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AHMED NASSER CREATION

Information & Communication Technology

Chapter 8

Systems Analysis & Design

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Interviews Observations Description Face to face questions to users about the system Can change script to suit circumstances/more likely to get truthful Recording responses of responses to questions to users about the system Looking at/through current paperwork Advantages Can change script to suit circumstances/more likely to get truthful responses Can gain broader overview of processes Better for busy people/don't have to prearrange appointments Can follow data flow more easily/informs input/output format design

y y s s

s s

Questionnaires

Collecting documents

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Items of Database (parts of design)


1. 2. 3. 4.

Data structure User interface

Data capture forms Validation routines


6.

Report layouts/output format


5.

Queries

7.

Test data/routines

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File structure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Field Name Field Type Field Length Key Field Index

Validation Check
6.

7.

Input mask

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Test data Descriptio n


data that is outside the range of acceptability

Data Tested Abnormal data Normal data

acceptable data/valid data on the edge of acceptability

Extreme data
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metho d Description

Implementation
reason
1.

Advantages

Parallel running

running both the old and new systems together (until new system is free of errors)

Disadvanta ges

you have a back up


2.

Phased imp

Pilot runnin g

old system is replaced in phases i.e. one aspect is replaced by new system then second aspect and so on Implementing the whole system in just a part of the organization or part of the system in the whole organization old system is replaced by new system in one go almost overnight

can iron out any problems before going over wholesale to new system

1.

Information is not lost/always a second copy Allows training to be carried out while it is Still have most working of system if things go wrong

Costs a lot in wages for two sets of staff

Takes time to implement

2.

no expense of running two systems together Time is not lost do not have expense of running two systems

Direct changeov er

quicker/saves money in wages

1. 2.

If the solution not working properly, difficult to get the old system back.

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User documentation
1.

Documentation
Technical documentation So that modifications to the system/program can be made 1. In case original programmer/analyst is unavailable errors can be corrected 2. So that system/program can be updated 3. So that system can be reinstalled in the event of system failure (can be in user documentation instead) OR (help programmers/analysts) make improvements to system/repair system/maintain system 1. Program listing 2. List of variables 3. File structure 4. Purpose of the system 5. Systems flowchart/program flowchart/algorithm 6. Screen layouts 7. Known bugs 8. Validation routines

So the user will know how to use the system

Reasons Purpose

2.

So user can cope with problems So user knows how to set up system
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

3.

Features

8.

How to load software How to run software How to save a file How to search How to sort How to print Troubleshooting guide Screen layouts

Hardware requirements Software requirements How to install software Print formats error messages Sample runs

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Evaluation

Items of evaluation
1.

Comparison of the solution with the original task requirements


2.

The ease of use of the solution

3. 8

The appropriateness of the solution

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