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A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ENGLISH AND JAPANESE AUXILIARY VERB

A Thesis Proposal Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of Linguistics Research Method Subject Lecture by Drs. Surono, M.Hum.

By Nina Khoirunnisa 07004093 / B

ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM FACULTY OF TEACHING TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF AHMAD DAHLAN YOGYAKARTA 2010

A. Title: A Comparative Study between English and Japanese Auxiliary Verb

B. Background of Study Language is one of the most used tools in communication. Every language has a distinctive character and features. Language brings the culture of the country. Human existence can not be separated from the language. Language is a human medium for expressing what they think and socialize with other human beings. When we study human language, we are approaching what some might call the human essence, the distinctive qualities of mind that are, so far as we know, unique to man (Chomsky: 1999). This means that each language is unique and creates nature of human beings. As it is known, there are many languages in the world; they are English, Spanish, French, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, etc. Each of them has typical characteristic. The study of language is usually called linguistic. Linguistic has many sub-fields to be learned. On of them is grammar. In linguistic, grammar is a set of rules about the structure of sentences, phrases, clauses etc. English is the first foreign language was first taught in formal education. Starting from kindergarten to university, English is always there. English is used in education, commerce, office, political, social and many others. This is an era that people needs to master the English language in order to compete with communities worldwide to improve the quality of self and nation in the eyes of the world. Unlike English, Japanese language began in the know in Indonesia because of cultural influence (like the anime series, movies, and songs), technologies (various electronic products), and education (scholarships JO, Monbukagakushou). Textbooks are also widely available in Japanese. Japan language courses are being found easily. Some

schools began to enter the Japanese language as an extracurricular lesson. Therefore, comparing the English language that has been long in the community to learn Indonesian with Japanese increasingly popular in Indonesia, will enrich the students knowledge of language itself to diversity, both similarities, differences or similarities between languages to each other. One of the elements in language learning is grammar. (Trask: 1995) said that the grammar of a language is simply the way it combines smaller elements (such as words) into larger elements such as sentences). Every human language has quite a lot of grammar without exception.

Based on the description above, the writer tries to study English and Japanese Auxiliary verb to find out the problem that may appear. It will be useful to help the language learners in understanding English and Japanese auxiliary verb.

C. Identification of the Problem English and Japanese are two languages that have different language rules. It will focus on the similarities and differences of auxiliary verb in both of language. Auxiliary verbs which is also called helping verbs is used together with main verb for giving information about grammar. Auxiliary verb can give additional meaning in sentence. (Thomson and Martinet) explained that English auxiliary verb is divided into three kinds; Firstly, Principal Auxiliaries {( To be: am, is, are, was, were, been, being), (To do: do, does, did), To have (have, has, had)}, then, Modal Auxiliaries (can/could, will/would,

may/might, shall/should, must/have to/had to/ought to), Semi modals ( to need, to dare, used ). Like as English, Japanese also has auxiliary verb, but Japanese auxiliary verb is classified based on such condition. -masu (the polite verb) ,-tagaru (strong verbs) -tai(adjectival verbs), -sou (adjectival nouns ), da (the copula/to be) , desu (the polite copula), rashi-i (adjectival verbs) , you (adjectival nouns) ,and sou (adjectival nouns)

D. Limitation of the Problem Considering the identification of the problem above and the limitation of the writers ability to handle the whole matter related to this topic, the writer will only focus on the English and Japanese auxiliary verb to hold a comparative research. The writer will restrict on the similarities and differences between English and Japanese auxiliary verb. Auxiliary verbs is kind of verb used together with other verbs to express action and to complete the grammatical function. Auxiliary verb is different with main verb because it is dependent with other word, for example verb, adjective.

E. Formulation of the Problem Based on the limitation above, the writer formulates the problem as follows: 1. What are the kinds of English auxiliary verb? 2. What are the kinds of Japanese auxiliary verb? 3. What are the similarities between English and Japanese auxiliary verb? 4. What are the differences between English and Japanese auxiliary verb?

F. Objective of the Study Any research certainly has objective that are going to be reached. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1. To describe the kinds of English auxiliary verb. 2. To describe the kinds of Japanese auxiliary verb. 3. To find out the similarities between English and Japanese auxiliary verb. 4. To find out the differences between English and Japanese auxiliary verb.

G. Significance of the Study This research is expected to be beneficial study to he readers and those who are interested in the study of linguistics mainly about auxiliary verb. The significances of this study are as follows: 1. The writer hopes that those who are interested in English and Japanese can use this thesis as reference. 2. The reader will know more about English and Japanese auxiliary verb. 3. The teacher will understand the differences and similarities between English and Japanese auxiliary verb.

H. Review of the related theories In this comparative research, there are another comparative research which related with this research, namely English and Arabic Tense: A comparative study by Muchamad Yasin (August 2007). A comparative study between English and Palembangnese Interrogative Sentence by Rinda Trisnawati (June 2009),

Comparative Study between English and Arabic Degree of Comparison by Siti Rondhasanah (June 2008). Although the topics are similarities with this research, but there are differences. If those researches are comparing two languages, namely English and Arabic, English and Palembangnese, this time the writer compare English and Japanese as the topic.

I. Theoretical Framework a. Comparative Linguistic Hornby (1995) defined linguistic as the scientific of the study of language or particular language. Linguistics is often called general linguistics, it means that linguistics not only analyse one language, but language in general (Verhaar: 1996: 4). Al Wasilah (1987: 84) divided General linguistics into three parts: 1) descriptive linguistics, 2) historical linguistics, and 3) comparative linguistics. According to him, comparative linguistics is theoretical approach to language studies, which set phonological, grammatical, and lexical correspondents between different periods in this historical development of one language are listed and classified. According to Keraf (1990:2) comparative linguistics is a kind of linguistics, which tries to wet down basic understanding of the development and the relationship of the language in the world and tries to find out the influential mutual elements that ever made connection in the history. b. English Auxiliary verb

Crowel (1997) defines that verb are words which refer to express action, existence or condition. According to Widarso and Mariani (1994: 35) Auxiliary verb is used to help other verbs to express a particular grammatical function. Auxiliaries help to form a tense or an expression, hence the name. They combine with present or past participle or with infinitives to form the tenses of ordinary verbs, for. Auxiliary verbs also combine with infinitives to indicate permission, possibility, obligation, deduction (Thomson and Martinet: 1986: 110) Here a list of auxiliary verbs according to Thomson and Martinet (1986: 109) Principal Auxilaries To be To have To do Modal Auxilaries Can may Must Ought Shall will Could Might Had to Should would Semi-modals To need To dare Used

c. Japanese Auxiliary Verb Japanese has several auxiliary verbs to append special meanings to ordinary verbs. They have only dependent usage and always follow independent words or independent phrases. All auxiliary verbs attach to a verbal or adjectival

stem form and conjugate as verbs, but they differ from normal verbs in having no independent meaning.

the list of the auxiliary verbs auxiliary verb -masu conjugation type the polite verb English to do comment

It appends polite nuances to verbs. It expresses desire to do something for the -tagaru strong verbs to want to third person. -ta-i adjectival verbs to want to It expresses desire to do something. -sou adjectival nouns to look to It expresses that something appears to do. da the copula to be a copula. desu the polite copula to be a copula that expresses polite nuanses rashi-i adjectival verbs to seem to It expresses that something seems to do. to appear you adjectival nouns It expresses that something looks to do. to It is said sou adjectival nouns It expresses that it is said something. that Source from http://homepage3.nifty.com/jgrammar/grammar/jgr_vaux.htm

J. Research Method 1. Research design Sudaryanto (1992:62) states that there are some certain method concepts used in linguistics researches. They are descriptive, comparative and structural method. This study uses the descriptive and comparative methods to describe, analyze and compare the English and Japanese auxiliary verb. Based on the characteristic of the data and method, research is divided into two, they are quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative research methods are any investigate procedures used to describe in numerical terms, a setting and the things going on in numerical terms (Brown and Rodgers, 2002:

118). Bogdan and Taylor in Moleong (2000:3) state that qualitative research is a research procedure descriptive data in the form of written or spoken language and observable behavior. The researcher uses comparative qualitative method because the researcher does not use any statistical procedure and calculation. 2. Data research object and data source The research object in this study is the auxiliary verb in English and Japanese. Data of research are classified into two, namely main data and supporting data. Arikunto (2002: 107) explains that the data sources can be the form of thing, person, action, etc In this research, the writer takes some research materials such as English Grammar book, Japanese grammar book and any other books related to the subject. 3. Technique for collecting data Data collecting technique is the technique to get and collect data. Data can be collected from books, magazines, article, and internet. There are five strategies of data collecting in linguistics research:  Recording technique (teknik rekam); this technique uses recording instrument.  Nothing technique (teknik catat); this technique uses cards, note books, and other instruments to collect the data.  Separating technique (teknik pisah); this technique is the strategy to separate the data to another in order to find the similarities and differences of the distributions between them.

 Transferring technique (teknik balik); this techniqueused to transfer the data to the other or to a book.  Changing technique (teknik ganti); this technique used to change the data which are not necessary in order to understand (Sudayanto, 1992: 33-35) In this research the writer uses noting technique, separating technique, and transferring technique. The procedures of collecting data in this study are as follows: a. Firstly, the writer looks for some sources about English auxiliary verb, Japanese auxiliary verb in libraries, book shop, and internet. b. Secondly, the writes the discussed materials on the provided books or notes. c. Thirdly, the writer classifies the materials about English and Japanese auxiliary verb. 4. Technique for analyzing data According to Moleong (20002: 103) data analyzing technique is a process that organizes and puts the data into units. In this research, the researcher applies the comparative qualitative method which focuses on word, phrase, and sentence rather than number. In doing the analysis, the researcher goes through the procedure as follows:

a. The writer describes the form of auxiliary verb in English and the kinds of English auxiliary verb, the way of using of English and auxiliary verb and how the English auxiliary verb formed. b. The writer describes the form of auxiliary verb in Japanese and the kinds of Japanese auxiliary verb, the way of using of Japanese auxiliary verb and how the Japanese auxiliary verb formed. c. The writer compares the similarities of auxiliary verb in English and Japanese. d. The writer compares the differences of auxiliary verb in English and Japanese. e. The writer draws conclusion.

J. Bibliography

Alwasilah, A. Chaedar. 1984. Kaji Ulang Kata Kerja Bahasa Inggris. Bandung: Angkasa Azar, Betty Scrampher. 1993. Fudamentals of Engish Grammar 2nd Ed. Jakarta: Bina Rupa Aksara. Comrie, Bernard. 1990. The Major Languages of East and Aouth-East Asia. London: Routledge Keraf, Gorys.1990. Linguistik Bandingan Tipologis. Jakarta: Gramedia Moelong, Lexy J. 2002. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Rosda Karya. Soeparno. 2002. Dasar-dasar Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta: PT. Tiara Wacana Yogya. Sudaryanto. 1992. Metode Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press. Sudjianto. 2007. Grammatika Bahasa Jepang Modern- Seri B. Bekasi Timur: Kesaint Blank

Thomson, A.J, A.V Martinet.1986. A practical English Grammar. New York: Oxford University Press. Widarso, Wisnubroto, Lulut Mariani. 1994. Complete English Grammar. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.