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Topic: Since the traditional male breadwinner ideology has been eroded by the rise of dual earner/shared care

concept, what are some problems faced by the household s? How may these problems be overcome? This essay has been prepared to identify the problems faced by the households be cause of the rise of dual earner / shared care concept and how these problems can be overcome. The organization of market work and parenting has changed worldwide dramatically in recent decades, and the growth of maternal employment has been one of the most consequential of these changes. Both married and single mothers are much more likely to be employed now than they were before. The traditional m ale breadwinner model family, in which husbands provide for earnings and wives f or unpaid work or care in the household, has gradually eroded in most industrial ized countries, and is now a days, in practice, completely replaced with a dualearner model family, (Lewis 2001). But rather than eliminating gender inequality , contemporary work and family life arrangements have exacerbated inequality and have created new and difficult problems for families. The male breadwinner model is in which men should be the main earner while their w ives should mainly shoulder housework and child rising. According to this concep t, men are entitled to stable employment and family wage that provides livelihood security to include their families and social security. Childcare and other fami ly responsibilities are to be shouldered by full-time wives. The male breadwinner model is often described as familial. The main advantage of male breadwinner model i s that wives take care of households so men can concentrate on earning. But the major disadvantage is that women lag behind because they can not involve in a fu ll time job, which also lowers the income of the family. Because of the demand o f time, the male breadwinner model has been subsidized by dual earner / shared care concept, where both husband and wife are earning persons. (Mari Osawa 2006) As days are passing by, it s becoming difficult to maintain work-life balance. Wom en are the main sufferers of this. That s why despite of having so many advantages like enhanced income, societal status of women etc., dual earner / shared care co ncept is being questioned because of problems faced by households as follows. Women have a natural tendency to live with family. They do not like transferable jobs because of family concern and family barriers. But it is not always possib le to post the females in their husband s work area due to non-availability of the required post. Apprehension of getting posted in remote areas and frequent tran sfers make women less interested to pursue a job, (Ahmed & Khan 1990). Childcare has become one of the main issues for all working mothers. Due to the changes in family structure, people live in nuclear families where there is nobo dy to look after the children. In the absence of childcare facilities a woman ha s to depend and rely on inefficient and unreliable maidservants. Sometimes it be comes difficult for her to reach office in time and she is often forced to retur n home before the office closes or go on frequent leaves, (Kashem et al 2002). Sometimes women have to choose one between family and career, where they give pr iority to family. It becomes a double burden for a working woman because she has to look after her office and house. A full time job does not excuse women from domestic responsibilities. It takes away a large part of their productive energy which is an obstacle to maintaining a high standard of performance in office. D ue to multiple roles that the females are expected to play in the house and in t he office, it becomes difficult to perform either efficiently, (Salahuddin 1992) . Women s role as a working woman and as a wage earner is not adequately and properl y considered. Most of the husbands do not share responsibilities in the househol d work but expect that, their working wives would look after all the comforts of the family as perfect home managers. The male colleagues have dual sets of valu

es towards the roles of females. At home, they want to see their female members perform their roles effectively, and yet most of them do not like to consider th e plight of their female colleagues if, they want to leave early or arrive let b ecause of household duties or childcare problems, (Kashem et al 2002). Lack of security refers to the protection of women s privacy as well as protecting abuse and harassment. Most of the females feel insecure when having to work aft er the normal office hours in vacated offices, (Kashem et al 2002). Most societies are male dominated society. The values, norms, religious beliefs of our societies do not permit women to be in decision-making position. Men are not mentally oriented to women are not competent enough to accept women as bosse s and colleagues. Men feel humiliated working under a female. His male ego hurts . Men think be in top position, to take challenges, to make decisions. The male officers want to see women officers in the typical female image and think that t hey would always be docile and dependant on males. Male colleagues have a tenden cy to dominate their female colleagues and in many cases female officers receive unequal treatment in distribution of responsibilities. The tendency to treat wo men officers in a gender biased fashion creates a negative impression among wome n which also make a negative impact on the overall work environment, (Jahan 2007 ). Although dual earner families in many counties are left largely to their own dev ices to manage work and family demands, their counterparts in many western and E uropean countries are supported by a package of policies that specially allows p arents to reduce their employment hours. The following policies provide a bluepr int for a welfare state that would be consonant with a dual earner/shared care soc iety. Family leave provisions are fundamental for helping parents to secure sufficient time for care giving when their children are young. To achieve this goal, leave policies must include both rights and benefits: granting parents the right to t ake time off to care for children without losing their jobs and providing cash b enefits ( wage replacement ) to offset lost wages during periods of leave. Public fa mily leave provisions consonant with the dual earner/shared care model would have at least four components, all of which have been developed in many European coun tries. First, mothers would have maternity leave rights and benefits that guaran tee the right to take time off from work, with pay, around the time of birth or adoption. Second, fathers would have paternity leave rights and wage replacement for some period around the time of the birth or adoption. Third, following thei r maternity and paternity leaves, both parents would be granted longer-term pare ntal leave, with both the right to be away from the workplace and cash benefits. Parental le ave policies would support a combination of care giving and market work during c hildren s early years; say up to the third birthday (when many children would ente r full-day preschool). Finally, throughout their children s lives, parents would b e entitled to temporary paid leaves -- often referred to in Europe as leave for family reasons -- that would allow them to take brief breaks from employment to care for a sick child or to respond to other family care giving demands, (Gornic k et al 2003). Day care centers should be made available in or around workplace. Parents can le ave their children in these day care centers and feel a bit relaxed. Besides par ents rely more on day care centers than on their maids/servants, (Islam 2003). There should be restructuring and redistribution of domestic responsibilities to tackle the problem of dual role of women as a housewife and a professional. Mal es should be encouraged to share household activities, (Mahtab 1995). One of the most important problem preventing females from entering and continuin

g jobs is the separation of women from family due to transfers. It is therefore recommended to transfer men than to women so that they can spend more time with their families, (Khan 1988). Family encouragement influences the decision of women for entering in to jobs. S o, family members should have the more cooperative attitude to create opportunit ies and a cordial atmosphere to enable women to pursue a career, (Rahman 2001). In conclusion, it can be summarised that there is no perfect earning model/struc ture for a family or society. But because of the advancement of women in the soc iety, the male breadwinner model is rapidly being eroded by dual earner / shared care concept. This concept has already established itself in western countries an d is now also being accepted by third world countries. If we can overcome the pr oblems of dual earner / shared care concept it will definitely become a blessing b oth for our country and society.

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