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Running Head: DOMESTIC MINOR SEX TRAFFICKING AND THE TRAFFICKING VICTIMS PROTECTION REAUTHORIZATION ACT

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act Rebekah Sullivan Temple University

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

The social problem I am focusing on is sexually exploited adolescent girls in America. Human sex trafficking or modern-day slavery is a multidimensional problem that exists not only across the world but in our local communities. This paper will explore the scope of domestic sex trafficking, responses, and the policy of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008. Sex trafficking affects many aspects of society. Socially, sex trafficking continues to prey on our vulnerable youth. There are severe mental, physical, and health repercussions from this problem for the individual involved, which continue to feed into the cycle of poverty and harm to our at risk youth. Sex trafficking is a billion dollar criminal activity that continues to feed into the black market while eliminating the human rights of its victims (McCain 2011). The general issues that sex trafficking stems from are the misdiagnosis of prostitution, the misinformed, unaware society, and the susceptible at-risk youth population. Sex trafficking is often misdiagnosed as prostitution and the young victims do not get the assistance they ultimately need. Since prostitution is illegal in most of the United States the girls are treated and labeled as criminals, however any girl under the age of 18 is considered a victim of domestic minor sex trafficking ("Trafficking victims protection," 2003), even though this legislative is not always enforced. In a culture that glorifies pimps through music and movies, it is easy to explain how this underground business continues to thrive. The glamorization of pimps aids in the recruitment of young girls for prostitution. Many people are unaware of this pervasive

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

crime and that it occurs in their local community due to lack of education on this topic (Shared Hope International 2006). The majority of sex trafficking victims tend to be our most vulnerable community members which is why this issue is significant to society. They come from broken homes, poverty, violence and abuse (Kotrla 2010).The suicide rate for adolescence is higher among those who have been trafficked (McClain 2011). Little care is set-up for those who do leave or get caught. In fact many of the girls are falsely charged with prostitution and end up in the judicial system. The life style of most of these girls caught in the sex trade is of violence, forced drug use and abuse (Walker-Rodriguez 2011). It is our duty as a society to address the atrocious violation of human rights and to protect our at risk youth and runaway population. The topic of human sex trafficking is significant to me because it too often goes unnoticed. Many people are unaware of this issue because it is such a hidden crime. When I first became aware about sex trafficking and that it was happening in the United States, I was overwhelmed and astounded. The more I continued researching about it, the more I was compelled to act and be an advocate for the victims. I cannot imagine a more horrendous act of degradation and dehumanization being committed against another human being. While I was practicing music therapy in San Diego, I had an amazing opportunity to conduct group music therapy with women rescued from human trafficking. The interactions and experience I had with them grew me professionally and continued to cultivate my desire to help stop and eradicate sex trafficking and bring restoration for the victims. Sex trafficking, modern day slavery, exists not only globally and nationally but in our local communities. Annually at least 100,000 children are forced into the sex trade, conversely some experts believe the number is closer to 300,000 children each year (Shared Hope 2006).

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

In 2001, it was estimated that 45,000 to 50,000 people, primarily women and children, are trafficked to the U.S. annually. However finding an accurate statistic of the amount of people in sex trafficking is very difficult, given the nature of the problem. Trafficking in Persons Report (2002), suggests 700,000 to up to 4 million people have been trafficked. The Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2007 states Annually, according to U.S. Government-sponsored research completed in 2006, approximately 800,000 people are trafficked across national borders, which does not include millions trafficked within their own countries. Approximately 80 percent of transnational victims are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors. The Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (TVPRA) defines human trafficking as: sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery ("Trafficking victims protection," 2008). This definition means that anyone under the age of 18 is considered a victim of sex trafficking and the use of force, fraud or coercion does not need to be proven. TVPRA also defines a commercial sex act as the giving or receiving of anything of value to any person in exchange for a sex act. So even if a child is receiving money, shelter, clothes or food they are still deemed a victim (Shared Hope). This is important when discussing survival sex as well as in the identification of these victims. Misidentification of these victims can occur as some would

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

argue that sex work is a valid occupation and one may see a victim receiving something of value and claim the victim is benefiting from the abuse. Recently, research has indicated that at-risk American youth may be most vulnerable to become victims of sex trafficking. As the TVPRA defines a commercial sex act induced by anyone under 18 as a victim of sex trafficking, specialists in the field have started referring to these adolescences as Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking (DMST) (Kotrla 2010). Therefore anyone under the age of 18 who is prostituting is legally considered a DMST victim. Most of the victims come from broken homes or from families who have abandoned them. The supply for the victims is high! Nationally there are between 450,000 and 2.8 million children and youth runaways, which continues to feed into the cycle of sex trafficking as these children are most often recruited into the sex trade (Koltra, 2010). The youth who are targeted have very low self-esteem and are looking for a place to belong. One pimp who was sharing how they recruit the young girls explained that he would walk around a mall and when he saw someone he was interested in he would approach her. He would comment on how pretty her eyes were. If she would respond by looking down or showing insecurity he found his victim. However if she responded confidently, looked him in the eye and said thank you, he would continue to walking. A history of sexual or physical abuse is very common for victims as well. Approximately 90% of women involved with prostitution and sex trafficking have been sexually abused in their past (Koltra, 2010). There are many negative physical, emotional and psychological effects of sex trafficking on the victims. Physically the victims may suffer from physical injuries from abuse like broken bones, cuts, malnutrition, infections, STDs and HIV/Aids. Emotional and psychological effects

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

include depression, psychological trauma from daily mental abuse, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, anxiety disorders, phobias, feelings of guilt and shame no self-efficacy, denial and panic attacks (McClain & Garity, 2011). As previously discussed at least 100,000 children are used in prostitution every year in the United States. Prostituted girls are often controlled by a pimp who recruits them into sex trafficking by posing as a boyfriend, caretaker, and protector. The three primary manifestations of child sex trafficking in America are pimp-controlled prostitution, familial prostitution, and/or survival sex. The average age of entry into prostitution is 13 years old (http://www.sharedhope.org). Based on these statistics, women who are currently in prostitution were once classified as a victim. One of the major difficulties when dealing with sex trafficking is determining if it is possible for someone who was a victim to later not be identified as a victim. It has only been with-in the past two decades that sex trafficking has been highly recognized and there has been a response. However, one of the earliest articles addressing sex trafficking was in 1910 by Emma Goldman. Then there seemed to be a gap in research and interest in this area until the early 1990s. Goldman addressed the topic as the traffic in women and connects prostitution with exploitation for women. She addressed fallacies of prostitution and trafficking that are still being misconceived and debated today. For example, the fallacy that the majority of women trafficked are foreign, and that they are were in the sex trade prior to coming to America. Many are deceived into the sex trade and have no history of prostitution before being trafficked across borders (Goldman, 2002, "Trafficking in person's," 2001).

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

The Global Initiative to fight Human Trafficking believes that it is a crime of such magnitude and atrocity that it cannot be dealt with successfully by any government alone (www.ungift.org). Social groups and NGOs have been formed to combat and advocate against human trafficking. Some larger organizations focusing on the national problem include: Polaris Project founded in 2002 which aims to change the sex trade market through a comprehensive approach (http://www.polarisproject.org/about-us/introduction/mission-and-values), Shared Hope International, founded in 1998, which mission statement is focused on the prevention and eradication of sex trafficking through awareness and education (http://www.sharedhope.org/WhoWeAre.aspx), and the Not for Sale Campaign, founded in 2007, which equips and mobilize activist into action to abolish slavery (http://www.notforsalecampaign.org/about/). With-in the past decade the media has slowly started to take on the issues of sex trafficking. There has been an increase in news coverage of this issue with-in the past decade. Numerous fictional movies, documentaries and films on sex trafficking have been created and have addressed the issue of sex trafficking. There are the Hollywood versions like Taken and Slum dog millionaire and documentaries like Very Young Girls and Sex and Money. The United States government has responded to the issue of sex trafficking. The first government response was by the Departments Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. They first started exploring the issues of human trafficking in 1994. At that time the main focus was sexual exploitation with women and children. Then in 2001, the first Trafficking in Persons report (TIP) was released. The Trafficking in Persons Report is an annual report used by the U.S. Government to define human trafficking, and communicate with foreign

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

governments. It provides a comprehensive guide of anti-human trafficking efforts, updates and a description of the nature and scope of the problem ("Trafficking in person's," 2001). In response to the problem of human trafficking the U.S. Department of State created the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) in October 2000. This Act has been updated and reauthorized numerous times and is now referred to the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPR). Currently, the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 expired this past September 2011 as Congress failed to pass the Act before it expired. However the Senate Judiciary Committee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee plan to consider the bill in October. After the First Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) was created in 2000, President Bush followed action by establishing the Presidents Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. The first task force meeting was held in 2002. The task force is chaired by the Secretary of State and includes the Attorney General, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development ("Trafficking in person's," 2007). The TVPA sanctioned the Department of State to create the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, which was established in October 2001. The Trafficking Office is responsible for raising awareness, investigating and persecuting perpetrators, and creating programs to stop human trafficking in the U.S and internationally. This includes partnering with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), preparing reports and presenting to Congress the TIP. The Trafficking Office also monitors human trafficking globally by rating other countries efforts

Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking and the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

in compliance with the TVPRA, and ranks each country into a tier level based on their progress. ("Trafficking in person's," 2001) The problem of sex trafficking has not originated and is not specific to the U.S. As previously mentioned the supply of women and children are imported from other countries. Therefore, since the success of human trafficking is intertwined with other countries, a universal system needed to be created in order to stop human trafficking. The U.S. governments response to this dilemma was creating a Tier system to rate countries based on their compliance and action regarding the TVPRA. Each year, countries are reassessed and rated in the Tier system in the Trafficking in Persons Report ("Trafficking in person's," 2007). There are three levels in the Tier system. Countries are placed in the first Tier if their governments fully comply with the TVPRA for eliminating human trafficking. If a country meets minimal standards of the TVPRA, but is putting forth effort and making significant changes and steps to improve their compliance with the TVPRA they are placed in Tier 2. Countries and Governments that do not meet minimal standards of the TVPA and are not making an attempt to comply are placed in the lowest tier, Tier 3. Those countries in Tier 3 are subject to sanctions which the U.S. Government can with hold trade and/or non-humanitarian support ("Trafficking victims protection," 2001). There has been much criticism on the TIP and the Tier system. When the report first came out in 2001 and 2002 many countries placed in Tier 2 failed the minimum standards, were not making any effort to eliminate trafficking and should have been placed in Tier 3. The State Department was not using statistics to place countries into appropriate tiers and political considerations were evident in the rating process. Since there are no consequences for countries in Tier 2, there is no incentives for those countries to change. Disapproval of the system claimed

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the Tier system was ineffective (Malaerk, 2003). However, NGOs and humanitarian groups expressed concern and challenged the rating scale and the TIP and the Department of State continue to accurately rate countries according to the real efforts and standards being met. The policy I will be focusing on is the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2008, which is an act that encompasses all aspects of human trafficking which includes labor and sex trafficking. It contains 4 main sections: combating human trafficking globally as well as in the United States, authorizations of appropriations, and child soldier prevention. Title II of the act focuses on combating trafficking in persons in the United States through ensuring availability of possible witnesses and informants and assistance to the victims. This paper is focusing on the benefits and assistance available for domestic minor adolescent victims. People become eligible for provisions of this law once they are identified as victims of trafficking. To be considered a victim there most be proven force, fraud, or coercion for the use of involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage or sexual exploitation. Anyone under the age 18 is considered a victim without the proof of force, fraud or coercion. There are many provisions for immigrants and non-US citizens, including a T-visa which allows them to stay in the United States. Most of the funding and benefits is focused on allowing immigrant victims to access benefits U.S citizens have access to like medical assistance and social services through welfare. The immigrant/international consideration may be attributed the nature of human trafficking, the globalization of this crime and that most victims being most identified tend to be immigrants. Once a person is deemed a victims they can receive multiple benefits including housing, health cared, education, job training and other social service programs. The people eligible for the provisions of the Act seem very inclusive, however due to the difficulty of proving someone was

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exploited by the use of force, fraud or coercion, many victims are not correctly identified and labeled as a victim and therefore do not receive benefits from this act. The TVPRA has greatly helped victims of sex trafficking who are not U.S. citizens. It has provided eligibility for them to receive benefits and allows them to stay in the U.S. This is especially important as victims in sex trafficking have no income, clothing, or shelter (McClain & Garity, 2011). Assistance for victims is established through the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor. The use of existing programs and referrals to other programs is also utilized. Additional benefits to trafficking victims are appropriated to the Secretary of Health and Human Services for $7 million dollars were appropriated in the fiscal year of 2011. Another 7 million dollars was authorized to be appropriated to the Attorney General for the fiscal year of 2011. The funding is than dispersed through grants that are awarded to states, units of local government and nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations. This bill has been very helpful in mobilizing government and NGOs to fight sex trafficking by equipping them. The TVPRA provides funds for education, awareness and investigative and legal action. Since the first TVPA, approximately 400 trafficking-related prosecutions have been opened with the issuance of around 1,500 T visas (McReynolds, 2008). The TVPRA has also increased awareness and education about sex trafficking by providing funds focused on these areas. One example of this is with the Department of Health and Human Services created a campaign called Look Beneath the Surface. They offer free brochures, training DVDS, and information about sex trafficking to all federal and state programs including the family planning programs. For example my health bureau in Bethlehem,

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Pennsylvania has received informational media and a training DVD they are required to show their entire staff which addresses sex trafficking. These brochures and trainings are provided because of the TVPRA. Overall, the TVPRA is very beneficial and crucial in the assistance of domestic and international victims. However, the Act provides more benefits and assistance for non-U.S. citizens since U.S. citizens are already eligible for social services and benefits. Therefore one of the main benefits from this act for domestic adolescence victims is protecting them victims. The Act defines trafficking and the qualifications needed for someone to be a victim of sex trafficking. This protection is very important since most domestic victims of sex trafficking are often mis-labeled and charged with prostitution and criminalized. The act is also valuable because it aids in the prosecution of the traffickers, which helps decrease the criminal activity. It created new law enforcement tools to strengthen the prosecution of the perpetrators. However, as previously mentioned most of the benefits from this act mainly benefit international victims. There needs to be more focus and assistance directed to domestic sex trafficking victims. There are numerous policies and approaches other countries take, however Swedens approach has been very successful. Sweden has taken a very strong stance against sex trafficking and has implemented policies that focus on the demand side of trafficking. One policy they enacted has greatly decreased the problem of sex trafficking in their county. Sweden acknowledged they had a human trafficking and prostitution problem. The negatives effects were harmful for their society. So in 1999, they adopted the Prohibition of Purchasing Sexual Services Act 1999. The law focuses on the buyers and purchasers of sex. Sweden does not persecute the woman who is being prostituted but rather focuses their attention on the pimps and buyers, also known as johns (Waltman, 2011).

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The Prohibition of Purchasing Sexual Services Act 1999 primarily criminalizes the purchasing of sexual services. It also defines prostitution as a form of exploitation. Sweden views prostitution and trafficking in human beings for sexual purposes as the same thing as both are harmful to the people involved and fundamentally linked. Sweden also believes that if prostitution and buying/selling of sexual acts decrease it will be harder for human trafficking or organized crime to continue. The law states: A person who obtains casual sexual relations in exchange for payment shall be sentencedunless the act is punishable under the Swedish Penal Codefor the purchase of sexual services to a fine or imprisonment for at most six months. Attempt to purchase sexual services is punishable under Chapter 23 of the Swedish Penal Code.7 (Ekberg, p. 7, 2008).

This Act also provides funding and support for women to leave prostitution, including access to housing, counseling, education and job training. Training is also provided for police and social service personnel likely to have contact with prostitutes as well as judiciary, the police and public prosecutors, and for employees of the Swedish Migration Board (Carson & Edwards, 2011). The Prohibition of Purchasing Sexual Services Act excludes the prostitute from receiving any penalties. The focus is on the buyer and seller. Although most studies show the buyers are usually male, the act does not discriminate based on gender. This is a key factor of the act as the act aims to protect the person selling the sex act because they believe in most cases the person selling is the weaker person. They also do not want to persecute the women in prostitution

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because do not believe women in prostitution will seek help from society if they are penalized (Sweden, trafficking in persons, 2004). The law appears to be very effective. Since Sweden adopted the law, it is estimated that the number of prostitutes dropped 40 per cent from 2,500 in 1998 to 1,500 in 2003 (Ritter, 2008). In 2008, estimates believe there are less than 500 woman being prostituted in Sweden (Ekberg, 2008). The act is also very accepted by the public. In a 2008 poll, 8 out of 10 Sweden citizens were supportive of the law (Ekberg, 2008). The success of this Act requires other countries to consider this as a viable option in decreasing sex trafficking and protecting the vulnerable youth and women. The problem of sex trafficking has been an issue since the start of prostitution, and prostitution has been evident through-out history. However until recently, the real problem of sex trafficking was not properly recognized and girls who were prostituted were misidentified. The real issues of sex trafficking have started to be addressed and the girls are now identified and labeled as domestic minor sex trafficking victims. This recent change in language has increased awareness, education and has mobilized the Government, NGOs, and coalitions to action regarding global sex trafficking. However, much more education and awareness needs to be conducted in the area of local sex trafficking as it exists and occurs today. There also needs to be more action from the local governments and law enforcement to fight domestic sex trafficking as there are few efforts to eliminate domestic sex trafficking on a local scale. As awareness increases hopefully the problem of domestic sex trafficking will be addressed and one day eradicated.

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Annotated Bibliography About. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.notforsalecampaign.org/about/. Information about the Not for Sale Campaign. About un.gift. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ungift.org/knowledgehub/en/about/ . This article explores the work the Not for Sale Campaign is doing to fight sex trafficking. It also addressed the issue of sex trafficking what plays into the supply and demand. Amanda Walker-Rodriguez, & Rodney Hill. (2011). Human sex trafficking. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 80(3), 1. This article defines and explains the world of human sex trafficking. It expands on the problems associated with trafficking on a national and local level. It discusses strategies being used to fight trafficking and continued efforts being conducted. Carson, L., & Edwards, K. (2011). Prostitution and sex trafficking: What are the problems represented to be? A discursive analysis of law and policy in sweden and victoria, australia. Australian Feminist Law Journal, 34, 63. This article discusses the policy Sweden enacted dealing with prostitution and sex trafficking.

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Cree, V. E. (2008). Confronting sex trafficking: Lessons from history. International Social Work, 51(6), 763-776. doi:10.1177/0020872808095249. This article studies the response of National Vigilance Association to sex-trafficking. It discusses local activity and campaigns enacted, the successfulness and new approaches. The article stresses changing the relationship between the individual and the state and the view of sex trafficking in the social work field. Ekberg, G. (2004). The swedish law that prohibits the purchase of sexual services: Best practices for prevention of prostitution and trafficking in human beings. Violence Against Women, 10(10). Ekberg does a great job dissecting Swedens policy on sex trafficking and prostitution. He discussed how it works and the positive effects from the policy. Goldman, E. (2002). The traffic in women 1. Hastings Women's Law Journal, 13, 9-325. This article was writing in 1910 and addressed the need of women in the early century. The author acknowledges the existence of sex trafficking and the sexual exploitation of women. Hoffer, K. (2010). A response to sex trafficking chicago style: follow the sisters, speak out. University Of Pennsylvania Law Review, 158(6), 1831-1848. Hoffer dissects the response Chicago took in fighting human trafficking and highlights the benefits as well as recommendations for future approaches. Karl Ritter. (2008). Sweden targets just the johns. The Spectator, Weekend Reader, p.8. Sweden, Trafficking in Human Beings. (2004) Retrieved from:

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http://legislationline.org/topics/country/1/topic/14 Kipnis, L. (2006). RESPONSE TO "THE TRAFFIC IN WOMEN". Women's Studies Quarterly, 34(1/2), 434-437. This article described the responses of the local government in Chicago and the response to sex trafficking globally. The article challenges the idea that as long as prostitution exists inequality of women will continue. Kotrla, K. (2010). Domestic minor sex trafficking in the united states. Social Work, 55(2), 181181. The article distinguishes between human and trafficking and prostitution of minors. Kotrla defines domestic minor sex trafficking, while addressing the supply and demand aspects of the commercial sex trade. Kotrla picks apart our culture and draws connections between society today and the prevalence of sex trafficking. Lagon, M. (2009). Trafficking and human dignity. Policy Review, 152, 51-61. In this article, Lagon addresses the issue of degradation of humans in trafficking. He focuses on using legal tools and change to improve human dignity. Malarek, V. (2003). The natashas: Inside the new global sex trade. New York: Arcade Publishing. Malarek addresses the issues of the global sex trade. He hits on the demand, supply, and action done by governments. McClain, N. M., & Garrity, S. E. (2011). Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 40(2), 243-252. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01221.x.

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This article addresses the clinical implications of adolescence in the sex trade and assessment tools when working with victims. The author identifies signs and evidences that someone may be a victim of sexual exploitation. McReynolds, M. (2008) The trafficking protection act. Policy Perspectives, (15) 33-56. McReynolds addresses the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. She explains how it has helped and the benefits from the Act. She also provides recommendations on improving the Act to continue to help victims. Polaris project. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.polarisproject.org/about us/introduction/mission-and-values. This Webpage states the mission statement and purpose of the Polaris project and discussed what the organization participates in and how it responds to sex trafficking. Reid, J. (2011). An exploratory model of girls vulnerability to to commercial sexual exploitation in prostitution. Child Maltreatment, 16(2), 146-157. This article studied the effects of maltreatment of young girls through caregiver strains to see if it is linked to girls who become victims of commercial sexual exploitation. Through her research and previous studies, results show there are multiple pathways to a child becoming involved with sex trafficking. Rieger, A. (2007). Missing the mark: Why the trafficking victims protection act fails to protect sex trafficking victims in the united states. Harvard Journal of Law & Gender, 30(1), 231. This article hits on the reality of minor sex trafficking and the lack of protection are law and local services provide the victims.

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Shared Hope International. (2006). The National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking: America's Prostituted Children.Retrieved from http://www.sharedhope.org/Portals/0/Documents/demand_us.pdf. The National Report on Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking gives detailed statistics and information about the commercial sex industry. It tackles many issues surrounding sex trafficking including the marketplace, the victims, the buyers and looks at specific case studies from the US. U.S. Department of State, Office To Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (2001). Trafficking in person's report Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2001/index.htm The Trafficking in Persons Report is an annual report used by the U.S. Government to define human trafficking, and communicate with foreign governments. It provides a comprehensive guide of anti-human trafficking efforts, updates and a description of the nature and scope of the problem. U.S. Department of State, Office To Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (2007). Trafficking in person's report Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2007/index.htm U.S. Department of State, (2000). Victims of trafficking and violence protection act of 2000 (H.R.3244) Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/laws/index.htm. U.S. Department of State, (2003). Trafficking victims protection reauthorization act of 2003 (H.R.2620) Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/laws/index.htm. This reference is the Trafficking victims protection reauthorization act of 2003. Waltman, M. (2011). Swedens prohibition of purchase of sex: The Laws reasons, impact, and

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potential. Women's Studies : International Forum, 34 (5) pg. 449-474. Waltman discusses the effects of prostitution and how the law has impacted Swedens society. He also addresses the history of the law. Wheaton, E. M., & Schauer, E. J. (2006). Sex trafficking into the united states: A literature review. Criminal Justice Review, 31(2), 146-169. doi:10.1177/0734016806290136. This article reviews literature regarding sex trafficking and summarizes the findings. The article identifies gaps in literature and studies and provides an overview of how sex trafficking is being run today. Who we are. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sharedhope.org/WhoWeAre.aspx.