern
Belgian architecture is represented by the designs of Henry van de Velde.

F Recreation
Sunbathing at Oostende
Frequented by royalty as well as by commoners, the seaside resort of Oostende has been a popular destination since the mid-19th
century. During the summer months, these sunny North Sea shores draw crowds of vacationing Belgians seeking respite from the
densely populated cities.
Lee Snider/The Image Works

Cycling is a popular recreational activity and competitive sport in Belgium. The country’s relatively flat terrain is well-
suited to cycling, and trails and tracks abound. Belgium’s Eddie Merckx is considered one of the greatest cyclists of all
times. Hiking, fishing, and canoeing are popular in the Ardennes in warmer months, with skiing and tobogganing
drawing visitors to the region in the winter.

Ypres Cat Festival


The Cat Festival or Kattenstoet is held every three years in Ypres, Belgium, and celebrates the history and tradition of felines from
around the world. The festivities conclude with a parade of costumed entertainers and floats. In the 12th century the evil spirits
associated with cats and witches were expelled by throwing live cats to the ground from the town’s Belfry Tower. Today’s revelers
throw toy cats to the throng below.
(c)Takashi Nishida
Belgium’s national sport is soccer, and its team is called the Diables Rouges (Red Devils). Tennis gained in popularity
as two Belgian women players, Kim Clijsters and Justine Henin-Hardenne, established themselves as stars in the early
2000s.

IV ECONOMY
Economy of Belgium

Gross domestic product (GDP in U.S.$) $371 billion (2005)


GDP per capita (U.S.$) $35,388.60 (2005)
Monetary unit 1 euro (€), consisting of 100 cents
Number of workers 4,498,422 (2005)
Unemployment rate 7.4 percent (2004)

Although the service economy has grown rapidly in Belgium, the country remains heavily industrialized, importing raw
materials that are processed mainly for export. With about three-quarters of exports going to other European Union
(EU) countries, Belgium’s economy is dependent upon its neighbors and the nation is a strong proponent of integrating
European economies.

In the early 1980s and early 1990s a growing budget deficit, combined with high unemployment rates, hindered
Belgium’s overall economic growth. To reduce its deficit, the government initiated an austerity program in the 1980s
that cut spending while raising taxes, as well as beginning a program to transfer some state-owned enterprises to the
private sector. By the early 2000s the government presented balanced budgets, and the economy was growing at a
faster rate than the EU average. However, Belgium’s public debt remained huge, and unemployment remained high.
The budget in 2005 anticipated revenues of $156.8 billion and expenditures of $156.3 billion. Gross domestic product
(GDP) in 2005 totaled $370.8 billion. GDP is a measure of the total value of goods and services a country produces.
Service industries account for 75 percent of Belgium’s GDP and employ 73 percent of the workers. Trade and transport
rank among the country’s leading service industries.

Brussels is the headquarters of the European Union and of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and therefore
home to many diplomats and foreign residents. Many firms and governments maintain offices in Brussels for access to
European Community decision-makers, and the capital’s real estate, hotel, restaurant, and entertainment industries
bring in sizable foreign earnings.

A Agriculture

Belgium's Farm Country


Although 97 percent of Belgians live in cities and towns, nearly one-quarter of the land in Belgium is cultivated. The 3 percent of the
population that is engaged in farming produces enough food to make Belgium a net food exporter.
Belgian National Tourist Office
Belgium has favorable conditions for agriculture: moderate temperatures, evenly distributed precipitation, and a long
growing season. For centuries much of Belgium, especially the Flanders plain, was an area of intensive cultivation.
Today, about 28 percent of the country is under cultivation. Farming engages only 2 percent of the total labor force,
but it produces sufficient quantities to make Belgium a net food exporter. About two-thirds of the farms are intensively
cultivated units of less than 10 hectares (25 acres).

In 2005 the leading crops were sugar beets (5.6 million metric tons), potatoes (2.7 million), wheat (1.8 million), and
barley (306,215). Other important crops included fruits, tomatoes, and flax. Livestock and dairy farming are major
agricultural industries. In 2005 the livestock population of Belgium numbered some 6.3 million pigs, 2.7 million cattle,
155,333 sheep, and 33,887 horses.

B Forestry and Fishing

Forests cover 22 percent of the area of Belgium, and wooded areas are used primarily for recreational purposes. In
recent years, stands of conifers have been planted, and forestry activity has increased; however, timber is still
imported for the country’s paper industry.

The main fishing port of Belgium is Oostende. The fishing fleet exploits the North Atlantic Ocean fisheries from the
North Sea to Iceland. The total annual catch in 2004 amounted to 27,775 metric tons; most of it consisted of plaice,
sole, and cod.

C Mining

Belgium has very limited mineral resources. Coal was the chief mining product for much of the 20th century, but
deposits were severely depleted by the 1950s. In the 1980s many of the mines were closed, and the last remaining
coal mine was shut down in 1992. Coal and oil must now be imported for steelmaking and other industries.

D Manufacturing

Brugge, Belgium
This is one of many canals running through the city of Brugge in Belgium. Notable for its scenic charm and 12th- to 14th-century
architecture, Brugge is also a center for manufacturing.
Belgium Tourist Office

Belgium was the first country on the European continent to industrialize, following the lead of Britain in the industrial
revolution. It remains one of the most highly industrialized countries of Europe, largely because of its geographical
location and transport facilities. Industrial production increased steadily after World War II (1939-1945) but began to
decline in the 1970s, when recession and obsolescence began seriously to erode many traditional sectors. Wallonia,
which had been the center of the country’s traditional industries, was hit hard, while newer, lighter industries such as
electronics developed in Flanders. In 2003 manufacturing accounted for only 18 percent of total economic activity.

Belgium is still a major producer of iron and steel, although production has fallen since the 1970s. About 11 million
metric tons of crude steel were produced annually in the early 2000s. Belgium also has an old and important
nonferrous metal industry. It was, for example, Europe’s largest zinc producer into the 1990s, although several
European countries have since surpassed Belgium in zinc production. Belgium also furnishes metallurgical, chemical,
and other industries with copper, lead, tin, and uranium. The availability of steel and nonferrous metals has
encouraged the manufacture of heavy equipment, especially at Liège, Antwerp, and Brussels. Products include
machine tools, railroad cars, diesel engines, pumps, and other industrial equipment.

Oil in Antwerp
Antwerp, Belgium's second largest city, has a long and glorious history as a port and trading center. Today, it remains a leading port
and diamond center. This oil refinery testifies to the city's role in the international oil industry.
Corbis

The Belgian chemical industry began to develop in the 20th century and has become the country’s second largest
manufacturing industry. Like other heavy industries, it was stimulated by the availability of coal, which was used both
for energy and as the raw material for such coal derivatives as benzol and tar. In the second half of the 20th century,
petrochemicals, plastics, and pharmaceuticals gained in importance as coal mining declined. Antwerp has become a
major petrochemical center.

The textile industry, dating from the Middle Ages, produces cottons, woolens, linens, and synthetic textiles. With the
exception of flax, all raw materials are imported. But as world competition increased in the late 20th and early 21st
centuries, textiles were produced more cheaply elsewhere. As a result, Belgium’s textile industry suffered; many plants
closed or relocated, and textile production declined. Traditional Belgian handicrafts industries, such as lacemaking and
tapestries, began their decline much earlier, but some still operate to cater to tourists. Brussels and Brugge were long
noted for the manufacture of lace and damask.

Antwerp is the leading diamond-cutting center in the world. It replaced Amsterdam in that role after World War II and
today produces about 70 percent of the world’s finished diamonds.

E Energy

Belgium’s 7 nuclear power plants are the main source of electricity, supplying 57 percent of the country’s electric
power. With the decline of the coal-mining industry, Belgium has been forced to rely on imported coal, petroleum, and
natural gas. Since the 1980s environmental concerns about nuclear power (see Nuclear Energy) have led to greater
reliance on renewable energy sources, such as solar power, biomass, and geothermal technologies; a gas-powered
generator was also constructed. Legislation approved in 2003 calls for Belgium to close its seven nuclear reactors
between 2015 and 2025. This means that Belgium will have to find a replacement for about two-fifths of its energy
supply. Total electric power production was 79 billion kilowatt-hours in 2003.

F Currency and Banking

The monetary unit of Belgium is the single currency of the European Union (EU), the euro (0.80 euros equal U.S. $1;
2005 average). Belgium is among 12 EU member states to adopt the euro. The euro was introduced on January 1,
1999, for electronic transfers and accounting purposes only, and Belgium’s national currency, the Belgian franc, was
used for other purposes. On January 1, 2002, euro-denominated coins and bills went into circulation, and the Belgian
franc ceased to be legal tender.

As a participant in the single currency, Belgium must follow economic policies established by the European Central
Bank (ECB). The ECB is located in Frankfurt, Germany, and is responsible for all EU monetary policies, which include
setting interest rates and regulating the money supply. On January 1, 1999, control over Belgian monetary policy was
transferred from the Belgian central bank, the National Bank of Belgium, to the ECB. The National Bank of Belgium
joined the national banks of the other EU countries that adopted the euro as part of the European System of Central
Banks (ESCB).

G Foreign Trade

Belgium is a major trading country. It is located on the trade route from major European industrial areas to the North
Sea. Additionally, it needs raw materials to supply its factories and markets to absorb its excess production. Belgium
has historically tried to follow a policy of free trade, but the need for protection led it to join with Luxembourg in a
customs and currency union in 1922. In 1948 a customs union was established between the two countries and
Netherlands. It was extended in 1958 into an agreement for full economic integration. In 1960 the Benelux Economic
Union became operative, establishing free movement of labor, capital, and services between the three countries.
Belgium strongly supported further European economic integration in the EU.

In 2003 Belgium’s exports were valued at $255 billion. Principal commodities were automobiles and other vehicles,
chemicals and pharmaceuticals, food and food products, nonferrous metals, iron and steel, diamonds, and petroleum
products. Annual imports in 2003 had a value of $235 billion. Principal commodities were machinery, chemicals, food
products, petroleum and petroleum products, vehicles, rough diamonds, and clothing and accessories. Belgium’s major
trading partners were Germany, France, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Italy.
Belgium became a member of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951. Six years later, Belgium,
France, West Germany, Italy, Netherlands, and Luxembourg signed two treaties creating the European Economic
Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). In 1967 the ECSC, the EEC, and Euratom
merged to form the European Community, now the European Union, with headquarters in Brussels.

H Transportation

Antwerp Railway Station


The railway station in Antwerp, Belgium, was carefully restored in the 1990s. Shown here is the elegant waiting room, with its marble
and stucco decorations.
Jean-Jaques Rousseau

As a center of trade, Belgium has an excellent transportation system, composed of waterways, railroad networks, and
highways. The chief access to the sea for Belgian shipping is via the Schelde and Meuse estuaries, which lie within the
territory of Netherlands. Antwerp, on the Schelde River, although some 84 km (52 mi) from the sea, is one of the
busiest ports in Europe. Antwerp is also the transit harbor for the Rhineland and northern France. Because of their slow
currents and regular flow, the rivers of Belgium are generally navigable and provide easy communication between
regions. The Belgian rivers are connected by an important system of canals. The aggregate length of canals and
navigable rivers totals about 1,520 km (about 940 mi).

Supplementing the waterways is a system of 149,757 km (93,055 mi) of roads. There are 3,542 km (2,201 mi) of
railroad track, which are state owned. Belgium has one of the world’s densest railroad systems. Sabena was the
Belgian national airline until it filed for bankruptcy in 2001. SN Brussels Airline succeeded Sabena the following year.

I Communications

French- and Dutch-language broadcast services are provided by the government, with costs defrayed through annual
license fees on receiving sets; commercial broadcasting is also permitted. Each of the language communities regulates
its own broadcasts. Many foreign broadcasts are also received. Some 30 daily newspapers are published. Newspapers
appear in the Dutch, French, and German languages.
J Tourism

Bruges by Boat
Boat tours along Brugge's extensive network of canals provide a close-up view of this wonderfully preserved historical city. A thriving
trade center in the 14th century, Bruges lost its prominent position a century later when the Zwijn River filled with silt, cutting off the
city's main access route. In 1907 a canal between Bruges and the North Sea port of Zeebrugge brought a revival of economic activity,
along with tourists eager to see this City of Bridges with its many medieval structures.
Patrick Montagne/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Tourists come to Belgium to enjoy its picturesque cities, some of which date to the Middle Ages; its artistic treasures;
and its food. Brugge (Bruges) has a medieval center and well-preserved houses along a system of canals. Ghent’s
medieval core is arranged around several open squares. Visitors to Brussels flock to the Grand-Place, with its ornate
Renaissance and baroque buildings, and to the city’s many museums. Antwerp, Belgium’s chief port, also has a
historic center. Oostende is the most popular beach resort in Belgium, and the Ardennes region is popular with outdoor
enthusiasts. Among the artistic treasures are works by Flemish painters Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Hans
Memling, Pieter Bruegel, Hieronymus Bosch, and Peter Paul Rubens. Belgium’s fine cuisine attracts gourmets. Many of
the national specialties are based on seafood, including eel dishes and mussels cooked in white wine, or on foods
cooked in beer. Belgian chocolates are internationally famous.

V GOVERNMENT
Government of Belgium

Form of government Constitutional monarchy


Head of state King
Head of government Prime minister
Legislature Bicameral legislature:
Chamber of Representatives, 150 deputies
Senate, 71 senators
Voting qualifications Universal and compulsory at age 18
Constitution 7 February 1831; revised 14 July 1993, June 2001
Highest court Supreme Court of Justice
Albert II
Albert II succeeded his brother, Baudouin I, as king of Belgium in 1993.
Agentschap Belga

Belgium is a constitutional, representative, and hereditary monarchy. Succession to the throne is determined by
primogeniture. The present ruler is King Albert II, who came to the throne in 1993. The Belgian constitution was
promulgated in 1831 and revised in 1893, 1921, 1970, 1971, 1980, 1989, 1993, and 2001. The reforms of the 1970s
and afterward gradually transformed Belgium into a federal state, giving the majority of essential governmental
powers to the three regions: Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels.

A Executive

Executive power is vested in the king, who appoints the prime minister, cabinet ministers, and judges. The king is
commander in chief of the armed forces and, with the approval of parliament, has the power to declare war and
conclude treaties. The rights of the king, according to the constitution, include convening and dissolving parliament,
conferring titles of nobility, and granting pardons. All royal acts, however, must be countersigned by a minister, who in
turn assumes responsibility for those acts before parliament. Inasmuch as the ministers are responsible to parliament,
the king must choose a cabinet that represents a majority in parliament. Cabinets are generally multiparty coalitions.

B Legislature

Under constitutional changes that took effect with the parliamentary elections of 1995, both houses of the Belgian
parliament were reduced in size. The Senate was scaled back from 184 members to 71, while the Chamber of
Representatives dropped from 212 members to 150. All members of the Chamber of Representatives are directly
elected, while the Senate’s membership is elected through a combination of direct and indirect methods. All citizens
more than 18 years of age are required to vote in parliamentary elections and may be fined for not doing so.

C Political Parties

The three major political alliances, each consisting of Dutch- and French-speaking units, are the Christian Democrat
parties (1945), the Socialist parties (1885), and the Liberal parties, including the Flemish Liberals and Democrats-
Citizens’ Party (Dutch, 1961) and the Liberal Reformation Party (French, 1979). There are many minor parties.

D Local Government

Belgium is divided into the three federal regions of Brussels (population, 2006 estimate, 1,024,492), Flanders
(6,095,416), and Wallonia (3,421,985). These regions are further subdivided into the ten provinces of Antwerpen,
Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant, East Flanders, Hainaut, Liège, Limbourg, Luxembourg, Namur, and West Flanders,
and into nearly 600 communes (administrative districts).

Belgium has devised a two-tiered system of regional government to address political and cultural differences. Each of
the three federal regions elects its own council, which is responsible for territorial matters such as planning,
transportation, water, energy, municipalities, and regional development. In 2001 the regions were given greater
authority over taxation and expenditure. There are also independent language councils for the Dutch-, French-, and
German-speaking communities. These councils are in charge of education, health care, and communications (such as
broadcasting) for the communities.

Each of the ten provinces has a council of 50 to 90 members who are chosen by direct vote. The provinces are
subdivided into administrative districts, often based in cities and towns, called communes. Each commune is
administered by a burgomaster appointed by the king. The town council, directly elected to six-year terms, advises the
king on this appointment. The council elects an executive body called the board of aldermen. Local government on all
levels possesses a large degree of autonomy, a tradition that originated in feudal times.

E Judiciary

The Belgian constitution provides for an independent judiciary with powers equal to those of the executive and
legislative departments. The highest tribunals are the five courts of appeal, which sit at Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent,
Liège, and Mons; the five labor courts; and the Supreme Court of Justice. Cases are referred to the courts of appeal by
the courts of assize, which review both civil and criminal matters. In the assize courts 12 jurors decide all cases by
majority vote. A special court was established in 1989 to resolve constitutional conflicts arising from the transfer of
power from the central government to regional authorities.

F Defense

Belgium is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which has its headquarters in
Brussels. Recruitment in Belgium’s armed forces is made by voluntary enlistment. Military training methods and
equipment are coordinated with those of Netherlands under an agreement of 1948. The Belgian armed forces, which
include a navy, army, and air force, stood at 36,900 in 2004. Large force reductions took place during the 1990s.

VI HISTORY

Although the modern country of Belgium was founded in 1830, the history of the peoples and the territory of the
southern Low Countries reaches back to the Roman period. Around 50 BC Roman general Julius Caesar named the
territory of the Belgae he had conquered Gallia Belgica (Belgian Gaul). The Roman region of Gallia Belgica included
modern Belgium, northern France, Netherlands, and part of Switzerland.

Rome’s successor in western Europe was the kingdom of the Franks, which originated in Belgian Gaul and expanded
into Germany, eventually extending from the Pyrenees eastward across the Alps and southward as far as Rome itself.
The Franks were led by Charlemagne, who united all of western Europe through conquest during his reign from 768 to
814. When the Frankish realm was partitioned in 843, Belgium was incorporated in the duchy of Lorraine, which was
part of Francia Orientalis (the East Frankish Kingdom, or Germany). In the extreme west of this realm arose the county
of Flanders, which was a fief of the kings of France.
The Middle Ages, and especially the 12th and 13th centuries, were a period of intensive commercial development
throughout the southern Low Countries. The merchant class rose to great prosperity, and cities flourished. In Flanders
the cloth trade was the basis of the wealth and growing independence of such cities as Brugge, Ghent, and Ypres.
Liège grew rich on the profits of its iron forges and arms manufacture. Wealthy merchants and powerful guilds vied
with each other in endowing public works such as the belfries, guildhalls, and churches that are still the pride of many
Belgian cities.

Hôtel de Ville, Leuven, Belgium


The ornately decorated Hôtel de Ville (town hall) in Leuven, Belgium, dates from the 15th century. It is widely regarded as one of the
finest examples of flamboyant Gothic architecture in Europe. Leuven is situated in the Flemish province of Brabant.
Robert Harding Picture Library

The most important of the medieval states in what is now Belgium was Flanders. In the early Middle Ages the counts of
Flanders succeeded in establishing themselves as independent rulers, although the king of France was the theoretical
overlord of the region. At the end of the 13th century Flanders was annexed by King Philip IV of France. French rule was
welcomed by some of the Flemish nobility but was bitterly resented by the merchants and craftsmen in the cities. In
1302 the craftsmen of Brugge massacred the French garrison of the city. In the same year an army of Flemish
townsmen inflicted a crushing defeat on the French in the Battle of Courtrai. It is sometimes called the Battle of the
Spurs because the Flemings collected the spurs of the dead French knights as trophies. However, the French later
gained control over Flanders. During the Hundred Years' War between France and England, the Flemings rebelled under
the leadership of Ghent and allied themselves with England, but in 1382 were decisively defeated.

In 1384 Flanders was united with Burgundy, and by the mid-15th century the dukes of Burgundy ruled the greater part
of the Belgian and Dutch Netherlands. Flanders continued to enjoy great prosperity, and the great age of Flemish art
began. While owing allegiance to the French crown, Burgundy’s aim was to found a powerful state between France and
Germany. This effort was disrupted by the death in 1477 of the last Burgundian ruler, Charles the Bold.

A Habsburg Rule
Market Square, Antwerp
The Grote Markt, or Market Square, in Antwerp, Belgium, is the heart of the old city. The buildings on it date from the 16th to the 18th
centuries. The fountain in the center of the square features the statue of a legendary figure said to have lived on the banks of the
Schelde River in ancient times.
HorreeZirkzee Produkties

By the marriage in 1477 of Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Charles the Bold, to the German prince Maximilian (later
Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I), all of the rich Burgundian realm except the duchy itself passed to the control of the
Habsburg family. Maximilian’s grandson, Charles, inherited Netherlands (which included present-day Belgium) in 1506.
Charles ascended the throne of Spain in 1516 and later became Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In 1549 he decreed
that Netherlands be formally joined to the possessions of Spain.

Philip II of Spain, Charles’s successor, tried to suppress Protestantism and forbade all trade between his subjects and
the outside world. Many of the inhabitants of the northern Low Countries had converted to Protestantism during the
Reformation, and religious feeling intensified with Roman Catholic Spain. Philip’s policies provoked a rebellion in
Netherlands that began in 1566. This upheaval was partly a religious and economic struggle and partly an attempt to
preserve local traditions of self-government. Spanish armies were defeated, but the strife between the predominantly
Catholic south and the Protestant north continued. In 1581 seven northern provinces (Gelderland, Friesland, Holland,
Groningen, Overijssel, Utrecht, and Zeeland) declared their independence as the United Provinces of The Netherlands,
while the southern provinces (Belgium) remained loyal to Spain.

Philip II continued to pursue reconquest of the north without success. In 1609, with neither side capable of a decisive
victory, Philip III of Spain signed a 12-year truce with the rebels. By the time this accord expired, the Thirty Years' War
was raging, and the Spanish Netherlands was once again a battleground. In 1635 the Dutch and the French joined
forces to divide the Spanish Netherlands, but still could not dislodge the Spaniards. A succession of Franco-Dutch
victories finally forced the Spanish king, Philip IV, to accept a separate peace with the Dutch in 1648. The south,
present-day Belgium and Luxembourg, remained a Spanish domain. By the Treaty of Münster, the Dutch gained some
territory on their southern border, notably Maastricht, and Spain agreed to close off shipping from the Schelde River,
which flowed through Dutch territory but which was Antwerp’s sole outlet to the sea. The great port city, a center of
commerce, thus entered a period of decline.
France, with a growing coalition of European powers, continued the war with Spain. Throughout his long reign the
French king, Louis XIV, refused to abandon his quest for the Spanish Netherlands. By the Peace of the Pyrenees in
1659, France gained several frontier areas, and through subsequent conquests won possession of additional towns.
The Spanish Netherlands became an important pawn in the next major European conflict, the War of the Spanish
Succession (1701-1714). A settlement concluded at Utrecht (see Peace of Utrecht) in 1713 gave France part of
Flanders, including Dunkerque and Lille. The bulk of the territory, however, came under the control of the Habsburg
rulers of Austria, with a stipulation that its fortresses on the French border be garrisoned by the Dutch. Until the end of
the 18th century the area was generally known as the Austrian Netherlands.

During the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744, the country was occupied by the French, but it was restored to
Austria by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. Except for this invasion, Belgium’s Austrian era was initially peaceful.
This tranquility was disrupted in 1781 when the Austrian emperor, Joseph II, decided to raze the border fortresses and
reopen the Schelde estuary. The Dutch mounted an effective blockade and again closed the river to trade. Then, in
1787, as part of his effort to centralize the administration of the far-flung Habsburg domains, Joseph abolished
provincial autonomy in the Austrian Netherlands. The loss of local control led to a general uprising, which coincided
with the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789-1799). Most of the Austrian garrisons were forced to capitulate, and
on January 11, 1790, a Belgian republic was proclaimed.

Quarrels between social and religious factions shook the new state from the outset, and within a year of Joseph’s death
in 1790, his successor as Austrian emperor, Leopold II, reestablished control. A conciliatory and enlightened ruler, he
revoked his predecessor’s decrees, but the new regime won little popular support. After Leopold was succeeded by
Francis II in 1792, Austria became embroiled in war with the revolutionary government of France. Belgium was twice
occupied by the French army, and the country was formally ceded to France by the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797.

B French and Dutch Rule

Battle of Waterloo
On June 18, 1815, French emperor Napoleon I and his armies met a force of primarily Austrian, Prussian, and British troops near the
town of Waterloo, in modern Belgium. The Battle of Waterloo was one of the bloodiest in modern history, and it ended in Napoleon’s
crushing defeat. Shown here, Prussian troops storm the village of Plancenoit, southeast of Waterloo, during the battle.
Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY
The regime installed by the French was generally unpopular, but Belgium profited from French rule. It expanded in area
after France conquered the prosperous city of Liège and annexed it to Belgian territory. Economically, after the French
opened the Schelde River to shipping, Antwerp’s trade revived. New markets were also opened for local industry.

In 1814 the country was occupied by armies of the nations ranged against Napoleon Bonaparte. The next year the
Battle of Waterloo, the last great battle of the Napoleonic Wars, was fought on Belgian soil.

In 1815 the Congress of Vienna assembled to redraw the map of Europe in the wake of Napoleon’s defeat. The peace
settlement adopted at the Congress again united Belgium and Netherlands, this time under a Dutch king, William I.
Catholic Belgium, however, did not want a Protestant ruler, even though the country prospered under the Dutch. The
outbreak of a revolution in France in July 1830 (see July Revolution) inspired a Belgian uprising in August. Dutch troops
were driven from Brussels, and on October 4 a coalition of the normally antagonistic Catholics and Liberals proclaimed
Belgian independence. The great powers—Austria, France, Britain, Prussia, and Russia—accepted Belgian
independence, and the Dutch were unable to overcome such a formidable group.

C Independence and Neutrality

Leopold I (of Belgium)


Leopold I, a German noble, was elected the first king of Belgium in 1831. He remained in power until his death in 1865.
Agentschap Belga

The Belgians drew up a constitution providing for a bicameral legislature elected by male property owners and a king
whose executive acts had to be countersigned by a responsible minister. They chose as their monarch Leopold I of
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He was a model constitutional monarch whose political skills enabled him to wield considerable
power at home, and to become an influential figure among Europe’s rulers. The Dutch finally agreed to recognize
Belgium in 1839 and a peace treaty was signed. In the settlement, half of Luxembourg became a Belgian province,
while the Dutch were awarded nominal control of the remainder of the Grand Duchy, as well as Limbourg east of the
Meuse River. In its most important provision, the European powers confirmed Belgium as an “independent and
perpetually neutral state” (Neutrality).
Triumphal Arrival of Prince Leopold
On July 21, 1831, Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg arrived in Brussels and later that day swore to uphold the constitution of Belgium. He
became the first king of Belgium after the declaration of the country’s independence. July 21 is celebrated as a national holiday in
Belgium.
Royal Army Museum Brussels

Even after the internal alliance of Catholics and anticlerical Liberals disintegrated, Belgian constitutionalism survived.
The economic decline that followed the separation from Dutch markets was halted by Europe’s first national program
of railway construction, which connected all major Belgian towns by 1840. Belgium was the first country in continental
Europe to industrialize, and had become politically and economically viable by 1865, when Leopold I died and was
succeeded by his son.

Coronation of Leopold I
Leopold of Saxe-Coburg pledges to uphold the Belgian constitution at his coronation as the first king of Belgium on July 21, 1831, in
this watercolor painting.
Royal Army Museum Brussels
Under Leopold II, Belgium faced many domestic problems. Liberals and Catholics fought over control of education,
finally agreeing to let local governments decide whether or not to subsidize parochial schools. By the 1880s
industrialization and population density—the greatest in Europe—had produced appalling living conditions in the cities.
As the rural labor force shrank and the number of people engaged in industry tripled, the government enacted
legislation to improve housing and working conditions. The workers, who still could not vote, began organizing to
obtain political equality. An 1893 general strike forced parliament to institute universal adult male suffrage, modified to
give more than one vote to university graduates, men over age 50, and property owners.

Leopold II of Belgium
Leopold II succeeded his father as king of Belgium in 1865. In 1876 he established a private company for the exploration and
colonization of the Congo River in Africa. At the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 he negotiated the creation of the Congo Free State,
which was effectively his personal estate. The cruelty and exploitation that the region suffered under Leopold’s rule caused
international outrage, and the Congo was formally annexed by the Belgian government in 1908.
Agentschap Belga

Another domestic problem was the lack of a common language. The country’s inhabitants were divided between
Dutch-speaking Flemings in Antwerp, East and West Flanders, and Limbourg, and French-speaking Walloons in the
remaining provinces; the province of Brabant, which included Brussels, contained speakers of both languages.
Flemings outnumbered Walloons, but French was the language of the upper classes who controlled much of Belgium’s
wealth. Thus, Walloon interests were disproportionately represented in the government, and only the small segment of
the Flemish who were bilingual could participate equally. The passage of a law granting universal manhood suffrage
(voting rights) began to redress this imbalance and forced the government to accord equality to both languages when
transacting official business.

Early in his reign Leopold II personally financed an expedition up the Congo River in Africa and acquired personal
control of the vast Congo basin. At the Berlin West Africa Conference of 1884 and 1885 he was recognized as
sovereign of the Congo Free State, as the land was called. The Congo Free State supplied Belgium with incalculable
wealth in raw materials. After 1900, however, reports of mistreatment of the native Africans outraged Belgian public
opinion and led to legislation in 1908 transferring control of this royal enterprise to the state. From 1908 until
independence in 1960, it was known as the Belgian Congo.
As the outbreak of war seemed imminent in Europe, Belgium’s neutral status caused a domestic controversy over the
military budget. Advocates of preparedness opposed those who believed that the nation’s neutrality rendered most
armaments unnecessary. In 1909, when Albert I ascended the throne, he warned that the army was not strong enough
to defend the country. The Catholic-led government used an electoral victory in 1912 to increase draft quotas, over the
opposition of Liberals and Socialists.

D World War I

Albert I of Belgium
In 1914 Albert I, king of Belgium, took personal command of his army and delayed the Germans in an invasion attempt at the start of
World War I. Albert remained with his troops throughout the war.
Library of Congress

On August 4, 1914, one week after World War I began, German troops crossed the frontier into Belgium, ignoring its
neutral status. The government resisted invasion and appealed to France, Britain, and Russia for aid. The Belgian army
put up a heroic defense against overpowering forces; for four years its troops held on to a sliver of Belgian territory
between the Yser River and the French border. The Germans, meanwhile, carried on a ruthless occupation of Belgium,
confiscating property and deporting civilians. Although they attempted to capitalize on language divisions by
establishing separate Flemish and Walloon administrations, only a small minority of Flemings collaborated with the
invaders. A million Belgians fled the country. As the war dragged on, more than 80,000 soldiers and civilians died.
Third Battle of Ypres
Soldiers of an Allied machine gun company sit in crater holes of the devastated landscape around Ypres, Belgium. The Third Battle of
Ypres began in July 1917 and continued until November, when the Allies captured the Passchendaele (Passendale) Ridge. The battle
was a struggle in the mud of Belgium.
Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis

The major Allied offensive that began on September 28, 1918, liberated the entire Belgian coast and led the Germans
to agree to an armistice and to withdrawal on the Allies’ terms. The shooting war was finally over. Under the Treaty of
Versailles, Germany ceded Eupen-et-Malmédy, and Moresnet to Belgium, adding 989.3 sq km (382 sq mi) and some
64,500 inhabitants to the kingdom.

After the war Belgium was faced with the task of rebuilding the devastated areas. Although the damage was
enormous, the country made a remarkable recovery. Another consequence of World War I for Belgium was the
discrediting of the policy of neutrality. Belgium effectively renounced its neutrality in 1920 by signing a military
alliance with France. In 1925 it became a party to the Locarno treaties, in which Britain, France, Germany, and Italy
guaranteed the boundaries of Belgium and affirmed its right to form defensive treaties. Ruanda-Urundi was created
from part of a former German colony in East Africa in 1923 and placed under Belgian control by the League of Nations.

E World War II

Leopold III
Leopold III, king of Belgium, surrendered the Belgian army in World War II (1939-1945) after being surrounded by the Germans. The
move was to plague Leopold his entire life, forcing him into exile and causing many of his people to accuse him of treason.
Corbis

In 1936, after France failed to oppose German remilitarization of the Rhineland, Belgium again returned to neutrality
with the understanding that Britain and France would assist in its defense against foreign aggression. Nevertheless,
Belgium was attacked for a second time by Germany on May 10, 1940, early in World War II. Without warning or
ultimatum, Belgian airfields, railroad stations, and communications centers were bombed by German planes, and
German armored units rolled across the border. The army and the French and British troops that came to Belgium’s aid
were overwhelmed by the superior might of the invading forces.

By May 26, 1940, the Allies had been pushed into a narrow beachhead around Dunkerque, France, near the Belgian
border. King Leopold III surrendered his remaining forces unconditionally on May 28 and was taken prisoner. The
Belgian cabinet, which had fled to Paris, refused to acknowledge defeat, declaring the king’s surrender “illegal and
unconstitutional.” On May 30 the ministers voted to divest the king of all powers and of the right to rule, a decision
supported by the Belgian parliament. After the fall of France, the Belgian government moved to London; it returned to
Brussels on September 8, 1944. Later that month parliament elected Leopold’s brother, Prince Charles, as regent.

F Postwar Belgium

Although Belgium was in better economic condition after World War II than after World War I, it was politically
disorganized because of a conflict between the Christian Democrat parties and a coalition of Liberals, Socialists, and
Communists. Intensifying the political struggle was the question concerning King Leopold, who had remained in Austria
awaiting determination of his future. Despite pressure from the Christian Democrat parties (now strengthened by the
enfranchisement of women), which favored the return of the king, the Belgian parliament in the summer of 1945
extended indefinitely the regency of Prince Charles, virtually exiling the king because of his alleged defeatism in 1940.

While the struggle for political control continued, Belgium regained much of its former position as one of the world’s
great trading nations. Industrial areas in the south were modernized, and Antwerp’s port facilities were expanded. Rich
uranium deposits from the Congo, which were of particular value in the nuclear age, added to Belgium’s postwar
prosperity.

G Royal Controversy

On March 12, 1950, after more than a year of successive governmental crises brought on by the controversy over the
king, the Belgian electorate went to the polls in an advisory plebiscite on the question of Leopold’s return. A slight
majority of the voters favored the return of the king from exile, but his attempt to resume power led to strikes,
demonstrations, and riots. Leopold agreed to abdicate in 1951, when his son reached the age of 21. Baudouin was
proclaimed king the day after Leopold’s abdication.

H European Cooperation

The 1950s were marked by the concentrated effort of European leaders to effect a political and economic union of the
Western European nations. Taking an active role in this movement, Belgium, along with France, West Germany,
Luxembourg, Italy, and Netherlands, became a charter member of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in
1952. The efforts of Belgian Foreign Minister Paul Henri Spaak were instrumental in the founding in 1957 of the
European Economic Community (EEC). Brussels became the seat of its governing commission and much of its
bureaucracy, reflecting the key role that Spaak played in shaping the new European order. In 1967 the ECSC, the EEC,
and Euratom merged to form the European Community, now called the European Union.
I Crises of Empire and Nation

Baudouin I and Fabiola


Baudouin I succeeded his father, Leopold III, to the Belgian throne after Leopold’s abdication in 1951. In 1960 he married Fabiola of
Mora y Aragón, the daughter of a Spanish duke. Baudouin and Fabiola lived simply and were much loved by the Belgian people. The
couple had no children, and after Baudouin’s death in 1993 his brother Albert became king.
Raymond/ Reuters/Sygma

In 1960 uprisings in the Belgian Congo forced Belgium to withdraw from its African empire. On June 30, 1960, King
Baudouin proclaimed the independence of the colony (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, DRC). In 1962 the
Belgian-administered UN trust territory of Ruanda-Urundi achieved independence as two states, Rwanda and Burundi.
The Belgian Congo was a source of great wealth for Belgium, especially for a few large companies, in which the
Belgian government also had substantial shares. The loss of the Congo caused economic hardship in Belgium.

Jean-Luc Dehaene
Jean-Luc Dehaene was prime minister of Belgium from 1992 to 1999.
Corbis

To strengthen the economy, the Belgian government instituted an austerity program in the early 1960s. The Socialists
called for a general strike and violence erupted, particularly in the Walloon south. Although the strike was called off,
the crisis had sharpened the differences between Flemings and Walloons. Socialist leaders proposed that the unitary
state of Belgium be replaced by a loose federation of three regions—Flanders, Wallonia, and the area around Brussels.
Atomium, Brussels’ World’s Fair
Atomium, a steel and aluminum structure representing a metal molecule, was built for the World’s Fair held in Brussels, Belgium, in
1958. The 102-m (335-ft) high building became a symbol of the fair. Visitors reach exhibitions in the spheres through staircases in the
connecting tubes. A restaurant and viewing deck are in the topmost sphere.
© 2007 Atomium / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / SABAM, Brussels/Jean-Jaques Rousseau

New laws in 1962 and 1963 established official language frontiers, but the problem was not that easily solved. Both
Flemish and Walloon workers protested discrimination in employment, and disturbances broke out at the universities of
Brussels and Leuven, which eventually split into separate Dutch-speaking and French-speaking institutions. Although
during the 1960s the Christian Social and Socialist parties remained the major contenders for power, both Flemish and
Walloon federalists continued to make gains in the general elections, principally at the expense of the Liberal Party.
Eventually separate Flemish and Walloon ministries were created for education, culture, and economic development.
Finally, in 1971, the constitution was revised to prepare the way for regional autonomy in most economic and cultural
affairs.

University Buildings in Leuven, Belgium


Belgian architect Lucien Kroll designed these buildings in the 1970s for the medical school of the Catholic University of Leuven
(Louvain) in Belgium. The “living chaos” of his designs earned Kroll an international reputation.
Bastin and Evrard

Despite this reversal of a long-standing policy of centralization, the federalist parties opposed the revisions on the
grounds that they did not go far enough. Moreover, repeated efforts to transfer actual legislative authority to regional
bodies were blocked by disagreements about the geographical extent of the Brussels region. In 1980 agreement was
finally reached on the question of autonomy for Flanders and Wallonia.

During the 1980s the Christian Democrat parties formed the cabinets, usually under the leadership of Wilfried Martens.
In January 1989 parliament passed a devolution bill designed to transfer power from the central government to the
three ethnolinguistic federal regions. Implementation of this law moved slowly, and the 1991 elections resulted in a
reduced plurality for the Christian Democrats. Martens resigned as party leader, and his successor, Jean-Luc Dehaene,
formed a new center-left government.

J European Integration

Home of the European Union


The Cité Berlaymont in the Belgian capital of Brussels is headquarters of the European Commission, which carries out the provisions
of European Union (EU) treaties. Brussels is home base for many international organizations, including the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) and Benelux, a trade bloc representing the interests of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Corbis

Belgium moved to support increased economic and political cooperation in Europe by ratifying the Treaty on European
Union, or the Maastricht Treaty, in the fall of 1992. In May 1993 Belgium approved the devolution process and it
became a federal state with three regions—Flanders, Wallonia, and Brussels—in July of that year. King Baudouin died
on July 31, 1993, and was succeeded by his brother Albert, who ruled as Albert II. In parliamentary elections held in
May 1995, Dehaene’s coalition was returned to power. Belgium took another step toward integrating with Europe in
May 1998, when it officially agreed to replace its national currency with a new single European currency, the euro. The
euro was introduced in 1999 and entirely replaced the Belgian currency, along with the currencies of other European
nations participating in the single currency, in early 2002.

K Recent Events
Guy Verhofstadt
Guy Verhofstadt became prime minister of Belgium in 1999 in the aftermath of a food-contamination scandal that discredited the
government of Jean-Luc Dehaene. Verhofstadt had previously led the opposition for 11 years.
Pierre Thielemans/AP/Wide World Photos

Dehaene’s center-left coalition suffered a major defeat in parliamentary elections in June 1999, a defeat attributed to
rising public anger over a food contamination scandal. The government had revealed in May that a wide variety of
Belgian foodstuffs might have been contaminated by the cancer-causing chemical dioxin. Officials reportedly allowed
more than a month to pass before warning the public about health risks. The contamination led to the banning of
many Belgian food exports by the European Union and cost the Belgian economy hundreds of millions of dollars.

A center-right coalition led by the Liberal parties took office in July 1999, and Liberal leader Guy Verhofstadt became
prime minister. The formation of the new government, which also included the left-leaning Socialist parties and the
environmentalist Green parties, marked the first time since 1958 that the Christian Democrats had been excluded from
government. Verhofstadt and his coalition were returned to power following parliamentary elections in 2003. The
government’s plan to raise the age at which Belgian workers could retire with full benefits led to strikes in late 2005.

In local elections held in 2000 a far-right party, Vlaams Blok (Flemish Block), achieved significant gains. The Vlaams
Blok wants independence for the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders and an end to immigration. In 2004 the Vlaams
Blok was declared racist, deprived of funding, and subsequently disbanded. However, it reorganized under a new
name. Meanwhile, disputes over Belgium’s language boundaries continued in the early 2000s.

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