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As you can see, the Endangered Animals may include both: the category of critically endangered animals (CR

R abbreviation), defined as species considered to be facing anextremely high risk of extinction in the wild (1), and the category of endangered animals (EN abbreviation), defined as species considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild (2).

Its certainly worth highlighting the Vulnerable Animalscategory (VU) as well, which is defined as species considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild (3). Together, these three categories (EN, CR and VU) form a group of threatened species.

Some Statistics on Endangered Animals


Vertebrates are a group of animals that we know most about. Amphibians are likely to be the vertebrates at highest risk of extinction as compared to other animal groups (with 32% of all assessed amphibians at risk, classified asthreatened). (4) Among other assessed groups of animals, 23% of mammals and 12% of birds are known to be at risk of extinction (classified as threatened). Though we have a good general idea about the current state of vertebrate animals, our knowledge is still incomplete as only 40% of all known vertebrate animal species have been assessed. (5)

Graphic credit: Peter Halasz

EX Extinct; EW Extinct in the Wild; CR Critically Endangered; EN Endangered; VU Vulnerable; NT Near Threatened; LC Least Concern

Habitat loss, as a result of human demand, is widely considered to be the most important cause of animal extinction.

Threatened Species
ThreatenedSpecies: The following list includes all mammals which occur in Indonesia and are rated as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU) in the2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals.

Critically Endangered:


Endangered:

Javan Rhinoceros(Rhinoceros sondaicus). Silvery Gibbon(Hylobates moloch). (Endemicto Indonesia.) Sumatran Orang-utan(Pongo abelii). Sumatran Rhinoceros(Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

Sumatran Tiger (Indonesia)

Anoa(Bubalus depressicornis). (Endemicto Indonesia.) Asian Elephant(Elephas maximus). Banteng(Bos javanicus). Bawean Deer(Axis kuhlii). (Endemicto Indonesia.) Blue Whale(Balaenoptera musculus). Grizzled Leaf Monkey(Presbytis comata). (Endemicto Indonesia.) Mountain Anoa(Bubalus quarlesi). (Endemicto Indonesia.) (Bornean)Orang-utan(Pongo pygmaeus). Tiger(Panthera tigris).
Komodo (Rintja) Mouse(Komodomys rintjanus). (Endemicto Indonesia.)

Read more:http://www.animalinfo.org/country/indones.htm#ixzz1mqqlKVtN Read more:http://www.animalinfo.org/country/indones.htm#ixzz1mqokaEjr Read more:http://www.animalinfo.org/country/indones.htm#ixzz1mqivTGkn

Rhinoceros sondaicus Status:Critically Endangered Profile


The Javan rhinoceros ("rhino") weighs 1500 - 2000 kg (3200 - 4400 lb) and has a length of 3 - 3.5 m (10 - 11'). It has one horn and prominent folds in the skin, similar to theIndian rhino. The horn grows onto a roughened area of the skull (rather than being "rooted" in the skull). The Javan rhino is hairless except for its ears and tail tip. Its thick gray skin is divided by deep folds to make a "saddle" over the neck. The single horn rarely exceeds 25 cm (10") long and is lacking in some females. The Javan rhino prefers tall grass and reed beds in lowland rain forests with a good supply of water and plentiful mud wallows. Formerly, it generally preferred low-lying areas. Although it now occupies hilly areas up to 2000 m (6550'), this likely is a result of being driven intosuboptimalupland habitats due to the pressure of human settlement in lowland areas. InVietnamit occurs on very steep hills covered with thickbambooandrattanstands. The Javan rhino is primarily abrowser. Its diet consists of shoots, twigs, young foliage and fallen fruit. It isdiurnalandnocturnal. It remains near water and enjoys bathing and wallowing in mud. Javan rhinos are mostly solitary except for mating pairs and mothers with young. The male is probablyterritorial, marking histerritorywith dung piles and urine pools. He encounters potential mates at suitable muddy wallows. Formerly, the Javan rhino was widespread and often abundant fromBangladesheast throughMyanmarand southwestChinatoVietnamand south throughThailand,Laos,CambodiaandMalaysiato Sumatra and Java (Indonesia). It has dwindled to only

two known populations, in the Udjung Kulon National Park in Java (Indonesia) and the Cat Tien National Park inVietnam. It may also still exist in other locations. There are two major reasons for the Javan rhino's decline. The first one is poaching of the rhino for its horn. Rhino horn is valued highly for use in Oriental medicine (as a drug to reduce fever), and inYemenhorns are carved to make traditional dagger handles. The second reason is habitat loss due to clearing of lowland forest. The most critical threat to the Javan rhinos inVietnamis the continued conversion of forestland into agricultural land

Status and Trends


IUCN Status:

1960's - 1994:Endangered 1996 - 2004:Critically Endangered(Criteria:C2a)(IUCN 2004)

Countries Where the Javan Rhinoceros Is Currently Found:

2004: Known to occur inIndonesia(Java) andVietnam. May be extinct inCambodia,China,Laos,MyanmarandThailand.(Intl. Rhino Found. 2004,IUCN 2004)

Data on Biology and Ecology


Size andWeight:

The Javan rhino weighs 1500 - 2000 kg (3200 - 4400 lb). Its length is 3 - 3.5 m (10 - 11').
Habitat:

The Javan rhino prefers tall grass and reed beds in dense lowland rain forests with a good supply of water and plentiful mud wallows. Formerly, it generally preferred low-lying areas. Although it now occupies hilly areas up to 2000 m (6550'), this likely is a result of being driven intosuboptimalupland habitats due to the pressure of human settlement in lowland areas. InVietnamit occurs on very steep hills covered with thickbambooandrattanstands.(Nowak 1999,WCMC et al. 2000,WWF Global Network 1999) The Javan rhino occurs in both theIndo-BurmaandSundalandBiodiversity Hotspot(Cons. Intl. 2005)and the Eastern Indochina Dry & Monsoon ForestsGlobal 200 Ecoregion.(Olson & Dinerstein 1998,Olson & Dinerstein 1999)
Age to Maturity:

A female Javan rhino reaches sexual maturity at about 3 - 4 years, a male at about 6 years(Nowak 1999).
GestationPeriod:

16 months(Burnie & Wilson 2001).


Birth Season:

Between the end of February and the end of April.


Birth Rate:

One calf is born at a time. Mature females probably do not breed more often than every 4 or 5 years. (Nowak 1999)
Early Development:

The calf stays with the mother for about 2 years.


Maximum Age:

At least 21 years (captivity).

Diet:

The Javan rhino is primarily abrowser. Its diet consists of shoots, twigs, young foliage and fallen fruit. In the course of feeding, branches up to 20 mm (0.8") thick are torn off, saplings are broken, and trees up to 15 mm (0.6") in diameter are uprooted.(Nowak 1999)
Behavior:

The Javan rhino remains near water and enjoys bathing and wallowing in mud. It isdiurnalandnocturnal. Some Javan rhinos may travel 15 - 20 km (9 - 12 mi) within 24 hours.(Nowak 1999)
Social Organization:

Little is known about the social behavior of the Javan rhino. Javan rhinos are mostly solitary except for mating pairs and mothers with young. The male is probablyterritorial, marking histerritorywith dung piles and urine pools. He encounters potential mates at suitable muddy wallows.(Burnie & Wilson 2001)
Density and Range:

Density
Formerly, Javan rhino population densities were greater than 0.3 individuals/sq km (0.8 individuals/sq mi)(Nowak 1999).

Range
Home rangesof the Javan rhino are small. Individuals tend to have loosely defined centers of activity where they may spend several days at a time and to which they periodically return(Nowak 1999).

Read more:http://www.animalinfo.org/species/artiperi/rhinsond.htm#profile#ixzz1mqvmu5jq

(Other Names: Grey, Javan or Moloch Gibbon; Gibbon Cendr; Gibn Ceniciento; Moloch; Wauwau) Hylobates moloch (H. lar m.) Status:Critically Endangered Profile
Pictures:Silvery Gibbon #1(7 Kb JPEG)(Kids Ecol. Corps);Silvery Gibbon #2(20 Kb JPEG)(Gibbon Research Lab) The silvery gibbon weighs about 6 kg (13 lb). It is found in lowland, hill and montane forests and eats mostly fruit and leaves.. In the Dieng Mountains of central Java, its habitat consisted of secondary forest with a rather dense and close canopy, and undisturbed primary forest. All gibbons arearborealanddiurnal. The silvery gibbon appears to prefer the taller trees for resting, foraging and locomotion. In a study in the Dieng Mountains of central Java, gibbons were seen on three occasions: a single adult, two adults and a group of seven. An average group size of 3.3 individuals has been reported. The silvery gibbon isendemicto the western half of Java,Indonesia. Most populations can be found in the western province, but a few remain in central Java. It has declined and continues to be threatened due to habitat loss because of expanding human populations on Java. Only 4% of its original habitat remains. Remaining populations occur in about 20 forested areas mainly scattered over West Java.

Status and Trends


IUCN Status:

1970's - 1994:Endangered

1996 - 2004:Critically Endangered(Criteria:A1cd,C2a)(IUCN 2004)

Countries Where the Silvery Gibbon Is Currently Found:

2004: Occurs inIndonesia(Java)(IUCN 2004).


Threats and Reasons for Decline:

The silvery gibbon has declined and continues to be threatened due to habitat loss because of expanding human populations on Java. Only 4% of its original habitat remains(Kool 1992).

Data on Biology and Ecology


Weight:

The silvery gibbon weighs about 6 kg (13 lb).


Habitat:

The silvery gibbon is found in lowland, hill and montane forests. In the Dieng Mountains of central Java, its habitat consisted of secondary forest with a rather dense and close canopy, and undisturbed primary forest. Although 1600 m is considered to be the upper limit of the species, it has been reported from altitudes up to 2400'.(Kool 1992;Nijman & van Balen 1998) The silvery gibbon is one of the species that live in theSundalandBiodiversity Hotspot(Cons. Intl.).
GestationPeriod:

7 - 8 months.
Birth Rate:

A single young is usually born. There are 2 - 3 years between births.


Diet:

The silvery gibbon eats mostly fruit and some leaves.


Behavior:

All gibbons arearborealanddiurnal. The silvery gibbon appears to prefer the taller trees for resting, foraging and locomotion.
Social Organization:

In a study in the Dieng Mountains of central Java, gibbons were seen on three occasions: a single adult, two adults and a group of seven(Nijman & van Balen 1998). An average group size of 3.3 individuals has been reported(Kappeler 1984bcited inKool 1992).
Density and Range:

Density:

In a study of the silvery gibbon in Gunung Halimun Reserve in western Java, a group density of 2.6 groups/sq km (6.8 groups/sq mi) was derived. Using a reported average group size of 3.3 individuals/group(Kappeler 1984bcited inKool 1992), density, within the altitudinal range censused in Gunung Halimun (700 - 1075 m (2300 - 3500')), was determined as 8.6 individuals/sq km (22 individuals/sq mi). This is higher than a previous estimate of 2-7 individuals/sq km (5 - 20 individuals/sq mi) for hill rain forest (500-1000 m altitude (1600 3300' altitude))(Kappeler 1984acited inKool 1992). At higher elevations, the density of the silvery gibbon is lower and has been estimated at 1-3 individuals/sq km (3 - 8 individuals/sq mi) for lower montane forest(Kappeler 1984acited inKool 1992).(Kool 1992) In a study in the Dieng Mountains of central Java, assuming the same reported average group size of 3.3 individuals/group as mentioned above(Kappeler 1984bcited inKool 1992), the density of silvery gibbons was estimated to be 3.0 - 3.6 individuals/sq km (7.8 - 9.4 individuals/sq mi)(Nijman & van Balen 1998)

Read more:http://www.animalinfo.org/species/primate/hylomolo.htm#ixzz1mqwR0tFD

(Other Names: , , Borneo Orang-utan, Maias, Orang-outan, Orang-utn,Orangotango, Sumatran Orang-utan) Pongo abeliiandPongo pygmaeus Status:P. abelii-Critically Endangered;P. pygmaeus-Endangered Profile
Pictures:Sumatran Orang-utan(6 Kb JPEG)(Kids Ecol. Corps);Young Orang-utan(13 Kb JPEG)(San Diego Zoo);Borneo Female Orang-utan and Young(23 Kb JPEG) (Gekoski-Kimmel/OFI) Orang-utans have brown and rust-colored shaggy fur. They weigh an average of 50 kg (110 lb) and can weigh over 90 kg (200 lb). The orang-utan lives in tropical, swamp and mountain forests, where it eats mostly fruit, leaves and insects. The orang-utan isarborealanddiurnal. It exhibits a sophisticated use of tools for gathering food. Twigs and branches are utilized to construct a large nest-platform in a tree to sleep in at night. Adult orang-utans are generally solitary, except when a male and a female are together for mating. Thehome rangeof an adult male usually overlaps the ranges of several adult females. Orang-utans are notterritorial. Most animals in a given area appear to maintain a loose relationship, although adult males are hostile to one another. A single young is usually born about every six years. The orang-utan was once found throughout Indo-China,Malaysiaand north toChina. In historical times it has only been known from Sumatra andBorneo. About 100 years ago it was present in most of the rainforest areas on these islands; however, it was never found in large numbers. It has declined drastically since then. The major causes of the orang-utan's decline have been 1.) in the past, capture for the pet and zoo trade, especially the capture of young, which usually involved killing the mother; and 2.) habitat loss, especially through permanent conversion to oil-palm plantations and for logging.

Status and Trends


Taxonomy:

Two species ofPongoare now differentiated:P. abelii("Sumatran Orang-utan") andP. pygmaeus("Orang-utan" or "Borneo Orang-utan")(Anon. 2001)
IUCN Status:

1960's:Vulnerable 1970's - 1994:Endangered 1996:Vulnerable(Criteria:A1cd,C1) 2000:Endangered(Criteria:A2cd) 2003 - 4:Pongo abelii-Critically Endangered,Pongo pygmaeus-Endangered(Criteria:A2bcd) (IUCN 2004)

Threats and Reasons for Decline:

The major threats have been 1.) in the past, capture for the pet and zoo trade, especially the capture of young, which usually involved killing the mother; and 2.) habitat loss, especially through permanent conversion to plantations and for logging. In selectively-logged areas, orang-utan densities decrease on average by 60 % of prelogging levels. Continued logging effectively eliminates orang-utans in the secondary forest left after timber depletion. In one such area, orang-utan density fell by approximately 90 % within a year after selective logging followed by continued timber poaching. (van Schaik et al. 2001)

"The major threats to the survival of Sumatran orang-utans are identified as habitat loss (mainly from conversion to oil palm plantations), habitat degradation and habitat fragmentation. The immediate causes of this are identified as weak compliance with regulations and laws; weak law enforcement and the weak legal environment. Corruption is identified as the ultimate causal factor underlying these three immediate causal factors, along with a frontier mentality and bureaucratic constraints."(Yarrow Robertson & van Schaik 2001)

Data on Biology and Ecology


Size andWeight:

A female orang-utan weighs 30 - 50 kg (66 - 110 lb) and grows to about 1.1 m (3.5') in height; a male weighs 50 - 90 kg (110 - 200 lb) and stands 1.2 - 1.5 m (4 - 5') tall.
Habitat:

The orang-utan is found in tropical, swamp and mountain forests. In Sumatra, orang-utans are largely lowland animals, being rare above 1000 m (3300') and virtually absent above 1500 m (4900'). The availability of fruit containing soft pulp (rather than dry or fibrous fruits) appears to be a major factor in their abundance patterns. Altitudinal limits are even lower inBorneowhere the mountain ranges also tend to be lower and thus vegetation zones are more altitudinally compressed. (van Schaik et al. 2001) The orang-utan is one of the species that live in theSundalandBiodiversity Hotspot(Cons. Intl. 2005)as well as the Northern Borneo-Palawan Moist Forests, Mt. Kinabalu Montane & Alpine Scrub & Forest, Sumatran-Nicobar Islands Lowland Forests, and Central Borneo Montane ForestsGlobal 200 Ecoregions.(Olson & Dinerstein 1998,Olson & Dinerstein 1999)
Age to Maturity:

Females reach puberty at 10 years of age, but do not give birth until they are 15. Males usually become sexually mature at about 12 years. However, the time it takes for a male to attain full maturity, including the secondary sexual characteristics such as a facial "disk" formed from fibrous cheek flanges, a big throat pouch, and long hair on their arms and back, can range from 10 years to more than 20. (Macdonald 2001)
GestationPeriod:

233 - 265 days.


Birth Rate:

Usually only one young is born at a time. Occasionally twins are born. Time between births is generally 7 - 9 years, (average 8). A female orang-utan can produce at most four surviving young over a lifetime(Macdonald 2001).

Early Development:

Young orang-utans are usuallyweanedby the time they are about 3 years old and are carried by the mother when they travel until they are 4 years old(Macdonald 2001). A young orang-utan is ready to fend for itself after 6 - 7 years(Speart 1992).
Dispersal:

Young females generally remain in the vicinity of their birth, but males emigrate to other areas(Nowak 1999). Orang-utans are very poor dispersers in non-forest habitat, shunning these areas except in extreme discomfort(van Schaik et al. 2001)
Maximum Reproductive Age:

About 30 years (male and female).

Maximum Age:

Estimates range up to 45 years in the wild and 59 years in captivity.


Diet:

About 60% of the orang-utan's diet consists of fruit, including durians, jackfruit, lychees, mangosteens, mangoes and figs. The remainder of the diet is mostly young leaves and shoots, but also included are insects, mineral-rich soil, tree bark and woody lianas and occasionally eggs and small vertebrates. Much of their water is obtained from the fruit in their diet, but it is also drunk from tree holes.(Macdonald 1984,2001)
Behavior:

The orang-utan isarborealanddiurnal, with peaks of activity in the morning and late afternoon. It exhibits a sophisticated use of tools for gathering fruit and insects for food. An orang-utan utilizes twigs and branches to construct a large nest-platform in a tree that it sleeps in at night. It usually makes a new nest each night but sometimes reuses one.
Social Organization:

Although temporary groupings are sometimes formed, adults are generally solitary, except when a male and a female are together for mating.Home rangesof males overlap the ranges of several adult females. Most animals in a given area appear to maintain a loose relationship, although adult males are hostile to one another, apparently even after they are no longer sexually active. Orang-utans are notterritorial (van Schaik et al. 2001).
Mortality and Survival:

Proportion of young that survive to age 1: approximately 0.91(Dobson & Lyles 1989)
Read more:http://www.animalinfo.org/species/primate/pongpygm.htm#ixzz1mqwry9vE

Animal Info - Blue Whale

(Other Names: Baleine Bleue, Baleine d'Ostende, Baleinoptre Bleue, Ballena Azul, Rorcual Azul, Rorqual Bleu, Rorqual de Sibbold, Rorqual Ventre Cannel, Sibbald's Rorqual, Sulphur Bottom Whale) Balaenoptera musculus Status:Endangered Profile
Pictures:Blue Whale #1(3 Kb JPEG)(Mammal Soc. Britain);Blue Whale #2(16 Kb JPEG)(Univ. Wash.);Blue Whale #3(89 Kb GIF)(NOAA Yr. of the Ocean);Blue Whale #4(64 Kb JPEG)(Univ. Texas) The blue whale is the largest animal that has ever lived on earth. It can weigh up to 136,400 kg (300,000 lb) and grow as long as 34 m (110'). It has a slim outline, especially in the winter, although it fattens in the summer. The tinydorsalfin is set well to the rear of the body. 55 - 68 flexible throat grooves run along half the body length. Its coloration is mainly pale blue-gray. The blue whale occurs mostly in cold and temperate waters. It prefers deeper ocean waters as opposed to coastal waters. Its diet consists almost entirely of shrimplikecrustaceansknown askrill, which it eats during the summer feeding season. During the other 8 months of the year it apparently doesn't eat anything, living off of stored fat. The blue whale usually feeds at depths of less than 100 m (330'). A dive usually lasts 10 - 20 minutes. When making a deep dive, the whale "headstands," exposing its wide tailflukes, then descends steeply. On returning to the surface, the whale releases a "blow," about 9 m (30) high, consisting of

warm, humid air from the lungs, mucus, and ocean water. Blue whales have very deep voices and can vocalize at a volume of greater than 180 decibels, the loudest sound of any animal. Blue whales are usually solitary or in pairs ( mother-calf pairs or two adults), although they may gather in loose groups to feed. The blue whale is found in all major oceans of the world. Its populations have been severely depleted throughout its range due to commercial whaling, which ceased in 1964. There have been reports of increased sightings in some areas, but in other areas the number of blue whales remains low.

Status and Trends


IUCN Status:

1960's - 1994:Endangered 1996 - 2006:Endangered(Criteria:A1abd)(IUCN 2006)

Oceans and Seas Where the Blue Whale Is Currently Found:

2006: Occurs in the Arctic Sea, Atlantic Ocean (Antarctic, eastern central, northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest, western central), Indian Ocean (Antarctic, eastern, western), and Pacific Ocean (Antarctic, eastern central, northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest, western central).(IUCN 2006)
Threats and Reasons for Decline:

Overfishing by the whaling industry was the cause of the blue whale's decline.

Data on Biology and Ecology


Size andWeight:

Typical weight of a blue whale: 108,000 kg (238,000 lb); up to 136,000 kg (300,000 lb). Length - up to 34 m (110'); average (Antarctic stock): 27 m (89') (females); 25 m (82') (males).
Habitat:

The blue whale is found mostly in cold and temperate waters. It prefers deeper ocean waters to coastal waters. The blue whale occurs in the Icelandic & Celtic Marine Ecosystems, Southern Caribbean Sea, and Sea of CortezGlobal 200 Ecoregions.(Olson & Dinerstein 1998,Olson & Dinerstein 1999)
Age to Maturity:

In the Northern Hemisphere, females reach sexual maturity in 5 years at lengths of 21 - 23 m (69 75'). Males mature in slightly less time at just under five years and at slightly shorter lengths of 20 - 21 m (66 - 69').(Wilson & Ruff 1999) Length at maturity in the Southern Hemisphere for females is 23 - 24 m (75 - 79').
GestationPeriod:

10 - 11 months.
Birth Season:

Calves are born in late fall and winter.


Birth Rate:

Usually one calf is born. Twins have been reported on rare occasions. The time between births is usually 2 - 3 years, although there is some indication that the current interval is shorter than before the populations were decimated by whaling, possibly as adensity-dependentmechanism to increase the growth rate of the populations.

Early Development:

A calf isweanedat about 6 - 8 months, when it is about 16 m (52') long.


Dispersal:

After it isweaned, a calf leaves its mother to follow the normal migration pattern independently.
Maximum Age:

Maximum age estimates for blue whales range up to 80 - 90 years(Wilson & Ruff 1999).
Diet:

Blue whales feed almost exclusively on shrimplikecrustaceansknown as "krill". A blue whale may consume up to 5.5 - 6.4 metric tons (6 - 7 tons) of food per day during the summer feeding season. During the other 8 months of the year, it apparently doesn't eat anything, living off of stored fat. The blue whale has long, flexible throat grooves. It feeds by using these groves to expand its throat and drawing in water laden with prey, then forcing the water out through itsbaleenplates. These plates filter out the prey organisms, which the whale then swallows.
Behavior:

Migration: In both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, in the summer the blue whale populations migrate towards the pole of their respective hemisphere into cooler waters to feed. They migrate back towards the equator, into warmer waters, in the winter to breed. Because the seasons are opposite in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the net result of these movements is that the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere stocks of blue whales do not mix. Swimming: The blue whale ranks among the fastest of the whales, with feeding speeds of 2 - 6.5 km/h (1.2 - 4 mi/h) and cruising speeds of 5 - 33 km/h (3 - 20 mi/h). When chased, it can reach speeds as high as 48 km/h (30 mi/h). Diving: The blue whale usually feeds at depths of less than 100 m (330'), up to 200 m (660'). A dive usually lasts 10 - 20 minutes. When making a deep dive, the whale "headstands," exposing its wide tailflukes, then descends steeply. Its long, narrow flippers play no part in propulsion - the thrust comes from the powerful back muscles that swish the rear body andflukesup and down. On returning to the surface, the whale releases a "blow," about 9 m (30) high, consisting of warm, humid air from the lungs, mucus, and ocean water.(Burnie & Wilson 2001) Sounds: The blue whale makes sounds that can be characterized as grunts, hums, moans, and clicks. Blue whales have very deep voices, vocalizing at frequencies as low as 14Hz- below the range of human hearing - at a volume of greater than 180 decibels, the loudest sound of any animal.(Wilson & Ruff 1999,Burnie & Wilson 2001)
Social Organization:

Blue whales are usually solitary or in pairs (mother-calf pairs or two adults), although they may gather in loose groups to feed. By determining gender through DNA analysis, one study determined that paired adult blue whales are usually a male and a female. Often, the same two whales will be seen together over a long period of time. Some males, however, have paired with different females at different times.(Powell 1998,Burnie & Wilson 2001)
Age and Gender Distribution:

The male:female ratio at birth and throughout most of thelifecycle is about 1:1.
Read more:http://www.animalinfo.org/species/cetacean/balamusc.htm#ixzz1mqy6sfXi

Flagship species Bonobo Chimpanzee Orangutans has to be conserved

and maintaned in the longer term because this frugivora (fruit eating, including leaves and cambium) has an important role in guaranteeing the sustainability of the forest. There are 1000 plants identified that its spreading depends on endangered species, like fungus that is also as food for small animals and orangutans. We hope that the report will support the effort to conserve orangutans and as an effort to reduce carbon dioxide emission through forest conservation.

Dolphins (freshwater) Dolphins (marine) Elephants -African Elephants - Asian Giant panda Gorillas Leopard - Amur Leopard - Clouded Leopard - Snow Marine turtles Orangutan Polar bear Rhinos - African Rhinos - Asian Rock wallaby Tiger Tree kangaroo Whales

Marine turtles
For more than 100 million years marine turtles have covered vast distances across the world's oceans, performing a vital and integral role in marine and coastal ecosystems. Over the last 200 years human activities have tipped the scales against the survival of these ancient mariners. Urgent global action is needed to ensure their future.
How you can help

WWF-Canon / Jrgen FREUND

Key Facts

Common Name

Marine turtles; Tortues marines (Fr); Tortugas marinas (Sp)


Scientific Name

Cheloniidae / Dermochelyidae families


Habitat

Open water and coasts

Status

Endangered to Critically Endangered

Three of the seven existing species of marine turtle are critically endangered
All 7 species of marine turtles are listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). 3 are classified as critically endangered by IUCN and a further 3 are classified as endangered. Many offspring, few survivors Marine turtles appear to have the potential to reproduce abundantly: females can lay hundreds of eggs in one nesting season. But even under "natural" conditions, relatively few young turtles survive their first year of life. Predators such as crabs, foxes, and birds often kill the hatchlings as they make their way from the nest to the sea, and when they reach the shallows, many more small turtles are taken by fish. When humans harvest turtle eggs, disturb or degrade nesting beaches, the scales become tipped even more heavily against young turtles.

GLOBAL MARINE TURTLE STRATEGY

Marine Turtle Strategy


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MARINE TURTLE FACTSHEET

Marine Turtles Factsheet


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WWF-Canon / Cat Holloway

Habitat and ecology


Most marine turtle species spend much of their lives in continental shelf waters. Males do not leave the sea and females only come ashore to lay their eggs on sandy beaches during the appropriate season. During the nesting season, mature males and females migrate from feeding grounds and mate near the nesting beach. Life Cycle Once the hatchlings exit their nest and reach the sea, a swimming frenzy ensues to reach open ocean zones where currents meet, and where the small turtles find food and refuge from their many predators. Only once marine turtles become adults do they return to the beach area where they were born to lay their own eggs. Decades to reach maturity The long time to reach maturity and the many natural dangers faced by hatchlings and juveniles mean that as few as 1 in 1,000 eggs will survive to adulthood. Current Population and Distribution

5 of the 7 species are found around the globe (mainly in tropical and subtropical waters) while 2 species have relatively restricted ranges: Kemp's ridley occurs mainly in the Gulf of Mexico and the flatback turtle around northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea.

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MORE PICTURES
WWF Marine Turtles Photo-gallery

What are the main threats?


Habitat loss and degradation Uncontrolled development has led directly to the destruction of critically important nesting beaches. Lights from roads and buildings attract hatchlings and disorient them away from the sea. Vehicle traffic on beaches compacts the sand and makes it impossible for female turtles to dig nests. Sea walls and jetties change long-shore drift patterns and can cause erosion or destruction of entire beach sections. Beach restoration projects aimed at

protecting seaside buildings, through dredging and sand filling continue to destroy important nearshore feeding grounds and alter nesting beaches. Important marine turtle feeding habitats such as coral reefs and seagrass beds are continuously being damaged or entirely destroyed as a result of sedimentation, nutrient run-off from the land, insensitive tourist development, destructive fishing techniques and climate change. Hunting and poaching Hunting and egg collection for consumption are major causes of the drastic decline in marine turtle populations around the world. Green turtles are caught for their meat, eggs and calipee (the green body fat which is the main ingredient in turtle soup). Researchers estimate that each year poachers take 30,000 green turtles in Baja California and that more than 50,000 marine turtles are killed in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. Olive ridley turtles have been pursued for eggs and their skin used for leather production. In the 1960s, over one million olive ridley turtles were butchered each year on Mexico's Pacific coast. In many countries, juvenile marine turtles are caught, stuffed and sold as curios to tourists. Marine turtle eggs are considered an aphrodisiac in some countries and eaten raw or sold as snacks in bars and restaurants. Trade International trade in products such as tortoiseshell from hawksbill turtles, green turtle calipee and leather from olive ridley turtles has exacerbated the quantity of directed take of marine turtles. Over the past decades, Japan has emerged as the principal country buying shell (known as Bekko) from tropical countries to produce costly handicrafts. Despite the CITES listing, trade between non-signatory countries and illegal trade persist.

Incidental capture Each year, tens of thousands of olive ridley, Kemp's ridley, loggerhead green and leatherback turtles are trapped in shrimping operations. Marine turtles are reptiles so when they cannot reach the surface to breathe, they drown. Gill nets and long-line fisheries are also principal causes of marine turtle mortality. Worldwide, hundreds of thousands of marine turtles are caught annually in trawls, on long-line hooks and in fishing nets. Climate change Changing climate and global warming have the potential to seriously impact marine turtle populations. Marine turtles have temperature-dependent sex determination, meaning that an increase in global temperatures could change the proportion of female and male turtle hatchlings and could result in marine turtle populations becoming unstable. Pollution Marine turtles can mistake floating plastic materials for jellyfish and choke to death when they try to eat them. Discarded fishing gear entangles marine turtles and can drown or render a turtle unable to feed or swim. Rubbish on beaches can trap hatchlings and prevent them from reaching the ocean. Oil spills can poison marine turtles of all ages. Disease Many types of diseases have been observed in marine turtles. Recent reports of a rise in the occurrence of fibropapillomas, a tumorous disease that can kill marine turtles, is believed to be caused by run-off from land or marine pollution. On some of the Hawaiian Islands, almost 70% of stranded green turtles are affected by fibropapillomas. Natural predators and introduced species Marine turtles can lay more than 150 eggs per clutch, and lay several times

each season, to make up for the high mortality that prevents most marine turtles from reaching maturity. The subtle balance between marine turtles and their predators can be tipped against turtle survival when new predators are introduced or if natural predators suddenly increase in number as a result of human interference.