Applied Mathematics and Mechanics
(English Edition,
Vol 25,
No 3,
Mar 2004)
Published by Shanghai University,
Shanghai,
China
9 Committee of Appl. Math. Mech., ISSN 02534827 Article ID: 02534827(2004)03029710
ANALYTIC
EXPRESSION
OF MAGNETIC
FIELD
DISTRIBUTION
OF RECTANGULAR
PERMANENT
MAGNETS
*
GOU Xiaofan (;~jl~Jq~),
YANG Yong (~
g]),
ZHENG Xiaojing (ik~l~Ji)
(Department of Mechanics, College of Physical Science and Technology,
Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000,
P.R. China)
(Communicated by CHEN Shanlin)
Abstract: From the molecular current viewpoint, an analytic expression exactly describing magnetic field distribution of rectangular permanent magnets magnetized sufficiently in one direction was derived from the BiotSavart' s law. This expression is useful not only for the case of one rectangular permanent magnet bulk, but also for that of several rectangular permanent magnet bulks. By using this expression, the relations between magnetic field distribution and the size of rectangular permanent magnets as well as the magnitude of magnetic field and the distance from the point in the space to the top ( or bottom) surface of rectangular permanent magnets were discussed in detail. All the calculating results are consistent with experimental ones. For transverse magnetic field which is a main magnetic field of rectangular permanent magnets, in order to describe its distribution, two quantities, one is the uniformity in magnitude and the other is the uniformity in distribution of magnetic field, were defined. Furthermore, the relations between them and the geometric size of the magnet as well as the distance from the surface of permanent magnets were investigated by these formulas. The numerical results show that the geometric size and the distance have a visible influence on the uniformity in magnitude and the uniformity in distribution of the magnetic field.
Key words: permanent magnet; magnetic field distribution; analytic expression
Chinese Library Classification: O441.6
Document code:
A
2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 78A30; 78M99
Introduction
Permanent magnets which are usually used to produce magnetic field, are very widely adopted in engineering, such as the guide of magnetic levitation vehicle system 'L1] and permanent
* 
Received date: 20020409; 
Revised date: 
20031131 

Foundation items: the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10132010); 
the National 
Natural Science Foundation of China for Outstanding Young Researchers (10025208); PreResearch for
Key Basic Researches of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China; the Fund of Excellent Teachers in University of the Education Ministry of China
Biographies:
GOU Xiaofan ( 1971 
),
Doctor ( Email : xfgou @ 163. com);
ZHENG Xiaojing
( Corresponding author) ( Tel: 8609318912112 ; Fax: 8609318625576 ; Email: xjzheng @ lzu. edu. cn)
297
298 GOU Xiaofan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiaojing
magnets in high Tc superconducting levitation system E2'3] etc
In these engineering applications,
.. it is very important to investigate magnetic field distribution of permanent magnets. However, it
is difficult to know the exact distribution of permanent magnets, especially for the complex
configuration of magnets [a] . So, many numerical
methods are suggested to obtain the magnetic
field distribution of permanent magnets. In general, there are two calculating models which are used to characterize magnetic field distribution of permanent magnets. One is the scalar potential model and the other is the vector potential model [5'6] . The former is based on the magnetic charge viewpoint, and the latter is based on the molecular current viewpoint (including surface current and volume current). Both
models are based on the Maxwell equations. By introducing magnetic scalar potential or magnetic vector potential, a set of differential equations about magnetic scalar potential or magnetic vector potential are obtained, and are usually solved by the boundary element method (BEM)ET] or finite element method (FEM) [8] . Besides their complexity, this kind of numerical program is dependent on some parameters such as magnetic permeability (linear case) or magnetization curve (nonlinear case) of permanent magnets which are gotten by experimental measurements for the permanent magnet. An analytic expression [9] of magnetic field distribution was given by using the molecular current model, but only the field on the surface of one rectangular permanent magnet bulk can be gotten. As well, the magnetic field distribution gotten by the expression is not supported by experimental one El~ . According to the molecular current model, a set of analytic expressions based on the Biot Savart' s law are derived in this paper. The magnetic field distribution, not only for one
rectangular permanent magnet
bulk
magnetized
sufficiently in
one
direction,
but
also
for
n
rectangular permanent magnet bulks arranged by alternating north pole N and south pole S of the
magnet can be calculated by these analytic expressions. The expressions are only dependent on
one parameter,
that is,
the equivalent current density J of the magnet,
which can be determined
by the expression once the value of one of the magnetic induction intensity components of the magnet at an arbitrary point in the space is known. Using this method, the distribution of magnetic induction components B x , By and B~ of rectangular permanent magnets are quantitatively simulated in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of the size of rectangular permanent magnets and the distance away from the magnet's top (or bottom) surface on the uniformity in magnitude and the uniformity in distribution are investigated.
1 Analytic
Expression of Magnetic
Let' s consider a rectangular permanent magnet with length a, width b and thickness h (see
Fig. 1 ),
which is magnetized sufficiently in one direction
and saturated. Its magnetic vector M is
assumed a constant.
From the viewpoint of the molecular current model, the magnetic field at an
arbitrary point in the space out of the magnet is produced by all the molecular current of the
magnet.
As the result of magnetized uniformly, there exists not all the molecular current but the
surface current in the magnet. So it is reasonable that only the surface loop ABCD current contributes to the magnetic field. Here we assume that the current strength in the loop is I, so the
current density in the plane is parallel to the plane zy,
and
J
=
I/h.
Denoting a point in the magnet as ( x0, Y0, z0 ) and an arbitrary point in the space out of the
Magnetic Field Distribution of Rectangular Permanent Magnets
299
magnet as P(x, 
y, 
z), 
we 
take the 
very thin layer 
z 
p(z,r,z) 

between the plane z = z0 and z = z0 + dz0, as shown 
D~, 
b 
~,C 

in 
Fig. 
1. 
In 
this 
thin 
layer, 
the 
current 
loop 
is 
/i~ 
. 
. 
~. 
, 
...... 
/~c' 

,~. 
..... 
.... 

denoted as A'B'C'D' 
and its current strength is Jdzo. 
~r 
~ ........ 
h 

If we denote the magnetic field at point P ( x, 
y, 
z ), 

produced by the current loop A'B'C'D', as dB, 
the 

magnetic field at point P (x, 
y, 
z), 
produced by the 
IA,o 

magnet can be written as follows: 
'z 
s 

B 
= 
B~i 
+ 
Byj 
+ 
B,k 

i = f~_(dB~i 
+ 
dBrj 
+ 
dB, 
k), 
(1) 
Fig. 1 
One permanent magnet bulk 
.)0
Y
wheredB~, 
dBr and dB~ are the magnetic induction components in the direction of x, 
y 
and z at 

the point 
P( 
x, 
y, z) produced by current loop A'B'C'D', 
which are composed of four sections 

of A'B', 
B'C', 
C'D' and D'A' 
. 
Here we take the section of A'B' 
( xo 
= 
a) as an example, and 

derive the formulas of d B~, d By 
and d B e . 
From the BiotSavart' s law
dB 
 
I~~ Idl x 
r 
(2) 

47r 
r 2 
' 

where/10 
= 
4a" 
x 
10 7 is magnetic permeability in the air, 
and 
r 
is a vector from source points 

(where current unit is located) to the field point P(x, 
y, 
z). 
For the section of A'B' 
we have 

,uoJdz o [b 
(z 
 
zo)dyo 

dB~ 
_ 
47t 
Jo 
[(x 
 
a) 2 
+ 
(y 
yo) 2 
+ 
(z 
Zo)2] 3/2' 
(3) 

dBy, 
= 
0, 
(4) 

uoJdz orb 
(a 
 
x)dyo 

dB~, 
 
4rt 
Jo 
[(x 
a) 2 
+ 
(y 
yo) 2 
+ 
(z 
Zo)2] 3/2' 
(5) 

using the same method, dB,, 
dBy, 
and dB,, ( i 
= 
2, 
3, 
4) can be obtained from the sections of 

B'C", C'D', 
and 
D'A'. 
To describe simply, 
we introduce 

K 
/1~ J 
r 

 
4rr 
' 
~,(r162162 
= 
(r 
+ 
r 
+ 
r 
(i 
= 
1, 
2, 
3), 
(6) 
where ~i 
is a function notation related to the independent variable r 
r 
and 
r 

field produced by the current loop A'B'C'D' 
can be expressed as follows: 

dBx 
= 
dB,, 
+ dB,2 
+ 
dB,, 
+ dB,, 
= 

K 0 
gr3(x 
 
a,y 
 
yo,z 
 
zo)dyo +0 
K 
0 
gr3(x,y 
yo,z 
 

K 0 
[kP'3(x  
a,y 
 
yo,z 
 
Zo) 
 
"tr~3(x,y 
 
Yo,Z 
 
Zo)]dyo, 

dBy 
= 
dBy, 
+ dBy2 
+ 
dBy 3 
+ 
dBy, 
= 

KI~aF3(x 
xo, 
y 
 
b,z 
 
zo)dxo 
+ 0 
 
KI~'trz3(X 
 
xo, 
y,z 
 

KI'E 3<x  
xo, 
y 
 
b,z 
 
Zo) 
 
aF3(x 
 
xo, 
y,z 
_{Z}_{O}_{)} 3dxo , 
.10
9The magnetic 

zo)dy o +0 
= 

(7) 

zo)dxo 
+ 0 
= 
(8)
300 GOU Xiaofan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiaojing
dB~ 
= 
dB~, 
+ 
dB~2 + 
dB~3 + 
dB~, 
= 

Kf~alr2(x 
xo,y,z 
zo)dxo 
Kf~ ~2(x 
 
xo,y 
 
b,z 
 
zo)dxo 
+ 

grl(x,y 
 
yo,z 
 
zo)dyo  
grl(x 
 
a,y 
 
yo,z 
 
zo)dyo 
= 

0 

[gq(x 
 
xo,y,z 
 
Zo) 
 
gq(x 
 
Xo,y 
b,z 
 
Zo)~dxo + 

gtl(x,y 
 
yo,z 
 
Zo) 
 gt~(~ 
_ 
a,y 
 
yo,z 
 
Zo)~dyo. 
(9) 

Having substituted Eqs. (7) 
~ 
(9) 
into Eq. (1), 
we introduce two functions as follows: 

/'~( ~"1, ~/2, ~/3 ) 
: 
In 
~/~ 
+ 
r~ 
+ (r~  
zo) ~ 
 
r2 
(lO) 

~/~ 
+ 
~'~ 
+ (7~  
~o)~ 
+ 
r~' 

I 
93  
ZO 
] 

r 
= 
arctan 
~22,x/92 
+ 9 2 :(;3 
Zo) 2 
' 
if 
y#O, 
(11) 

tO 
if 
y=O, 

here P is a function notation about the independent variable )'t, 
?'2 and 
~'3 ; 
and # 
is 
a function 

notation about the independent variable 91, 
92 
and 
93. 
Then the magnetic field at the arbitrary 
point P ( x, 
y, 
z) 

B~ 
= 
dBx 

r(~,y,~) 

Bs 
= f:dBy 

r(y,~,~) 

B~ 
= f:dB~ 

r 

r 
in the space out of the permanent magnet ABCDA can be written as
=~E/'(a 
x,y,z) 
+ E'(a 
x,b 
 
y,z) 
 

 
r(~,b 
 
y,z)~lo, 
h 

=K[p(by,x,z) 
+ P(b 
y,a 
x,z) 

 
r(y,~ 
 
~,~)]1o, 
h 

= 
K[r 
x,z) 
+ 
r 
y,a 
x,z) 
+ 

 
y,z) 
+ 
r 
 
x,b 
 
y,z) 
+ 
r 
 
y,x,z) 
+ 

+ 
r 
 x,y,z) 
+ 
r 
h 1o, 
(12) 

(13) 

(14) 

[" 
] 
at 
z 0 
= 
h 
and 
at 
where "[ ] ] 0h" denotes the subtractionbetween the value of the function
z o 
= 
0. 
Therefore, 
it is obvious that we can obtain the magnetic field distribution at an arbitrary 

point P(x, 
y, 
z) in the space out of the permanent by using analytic expressions Eqs. (12) 
~ 

(14). 

2 
For 
n 
Permanent 
Magnet Bulks 

It is assumed that there are n permanent magnet bulks which are alternately arranged with the 

north 
pole 
N 
and 
south pole 
S 
(see 
Fig. 2), and the north 
N 
of 
the 
fwst bulk that is the farthest 

one 
away 
from x axis, 
is 
up. 
In this coordinate system, shown in Fig. 2, the magnetic field 

created by mth magnet bulk can be calculated by the expressions 
(12) 
 
(14) 
as 
long 
as 
the 

coordinates x, 
y and 
z 
in 
the 
expressions 
(12) 
~ 
(14) are substituted by 

x 
= 
x, 
y 
= y(m1)b, 
z 
= 
z, 
(15) 
Magnetic Field Distribution of Rectangular Permanent Magnets
301
where 
m 
is 
an 
arbitrary 
bulk 
in 
n bulks. 
Having 
*A 

superimposed 
the 
magnetic 
field 
created 
by 
each 

magnet bulk, 
the calculating formulas at an 
arbitrary 
/ 

point P (x, 
y, 
z) 
in 
the 
space out of the permanent 

magnet bulks are obtained as follows: 

For odd 
number 
case 
(n 
= 
2k 
1, 
k 
= 
1, 

2,'") 
h 

Bx : 
K{~[F(a 
 
x,y 
g~ 
S 
N 

2(k 
 
1)b,z) 
+ 
/'(a 
 
x, 

(2k 
 
1)b 
 
y,z) 
 
I'(x,y 
+ 
Fig. 2 
n permanent 
magnet bulks 

2(k 
 
1)b,z) 
 
/'(x,(2k 
 
1)b 
 
y,z)] 
 

~],[_Y'(a 
 
x,y 
 
(2k 
 
3)b,z) 
+ 
F(a 
 
x,2(k 
 1)b 
 
y,z) 
 

k=2 

F(x,y 
(2k3)b,z) 
 
F(x,2(k 
 
1)b 
 
y,z)]}[o 
h, 

K 

B, 
=  
~[/'((2k 
 
1)b 
 
y,x,z) 
+ P((2k 
 
1)b 
 
y,a 
 
x,z) 
 

r( y,x,z) 
 
r( 
y,a 
 
x,z) 
h ] [o, 

8, 
= 
K[~(y,x,z) 
+ ~(x,y,~) 
+ 

~(x,(2k 
 
1)b  
y,z) 
+ ~((2k 
 
1)b  
y,x,z) 
+ 

]>]j[ ~(y 
+ 
2(k  
1)b,a 
 
x,z) 
+ ~((2k 
 
1)b 
 
y,a 
 
x,z) 
+ 

k=l 

~(a 
 
x,(2k 
 
1)b 
 
r,z) 
+ 
~(a 
 
x,y 
+ 
2(k 
 
1)b,z)] 
 

~[r 
(2k 3)b,a 
 
x,z) 
+ 
r 
1)b 
 
y,a 
 
x,z) 
+ 

k=2 

~(a 
 
x,2(k 
 
1)b 
 
y,z) 
+ 
~(a 
 
x,y 
(2k 
 
3)b,z)] 
+ 

~(x,2kb 
 
y,z) 
+ ~(2kb 
 
y,x,z)3 
Iho. 

For even number case (n 
= 2k, 
k 
= 
1, 
2,"') 

K 

Bx 
= 
~[~_j[r(a 
x,y 
(2k 
1)b,z) 
+ 
1"(a 
x,2kb 
y,z) 
 

k=l 

F(x,y 
(2k 
1)b,z) 
 
F(x,2kb 
 
y,z)] 
 

~,[r(a 
 
*,r 
2(k 
 
1)b,z) 
+ 
r(a 
 
x,(2k 
 1)b 
 
y,z) 
 

k=2 

F(x,y 
 
2(k 
 
1)b,z) 
 
F(x,(2k 
 
1)b 
 
y,z)]] 
Ioh, 

By 
K[ 
F(2kb 
 
y,x 
z) 
+ F(2kb 
 
y 
a 
x,z) 
+ 

r(y,x,z) 
+ F(y,a 
 
x,z)] 
h [o, 

Bz 
= 
K[ 
~(y,x,z) 
 
$(x,y,z) 
+ 
~(x,2kb 
 
y,z) 
+ ~(2kb 
 
y,x,z) + 

~[~(y 
(2k  
1)b,a 
 
x,z) 
+ 
~(a  
x,y 
(2k 
 
1)b,z) 
+ 

/t=l 

~(2kb 
 
y,a 
 x,z) 
+ 
~(a 
 
x 
,2kb 
 y,z)] 
 

~,,[~(y 
2(k  
1)b,a 
 
x,z) 
+ 
~(a  
x,(2k 
 
1)b 
 
y,z) 
+ 

k=2 

r 
 
1)b 
 y,a 
 
x,z) 
+ 
~(a 
x,y2(k 
1)b,z)]][o. 
h 
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
302 GOU Xiaofan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiaojing
3 Results and Discussion
Firstly, it is necessary to determine only one parameterequivalent current density J
(or
constant K ) in the analytic expressionsbefore calculating magnetic field of permanent magnets.
One just needs to measure one of the magnetic induction components at an arbitrary point in the
space out of a given permanent magnet, such as Bz. Having substituted this value, such as B~,
into one of the analytic expressions,
which should be related to this measured value,
one can
solve equivalent current density J of this given magnet. For example, if one can know the
magnetic induction component B~ of a rectangular permanent magnet bulk at the point P( a/2,
b/2, z), the equivalent current density J of this magnet can be gotten as
J
/~o[r
B, Tr
+ r
]~
(22)
For the sake of testing the analytic expressions, we take the rectangular permanent magnet with
the length a = 30mm, width b = 40mm,
h = 5mm, and thickness h = 5minas an example, whose
magnetic field intensity on its surface is about 0.2 T (corresponding J 
= 
8.550 x 
105 A/m2). The 

magnetic field at different points 
in the 
space out 
of the magnet has been 
calculated by the 

0.3 
od=l ram ~d=5mm 
" "'~ 
formulas (12) ~ (14). These calculating results 

0.2 
~d = 2 mm 
show that the values of B~ or By are much less 

~rd= l0 mm 
than those 
of B~ in 
the main region 
of 
a 
x 
b. 
In 

0.1 
~d = 30 r~ 

addition, 
the 
distributions 
of 
B~ and 
By 
are 

antisymmetrical about the line x 
= 
a/2 
and y 
= 

0.1 
b/2, 
respectively; 
while the distribution 
of 
B z 
is 

 
0.2~ 
symmetrical about the geometric center of the 

0.3' 
magnet. Fig. 3 (a), 
Fig. 3 (b) 
and Fig. 3 (c) 
show 

0 
i 
1'0 
1'5 
20 
2~5 
30 
the distributions of B,, (x, 
b/2, d), 
By ( a/2, y, 

x/mm 

d) and B~ (x, 
b/2, 
d) 
for different distances 

Fig.3(a) 
The distribution of B~ along 
away from the 
top 
(or bottom) 
surface of the 

the line y 
= b/2 
magnet. 
From 
Fig. 3, 
it 
is 
also found that 
with 

0.3 
.~d= l mm 
0.20 

+d=2ram 
odl.= 

0.2 
~ d = 5 mm 
0.15 

~d=10mm 

0.1 
a d = 30 mm 

,r 
0.10 

0.1' 

 
0.2~ 
0.05, 

0.3~ 

0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
0 
5 
10 
15 
20 
25 
30 

y/mm 
x /mm 

Fig.3(b) 
The distribution of By along 
ng.3(e) 
The distribution of B~ along 

the line x 
= a/2 
the line y 
= 
b/2 
Magnetic Field Distribution of Rectangular Permanent Magnets
303
the distance d increasing, the distributions of all the magnetic induction components are becoming
uniform, but their values are becoming small. At the same time, the distribution of B~ changes
with the distance d increasing.
In
the region close to the
top
(or bottom)
surface of the magnet,
the values of
B~ near
the
center of the
magnet
are lower than those near the boundaries
of the
magnet. When the distanceis big enough, the values of B e near the center of the magnet are
higher than those near the boundaries of the magnet. For example, when d = 1 mm the transverse
magnetic field distribution displays that the values at the points near the center of the magnet are
lower than those at the points near the boundaries, and the values at the boundaries approach to
zero, which is consistent with the
experimental results I~~ .
So,
the
analytic expressions of the
magnetic field of the permanent magnets, given in this paper, are reasonable and credible.
According to the main characteristics of the magnetic field distribution shown in Fig. 3, one
can fred that the transverse magnetic field B~ is main magnetic field. In following discussion,
more attention to the transverse magnetic field B, will be paid to. As we know in applications,
such as maglev system where levitated body is generally located in the center region over and
close to permanent magnets (that is, the distance away from magnets' center is in the size range
of the magnet thickness), much more uniform transverse magnetic fields in magnitude and in
distribution are required. So we define fll = B,o ~Be, and fiE = So/S respectively as the uniformity
in magnitude and the uniformity in distribution of the transverse magnetic field. Where B~0
denotes the transverse magnetic field in the center region over the magnet.
B~ denotes the value
at the points near the boundaries over the magnet (for example, 
for the 
magnet with size a 
= 

b 
= 20 ram, 
one can take the value at the point which 
is 2 mm 
away from the boundary of the 

magnet). So is 
an area in which the values of the magnetic 
field are not 
lower than 5% 
of B~o, 

and the center of So is the geometric center of the magnet' s surface; 
S is 
the area 
(that is, 
S 
= 

ab ) 
of the magnet' s top (or bottom) surface. 
Since the values of the magnetic field at the center 

region are lower than those at the nearby boundaries, 
that 
is, 
B, 
, 
both of the uniformity in 

magnitude and the uniformity in distribution of the magnetic field are less than 1, 
and we hope 

both of them 
are close to 1 in application. 
The more the values of 131 and f12 close 
to 
l, the less 
the change in magnitude of the magnetic field and the larger the center region are.
For the purpose of analyzing quantitatively the variation of the uniformity in fl~ and in f12,
the permanent magnet (corresponding J is still 8.550 x 105 A/m E ) with size a
=
b
=
20 mm is
taken as an example.
The calculated results show that Bzo is varied with the distance away from
the magnet' s top (or bottom) surface. Fig. 4 shows the variational relation between the transverse
magnetic field and the distance for h 
= 
5 
mm. From Fig. 4, 
it 
is found that 
the value of B,0 

decreases rapidly with d increasing; the values of B,o at 
d = l0 mm and d = 20 mm are 

respectively equal to 32.5% 
and 12.6% 
of those 
at 
d 
= 
1 
mm, which is accordant with 
experimental results [7] . The curves about the uniformity in magnitude fl~ and the uniformity in
distribution f12 varied with the distance d for different thicktolength ratio h/a of the permanent
magnet are shown
in
Fig.
5
and
Fig. 6,
respectively.
Fig.
5
shows
that the
uniformity in fll
increases first, then decreases,
at last approaches to a constant for different thicktolength ration
304 GOU Xiaofan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiaojing
0.25 
1.5 

0.20 
,\ 
1.4 

\ 
1.3 

0.15 
1.2 

1.1 

0.10 
1.0 
I 

0.05 
0.9 

0.8 

0 
lb 
i5 
3o 
0.7 
 
t 
i 

0 
10 
20 
30 
40 

d/ram 
d /mm 
Fig.4
The center transverse magnetic field with the distance
Fig.5
The uniformity in magnitude with the distance
h/a
with d increasing.
According to the definition of the uniformity in magnitude /31 of the
magnetic field, /31 ~ 1 means the change of the values of transverse magnetic field in the region
over the magnet is very small, which is just needed in application. So, from Fig. 5, one can find that the transverse magnetic field distribution has a good uniform at the distance d = 1 mm for the magnet h/a = 0.5 as well as at the distance d = 2.5 mm for h/a = 0.1. In general, for spacial points, the farther they are away from the magnet's top (or bottom) surface, the more uniform their transverse magnetic field distribution is. However, the values of the magnetic field are becoming small with d increasing.
1.0
O.g
~t
I
/~,
0.6
O.4
0.~
eh/a=O.l
eh/a=0.2
~
0.5
0.4
~.
0.3
~"
O.2
0.1
o
i
d/mm
k
lo
Fig. 6
The uniformity in distribution with the distance
0.5
1.0
h/a
1.5
2.0
Fig.7
The center transverse magnetic field with the thicktolength ratio
Figure. 6 shows that the uniformity in t2 is varied with thicktolength ratio of the magnet.
From Fig. 6, one can find that the uniformity in/32 changes in different ways, and the location of its maximum value is different for different thicktolength ratio of the magnet. For a permanent magnet with small thicktolength ratio, such as h/a = 0.1 or h/a = 0.2, the uniformity in
distribution /32 increases slowly, then increases suddenly at a certain distance,
and finally
decreases rapidly. For a permanent magnet with large thicktolength ratio such as h/a
=
0.5,
t2 achieves the largest value when the distance d is very small,
then rapidly and monotonously
decreases with d increasing. When d = 8 mm, the uniformity in/32 is almost lower than 0.1.
The transverse magnetic field in center region over the permanent magnet B~o, the uniformity
Magnetic Field Distribution of Rectangular Permanent Magnets
305
in magnitude •1 and the uniformity in distribution f12 with the thicktolength ratio of the magnet
for different distance d
are plotted respectively in Figs. 7,
8
and
9.
Figs. 7
and
8
show that the
magnetic field Bzo and the uniformity in magnitude fll are varied increasedly with the thickto
length ratio increasing,
then approach to a constant when h/a
is close
to 2 for B,0 and
larger than
0.6
for fll, respectively; In addition,
B~o decreases with the distance d increasing and the case is
reverse to fll 9The variation of the uniformity in distribution f12 with the thicktolength ratio of the
magnet is plotted in Fig. 9,
which
is
similar to the case
shown
in
Fig. 6.
That is,
the change of
fiE is in different ways for different distance d.
However,
with the thicktolength ratio of the
magnet increasing, the uniformity in distribution f12 decreases and gradually approaches to level
whenh/a > 0.8.
0.8
1.4
0.7
1.2 

1.0 

#1 
#2 

0.6~ 
od= 1 ~ 

0.4 

0.2 

0 0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
0.8 
.0 

h/a 

Fig. 8 
The uniformity in magnitude with 
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Fig. 9
the thicktolength ratio
,
o d =
1 "ram
ad = 2 mm
~d5
mm
......................
i
012
014
016
h/a
018
't.o
The uniformity in distribution with
the thicktolength ratio
4
Conclusions
Based on the BiotSavart's law, the analytic formulas of calculating magnetic field
distribution of rectangular permanent magnets am derived in this paper. The main characteristics of
the magnetic field distribution and its varying from the geometric size and the distance away from
the top (or bottom) surface of the magnet am investigated in detail by these analytic formulas. The
calculating results show that the geometric size of permanent magnets such as thicktolength ratio
h/a, and the distance away from the top (or bottom) surface of the magnet have strong influence
on the distribution of the transverse magnetic field, the uniformity in magnitude fll and the
uniformity in distribution fiE In general, the uniformity in fll increases with the distance d
increasing within a certain range of the distance. However, the uniformity in distribution/32 changes
in different ways, which relates to the thicktolength ratio of the magnet. As well, the uniformity
in magnitude fl~ increases with the thicktolength ratio of the magnet increasing, and the uniformity
in distribution fla changes with the thicktolength ratio of the magnet in different ways, which
relates to the distance away from the magnet. In order to achieve a good distribution of the
magnetic field, it is very necessary to take great account of these influencing factors in the design
of the geometric sizes of the permanent magnets and their arrangement. Obviously, it is much
convenient and credible for doing this design based on the analytic formulas of calculating magnetic
306 GOU Xiaofan, YANG Yong and ZHENG Xiaojing
field distribution of permanent magnets, given in this paper.
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