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A PROJECT REPORT ON PAST PRESENT AND FUTURE MODES OF COMMUNICATION

SUBMITTED TO RANCHI UNIVERSITY

BY vivek MASTER IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT (2010-12) DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


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RANCHI UNIVERSITY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all I would like to thank GOD ALMIGHTY for bestowing upon us his choicest blessings that kept us in good spirits and enabled us to accomplish our task successfully. I feel a deep sense of gratitude towards our beloved and highly esteemed Institute Sinhgad Institute of Management and Computer Application for growing us into true business managements Students. It is my privilege to thank Dr. Apoorva Palkar Director, SIMCA for her immense support throughout our study. I would like to thank our project guide Mr. Shailesh Pandey who gave his precious time to talk with us and guided us whenever we were in need of assistance. His knowledge has always been a motivating factor for us to dwell deep into the subject. A special thanks to Sales Manager of Vishal Mega Mart Mr. Vishal Yadav for supporting us for the project and sharing his precious thoughts which in turn helped us to understand the Retail Industry

CONTENTS
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1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 .

Title

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Executive Summary

Communication(Meaning) Types of Communications Business Communication Primitive Communications System Present Communication System I. Newespaper II. Radio III. TV IV. Internet Technology

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6 8 11

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Possible Means of Communications in Future

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Conclusion

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9 .

Bibliography

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The communication has always been the crucial part of mankinds social life. The means of communication has changed according to the changes in peoples living conditions and all other circumstances such as technological developments. Throughout history, the technology has had a huge impact on the means of communication. In the past, smoke was used as a means of communication from one mountain to another. Needless to say that only a few simple messages could be sent and received with this primitive method of smoke signals. Carrier pigeon was another means of communication to send messages further away. The pigeons were trained for this two way communication method of letter carrying. The letter, which was replaced with fax and e-mail consecutively, used to be a common means of communication as well. People needed to send their messages further away and faster as the world population increased and started to be globalised. This period has influenced the methods of communication. Today, we use telephones, mobiles, text messages, e-mail, internet chat programmes as oral and literal ways of communication. The inventers and producers are aiming to develop faster, cheaper, smaller-sized, multi-tasking gadgets for communication. The communication technology has been changing to match our needs. However, the means of communication also shapes our life styles. Mobiles have been the most important things to carry after the identity card, the keys and the wallet. And the future? It is not difficult to predict the future of communication. The trend of mobile, multi-tasking, wireless technology seems to continue to improve. HDTVs, hologramic simulators are the clues for possibility of image transfering or the matter transfering at the speed of light in the future.
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We will be transfered to communicate our own messages to the other places in an instant one day.

Communication
Meaning:Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, however the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication to occur. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, through media, i.e., pictures, graphics and sound, and writing.

Need of Communication The foremost reason to communicate to others for the human beings in particular is their own survival. There is hardly any sense in believing that a person can all alone live a life by fullfilling daily needs. Communication is essential to identify relations among people to accomplish different task. Communication proved handy in the course of persuasion and influence others to keep the human civilization grow.

Objectives of Business Communication To inform To educate To motivate To integrate


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To relate To promote To entertai

Types of Communication
Communication can occur via various processes and methods and depending on the channel used and the style of communication there can be various types of communication. 1. Types of Communication Based on Communication Channels Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly classified as verbal communication and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body language, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication. Verbal Communication Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. The oral communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication. Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language. Nonverbal Communication Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements. The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a persons face say a lot about
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his/her mood. On the other hand gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings. 2. Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose Based on the style of communication, there can be two broad categories of communication, which are formal and informal communication that have their own set of characteristic features. Formal Communication Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time. Hence formal communication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent and rigid tone to it. Informal Communication Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. Informal communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informal conversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chats with our loved ones can simply go on and on.

Business Communication
A. Internal Communication

When communications occur between employees of a business. Communication therefore links together all the different activities involved in a business and ensures all employees are working towards the same goal and know exactly what they should be doing and by when. Effective communication is therefore fundamental to the success of a business. B. External Communication A business will of course need to communicate with people or organisations outside of the business. This is known as external communication. For example a marketing manager will need to tell customers of a new special pricing offers or the finance director may need to ask banks for a loan.

Receivers of Messages Internal Workers Directors

Managers

External Customers Local community Suppliers Shareholders Government

Banks

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Primitive Communication systems


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Ever since the beginning of time as we know it, our civilization has developed and relied on various forms of communication in order to confer amongst those of his own species. Whether it be to convey messages of friendship, anger, sadness or even war, primitive man was able to establish the basis of what has lead to the numerously diverse languages that we use all over the world today. Many of these primitive communication systems were relatively simple in nature, especially when compared to the advancements made since then that are being used in human communication today. The first recorded from of communication is documented by the Phoenicians, who concocted a written alphabet, while some of the earliest forms of communication involved the use of heliographs and written text on tablets of clay stone. At around 2900 B.C., the ancient Sumerians invented a form of communication known as Cuneiform writing, which was written on tablets of clay. These tablets documented the lives of various rulers and significant events to their culture over time. The history of the heliograph can be traced back to Ancient Greece. Greek soldiers would use the light reflected from their shields to convey their positions during, or prior to, battle. The heliograph later became an actual military apparatus in Europe, a tripod weighing a mere seven pounds that was used in the same fashion the Greek soldiers had emulated. Patented in 1810, It was considered a revolutionary machine for its time. British? Did you know you can buy temporary car insurance for between 1 and 28 days? You can also buy churchill home insurance here. Other primitive communication systems included the use of smoke signals, dogs and carrier pigeons. Smoke signalling is another form of visual communication for sending messages over great distances. The first people to use this method were the Chinese, whose soldiers along the Great Wall would forewarn each other of enemy danger by lighting pyres of fire.

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Smoke signalling has since been used and modified by other cultures for their own purposes, including the Native Americans. Carrier pigeons were trained to carry scroll parchments to their homes so that crucial messages could be delivered. Dogs were trained by early man to alert him of any impending dangers (such as wolves or big cats) by growling and barking. As you can tell, mankind has used many different forms of communication throughout history. No matter how primitive they may seem by today's standards, each communication form has lead to the diverse cultural values in language we have today.

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Present Communication Systems


There are 4 main media: Newspapers, TV, Radio and the Internet. Todays people take this as an ordinary thing and we dont realise that we nearly cant live without it. Media are very important for us. They give us big amount of information, so big that we cant remember all that things. They help us to understand things and if you have lots of information you are able to make your own decisions. This is connected with education and media are very good teachers. They highly influence us. They can help other people making charities... News arent always true, they are not objective or says just half true. Our world is very huge and sending a message from America to Asia a hundred years ago was nearly impossible or it took a lot of time. Nowadays you can send the message in a few seconds and it is very simple. The media makes the world much smaller particularly the TV and the Internet. When you turn on the TV or a computer you can see whole world like it would be in the next village. You can learn the culture and habits of other nationalities, you can see what they are doing right now. The world is also called the global community village. There are not only good things about media. Firstly there are always some information that are not true. We have to be careful about it but when you listen to media for a long time you can find some companies which are nearly always true. Secondly there is a danger of being influenced in the bad way (lot of pornography on the Internet, lot of action films in TV. Thirdly if you are a famous person the media very often take very big piece of your privacy. I. Newspapers

Newspapers are the oldest kind of communication but we can say that they are today quite old-fashioned. They are not flexible because when something happens you cant read about it until the next day. You can read some newspapers on the Internet too. Newspapers still have their own magic. People are weary of looking in a box and it is very nice to buy newspapers, have a cup of coffee and a breakfast in the garden. Nobody is disturbing you. Everything is calm. Its like magic.
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Three main kinds of newspaper: Broad sheets (a quality newspaper)

very big pages, hardly any colour pages, not too much photos, more difficult language, it focuses on some topic more details and facts, longer articles, more tidy-looking, nearly about everything (policy, culture, money...) people who read it are businessmen, people with higher education, people who dont like blabs (kecy) The Independent, The Daily Telegraph, MF, Lidov noviny, Svoboda Tabloids

smaller pages, dramatic headlines, lots of colour pages, plenty of photos, short articles, human interests stories and sensations, simple language, many blabs they more popular than broad sheets, in GB the circulation is about 3 mil per day, it is read by all society ranks The Sun, The Mirror, Blesk, Hrom (both are shits) Special interests magazines

they are issued weekly or monthly, they intent on special things (gardening, computers, food...) they are much more expensive than daily newspapers but they are printed in better paper, you should be more educated in a special things to understand it

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II.

Radio

Radio is the second oldest kind of media. Although we nowadays have TV radio is still very popular. It has lots of advantages: you can take it nearly where you want (very popular in a car)

because it is mostly used for listening to music it is very good for relaxing just to lie down and listen to it (watching TV became tiring) it is very often used for a background sound; it can notify about events quicker than a TV at present the radio is very well developed so if you have a good receiver you are able to choose which kind of programs you like to listen to (PTY) you can also notify people about traffic jams and other events but not is spoken way but in words (RDS) There are also some disadvantages to a TV you cant see the moving pictures

Kinds of programs: current affairs (news), discussions, music all kinds, culture, weather forecast, sport events and matches, breakfast radio...

At present you can choose from lots of channels, some of them are state (which you can listen to everywhere in the state: Ro1) but most of them are private (they have many advertisements: Orion, Hellax, Radio City...). Broadcasting in GB The world famous British radio station is the BBC because they have their BBC World Service, which broadcast in 37 languages.
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the seat of the BBC is in London

the total number of program hours is 800; one week audience of an English programs is about 25 mil people, the total week audience (with other 36 languages) is about 120 mill people there work about 120 journalists

at the listening centre they listen to other 35 languages and many programs they want to find out some new news

III.

TV

TV is maybe the most widespread media in cultivated countries. It is a media with the biggest strengths it can influence us very much because of its moving pictures. With coming of communication satellites you can choose from variety programs (news, childrens programs, programs with lots of films...). They use lots of advertisements because they want to earn money (if the channel is more popular they earn more money). Some people say that it is needless to have so much adverts but I think that it is good because you can choose which product is the best for you. but its true that they sometimes lie and many of them are absolutely stupid.

IV. INTERNET TECHNOLOGY Internet technology is the most popular means of communication and business transaction today, use for sending mails, making calls and for business transaction. Communications have been made easier today through the means of internet, not like the past century why business men well have to go to post office to post mails, now you can do that right inside you office with no stress, and the receiver get the message in minutes and this has gone a long way to fasten communication in today world which is an essential part of a business. Making of calls are also possible through the service of
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the internet today, and the most interesting part of internet call is the cheap rate of their calls which make calls flexible for business transaction, and that is what most people are using today, I have personally get the experience of a company who save the some of $1.5billion for a year as a result of using internet calls, so you can use the internet calls to minimize you expenditure. The most common and easiest place to trade any form of business today is the internet. It helps you to advertise your business worldwide, and to increase your sales. For instance people are making up to $2000s for a day on eBay and there are lot more sites for marketing your product which will increase your sales. You can buy products at cheaper rate from the internet today at ease. Imagine a business man traveling abroad to buy goods experiencing all the stress and risk by himself, while the other seat while waiting for his goods to be shipped to him. What is the difference between the two business men? it is the way both of them obtained their goods, the first man experience stress while the later seat back enjoying himself while is goods is on the why. This is as a result of using the internet to order for good, and the goods get to him while he is in his comfort, so the best place to buy goods and product in comfort and with ease is on the internet. Another advantage of the internet is that it can be use for research, which every body need, being a student, worker, farmer, teacher what ever your profession you need the internet for research, and the exciting part for using the internet for research is that the internet cover all aspect of human engagement so no matter what you are you can also turn to the internet for research. Internet can also be used to publish information for the whole world to see, and this can be done using the word wide web, and most people are using that method to day, and it has gone a long way to build the world population with information today. School student today perform better in their education career as a result of good use of the internet for obtaining information which play a key role in developing the world, because student are our future leaders.

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Possible Means Of Communication in Future


Empathetic Communications Sensitive, touchy-feely people need to communicate effectively, too. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon's Project on People and Robots have created The Hug, a multisensory wireless phone and fuzzy pillow that lets people communicate using sensors, heating pads, gently buzzing motors and arrangements of lights while they carry on a telephone communication. The point of the Hug is to allow a physical interaction to carry over long distances, using the same technology that can carry data and voice. A similar (if vaguely imagined) concept was put forth by Australian student Leah Heiss, who dreamed up an Empathy Vest to deal with "the development of empathy between individuals in remote spaces, the possibility of activity in the public realm being registered in the private realm, and the synaesthetic experience of spatial information." Personally, I have no idea what that means, but the hypothetical vest is supposed to use a wearable computer that transmits signals from touch and sound sensors and displays received signals using a variety of light arrays and (for some unknown reason) a fan. The functionality of this device may seem pointless or even comical, but the underlying idea of using technology to communicate both emotionally and physically could lead to richer, more personal communications in the future--or at least some really good porn. Qualcomm iMOD phoneNo Communications device is more frustratingly useless than a cell phone with a dead battery. And one of the biggest battery drainers on your cell phone is the backlit LCD screen. A new technology in development at Qualcomm, called iMOD, lets screens save power and appear brighter in direct sunlight-precisely when conventional LCDs get washed out with glare. Qualcomm's iMOD screen technology is inspired by the iridescent surface of butterfly wings. It uses microscopic mirrors to reflect ambient light and improve visibility (in darker environments, iMOD screens will still rely upon batterypowered lighting). Qualcomm claims that the technology, due out within two years, can help improve cell phone battery life by one-third.

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$100 LaptopIf we are to accept that the world economy is now fully dependent upon the information economy, then it stands to reason that those people who are left out of the global information network are doomed an endless cycle of poverty. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab has designed a fully functional laptop computer that can be sold for $100 so that children in poor or developing nations can get access to the Internet. To keep costs down, the laptop will use a $35 dual-mode display of the kind found in cheap DVD players, a 500-megahertz processor, a slimmed-down operating system, and only 1 gigabyte of storage. It can be plugged into a wall outlet or charged by a crank-driven battery, and it will connect to the Internet via a wireless card. To be sure, these laptops are not going to be playing Quake 4 anytime soon, but it could give disadvantaged kids a shot at taking part in the digital community. MIT hopes to have a working prototype by November 2005 and production units shipping to government education ministries by the end of 2006. Ubik Concept Mobile PhoneThe ultimate conversion device, Frog Design and CNET.com have imagined this Swiss Army Knife-style foldable phone, gaming device and multimedia player of the future. The Ubik uses a borderless, flexible high-resolution screen that folds in half when the device is closed. The outer casing is constructed of two hard shells that do double duty as OLED (organic light-emitting diode--the screen technology of the moment) screens themselves both inside and out, allowing the user to customize the look of the phone with displayed imagery and creating either gaming buttons or a telephone keypad on the inside depending on how the Ubik is being used. When closed, it is the size and shape of a Post-it Note, and it opens two ways depending on what you want to do with it. One configuration serves as your phone, e-mail and instant-messaging device. The other way turns the Ubik into a gaming machine, photo viewer and video and music player. And to make sure that you are the only one using your phone, there is a built-in biometric optical scanner. HapticsWhether people know it or not, haptics has been subtly making inroads into everyday life in the form of vibrating phones and gaming controllers and force-feedback control knobs in cars (BMW's iDrive system uses the technology). But the science of haptics has the potential to do much more. Products such as Immersion Corporation and SenseAble Technologies' CyberForce "whole-hand force feedback system" let users
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interact physically with virtual objects--for instance, you could literally feel the shape, texture and weight of an on-screen three-dimensional object-using a sensor-equipped glove and a force-reflecting exoskeleton. Such devices are used now for virtual modeling, medicine and the military, but as costs decrease, haptic interfaces could become valuable communications tools. Using these tools, people can virtually shake hands over the Internet and doctors could diagnose and operate upon patients remotely. VoWi-FiJust when you got used to all the fuss about VoIP (voice-overInternet Protocol), there's a new next big thing in telecommunications, VoWi-Fi. Since VoIP has the capacity to route your calls over the Internet to anywhere in the world, and since Wi-Fi can let you tap into the Internet from any hot spot, VoWi-Fi can turn any hot spot around the world into your home telephone line. Startup VoIP telecom Vonage has announced plans to launch a Wi-Fi phone by the end of the year, and both Nokia and Motorola have announced upcoming dual-mode cellular and Wi-Fi phones that will seamlessly hop back and forth between networks to maximize reception and economy. 802.16 PhonesIn the U.S., broadband mobile telephony does technically exist in the form of Verizon's EV-DO BroadbandAccess service, and, to a lesser extent, the EDGE network of Cingular. These services have gained a following in the mobile professional world, but to most Americans, it is a technology in search of a point. In South Korea, however, video on cell phones is a phenomenon, and it would seem that no amount of bandwidth will ever be high enough to suit Korean needs. That's why next year should see the South Korean rollout of WiBro, a version of the same IEEE 802.16 standard that is behind the much-hyped WiMAX protocol. With WiBro, Korean phones will tap into always-on broadband connections that can provide a bandwidth of up to 1 megabit per second on devices that are moving up to 60 mph. Carriers in the U.S. are still flirting with the notion of WiMAX Internet service and/or phone service, but a real nationwide rollout is still very much on the drawing board.

VVT Finnish Walking Bio-Identification PhoneCell phones and laptops are easy marks for thieves, but a group of scientists at the VVT Technical Research Center in Finland has come up with a way to sour the spoils of such high-tech villainy. The VVT scientists would equip mobile phones and
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notebook computers with sensors and software capable of analyzing and saving their owners' walking patterns. If the machine determines that it is being carried around by a person with an unfamiliar stride, the gadget will go into a lockdown mode until a password is entered. This sort of passive bio-identification is far easier to use and more likely to be enabled than active methods such as fingerprint ID and code entry. Once such technology becomes widespread, it could have the effect of making gadget theft pointless for criminals. The Phone GloveThere is a rational argument to be made for the Bluetooth glove phone, a reassemblage of parts from a Bluetooth head set into a driving glove that was constructed by British gadget guy and television personality Jason Bradbury. This glove integrates our telecommunications devices into a stylish and functional clothing accessory while keeping the bulky phone out of the way. OK, maybe a glove phone isn't a great leap forward in technology or ergonomics, but it's hard to deny the goofy fun of answering a call with your thumb and pinky finger. In fact, Bradbury's tinkering hints at a trend that has received a lot of academic attention: wearable computing. Many futurists believe that our communications devices will eventually become cheap and ubiquitous enough to simply be integrated into the elements of our everyday attire. And it's already happening. Several Bluetooth helmets have been developed for skiing and motorcycling from companies such as Marker and Motorola, and jackets that plug into all of your gear and create a personal area network are available from ScotteVest. MicroMedia PaperThere is no shortage of designs for futuristic electronic paper. Various designs of this magical stuff will allow entire books to fit on a single memory-enabled, polymer sheet, displayed using infinitely reconfigurable magnetically-charged pigments; or futuristic printing technologies that will allow mass-produced super-cheap color screens that could be applied like wallpaper. One of the more interesting e-paper concepts comes from the techno-futurists at Lunar Design, who have imagined a product for the year 2015 called MicroMedia Paper. Available in packs of ten for around $35, these ultra-thin, mini color screens would work using replaceable "power sticker" batteries and would be controlled using touch sensitive buttons and a volume dial that adjusts the integrated speakers. Video, pictures and teleconferencing imagery could be transferred using a built-in wireless connection.
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