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Applied Mathematics and Mechanics

(English Edition,

Vol 25,

No 3,

Mar 2004)

Published by Shanghai University,

Shanghai,

China

9 Committee of Appl. Math. Mech., ISSN 0253-4827 Article ID: 0253-4827(2004)03-0297-10

ANALYTIC

EXPRESSION

OF MAGNETIC

FIELD

DISTRIBUTION

OF RECTANGULAR

PERMANENT

MAGNETS

*

GOU Xiao-fan (;~jl~Jq~),

YANG Yong (~

g]),

ZHENG Xiao-jing (ik~l~Ji)

(Department of Mechanics, College of Physical Science and Technology,

Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000,

P.R. China)

(Communicated by CHEN Shan-lin)

Abstract: From the molecular current viewpoint, an analytic expression exactly describing magnetic field distribution of rectangular permanent magnets magnetized sufficiently in one direction was derived from the Biot-Savart' s law. This expression is useful not only for the case of one rectangular permanent magnet bulk, but also for that of several rectangular permanent magnet bulks. By using this expression, the relations between magnetic field distribution and the size of rectangular permanent magnets as well as the magnitude of magnetic field and the distance from the point in the space to the top ( or bottom) surface of rectangular permanent magnets were discussed in detail. All the calculating results are consistent with experimental ones. For transverse magnetic field which is a main magnetic field of rectangular permanent magnets, in order to describe its distribution, two quantities, one is the uniformity in magnitude and the other is the uniformity in distribution of magnetic field, were defined. Furthermore, the relations between them and the geometric size of the magnet as well as the distance from the surface of permanent magnets were investigated by these formulas. The numerical results show that the geometric size and the distance have a visible influence on the uniformity in magnitude and the uniformity in distribution of the magnetic field.

Key words: permanent magnet; magnetic field distribution; analytic expression

Chinese Library Classification: O441.6

Document code:

A

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 78A30; 78M99

Introduction

Permanent magnets which are usually used to produce magnetic field, are very widely adopted in engineering, such as the guide of magnetic levitation vehicle system 'L1] and permanent

*

Received date:

2002-04-09;

Revised date:

2003-11-31

Foundation items:

the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10132010);

the National

Natural Science Foundation of China for Outstanding Young Researchers (10025208); Pre-Research for

Key Basic Researches of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China; the Fund of Excellent Teachers in University of the Education Ministry of China

Biographies:

GOU Xiao-fan ( 1971 -

),

Doctor ( E-mail : xfgou @ 163. com);

ZHENG Xiao-jing

( Corresponding author) ( Tel: 86-0931-8912112 ; Fax: 86-0931-8625576 ; E-mail: xjzheng @ lzu. edu. cn)

297

  • 298 GOU Xiao-fan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiao-jing

magnets in high Tc superconducting levitation system E2'3] etc

In these engineering applications,

.. it is very important to investigate magnetic field distribution of permanent magnets. However, it

is difficult to know the exact distribution of permanent magnets, especially for the complex

configuration of magnets [a] . So, many numerical

methods are suggested to obtain the magnetic

field distribution of permanent magnets. In general, there are two calculating models which are used to characterize magnetic field distribution of permanent magnets. One is the scalar potential model and the other is the vector potential model [5'6] . The former is based on the magnetic charge viewpoint, and the latter is based on the molecular current viewpoint (including surface current and volume current). Both

models are based on the Maxwell equations. By introducing magnetic scalar potential or magnetic vector potential, a set of differential equations about magnetic scalar potential or magnetic vector potential are obtained, and are usually solved by the boundary element method (BEM)ET] or finite element method (FEM) [8] . Besides their complexity, this kind of numerical program is dependent on some parameters such as magnetic permeability (linear case) or magnetization curve (nonlinear case) of permanent magnets which are gotten by experimental measurements for the permanent magnet. An analytic expression [9] of magnetic field distribution was given by using the molecular current model, but only the field on the surface of one rectangular permanent magnet bulk can be gotten. As well, the magnetic field distribution gotten by the expression is not supported by experimental one El~ . According to the molecular current model, a set of analytic expressions based on the Biot- Savart' s law are derived in this paper. The magnetic field distribution, not only for one

rectangular permanent magnet

bulk

magnetized

sufficiently in

one

direction,

but

also

for

n

rectangular permanent magnet bulks arranged by alternating north pole N and south pole S of the

magnet can be calculated by these analytic expressions. The expressions are only dependent on

one parameter,

that is,

the equivalent current density J of the magnet,

which can be determined

by the expression once the value of one of the magnetic induction intensity components of the magnet at an arbitrary point in the space is known. Using this method, the distribution of magnetic induction components B x , By and B~ of rectangular permanent magnets are quantitatively simulated in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of the size of rectangular permanent magnets and the distance away from the magnet's top (or bottom) surface on the uniformity in magnitude and the uniformity in distribution are investigated.

  • 1 Analytic

Expression of Magnetic

Let' s consider a rectangular permanent magnet with length a, width b and thickness h (see

Fig. 1 ),

which is magnetized sufficiently in one direction

and saturated. Its magnetic vector M is

assumed a constant.

From the viewpoint of the molecular current model, the magnetic field at an

arbitrary point in the space out of the magnet is produced by all the molecular current of the

magnet.

As the result of magnetized uniformly, there exists not all the molecular current but the

surface current in the magnet. So it is reasonable that only the surface loop ABCD current contributes to the magnetic field. Here we assume that the current strength in the loop is I, so the

current density in the plane is parallel to the plane zy,

and

J

=

I/h.

Denoting a point in the magnet as ( x0, Y0, z0 ) and an arbitrary point in the space out of the

Magnetic Field Distribution of Rectangular Permanent Magnets

299

magnet as P(x,

y,

z),

we

take the

very thin

layer

 

z

p(z,r,z)

between the plane z = z0 and z = z0 + dz0, as shown

D~,

b

~,C

in

Fig.

1.

In

this

thin

 

layer,

the

current

loop

is

/i~

.

.

~.

,

......

/~c'

,~.-

.....

....

denoted as A'B'C'D'

and its current strength is Jdzo.

 

~r

~ ........

 

h

If we denote the magnetic field at point P ( x,

y,

z ),

produced by the current loop A'B'C'D', as dB,

the

magnetic

field at point

P (x,

y,

z),

produced by the

 

IA,o

 

magnet can be written as follows:

 

'-z

s

 

B

=

B~i

+

Byj

+

B,k

 

i

= f~_(dB~i

+

dBrj

+

dB,

k),

(1)

Fig. 1

One permanent magnet bulk

.)0

Y

wheredB~,

dBr and dB~ are the magnetic induction components in the direction of x,

y

and z at

the point

P(

x,

y,

z) produced by current loop A'B'C'D',

which are composed of four sections

of A'B',

B'C',

C'D'

and D'A'

.

Here we

take the section of A'B'

( xo

=

a)

as an example, and

derive the formulas of d B~,

d By

and d B e .

From the Biot-Savart' s law

 

dB

-

I~~ Idl

x

r

(2)

 

47r

r 2

'

where/10

=

4a"

x

10 -7 is magnetic permeability in the air,

and

r

is a vector from source points

(where current unit is located) to the field point P(x,

y,

z).

For the section of A'B'

we have

 

,uoJdz o [b

 

(z

-

zo)dyo

 
 

dB~

_

47t

Jo

[(x

-

a) 2

+

(y-

yo) 2

+

(z-

Zo)2] 3/2'

 

(3)

dBy,

=

0,

(4)

 

uoJdz orb

 

(a

-

x)dyo

 
 

dB~,

-

4rt

Jo

[(x-

a) 2

+

(y-

yo) 2

+

(z-

Zo)2] 3/2'

 

(5)

using the same method, dB,,

dBy,

and dB,, ( i

=

2,

3,

4) can be obtained from the sections of

B'C",

C'D',

and

D'A'.

To describe simply,

we introduce

 
 

K

/1~ J

 

r

 

-

4rr

'

~,(r162162

 

=

(r

+

r

+

r

(i

=

1,

2,

3),

(6)

where ~i

is a function notation related to the independent variable r

 

r

and

r

field produced by the current loop A'B'C'D'

can be expressed as follows:

 

dBx

=

dB,,

+ dB,2

+

dB,,

 

+ dB,,

 

=

 

K

0

gr3(x

-

a,y

 

-

yo,z

-

zo)dyo +0-

 

K

0

gr3(x,y-

 

yo,z

-

K

0

[kP'3(x -

 

a,y

-

yo,z

-

Zo)

-

"tr~3(x,y

-

Yo,Z

-

Zo)]dyo,

dBy

=

dBy,

+

dBy2

+

dBy 3

 

+

dBy,

=

 

KI~aF3(x-

 

xo,

y

-

b,z

-

zo)dxo

+ 0

-

KI~'trz3(X

-

xo,

y,z

-

KI'E 3<x -

 

xo,

y

-

b,z

-

Zo)

-

aF3(x

-

xo,

y,z

ZO) 3dxo ,

.10

9The magnetic

zo)dy o +0

=

 

(7)

zo)dxo

+ 0

=

(8)

  • 300 GOU Xiao-fan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiao-jing

dB~

=

dB~,

+

dB~2 +

 

dB~3 +

dB~,

=

 

Kf~alr2(x-

xo,y,z-

 

zo)dxo-

Kf~ ~2(x

 

-

xo,y

 

-

b,z

-

zo)dxo

+

 

grl(x,y

-

yo,z

-

zo)dyo

-

 

grl(x

-

a,y

-

yo,z

-

zo)dyo

=

 

0

 

[gq(x

-

xo,y,z

 

-

Zo)

-

gq(x

-

Xo,y

 

-b,z

-

Zo)~dxo

+

 

gtl(x,y

 

-

yo,z

-

Zo)

-

gt~(~

_

a,y

-

yo,z

-

Zo)~dyo.

 

(9)

Having substituted Eqs. (7)

 

~

(9)

into Eq. (1),

we introduce two functions as follows:

/'~( ~"1, ~/2, ~/3 )

:

In

~/~

+

r~

+

(r~

-

zo) ~

 

-

r2

(lO)

 

~/~

+

~'~

+

(7~

-

~o)~

+

r~'

 

I

93

--

ZO

 

]

r

=

arctan

~22,x/92

+

9 2 :(--;3-

 

Zo) 2

'

if

y#O,

(11)

 

tO

if

y=O,

 

here P is a function notation about the independent variable )'t,

?'2 and

~'3 ;

and

#

is

a function

notation about the independent variable 91,

92

and

93.

Then the magnetic field at the arbitrary

point P ( x,

 

y,

z)

B~

=

dBx

 

r(~,y,~)

Bs

= f:dBy

 

r(y,~,~)

B~

= f:dB~

 

r

r

in the space out of the permanent magnet ABCDA can be written as

=--~-E/'(a-

 

x,y,z)

 

+ E'(a-

x,b

-

y,z)

-

 

-

r(~,b

 

-

y,z)~lo,

h

=-K[p(b-y,x,z)

+ P(b-

y,a-

 

x,z)-

 

-

r(y,~

 

-

~,~)]1o,

h

=-

K[r

 

x,z)

+

r

y,a-

 

x,z)

+

-

y,z)

+

r

-

x,b

-

y,z)

+

r

-

y,x,z)

+

+

r

-

x,y,z)

+

r

h

1o,

 

(12)

(13)

(14)

["

]

at

z 0

=

h

and

at

where "[- ] ] 0h" denotes the subtractionbetween the value of the function

z o

=

0.

Therefore,

it is obvious that we can obtain the magnetic field distribution at an arbitrary

point P(x,

 

y,

z)

in the space out of the permanent by using analytic expressions Eqs. (12)

~

(14).

 

2

For

n

Permanent

 

Magnet Bulks

 

It is assumed that there are n permanent magnet bulks which are alternately arranged with the

north

pole

N

and

south pole

S

(see

Fig. 2),

and the north

N

of

the

fwst bulk that is the farthest

one

away

from x

axis,

is

up.

In this coordinate system, shown in Fig. 2, the magnetic field

created by m-th magnet bulk can be calculated by the expressions

(12)

-

(14)

as

long

as

the

coordinates x,

y

and

z

in

the

expressions

(12)

~

(14)

are substituted by

 
 

x

=

x,

y

=

y-(m-1)b,

 

z

=

z,

(15)

Magnetic Field Distribution of Rectangular Permanent Magnets

301

where

m

is

an

arbitrary

bulk

 

in

n bulks.

Having

 

*A

superimposed

the

magnetic

field

created

 

by

each

 

magnet bulk,

the calculating formulas at an

arbitrary

 

/

point P (x,

y,

z)

in

the

 

space out of the permanent

 

magnet bulks are obtained as follows:

 

For odd

number

case

(n

=

2k-

 

1,

k

=

1,

2,'")

h

Bx :-

K{~[F(a

 

-

x,y

 

g~

S

N

 

2(k

-

1)b,z)

 

+

/-'(a

-

x,

 

(2k

-

1)b

-

y,z)

 

-

I'(x,y

 

+

Fig. 2

 

n permanent

magnet bulks

2(k

-

1)b,z)

 

-

/-'(x,(2k

 

-

1)b

-

y,z)]

 

-

~-],[_Y'(a

-

x,y

-

(2k

-

3)b,z)

+

F(a

-

x,2(k

 

-

1)b

 

-

y,z)

 

-

 

k=2

 

F(x,y-

 

(2k-3)b,z)

 

-

F(x,2(k

 

-

1)b

-

y,z)]}[o

h,

 

K

B,

=

-

~-[/-'((2k

 

-

1)b

 

-

y,x,z)

 

+ P((2k

-

1)b

-

y,a

-

x,z)

-

r(

y,x,z)

 

-

r(

y,a

 

-

x,z)

 

h

] [o,

 

8,

=-

K[~(y,x,z)

+ ~(x,y,~)

+

~(x,(2k

 

-

1)b

-

 

y,z)

 

+ ~((2k

-

1)b

-

 

y,x,z)

 

+

]>-]j[ ~(y

+

2(k

-

1)b,a

 

-

x,z)

 

+ ~((2k

-

1)b

 

-

y,a

-

x,z)

 

+

 

k=l

 

~(a

 

-

x,(2k

 

-

1)b

-

r,z)

 

+

~(a

 

-

x,y

+

2(k

 

-

1)b,z)]

 

-

~[r

 

(2k

-3)b,a

 

-

x,z)

 

+

r

1)b

-

y,a

-

x,z)

 

+

 

k=2

 

~(a

 

-

x,2(k

 

-

1)b

-

y,z)

 

+

~(a

 

-

x,y-

(2k

 

-

3)b,z)]

 

+

~(x,2kb

 

-

y,z)

+ ~(2kb

 

-

y,x,z)3

 

Iho.

For even number case (n

 

=

2k,

 

k

=

1,

2,"')

 
 

K

Bx

=-

~[~_j[r(a-

 

x,y-

 

(2k-

 

1)b,z)

+

1"(a-

 

x,2kb-

 

y,z)

 

-

 

k=l

 

F(x,y-

 

(2k-

 

1)b,z)

 

-

F(x,2kb

 

-

y,z)]

-

~,[r(a

 

-

*,r

-2(k

 

-

1)b,z)

+

r(a

-

x,(2k

 

-

1)b

 

-

y,z)

 

-

 

k=2

 

F(x,y

 

-

2(k

-

1)b,z)

 

-

F(x,(2k

 

-

1)b

-

y,z)]]

 

Ioh,

By

K[

F(2kb

 

-

y,x

z)

+ F(2kb

-

y

a-

x,z)

+

 

r(y,x,z)

 

+ F(y,a

 

-

x,z)]

 

h

[o,

Bz

=-

K[-

 

~(y,x,z)

 

-

$(x,y,z)

+

~(x,2kb

 

-

y,z)

 

+ ~(2kb

-

y,x,z)

+

~[~(y-

 

(2k

-

 

1)b,a

 

-

x,z)

+

~(a

-

x,y-

 

(2k

-

1)b,z)

 

+

 

/t=l

 

~(2kb

 

-

y,a

 

-

x,z)

 

+

~(a

 

-

x

,2kb

-

y,z)]

 

-

~,,[~(y-

 

2(k

-

 

1)b,a

 

-

x,z)

+

~(a

-

 

x,(2k

 

-

1)b

-

y,z)

 

+

 

k=2

 

r

-

1)b

 

-

y,a

 

-

x,z)

 

+

~(a-

 

x,y-2(k-

 

1)b,z)]][o.

h

(16)

(17)

(18)

(19)

(20)

(21)

  • 302 GOU Xiao-fan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiao-jing

  • 3 Results and Discussion

Firstly, it is necessary to determine only one parameter---equivalent current density J

(or

constant K ) in the analytic expressions--before calculating magnetic field of permanent magnets.

One just needs to measure one of the magnetic induction components at an arbitrary point in the

space out of a given permanent magnet, such as Bz. Having substituted this value, such as B~,

into one of the analytic expressions,

which should be related to this measured value,

one can

solve equivalent current density J of this given magnet. For example, if one can know the

magnetic induction component B~ of a rectangular permanent magnet bulk at the point P( a/2,

b/2, z), the equivalent current density J of this magnet can be gotten as

J

/~o[r

B, Tr

+ r

]~

(22)

For the sake of testing the analytic expressions, we take the rectangular permanent magnet with

the length a = 30mm, width b = 40mm,

h = 5mm, and thickness h = 5minas an example, whose

magnetic field intensity on its surface is about 0.2 T (corresponding J

=

8.550 x

105 A/m2). The

magnetic field at different points

in

the

space out

of

the

magnet has been

calculated by the

 

0.3

--o-d=l ram

--~d=5mm

" "'~

 

formulas (12) ~ (14). These calculating results

0.2

--~--d = 2 mm

 

show that the values of B~ or By are much less

 

~r-d= l0 mm

than

those

of B~ in

the main region

of

a

x

b.

In

 

0.1

--~d = 30 r~

   
 

addition,

the

distributions

of

B~ and

By

are

antisymmetrical about the line x

=

a/2

and y

=

-0.1

 

b/2,

respectively;

while the distribution

of

B z

is

-

0.2~

symmetrical about the geometric center of the

-0.3'

 

magnet. Fig. 3 (a),

Fig. 3 (b)

and Fig. 3 (c)

show

0

i

1'0

1'5

20

2~5

30

the distributions of B,, (x,

b/2,

d),

By ( a/2,

y,

 

x/mm

 
 

d)

and

B~ (x,

b/2,

d)

for different distances

Fig.3(a)

The distribution of B~ along

 

away from the

top

(or

bottom)

surface of

the

the line y

=

b/2

 

magnet.

From

Fig. 3,

it

is

also found that

with

 

0.3

.-~-d= l mm

 

0.20

 
 

+d=2ram

 

-o-d--l.=

 

0.2

--~- d = 5 mm

 

0.15

 
 

~d=10mm

 

0.1

--a-- d = 30 mm

 
 

,r

0.10

 

-0.1'

 

-

0.2~

0.05,

-0.3~

 
 

0

10

20

30

40

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

 

y/mm

 

x /mm

 
 

Fig.3(b)

The distribution of By along

 

ng.3(e)

The distribution of B~ along

 
 

the line x

=

a/2

the line y

=

b/2

Magnetic Field Distribution of Rectangular Permanent Magnets

303

the distance d increasing, the distributions of all the magnetic induction components are becoming

uniform, but their values are becoming small. At the same time, the distribution of B~ changes

with the distance d increasing.

In

the region close to the

top

(or bottom)

surface of the magnet,

the values of

B~ near

the

center of the

magnet

are lower than those near the boundaries

of the

magnet. When the distanceis big enough, the values of B e near the center of the magnet are

higher than those near the boundaries of the magnet. For example, when d = 1 mm the transverse

magnetic field distribution displays that the values at the points near the center of the magnet are

lower than those at the points near the boundaries, and the values at the boundaries approach to

zero, which is consistent with the

experimental results I~~ .

So,

the

analytic expressions of the

magnetic field of the permanent magnets, given in this paper, are reasonable and credible.

According to the main characteristics of the magnetic field distribution shown in Fig. 3, one

can fred that the transverse magnetic field B~ is main magnetic field. In following discussion,

more attention to the transverse magnetic field B, will be paid to. As we know in applications,

such as mag-lev system where levitated body is generally located in the center region over and

close to permanent magnets (that is, the distance away from magnets' center is in the size range

of the magnet thickness), much more uniform transverse magnetic fields in magnitude and in

distribution are required. So we define fll = B,o ~Be, and fiE = So/S respectively as the uniformity

in magnitude and the uniformity in distribution of the transverse magnetic field. Where B~0

denotes the transverse magnetic field in the center region over the magnet.

B~ denotes the value

at the points near the boundaries over the magnet (for example,

for the

magnet with size a

=

b

=

20 ram,

one can take

the value at the point which

is

2 mm

away from the boundary of the

magnet).

So is

an

area in which the

values of the

magnetic

field are not

lower than 5%

of B~o,

and the center of So is the geometric center of the magnet' s surface;

 

S is

the area

(that is,

S

=

ab )

of the magnet' s top (or bottom)

surface.

Since the values of the magnetic field at the center

region are lower than those at the nearby boundaries,

that

is,

B,

,

both of the uniformity in

magnitude and the uniformity in distribution of the magnetic field are less than 1,

and we hope

both of them

are close to

1 in application.

The

more the values of 131 and f12 close

to

l,

the less

the change in magnitude of the magnetic field and the larger the center region are.

For the purpose of analyzing quantitatively the variation of the uniformity in fl~ and in f12,

the permanent magnet (corresponding J is still 8.550 x 105 A/m E ) with size a

=

b

=

20 mm is

taken as an example.

The calculated results show that Bzo is varied with the distance away from

the magnet' s top (or bottom) surface. Fig. 4 shows the variational relation between the transverse

magnetic field and the distance for h

=

5

mm.

From Fig. 4,

it

is

found that

the value of B,0

decreases rapidly with d increasing; the values of B,o at

d = l0 mm and d = 20 mm are

respectively equal to 32.5%

and

12.6%

of those

at

d

=

1

mm,

which is accordant with

experimental results [7] . The curves about the uniformity in magnitude fl~ and the uniformity in

distribution f12 varied with the distance d for different thick-to-length ratio h/a of the permanent

magnet are shown

in

Fig.

5

and

Fig. 6,

respectively.

Fig.

5

shows

that the

uniformity in fll

increases first, then decreases,

at last approaches to a constant for different thick-to-length ration

  • 304 GOU Xiao-fan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiao-jing

0.25

1.5

0.20

,\

1.4

 

\

1.3

0.15

1.2

1.1

0.10

1.0

I

 

0.05

0.9

0.8

 

0

 

lb

i5

3o

0.7

|

t

i

0

10

20

30

40

 

d/ram

d /mm

Fig.4

The center transverse magnetic field with the distance

Fig.5

The uniformity in magnitude with the distance

h/a

with d increasing.

According to the definition of the uniformity in magnitude /31 of the

magnetic field, /31 ~ 1 means the change of the values of transverse magnetic field in the region

over the magnet is very small, which is just needed in application. So, from Fig. 5, one can find that the transverse magnetic field distribution has a good uniform at the distance d = 1 mm for the magnet h/a = 0.5 as well as at the distance d = 2.5 mm for h/a = 0.1. In general, for spacial points, the farther they are away from the magnet's top (or bottom) surface, the more uniform their transverse magnetic field distribution is. However, the values of the magnetic field are becoming small with d increasing.

1.0

O.g

~t

I

/~,

0.6

O.4

0.~

--e--h/a=O.l

-e-h/a=0.2

--~

0.5

0.4

~.

0.3

~"

O.2

0.1

o

i

d/mm

k

lo

Fig. 6

The uniformity in distribution with the distance

0.5

1.0

h/a

1.5

2.0

Fig.7

The center transverse magnetic field with the thick-to-length ratio

Figure. 6 shows that the uniformity in t2 is varied with thick-to-length ratio of the magnet.

From Fig. 6, one can find that the uniformity in/32 changes in different ways, and the location of its maximum value is different for different thick-to-length ratio of the magnet. For a permanent magnet with small thick-to-length ratio, such as h/a = 0.1 or h/a = 0.2, the uniformity in

distribution /32 increases slowly, then increases suddenly at a certain distance,

and finally

decreases rapidly. For a permanent magnet with large thick-to-length ratio such as h/a

=

0.5,

t2 achieves the largest value when the distance d is very small,

then rapidly and monotonously

decreases with d increasing. When d = 8 mm, the uniformity in/32 is almost lower than 0.1.

The transverse magnetic field in center region over the permanent magnet B~o, the uniformity

Magnetic Field Distribution of Rectangular Permanent Magnets

305

in magnitude •1 and the uniformity in distribution f12 with the thick-to-length ratio of the magnet

for different distance d

are plotted respectively in Figs. 7,

8

and

9.

Figs. 7

and

8

show that the

magnetic field Bzo and the uniformity in magnitude fll are varied increasedly with the thick-to-

length ratio increasing,

then approach to a constant when h/a

is close

to 2 for B,0 and

larger than

0.6

for fll, respectively; In addition,

B~o decreases with the distance d increasing and the case is

reverse to fll 9The variation of the uniformity in distribution f12 with the thick-to-length ratio of the

magnet is plotted in Fig. 9,

which

is

similar to the case

shown

in

Fig. 6.

That is,

the change of

fiE is in different ways for different distance d.

However,

with the thick-to-length ratio of the

magnet increasing, the uniformity in distribution f12 decreases and gradually approaches to level

whenh/a > 0.8.

0.8

1.4

0.7

 

1.2

1.0

#1

#2

 

0.6~

--o-d= 1 ~

 

0.4

0.2

 

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

.0

 

h/a

 

Fig. 8

The uniformity in magnitude with

 

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

Fig. 9

the thick-to-length ratio

,

--o- d =

1 "ram

---a-d = 2 mm

~d--5

mm

......................

i

012

014

016

h/a

018

't.o

The uniformity in distribution with

the thick-to-length ratio

4

Conclusions

Based on the Biot-Savart's law, the analytic formulas of calculating magnetic field

distribution of rectangular permanent magnets am derived in this paper. The main characteristics of

the magnetic field distribution and its varying from the geometric size and the distance away from

the top (or bottom) surface of the magnet am investigated in detail by these analytic formulas. The

calculating results show that the geometric size of permanent magnets such as thick-to-length ratio

h/a, and the distance away from the top (or bottom) surface of the magnet have strong influence

on the distribution of the transverse magnetic field, the uniformity in magnitude fll and the

uniformity in distribution fiE- In general, the uniformity in fll increases with the distance d

increasing within a certain range of the distance. However, the uniformity in distribution/32 changes

in different ways, which relates to the thick-to-length ratio of the magnet. As well, the uniformity

in magnitude fl~ increases with the thick-to-length ratio of the magnet increasing, and the uniformity

in distribution fla changes with the thick-to-length ratio of the magnet in different ways, which

relates to the distance away from the magnet. In order to achieve a good distribution of the

magnetic field, it is very necessary to take great account of these influencing factors in the design

of the geometric sizes of the permanent magnets and their arrangement. Obviously, it is much

convenient and credible for doing this design based on the analytic formulas of calculating magnetic

  • 306 GOU Xiao-fan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiao-jing

field distribution of permanent magnets, given in this paper.

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I-1]

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[2]

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