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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Sources of sound

These notes are concerned with the mechanisms of sound production and propagation.

Music, calm speech, gently owing streams or leaves uttering in a breeze on a summer day

are pleasant and desirable sounds. Noise, howling winds, explosions and angry voices are

possibly less so. In all such cases we seek to understand the basic sources of the sound by

careful analysis of the equations of motions. Most mechanical sources are very complex, very

often involving ill-dened turbulent and perhaps combusting ows and their interactions

with vibrating structures, and the energy released as sound is usually a tiny fraction of

the structural and hydrodynamic energy of the source region. It is therefore important to

develop robust mathematical models that reliably incorporate this general ineciency of

the sound generation mechanisms; small errors in source modelling can evidently lead to

very large errors in acoustic prediction.

To do this we consider a uid that can be regarded as continuous and locally

homogeneous at all levels of subdivision. At any time t and position x = (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) the

state of the uid is dened when the velocity v and any two thermodynamic variables are

specied for each of the uid particles of which the uid may be supposed to consist. The

distinctive uid property possessed by both liquids and gases is that these uid particles

can move freely relative to one another under the inuence of applied forces or other

externally imposed changes at the boundaries of the uid. Five scalar partial dierential

equations are required to determine these motions. They are statements of conservation of

mass, momentum and energy, and they are to be solved subject to appropriate boundary

and initial conditions, dependent on the problem at hand. These equations will be used to

formulate and analyse a wide range of acoustic problems; our main task will be to simplify

these problems to obtain a thorough understanding of source mechanisms together with a

quantitative estimate of the radiated sound.

M. S. Howe 1 1.1 Sources of sound

AAS

1.2 Equations of motion of a uid

The state of a uid at time t and position x = (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) is dened when the velocity

v and any two thermodynamic variables are specied. Five scalar equations are therefore

required to determine the motion. These equations are statements of the conservation of

mass, momentum and energy. They must normally be supplemented by a thermodynamic

equation of state.

1.2.1 The material derivative

Let v

i

denote the component of uid velocity v in the x

i

-direction, and consider the rate

at which any function F(x, t) varies following the motion of a uid particle. Let the particle

be at x at time t, and at x+x a short time later at time t +t, where x = v(x, t)t + .

At the new position of the uid particle

F(x + x, t + t) = F(x, t) + v

j

t

F

x

j

(x, t) + t

F

t

(x, t) + ,

where the repeated sux j implies summation over j = 1, 2, 3. The limiting value of

(F(x + x, t + t) F(x, t))/t as t 0 denes the material (or Lagrangian) derivative

DF/Dt of F:

DF

Dt

=

F

t

+ v

j

F

x

j

F

t

+v F. (1.2.1)

DF/Dt measures the time rate of change of F as seen by an observer moving with the uid

particle that occupies position x at time t.

1.2.2 Equation of continuity

A uid particle of volume V and mass density has a total mass of V (V )(x, t),

where x denotes the position of the centroid of V at time t (Figure 1.2.1). Conservation of

mass requires that D(V )/Dt = 0, i.e. that

1

D

Dt

+

1

V

DV

Dt

= 0. (1.2.2)

Now

1

V

DV

Dt

=

1

V

_

S

v dS, where the integration is over the closed material surface S forming

the boundary of V, on which the vector surface element dS is directed out of V. It is the

M. S. Howe 2 1.2 Equations of motion

AAS

fractional rate of increase of the volume of the uid particle, and becomes equal to div v as

V 0. In this limit (1.2.2) can therefore be cast in any of the following equivalent forms of

the equation of continuity

1

D

Dt

+ div v = 0,

t

+ div(v) = 0,

t

+

x

j

(v

j

) = 0.

_

_

(1.2.3)

Figure 1.2.1

1.2.3 Momentum equation

The momentum equation is derived in a similar manner by consideration of the rate of

change of momentum D(V v)/Dt (V )Dv/Dt of a uid particle subject to pressure p

and viscous forces acting on the surface S of V, and body forces F per unit volume within

V. It is sucient for our purposes to quote the form of the resulting Navier-Stokes equation

Dv

Dt

= p curl +

_

+

4

3

_

div v +F, (1.2.4)

where = curl v is the vorticity, and and

coecients of viscosity, which generally vary with pressure, temperature and position in

the uid. Viscous forces are important predominantly close to solid boundaries, where the

frictional drag is governed by the shear viscosity . It is then a good approximation to

adopt the Stokesian model in which the contribution of the bulk viscosity is ignored.

Values of , and = / (the kinematic viscosity) for air and water at 10

C and one

atmosphere pressure are given in the Table 1.2.1:

M. S. Howe 3 1.2 Equations of motion

AAS

kg/m

3

kg/ms m

2

/s

Air 1.23 1.764 10

5

1.433 10

5

Water 1000 1.284 10

3

1.284 10

6

Table 1.2.1

1.2.4 Energy equation

Consideration of the transfer of heat by molecular diusion across the moving material

boundary S of the uid particle of Figure 1.2.1, and of the production of heat by frictional

dissipation within its interior volume V leads to the energy equation

T

Ds

Dt

= 2

_

e

ij

1

3

e

kk

ij

_

2

+

e

2

kk

+ div

_

T

_

, (1.2.5)

where T, s are respectively the temperature and specic entropy (i.e. entropy per unit

mass), is the thermal conductivity of the uid, and

e

ij

=

1

2

_

v

i

x

j

+

v

j

x

i

_

(1.2.6)

is the rate of strain tensor, which accounts for changes in shape of the uid particle. Because

e

kk

div v, the term involving the bulk coecient of viscosity

dissipative production of heat during compressions and rarefactions of the uid.

To understand the signicance of the rate of strain tensor, observe that the velocity v

is given to rst order by (see A.7)

v

i

= x

j

v

i

x

j

x

j

1

2

_

v

i

x

j

+

v

j

x

i

_

+ x

j

1

2

_

v

i

x

j

v

j

x

i

_

=

1

2

i

_

e

jk

x

j

x

k

_

+

1

2

( x

)

i

where e

ij

and the vorticity are evaluated at the centroid. The term in therefore repre-

sents relative rigid body rotation of the particle about the centroid, at angular velocity

1

2

,

M. S. Howe 4 1.2 Equations of motion

AAS

with no change of shape. The gradient term, however, represents an irrotational distortion

of V, and is responsible for frictional forces and the conversion of mechanical energy into heat.

1.2.5 Equation of state

In the presence of velocity and pressure gradients a uid cannot be in strict

thermodynamic equilibrium, and thermodynamic variables require special interpretation.

The density and the total internal energy e per unit mass can be dened in the usual

way for a very small uid particle without the need for thermodynamic equilibrium, such

that and e are the mass and internal energy per unit volume. The pressure and all

other thermodynamic quantities are then dened by means of the same functions of

and e that would be used for a system in thermal equilibrium, and the relations between

the thermodynamic variables are then the same as for a uid in local thermodynamic

equilibrium, dened by equations of the form

p = p(, s), p = p(, T), s = s(, T), etc. (1.2.7)

The equations of state (1.2.7) permit any thermodynamic variable to be expressed in terms

of any two variables, such as the density and temperature, although in applications it may

be more convenient to use other such equations. For sound propagation in an ideal uid it

is usual to neglect dissipation and to assume homentropic ow: s = s

o

= constant. This

permits the uid motion to be determined from the equations of continuity and momentum

and the equation of state p = p(, s

o

), the energy equation being ignored. In more general

situations it is necessary to retain the energy equation to account for coupling between

macroscopic motions and the internal energy of the uid.

Note, however, that the thermodynamic pressure p = p(, e) dened in this way is

generally no longer the sole source of normal stress on any surface drawn in the uid.

This is the case in a uid of non-zero bulk viscosity (

rotational (or other internal) degrees of freedom whose relaxation time required for the

M. S. Howe 5 1.2 Equations of motion

AAS

re-establishment of thermal equilibrium after, say, a compression, is large relative to the

equilibration time of the translational degrees of freedom. When compressed (during an

interval in which div v < 0) the temperature must rise, but the corresponding increase

in the rotational energy lags slightly behind that of the molecular translational energy

responsible for normal stress; the thermodynamic pressure p accordingly is smaller than the

true normal stress (which equals p

div v).

1.2.6 Croccos equation

The momentum equation (1.2.4) can be recast by introducing the specic enthalpy

w = e + p/ of the uid, in terms of which the rst law of thermodynamics supplies the

relation

dw =

dp

+ Tds. (1.2.8)

The vector identity (v )v = v +

_

1

2

v

2

_

and (1.2.8) permit the momentum equation

to be put in Croccos form

v

t

+B = v + Ts curl +

_

+

4

3

_

div v +

F

, (1.2.9)

where

/ and

B = w +

1

2

v

2

(1.2.10)

is the total enthalpy. In a perfect gas w = c

p

T = p/( 1), where c

p

is the specic

heat at constant pressure and = c

p

/c

v

, c

v

being the specic heat at constant volume.

Croccos equation nds application in the acoustics of turbulent, heat conducting ows.

M. S. Howe 6 1.2 Equations of motion

AAS

1.3 Sound waves in an ideal uid

The intensity of an acoustic pressure p in air (relative to the mean atmospheric pressure)

is usually measured in decibels by the quantity

20 log

10

_

[p[

p

ref

_

,

where the reference pressure p

ref

= 2 10

5

Pa. Thus, p = p

o

1 atmosphere (= 10

5

Pa)

is equivalent to 194 dB. A very loud sound 120 dB corresponds to

p

p

o

2 10

5

10

5

10

(

120

20

)

= 2 10

4

1.

Similarly, for a deafening sound of 160 dB, p/p

o

0.02. This corresponds to a pressure of

about 0.3 lbs/in

2

, and is loud enough for nonlinear eects to begin to be important.

The passage of a sound wave in the form of a pressure uctuation is accompanied by a

back-and-forth motion of the uid in the direction of propagation at the acoustic particle

velocity v, say. It will be seen (1.3.2) that

acoustic particle velocity

acoustic pressure

o

speed of sound

,

where

o

is the mean air density. The speed of sound in air is about 340 m/sec. Thus,

v 5 cm/sec at 120 dB ; at 160 dB v 5 m/sec.

1.3.1 The wave equation for an ideal uid

In most applications the acoustic pressure is very small relative to p

o

, and sound

propagation is studied by linearizing the equations of motion. We consider rst the

simplest case of sound propagation in an ideal uid i.e. a homogeneous, inviscid,

non-heat-conducting uid of mean pressure p

o

and density

o

, which is at rest in the

absence of the sound. The energy equation (1.2.5) implies that Ds/Dt = 0 so that sound

propagation is homentropic (adiabatic) with s = s

o

s(p

o

,

o

) = constant throughout uid.

The implication is that, in an ideal uid there is negligible dissipation of the organized

M. S. Howe 7 1.3 Ideal uid

AAS

mechanical energy of the sound by heat and momentum transfer by molecular diusion

between neighboring uid particles.

The departures of the pressure and density from their undisturbed values are denoted

by p

where p

/p

o

1,

/

o

< 1. The linearized form of the momentum equation

(1.2.4) for an ideal uid ( =

= 0) then becomes

o

v

t

+p

= F. (1.3.1)

Before linearizing the continuity equation (1.2.3) it is useful to make an articial

generalization by inserting a volume source distribution q(x, t) on the right hand side:

1

D

Dt

+ div v = q; (1.3.2)

q is the rate of increase of uid volume per unit volume of the uid, and might represent, for

example, the eect of volume pulsations of a small body in the uid (1.4). The linearized

equation is then

1

t

+ div v = q. (1.3.3)

Eliminate v between (1.3.1) and (1.3.3):

t

2

2

p

=

o

q

t

div F. (1.3.4)

An equation determining the pressure p

the homentropic approximation p = p(, s

o

), where p

o

= p(

o

, s

o

) in the undisturbed state.

Therefore

p

o

+ p

= p(

o

+

, s

o

) p(

o

, s

o

) +

(, s

o

), (1.3.5)

where the derivative is evaluated at the undisturbed value

o

of the density. It has the

dimensions of (velocity)

2

and its square root denes the speed of sound

c

o

=

_

_

p

_

s

, (1.3.6)

M. S. Howe 8 1.3 Ideal uid

AAS

where dierentiation is performed at s = s

o

, and evaluated at =

o

. In air c

o

340 m/s;

in water c

o

1500 m/s.

From (1.3.5):

= p

/c

2

o

, and substitution for

wave equation

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

p =

o

q

t

div F, (1.3.7)

where the prime

on the acoustic pressure has been discarded. This equation governs the

production of sound waves by the volume source q and the force F. When these terms are

absent the equation describes sound propagation from sources on the boundaries of the

uid, such as the vibrating cone of a loudspeaker.

The volume source q and (with the exception of gravity) the body force F would never

appear in a complete description of sound generation in a real uid. They are introduced

only when we think we understand how to model mathematically the real sources of

sound in terms of idealized volume sources and forces. In general this can be a dangerous

procedure because, as we shall see, small errors in specifying the sources of sound in a uid

often result in very large errors in the predicted sound. This is because only a tiny fraction

of the available energy of a vibrating uid or structure actually radiates away as sound.

When F = 0 equation (1.3.1) implies the existence of a velocity potential such that

v = , in terms of which the perturbation pressure is given by

p =

o

t

. (1.3.8)

It follows from this and (1.3.7) (with F = 0) that the velocity potential is the solution of

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

= q(x, t). (1.3.9)

Causality can be invoked to justify the neglect of any a time-independent constants of

integration. Equation (1.3.9) is the wave equation of classical acoustics.

In the propagation zone, where the source terms q = 0, F = 0, the velocity v and the

perturbations in p, (and in other thermodynamic quantities such as the temperature T,

M. S. Howe 9 1.3 Ideal uid

AAS

internal energy e and enthalpy w, but not the specic entropy s, which remains constant and

equal to s

o

) propagate as sound governed by the homogeneous form of (1.3.9). The velocity

uctuation v produced by the passage of the wave is the acoustic particle velocity.

1.3.2 Plane waves

A plane acoustic wave propagating in the x-direction satises

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

x

2

_

= 0, (1.3.10)

which has the general solution (DAlembert 1747)

=

_

t

x

c

o

_

+

_

t +

x

c

o

_

, (1.3.11)

where , are arbitrary functions that respectively represent waves travelling at speed

c

o

without change of form in the positive and negative x-directions. The acoustic particle

velocity v = is parallel to the propagation direction (the waves are longitudinal).

The solutions (1.3.11) and the linearized (source-free) equations of motion can be used

to show that uctuations in v, p,

, T

and w

x-axis are related by

v =

p

o

c

o

,

=

p

c

2

o

, T

=

p

o

c

p

, w

=

p

o

, (1.3.12)

where p is the acoustic pressure, c

p

is the specic heat at constant pressure, and the sign

is taken according as the wave propagates in the positive or negative x-direction.

1.3.3 Speed of sound

In a perfect gas p = RT and s = c

v

ln(p/

), where R = c

p

c

v

is the gas constant,

and in the linearized approximation

c

o

=

_

p

o

/

o

=

_

RT

o

. (1.3.13)

M. S. Howe 10 1.3 Ideal uid

AAS

Typical approximate speeds of sound in air and in water, and the corresponding acoustic

wavelength = c

o

/f at a frequency of f = 1 kHz are given in Table 1.3.1

c

o

at 1 kHz

m/s f/s km/h mph metres feet

Air 340 1100 1225 750 0.3 1

Water 1500 5000 5400 3400 1.5 5

Table 1.3.1 Speed of sound and acoustic wavelength

Example 1. Waves in a uniform tube generated by an oscillating piston The end

x = 0 of an innitely long, uniform tube is closed by a smoothly sliding piston executing

small amplitude normal oscillations at velocity u

o

(t) (Figure 1.3.1a). If x increases along

the tube, linear acoustic theory and the radiation condition require that p = (t x/c

o

).

At x = 0 the velocities of the uid and piston are the same, so that

u

o

(t)

(t)

o

c

o

, . . p =

o

c

o

u

o

(t x/c

o

) for x > 0.

In practice a solution of this kind, where energy is conned by the tube to propagate in

waves of constant cross-section, becomes progressively invalid as x increases, because of the

accumulation of small eects of ow nonlinearity. Nonlinear analysis reveals that at a point

in the wave where the particle velocity is v the wave actually propagates at speed c

o

+ v,

so that wave elements where v is large and positive produce wave steepening, resulting

ultimately in the formation of shock waves. This type of behaviour is important, for

example, for waves generated in a long railway tunnel by the piston eect of an entering

high-speed train.

Example 2. Reection at a closed end (Figure 1.3.1b) Let the plane wave

p = p

I

(t x/c

o

) approach from x < 0 the closed, rigid end at x = 0 of a uniform,

M. S. Howe 11 1.3 Ideal uid

AAS

semi-innite tube. The reected pressure p

R

(t + x/c

o

) is determined by the condition that

the (normal) uid velocity must vanish at x = 0. Therefore p

I

(t)/

o

c

o

p

R

(t)/

o

c

o

= 0,

and the overall pressure within the tube is given by

p = p

I

(t x/c

o

) + p

I

(t + x/c

o

), x < 0.

Reection at the rigid end causes pressure doubling at the wall where p = 2p

I

(t).

Figure 1.3.1

Example 3. Reection at an open end (Figure 1.3.1c) When the wavelength of the

sound is large compared to the radius R of an open ended circular cylindrical tube, the rst

approximation to the condition satised by the acoustic pressure at the open end (x = 0) is

that the overall pressure p = 0. Indeed, because of the free expansion of the uid outside

the tube, the pressure outside may be assumed to vanish compared to the incident pressure

M. S. Howe 12 1.3 Ideal uid

AAS

p

I

(t x/c

o

) p

I

(t). Then, integration of the linearized momentum equation over the

uid contained in a spherical region V of radius R

s

, where R R

s

= the acoustic

wavelength, reveals that

R

2

p

t

_

V

o

v

1

d

3

x

fV p

I

(t)

c

o

,

where v

1

O(p

I

(t)/

o

c

o

) is the particle velocity parallel to the tube, p is the net pressure

within the tube close to the open end, and f is the frequency of the sound.

Therefore, near the open end

p

fV

R

2

c

o

p

I

(t)

R

3

s

R

2

p

I

(t) p

I

(t) as =

c

o

f

.

Thus, relative to the incident pressure, the pressure at the open end when R may be

assumed to vanish. The pressure wave reected back into the tube at the end is therefore

approximately p

I

(t + x/c

o

),

p p

I

(t x/c

o

) p

I

(t + x/c

o

), x < 0,

and the acoustic particle velocity in the mouth of the tube 2p

I

(t)/

o

c

o

, twice that

attributable to the incident wave alone.

Example 4. Low frequency resonant oscillations in a pipe with open ends (Figure

1.3.1d) A pressure wave of complex amplitude p

the x-direction has the representation p = Rep

e

i(tx/co)

. Therefore, the combination

p = Re

_

p

e

i(tx/co)

p

e

i(t+x/co)

_

vanishes at x = 0, and vanishes also at x = for those frequencies satisfying

e

i/co

e

i/co

= 0, i.e. sin(k

o

) = 0

where k

o

= /c

o

is called the acoustic wavenumber. This equation accordingly determines

the resonance frequencies of an open-ended tube of length in the low frequency

approximation in which the pressure is assumed to vanish at the ends, viz

f =

2

nc

o

2

, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .

M. S. Howe 13 1.3 Ideal uid

AAS

Thus, the minimum resonance frequency of a pipe of length = 1 m is about 170 Hz

(c

o

340 m/s in air), whose wavelength c

o

/f = 2 = 2 m does not depend on the speed of

sound.

The simple, one dimensional theory neglects energy losses from the ends of the tube

by radiation into the ambient atmosphere, and neglects also viscous and thermal losses

in acoustic boundary layers at the walls of the tube. These cause the wave amplitude

to decay after several wave periods, so that resonant oscillations within the tube actually

persist only for a nite time after the source of excitation is removed.

M. S. Howe 14 1.3 Ideal uid

AAS

1.4 Low frequency pulsations of a sphere

Small amplitude, irrotational motion produced by radial pulsations of a sphere of mean

radius a with centre at the origin satisfy the homogeneous equation

1

c

2

o

t

2

2

= 0, r = [x[ > a. (1.4.1)

If the oscillations occur at frequency (proportional to e

it

, for example), then /t ,

and very close to the sphere the two terms on the left of this equation are respectively of

orders k

2

o

and /a

2

, where k

o

= /c

o

is called the acoustic wavenumber. If k

o

a 1 the

sphere is said to be acoustically compact. The characteristic wavelength 2/k

o

of

the sound produced by the pulsations is then much larger than the radius a. More generally,

a body is said to be acoustically compact when its characteristic dimension is small

compared to the wavelengths of the sound waves it is producing or with which it interacts.

In this limit the unsteady motion in the immediate neighbourhood of the sphere is governed

by the Laplace equation obtained by discarding the rst term on the left of (1.4.1):

2

= 0, r > a. (1.4.2)

This is just the continuity equation div v = 0 for incompressible ow. The corresponding

pressure and density perturbations p and satisfy

p

c

2

o

.

In an incompressible uid the pressure changes by the action of external forces (moving

boundaries, etc), but the density must remain xed. Thus, the formal limit of incompressible

ow corresponds to setting c

o

= .

M. S. Howe 15 1.4 Pulsating sphere

AAS

1.4.1 Pulsating sphere in incompressible uid

Let the normal velocity on the mean position r = a of the surface of the sphere be v

n

(t).

When the motion is incompressible we have to solve

2

= 0, r > a,

/r = v

n

(t), r = a

_

_

where r = [x[.

Figure 1.4.1

The solution must be radially symmetric, so that

2

=

1

r

2

r

_

r

2

r

_

= 0, r > a.

Hence

=

A

r

+ B, where A A(t), B B(t) are functions of t.

B(t) can be discarded, because the pressure uctuations (

o

/t) must vanish as

r , and a constant value of B has no physical signicance. Applying the condition

/r = v

n

, r = a we then nd

=

a

2

v

n

(t)

r

, r > a. (1.4.3)

Thus, the pressure

p =

o

t

=

o

a

2

r

dv

n

dt

(t)

M. S. Howe 16 1.4 Pulsating sphere

AAS

decays like 1/r with distance from the sphere, and exhibits the unphysical characteristic

of changing instantaneously everywhere when dv

n

/dt changes its value. For any time t

the volume ux q(t) of uid is the same across any closed surface enclosing the sphere.

Evaluating it for any sphere S of radius r > a we nd

q(t) =

_

S

dS = 4a

2

v

n

(t),

and we may also write

=

q(t)

4r

, r > a. (1.4.4)

1.4.2 Point source in incompressible uid

The incompressible motion generated by a volume point source of strength q(t)

concentrated at the origin is the solution of equation (1.3.9) with c

o

= and

q(x, t) = q(t)(x):

2

= q(t)(x), where (x) = (x

1

)(x

2

)(x

3

). (1.4.5)

The solution must be radially symmetric and given by

=

A

r

, for r > 0. (1.4.6)

To nd A equation (1.4.5) is integrated over the interior of a sphere of radius r = R > 0,

and the divergence theorem is applied on the left:

_

r<R

2

d

3

x =

_

S

dS, where S is

the surface of the sphere. Then

_

S

dS

_

A

R

2

_

(4R

2

) = q(t).

Hence A = q(t)/4 and = q(t)/4r, which agrees with the solution (1.4.4) for the

sphere with the same volume outow in the region r > a = radius of the sphere. This

indicates that when we are interested in modelling the eect of a pulsating sphere at large

M. S. Howe 17 1.4 Pulsating sphere

AAS

distances r a, it is permissible to replace the sphere by a point source (a monopole)

of the same strength q(t) = rate of change of the volume of the sphere. This conclusion is

valid for any pulsating body, not just a sphere. However, it is not necessarily a good model

(especially when we come to examine the production of sound by a pulsating body) in the

presence of a mean uid ow past the sphere.

The solution (1.4.6) for the point source is strictly valid only for r > 0, where it satises

2

= 0. What happens as r 0, where its value is actually undened? To answer this

question we write the solution in the form

= lim

0

q(t)

4(r

2

+

2

)

1

2

, > 0, in which case

2

= lim

0

3

2

q(t)

4(r

2

+

2

)

5

2

.

The last limit is just equal to q(t)(x). Indeed when is small 3

2

/4(r

2

+

2

)

5

2

is also

small except close to r = 0, where it attains a large maximum 3/4

3

. Therefore, for any

smoothly varying test function f(x) and any volume V enclosing the origin

lim

0

_

V

3

2

f(x)d

3

x

4(r

2

+

2

)

5

2

= f(0) lim

0

_

3

2

d

3

x

4(r

2

+

2

)

5

2

= f(0)

_

0

3

2

r

2

dr

(r

2

+

2

)

5

2

= f(0),

where the value of the last integral is independent of . This is the dening property of the

three-dimensional -function.

Thus the correct interpretation of the solution

=

1

4r

of

2

= (x) (1.4.7)

for a unit point source ( q = 1) is

1

4r

= lim

0

1

4(r

2

+

2

)

1

2

, r 0, (1.4.8)

where

2

_

1

4r

_

= lim

0

2

_

1

4(r

2

+

2

)

1

2

_

= lim

0

3

2

4(r

2

+

2

)

5

2

= (x). (1.4.9)

M. S. Howe 18 1.4 Pulsating sphere

AAS

1.4.3 Low frequency pulsations of a sphere in compressible uid

Let us next calculate the radially symmetric sound produced by the acoustically compact

pulsating sphere of 1.4.1. Setting r = [x[ and observing that radial symmetry implies that

2

1

r

2

r

_

r

2

r

_

1

r

2

r

2

(r) ,

it follows that (1.4.1) reduces to the one dimensional wave equation for r

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

(r)

2

r

2

(r) = 0, when r > a. (1.4.10)

The general solution r = (t r/c

o

) +(t +r/c

o

), for arbitrary functions and , yields

=

_

t

r

co

_

r

+

_

t +

r

co

_

r

, r > a. (1.4.11)

The terms on the right respectively represent spherically symmetric disturbances

propagating in the directions of increasing and decreasing values of r at the speed of

sound c

o

. Causality requires the incoming wave to be omitted, i.e. that = 0, because

(t + r/c

o

)/r necessarily represents sound arriving from r = and must be absent for

pulsations that started at some nite time in the past. This statement of the causality

principle is equivalent to imposing a radiation condition that sound waves must radiate

away from their source.

The outgoing wave function is determined from the boundary condition /r = v

n

(t)

at r = a, which gives

v

n

(t) =

r

_

_

_

t

r

co

_

r

_

_

r=a

=

1

a

2

_

t

a

c

o

_

1

ac

o

t

_

t

a

c

o

_

. (1.4.12)

But for a typical component of (t) e

it

of radian frequency ,

e

i(ta/co)

e

it

and

a

c

o

t

k

o

a 1,

when the sphere is compact (k

o

a 1). Therefore, the time delay a/c

o

on the right of

(1.4.12) can be neglected and the time-derivative term discarded, giving (t) a

2

v

n

(t),

M. S. Howe 19 1.4 Pulsating sphere

AAS

and

q(t r/c

o

)

4r

, r > a (1.4.13)

where q(t) = 4a

2

v

n

(t) is the rate of volume outow from the sphere. The acoustic potential

at time t at a distant point r is seen to be the same as for incompressible ow (equation

(1.4.4)) except that it is delayed by the time of travel r/c

o

of sound from the sphere.

This result is typical of compact, pulsating bodies; the sound can always be expressed in

form (1.4.13) terms of the pulsational volumetric ow rate q(t).

M. S. Howe 20 1.4 Pulsating sphere

AAS

1.5 Sound produced by an impulsive point source

The impulsive point source of strength q = (x)(t) is non-zero for an innitesimal

time at t = 0. The usual convention in acoustics, however, is to reverse the sign of the

source (so that q(x, t) = (x)(t)), and to consider the corresponding inhomogeneous

wave equation (1.3.9) in the form

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

= (x)(t). (1.5.1)

Because the source vanishes for t < 0 we are interested only in the causal solution, which is

non-zero only for t > 0.

The solution is radially symmetric and of outgoing wave form, so that we can put

=

(t r/c

o

)

r

for r = [x[ > 0. (1.5.2)

The functional form of can be determined by the method of 1.4.2, or more simply by

noting that

(t r/c

o

)

r

= lim

0

(t)

(r

2

+

2

)

1

2

when r 0, and therefore that temporal derivatives /t become negligible compared

to spatial derivatives /r. In other words the solution must resemble that for an

incompressible uid very close to the source. Hence we must have (t) = (t)/4 and the

causal solution of (1.5.1) becomes

(x, t) =

1

4r

_

t

r

c

o

_

1

4[x[

_

t

[x[

c

o

_

. (1.5.3)

The sound wave consists of a singular spherical pulse that is non-zero only on the surface of

the sphere r = c

o

t > 0 expanding at the speed of sound; it vanishes everywhere for t < 0.

M. S. Howe 21 1.5 Impulsive point source

AAS

1.6 Free space Greens function

The free space Greens function G(x, y, t, ) is the causal solution of the wave equation

generated by the impulsive point source (x y)(t ), located at the point x = y at

time t = . The formula for G is obtained from the solution (1.5.3) for a source at x = 0 at

t = 0 simply by replacing x by x y and t by t . In other words, if

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

G = (x y)(t ), where G = 0 for t < , (1.6.1)

then

G(x, y, t, ) =

1

4[x y[

_

t

[x y[

c

o

_

. (1.6.2)

This represents an impulsive, spherically symmetric wave expanding from the source at y

at the speed of sound. The wave amplitude decreases inversely with distance [x y[ from

the source point y.

1.6.1 The retarded potential

Greens function is the fundamental building block for solutions of the inhomogeneous

wave equation (1.3.7) of linear acoustics in an unbounded medium. Let us write this

equation in the form

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

p = T(x, t), (1.6.3)

where the generalized source T(x, t) is assumed to be generating waves that propagate

away from the source region, in accordance with the radiation condition.

This source distribution can be regarded as a distribution of impulsive point sources of

the type on the right of equation (1.6.1), because

T(x, t) =

__

3

yd.

The outgoing wave solution for each constituent source of strength

T(y, )(x y)(t )d

3

yd is T(y, )G(x, y, t, )d

3

yd,

M. S. Howe 22 1.6 Greens function

AAS

so that by adding these individual contributions we obtain

p(x, t) =

__

T(y, )G(x, y, t, )d

3

yd (1.6.4)

=

1

4

__

T(y, )

[x y[

_

t

[x y[

c

o

_

d

3

yd (1.6.5)

i.e. p(x, t) =

1

4

_

T

_

y, t

|xy|

co

_

[x y[

d

3

y. (1.6.6)

The integral formula (1.6.6) is called a retarded potential; it represents the pressure at

position x and time t as a linear superposition of contributions from sources at positions

y which radiated at the earlier times t [x y[/c

o

, [x y[/c

o

being the time of travel of

sound waves from y to x.

1.6.2 Greens function in one or two space dimensions: method of descent

The Greens function for plane waves that propagate in one dimension (in a uniform

duct, for example) say parallel to the x

1

-axis, is the causal solution G(x

1

, y

1

, t, ) of

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

x

2

1

_

G = (x

1

y

1

)(t ), where G = 0 for t < . (1.6.7)

This equation can be obtained formally by integrating the corresponding three dimensional

equation (1.6.1) over the plane of uniformity < x

2

, x

3

< . This is Hadamards

(1952) method of descent to a lower space dimension. Using the formula (1.6.2) for G in

three dimensions, we nd that (1.6.7) is satised by

G(x

1

, y

1

, t, ) =

__

1

4[x y[

_

t

[x y[

c

o

_

dy

2

dy

3

=

_

0

_

_

t

_

[x

1

y

1

[

2

+

2

c

o

_

_

d

2

_

[x

1

y

1

[

2

+

2

=

c

o

2

H

_

t

[x

1

y

1

[

c

o

_

, (1.6.8)

M. S. Howe 23 1.6 Greens function

AAS

where H(x) is the Heaviside unit step function (= 1, 0 according as x

>

<

0; see Appendix B).

In two dimensions sound waves propagate cylindrically as functions of (x

1

, x

2

) and t,

and Greens function can be found by descent, by integrating the three dimensional formula

over < x

3

< to obtain

G(x, y, t, ) =

H(t [x y[/c

o

)

2

_

(t )

2

[x y[

2

/c

2

o

, x = (x

1

, x

2

), y = (y

1

, y

2

), (1.6.9)

the causal solution of

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

G = (x

1

y

1

)(x

2

y

2

)(t ), G = 0 for t < .

In three dimensions G consists of a spherically spreading singular pulse that vanishes

everywhere except at the wavefront. The corresponding one dimensional Greens function

is nite and consists of two simple discontinuities propagating in both directions from the

source at the speed of sound, to the rear of which the amplitude is constant and equal to

c

o

/2. The behaviour of G in two dimensions exhibits certain intermediate characteristics:

the wavefront consists of a circular cylindrical singular pulse radiating outwards from the

source at the speed of sound, but followed by a slowly decaying tail extending back to the

source point where its amplitude decreases like 1/(t ). From the view point of an observer

in three dimensions, the two dimensional source (x

1

y

1

)(x

2

y

2

)(t ) is equivalent to

a uniform, innitely long line source (parallel to the x

3

axis). The tail can be attributed

to the arrival of sound from distant points on this line source, which persists for all time

after the passage of the wave front, which can be regarded as produced by components of

the line source in the immediate neighbourhood of its intersection with the x

1

x

2

plane.

M. S. Howe 24 1.6 Greens function

AAS

1.7 Initial value problem for the wave equation

Our rst application of the retarded potential integral is to the solution of Cauchys

problem, where it is required to calculate the sound at times t > 0 in terms of the state

of the acoustic medium at t = 0. This includes, for example, the problem of determining

the sound produced by the sudden rupture of a closed material envelope containing air at

high pressure (a bursting balloon). Alternatively, the state of a system of sound waves

generated by sources in the distant past might be specied and it is desired to determine

their subsequent propagation.

The nature of required initial data at t = 0, say, may be deduced directly from the

homogeneous form of the wave equation (1.6.3), whose solution is required for t > 0. To do

this the equation is multiplied by the Heaviside function H(t), making use of the identity

H(t)

2

p

t

2

=

2

t

2

_

pH(t)

_

t

_

(t)p

_

(t)

p

t

.

Then equation (1.6.3), with T(x, t) 0, becomes

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

(pH) =

1

c

2

o

t

_

(t)p

_

+

1

c

2

o

(t)

p

t

. (1.7.1)

This equation is formally valid for all time < t < , with pH(t) 0 for t < 0.

The outgoing wave solution calculated using the retarded potential (1.6.6) determines

p(x, t)H(t) p(x, t) for t > 0 in terms of the initial pressure and velocity distributions:

p = f(x),

p

t

=

o

c

2

o

div v = g(x) at t = 0, (1.7.2)

where f(x), g(x) represent the prescribed initial values (p/t =

o

c

2

o

div v is just the

linearised continuity equation).

To evaluate the retarded potential integral for t > 0 we start from (1.6.5):

p(x, t) =

1

4c

2

o

__

_

_

f(y)()

_

+ g(y)()

_

_

t

[x y[

c

o

_

d

3

yd

[x y[

. (1.7.3)

M. S. Howe 25 1.7 Initial value problem

AAS

Introduce polar coordinates (r = [x y[, , ), with origin at the observer position x, so

that d

3

y = r

2

dr d, where d = sin dd is the solid angle element. Then the integral

involving f(y) becomes

1

4c

2

o

__

_

f(r, )()

_

_

t

r

c

o

_

rdrd =

1

4c

2

o

t

_

f(r, )

_

t

r

c

o

_

rdrd

=

t

_

tf(c

o

t, )

d

4

=

t

_

t

f(c

o

t)

_

,

where

f(c

o

t) =

_

f(c

o

t, )

d

4

is the mean value of f(y) f(r, ) on the surface of a sphere of radius r = c

o

t centred on

the observer position x (P in Figure 1.7.1).

Combining this with a similar calculation for the term in g(y), leads to Poissons (1819)

solution

p(x, t) =

t

_

t

f(c

o

t)

_

+ t g(c

o

t). (1.7.4)

Figure 1.7.1

If the initial values f(x), g(x) of the pressure and its time derivative are non-zero only

within a nite region bounded by a closed surface S (Figure 1.7.1), the mean values on the

right of (1.7.4) vanish except when the expanding spherical surface r = c

o

t cuts across S.

The pressure perturbation at P outside S is therefore non-zero only for r

1

< c

o

t < r

2

, where

M. S. Howe 26 1.7 Initial value problem

AAS

r

1

, r

2

are the respective radii of the smallest and largest spheres centred on P that just

touch S. The acoustic pressure radiating from S is therefore non-zero only within a shell-like

region of space; at time t the outer surface of this shell is the envelope of the family of

spheres of radius c

o

t whose centres lie on S. Equation (1.7.4) also gives the solution for an

observer within S. For suciently small time the inner envelope of the expanding family

of spheres forms a wavefront collapsing into the interior of S this eventually crosses itself,

emerges from the other side of S and expands to form the inner boundary of the radiating

shell.

Note that the right hand side of (1.7.1) can be cast in the form of the general source of

the linear acoustic equation (1.3.7)

o

q

t

div F

where q(x, t), F(x, t) are impulsive volume source and body force distributions

q(x, t) =

1

o

c

2

o

p(x, 0)(t), F(x, t) =

o

v(x, 0)(t), (1.7.5)

and where the formula for F is obtained from the linearised continuity equation

1

c

2

o

p

t

+ div(

o

v) = 0.

Also, when the initial disturbance is non-zero only within a nite region bounded by the

surface S, the linearised momentum equation (1.3.1) implies that at any point x outside

S

_

0

p(x, t)dt =

o

[v(x, t)]

t=0

0, because v = 0 before and after the passage of the

sound wave. Therefore

_

0

p(x, t)dt = 0 for all x, (1.7.6)

because the integral must vanish at innitely large distances from S. Thus, the acoustic

pressure variation at x during the time interval r

1

/c

o

< t < r

2

/c

o

occupied by the wave

must always involve equal and opposite net compressions and rarefactions. This conclusion

is true for waves propagating in three and two dimensions, but not for one-dimensional

propagation. It is illustrated by the following example.

M. S. Howe 27 1.7 Initial value problem

AAS

1.7.1 Sound radiated from a spherical region of initial high pressure

Let the initial uniform high pressure f(x) = p

0

> 0 be conned to stationary uid in the

interior of a sphere S of radius a, so that g(x) = 0. Evidently, for the exterior point P in

Figure 1.7.2 at distance r from the centre O of the sphere, r

1

= r a, r

2

= r + a, and the

pressure at P is non-zero only for r a < c

o

t < r + a. During this time

f(c

o

t) =

p

0

4

,

where =

_

2

0

d

_

(t)

0

sin d = 21 cos (t) is the solid angle subtended at P by the

spherical cap AB formed by the intersection of S and the sphere of radius c

o

t centred on P.

Hence, using the cosine formula (a

2

= r

2

+ c

2

o

t

2

2rc

o

t cos ) for the triangle OAP, we nd

f(c

o

t) =

p

0

4rc

o

t

_

a

2

(c

o

t r)

2

__

H(c

o

t r + a) H(c

o

t r a)

_

,

and therefore

p(r, t) =

t

_

t

f(c

o

t)

_

=

p

0

2r

(c

o

t r)

_

H(c

o

t r + a) H(c

o

t r a)

_

, r > a, (1.7.7)

which represents an outgoing spherical wave conned to the shell c

o

t a < r < c

o

t +a that

decreases in amplitude like 1/r.

Figure 1.7.2

A similar calculation performed when P lies within the initial high pressure region

(r < a) gives

p(r, t) = p

0

_

1

(c

o

t + r)

2r

H(c

o

t + r a) +

(c

o

t r)

2r

H(c

o

t r a)

_

, r < a. (1.7.8)

M. S. Howe 28 1.7 Initial value problem

AAS

The pressure at r inside S remains equal to p

0

until the arrival of the rarefaction wave (the

second term in the large brackets) at time t = (a r)/c

o

, which is subsequently reected

from the centre r = 0 as a compression wave, after the passage of which the pressure is

reduced to zero.

The sequence of events is illustrated in Figure 1.7.3, where the nondimensional pressure

p/p

0

is plotted against r/a for a set of increasing values of c

o

t/a. The perturbation

pressure is initially uniform within S at c

o

t/a = 0 and vanishes elsewhere. Compression

and rarefaction waves radiate respectively into the exterior and interior of S as c

o

t/a

increases towards 1 . When c

o

t/a 1 the negative rarefaction peak becomes very large, and

ultimately p/p

0

(c

o

t/a1) at r = 0. Long before this happens in a real uid, however,

the large rarefaction is suppressed by nonlinear actions that increase the propagation speed

of the higher pressure sections of the inward propagating wave, thereby inhibiting the

formation of a deep negative pressure. After reection at r = 0 at c

o

t/a = 1 the whole

disturbance becomes outgoing of N-wave prole occupying a shell of thickness 2a, the

compression wavefront being at r = c

o

t + a and the pressure vanishing within the shell

at r = c

o

t. Spherical spreading causes the wave amplitude to decrease like 1/r. It is also

follows from formulae (1.7.7), (1.7.8) for the pressure that

_

0

p(r, t)dt = 0, even though the

initial pressure distribution p

0

> 0 within r < a.

M. S. Howe 29 1.7 Initial value problem

AAS

Figure 1.7.3

1.7.2 Initial value problem in one dimension

The initial value problem for one dimensional propagation of sound parallel to the x

axis in unbounded uid is governed by

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

x

2

_

(pH) =

1

c

2

o

t

_

(t)f(x)

_

+

1

c

2

o

(t)g(x), < x < , (1.7.9)

where f(x), g(x) are the respective initial values of p and p/t. This is solved by means

of the Greens function (1.6.8), using the results (see equation (B.1.6) of the Appendix):

__

1

c

2

o

_

()f(y)

_

G(x, y, t, )dyd =

1

2c

o

_

f(y)

_

t

[x y[

c

o

_

dy

=

1

2

_

f(x c

o

t) + f(x + c

o

t)

_

__

1

c

2

o

()g(y)G(x, y, t, )dyd =

1

2c

o

_

g(y)H

_

t

[x y[

c

o

_

dy

=

1

2c

o

_

x+cot

xcot

g(y) dy.

The combination of these results yields DAlemberts solution

p(x, t) =

1

2

_

f(x c

o

t) + f(x c

o

t)

_

+

1

2c

o

_

x+cot

xcot

g(y) dy. (1.7.10)

M. S. Howe 30 1.7 Initial value problem

AAS

A simple application of this formula is illustrated in Figure 1.7.4, for the case where the

uid is initially at rest (g(x) 0) with p = f(x) ,= 0 only within the interval a < x < a,

where it has the triangular waveform

f(x) = p

max

_

1

[x[

a

_

H

_

1

[x[

a

_

with peak pressure p

max

at x = 0. This pressure distribution splits symmetrically (see

gure), forming equal waves propagating without change of form to x = , and given for

t > 0 by

p(x, t)

p

max

=

1

2

__

1

[x c

o

t[

a

_

H

_

1

[x c

o

t[

a

_

+

_

1

[x + c

o

t[

a

_

H

_

1

[x + c

o

t[

a

__

.

Figure 1.7.4

M. S. Howe 31 1.7 Initial value problem

AAS

1.8 Monopoles, dipoles and quadrupoles

A volume point source q(t)(x) of the type considered in 1.4 as a model for a pulsating

sphere is also called a point monopole. For a compressible medium the corresponding

velocity potential it produces is the outgoing solution of

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

= q(t)(x). (1.8.1)

The solution can be written down by analogy with the solution (1.6.6) of equation

(1.6.3) for the acoustic pressure. Replace p by in (1.6.6) and set T(y, ) = q()(y).

Then

(x, t) =

q

_

t

|x|

co

_

4[x[

q

_

t

r

co

_

4r

. (1.8.2)

This coincides with the corresponding solution (1.4.3) for a compact pulsating sphere.

Changes in the motion of the sphere (i.e. in the value of the volume outow rate q(t)) are

communicated to a uid element at distance r after a time delay r/c

o

required for sound to

travel outward from the source.

1.8.1 The point dipole

Let f = f(t) be a time dependent vector, then a source on the right of the acoustic

pressure equation (1.6.3) of the form

T(x, t) = div

_

f(t)(x)

_

x

j

_

f

j

(t)(x)

_

(1.8.3)

is called a point dipole (located at the origin). The repeated subscript j in this equation,

implies a summation over j = 1, 2, 3 (see Appendix A). Equation (1.3.7) shows that

the point dipole is equivalent to a force distribution F(x, t) = f(t)(x) per unit volume

applied to the uid at the origin.

The sound produced by the dipole can be calculated from (1.6.6), but it is easier to use

(1.6.5):

p(x, t) =

1

4

__

y

j

_

f

j

()(y)

_

_

t

|xy|

co

_

[x y[

d

3

yd.

M. S. Howe 32 1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .

AAS

Integrate by parts with respect to each y

j

(recalling that (y) = 0 at y

j

= ), and note

that

y

j

_

t

|xy|

co

_

[x y[

=

x

j

_

t

|xy|

co

_

[x y[

.

Then

p(x, t) =

1

4

__

f

j

()(y)

x

j

_

_

_

t

|xy|

co

_

[x y[

_

_

d

3

yd

=

1

4

x

j

__

f

j

()(y)

_

_

_

t

|xy|

co

_

[x y[

_

_

d

3

yd

i.e.

p(x, t) =

x

j

_

_

f

j

_

t

|x|

co

_

4[x[

_

_

. (1.8.4)

The same procedure shows that for a distributed dipole source of the type T(x, t) =

div f(x, t) on the right of equation (1.6.3), the acoustic pressure is

p(x, t) =

1

4

x

j

_

f

j

_

y, t

|xy|

co

_

[x y[

d

3

y. (1.8.5)

A point dipole at the origin orientated in the direction of a unit vector n is entirely

equivalent to two point monopoles of equal but opposite strengths placed a short distance

apart (much smaller than the acoustic wavelength) on opposite sides of the origin on a line

through the origin parallel to n. For example, if n is parallel to the x-axis, and the sources

are distance apart, the two monopoles would be

q(t)

_

x

2

_

(y)(z) q(t)

_

x +

2

_

(y)(z) q(t)

(x)(y)(z)

x

_

q(t)(x)

_

.

This is a uid volume dipole. The relation p =

o

/t implies that the equivalent dipole

source in the pressure equation (1.3.7) or (1.6.3) is

x

_

q

t

(t)(x)

_

.

M. S. Howe 33 1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .

AAS

1.8.2 Quadrupoles

A source distribution involving two space derivatives is equivalent to a combination of

four monopole sources whose net volume source strength is zero, and is called a quadrupole.

A general quadrupole is a source of the form

T(x, t) =

2

T

ij

x

i

x

j

(x, t) (1.8.6)

in equation (1.6.3). The argument above leading to expression (1.8.5) can be applied twice

to show that the corresponding acoustic pressure is given by

p(x, t) =

1

4

2

x

i

x

j

_

T

ij

(y, t [x y[/c

o

)

[x y[

d

3

y. (1.8.7)

1.8.3 Solution of the general linear acoustic equation

The sources on the right of the general linear acoustic equation (1.3.7)

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

p =

o

q

t

div F

are respectively of monopole and dipole type. The solution with outgoing wave behaviour

is therefore

p(x, t) =

o

4

t

_

q(y, t [x y[/c

o

)

[x y[

d

3

y

1

4

x

j

_

F

j

(y, t [x y[/c

o

)

[x y[

d

3

y.

(1.8.8)

1.8.4 Vibrating sphere

Let a rigid sphere of radius a execute small amplitude oscillations at speed U(t) in

the x

1

-direction (Figure 1.8.1a) at suciently low frequencies that it may be assumed to

be acoustically compact. Take the coordinate origin at the mean position of the centre.

The sphere pushes uid away from its advancing front hemisphere, and the retreating

rear hemisphere draws in uid from its wake. The sphere therefore resembles a dipole

source, and it is shown in 2.7 that the motion induced in an ideal uid is equivalent to

M. S. Howe 34 1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .

AAS

that produced by a point volume dipole of strength 2a

3

U(t) at the position of its centre

directed along the x

1

-axis. The velocity potential is the solution of

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

=

x

1

_

2a

3

U(t)(x)

_

. (1.8.9)

By analogy with (1.8.3) and (1.8.4), we have

(x, t) =

x

1

_

_

2a

3

U

_

t

|x|

co

_

4[x[

_

_

. (1.8.10)

Now

x

j

[x[ =

x

j

[x[

. (1.8.11)

Applying this formula for j = 1, we nd (putting r = [x[ and x

1

= r cos )

=

a

3

cos

2r

2

U

_

t

r

c

o

_

a

3

cos

2c

o

r

U

t

_

t

r

c

o

_

near eld far eld

The near eld term is dominant at suciently small distances r from the origin that

1

r

1

c

o

1

U

U

t

f

c

o

where f is the characteristic frequency of the oscillations of the sphere. But, sound of

frequency f travels a distance

c

o

/f = one acoustic wavelength

in one period of oscillation 1/f. Hence the near eld term is dominant when

r .

The motion becomes incompressible when c

o

. In this limit the solution reduces

entirely to the near eld term, which is also called the hydrodynamic near eld; it decreases

in amplitude like 1/r

2

as r .

M. S. Howe 35 1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .

AAS

The far eld is the acoustic region that only exists when the uid is compressible.

It consists of propagating sound waves, carrying energy away from the sphere, and takes

over from the near eld when r . There is an intermediate zone where r in which

the solution is in a state of transition from the near to the far eld. This accords with the

assumption that the sphere is compact and can be replaced by the point dipole: the motion

close to the sphere is essentially the same as if the uid is incompressible i.e. the diameter

of the sphere is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength (a ).

Figure 1.8.1

The intensity of the sound generated by the sphere in the far eld is proportional to

2

:

a

6

4c

2

o

r

2

_

U

t

_

2

t

r

co

cos

2

, r .

The dependence on determines the directivity of the sound. For the dipole it has the

gure of eight pattern illustrated in Figure 1.8.1b, with peaks in directions parallel to the

dipole axis ( = 0, ); there are radiation nulls at =

2

(the curve should be imagined to

be rotated about the x

1

-axis).

M. S. Howe 36 1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .

AAS

1.9 Acoustic energy equation

The acoustic energy equation in a stationary ideal uid is obtained by taking the scalar

product of the velocity v and linearised momentum equation (1.3.1). The result is written

t

_

1

2

o

v

2

_

+ div

_

p v

_

p div v = v F.

The term p div v on the left is rendered in a more useful form by substitution for div v from

the linearised equation of continuity (1.3.3)

div v = q

1

t

= q

1

o

c

2

o

p

t

.

The required energy equation is then obtained in the form

t

_

1

2

o

v

2

+

1

2

p

2

o

c

2

o

_

+ div

_

p v

_

= pq +v F. (1.9.1)

The term

c =

1

2

o

v

2

+

1

2

p

2

o

c

2

o

, (1.9.2)

is the acoustic energy per unit volume, the rst part of which is obviously the kinetic

energy density. The second term is the compressional or potential energy component,

calculated as follows. Let V be the volume occupied by unit mass of the uid, then V = 1,

and

_

V

Vo

p

o

= 1/

o

is the volume

occupied by unit mass in the absence of the sound, and p

produced by the volumetric change V V

o

. Then the compressional energy per unit volume

is (to second order, and using the adiabatic formula dp

= c

2

o

d)

o

_

V

Vo

p

dV =

o

_

o

p

d

_

1

_

=

1

o

c

2

o

_

p

0

p

dp

=

1

2

p

2

o

c

2

o

.

The divergence term in (1.9.1) governs the rate at which acoustic energy propagates

out of unit volume of uid. The terms on the right are respectively the rates of production

of acoustic energy by the volume and force distribution sources. The energy balance is

perhaps more clearly exhibited by integration of the energy equation over the uid region V

M. S. Howe 37 1.9 Acoustic energy

AAS

bounded by a large closed surface S (Figure 1.9.1) that contains all of the acoustic sources.

Then

t

_

V

c d

3

x +

_

S

pv dS =

_

V

(pq +v F) d

3

x, (1.9.3)

which equates the sum of the rate of accumulation of energy within V and the energy ux

out through S to the rate of working of the acoustic sources.

1.9.1 Calculation of the energy ux

At large distances r from a source region we generally have

p(x, t)

_

, , t

r

co

_

r

, r , (1.9.4)

where the function depends on the nature of the source distribution, and and are

polar angles determining the directivity of the sound. From the radial component of the

linearized momentum equation

v

r

t

=

1

o

p

r

1

r

2

_

, , t

r

c

o

_

+

1

c

o

r

t

_

, , t

r

c

o

_

. (1.9.5)

The rst term in the second line can be neglected when r , and therefore

v

r

1

c

o

r

_

, , t

r

c

o

_

o

c

o

. (1.9.6)

By considering the and components of the momentum equation we can show that the

corresponding velocity components v

, v

therefore conclude from this and (1.9.6) that the acoustic particle velocity is normal to

the acoustic wavefronts (the spherical surfaces r = c

o

t). In other words: sound consists of

longitudinal waves in which the uid particles oscillate backwards and forwards along the

local direction of propagation of the sound.

The acoustic power radiated by the source distribution is given by the surface

integral of equation (1.9.3), which we can take in the form

=

_

S

pv

r

dS =

_

S

p

2

o

c

o

dS, (1.9.7)

M. S. Howe 38 1.9 Acoustic energy

AAS

where the surface of integration S is that of a large sphere of radius r centered on the

source region. Because the surface area = 4r

2

we only need to know the pressure and

velocity correct to order 1/r on S in order to evaluate the integral. Smaller contributions

(such as that determined by the rst term in the second line of (1.9.5)) decrease too fast as

r increases to supply a nite contribution to the integral as r .

Figure 1.9.1

In acoustic problems we are therefore usually satised if we can calculate the pressure

and velocity in the acoustic far eld correct to order 1/r; this will always permit the

evaluation of the radiated sound power. The formula v

r

= p/

o

c

o

is applicable at large

distances from the sources, where the wavefronts can be regarded as locally plane, but it is

true identically for plane sound waves. In the latter case, and for spherical waves on the

surface of the large sphere of Figure 1.9.1, the quantity

I = pv

r

=

p

2

o

c

o

(1.9.8)

is called the acoustic intensity. It is the rate of transmission of acoustic energy per unit

area of wavefront. For a plane wave c = p

2

/

o

c

2

o

, so that I = c

o

c, i.e. the plane wave energy

ux is equal to the energy density multiplied by the speed of sound.

M. S. Howe 39 1.9 Acoustic energy

AAS

1.9.2 Example

For a transient acoustic source all of the wave energy radiates out through the distant

surface S in a nite time. Integration of the energy equation (1.9.3) over all times therefore

yields

_

_

S

pv dSdt =

_

_

V

(pq +v F) d

3

xdt. (1.9.9)

Let us verify this formula for the initial value problem of 1.7.1 of sound produced by the

sudden release of high pressure air from within the spherical region [x[ = r < a.

Outside the source region the pressure is given by equation (1.7.7), and the power

radiated through S is

=

_

S

p

2

o

c

o

dS = 4r

2

_

p

2

o

4r

2

o

c

o

(c

o

t r)

2

_

_

H(c

o

t r + a) H(c

o

t r a)

_

.

The total radiated acoustic energy E, say, determined by the left hand side of (1.9.9) is

therefore

E =

p

2

0

o

c

o

_

(r+a)/co

(ra)/co

(c

o

t r)

2

dt =

2a

3

3

p

2

0

o

c

2

o

. (1.9.10)

On the right of (1.9.9) we have, from equations (1.7.5), F = 0 and

q =

p

0

o

c

2

o

(t)H(a r).

This must be multiplied by the pressure given by equation (1.7.8) for r < a, following which

E is calculated by evaluation of E =

_

_

V

pq d

3

xdt. But in doing this it must be recalled

that the radiated pressure is the causal solution of equation (1.7.1), and what is actually

calculated is not p but pH(t). Thus,

E =

p

2

0

o

c

2

o

_

_

|x|<a

H(t) (t)

_

1

(c

o

t + r)

2r

H(c

o

t + r a) +

(c

o

t r)

2r

H(c

o

t r a)

_

d

3

xdt

p

2

0

o

c

2

o

_

_

|x|<a

H(t) (t)d

3

xdt =

4a

3

3

p

2

0

o

c

2

o

_

H(t) (t) dt

=

4a

3

3

p

2

0

o

c

2

o

_

1

2

H

2

(t)

_

=

2a

3

3

p

2

0

o

c

2

o

,

M. S. Howe 40 1.9 Acoustic energy

AAS

which agrees with (1.9.10).

The integration with respect to time has made use of the result dH(t)/dt = (t). Readers

uncomfortable with this formal step should observe that the solution of the initial value

problem (1.7.1) can be carried through with negligible change of details, by replacing H(t)

and (t) by their corresponding sequences H

(t),

H

(t) =

1

2

+

1

tan

1

_

t

_

,

(t) =

(

2

+ t

2

)

, > 0,

in which case

_

(t)

(t) dt = [

1

2

H

2

(t)]

=

1

2

.

M. S. Howe 41 1.9 Acoustic energy

AAS

1.10 Calculation of the acoustic far eld

We now discuss the approximations necessary to evaluate the sound in the far eld from

the retarded potential representation:

p(x, t) =

1

4

_

T

_

y, t

|xy|

co

_

[x y[

d

3

y. (1.10.1)

We assume that T(x, t) ,= 0 only within a nite source region (Figure 1.10.1), and take the

coordinate origin O within the region.

Figure 1.10.1

When [x[ and y lies within the source region (so that [x[ [y[)

[x y[

_

[x[

2

2x y +[y[

2

_1

2

= [x[

_

1

2x y

[x[

2

+

[y[

2

[x[

2

_1

2

[x[

_

1

x y

[x[

2

+ O

_

[y[

2

[x[

2

__

i.e. [x y[ [x[

x y

[x[

when

[y[

[x[

1. (1.10.2)

Similarly,

1

[x y[

1

_

[x[

xy

|x|

_

1

[x[

_

1 +

x y

[x[

2

_

. .

1

[x y[

1

[x[

+

x y

[x[

3

when

[y[

[x[

1. (1.10.3)

The approximation (1.10.3) shows that, in order to obtain the far eld approximation

of the solution (1.10.1) that behaves like 1/r = 1/[x[ as [x[ , it is sucient to replace

M. S. Howe 42 1.10 Acoustic far eld

AAS

[x y[ in the denominator of the integrand by [x[. However, in the argument of the source

strength T it is important to retain possible phase dierences between the sound waves

generated by components of the source distribution at dierent locations y; we therefore

replace [x y[ in the retarded time by the right hand side of (1.10.2). Hence,

p(x, t)

1

4[x[

_

T

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x.y

c

o

[x[

_

d

3

y, [x[ . (1.10.4)

This is called the Fraunhofer approximation.

The source region may extend over many characteristic acoustic wavelengths of the

sound. By retaining the contribution x y/c

o

[x[ to the retarded time we ensure that any

interference between waves generated at dierent positions within the source region is

correctly described by the far eld approximation. In Figure 1.10.1 the acoustic travel

time from a source point y to the far eld point x is equal to that from the point labelled

A to x when [x[ . The travel time over the distance OA is just x y/c

o

[x[, so that

[x[/c

o

x y/c

o

[x[ gives the correct value of the retarded time when [x[ .

1.10.1 Dipole source distributions

By applying the far eld formula (1.10.4) to a dipole source T(x, t) = div f(x, t) we

obtain (from (1.8.5))

p(x, t)

1

4

x

j

_

1

[x[

_

f

j

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

d

3

y

_

1

4[x[

x

j

_

f

j

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

d

3

y, [x[ , (1.10.5)

because the dierential operator /x

j

need not be applied to 1/[x[ as this would give a

contribution decreasing like 1/r

2

at large distances from the dipole.

However, it is useful to make a further transformation that replaces /x

j

by the time

derivative /t, which is usually more easily estimated in applications. To do this we

M. S. Howe 43 1.10 Acoustic far eld

AAS

observe that

f

j

x

j

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

=

f

j

t

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

x

j

_

t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

=

f

j

t

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

x

j

c

o

[x[

+

y

j

c

o

[x[

(x y)x

j

c

o

[x[

3

_

x

j

c

o

[x[

f

j

t

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

as [x[ .

Hence, the far eld of a distribution of dipoles T(x, t) = div f(x, t) is given by

p(x, t) =

x

j

4c

o

[x[

2

t

_

f

j

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

d

3

y. (1.10.6)

Note that

x

j

[x[

2

=

x

j

[x[

1

[x[

,

where x

j

/[x[ is the jth component of the unit vector x/[x[. Thus, the additional factor of

x

j

/[x[ in (1.10.6) does not change the rate of decay of the sound with distance from the

source (which is still like 1/r) but it does have an inuence on the acoustic directivity.

A comparison of (1.10.5) and (1.10.6) leads to the following rule for interchanging space

and time derivatives in the acoustic far eld

x

j

1

c

o

x

j

[x[

t

. (1.10.7)

1.10.2 Quadrupole source distributions

For the quadrupole (1.10.6)

T(x, t) =

2

T

ij

x

i

x

j

(x, t)

and

p(x, t) =

1

4

2

x

i

x

j

_

T

ij

(y, t [x y[/c

o

)

[x y[

d

3

y.

M. S. Howe 44 1.10 Acoustic far eld

AAS

By applying (1.10.4) and the rule (1.10.7), we nd that the acoustic far eld is given by

p(x, t)

x

i

x

j

4c

2

o

[x[

3

2

t

2

_

T

ij

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x y

c

o

[x[

_

d

3

y, [x[ . (1.10.8)

1.10.3 Example

For the (1,2) point quadrupole

T(x, t) =

2

x

1

x

2

(T(t)(x))

equation (1.10.8) shows that in the acoustic far eld

p(x, t)

x

1

x

2

4c

2

o

[x[

3

2

T

t

2

_

t

[x[

c

o

_

, [x[ .

If we use spherical polar coordinates, such that

x

1

= r cos , x

2

= r sin cos , x

3

= r sin sin ,

we can write the pressure in the form

p(x, t)

sin 2 cos

8c

2

o

[x[

2

T

t

2

_

t

[x[

c

o

_

, [x[ .

The directivity of the sound ( p

2

) is therefore represented by sin

2

2 cos

2

. Its shape is

plotted in Figure 1.10.2 for radiation in the x

1

x

2

-plane ( = 0, ). The four lobe clover

leaf pattern is characteristic of a quadrupole T

ij

for which i ,= j.

M. S. Howe 45 1.10 Acoustic far eld

AAS

Figure 1.10.2

1.10.4 Far eld of a compact source distribution

Phase variations x y/c

o

[x[ of sound arriving from dierent parts of a generalised source

T(x, t) are small if the source region is acoustically compact. Therefore, the far eld

approximation ([x[ ) (1.10.4) becomes

p(x, t)

1

4[x[

_

T

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

+

x.y

c

o

[x[

_

d

3

y

1

4[x[

_

T

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

_

d

3

y.

This gives the principal component of the radiating sound unless it should happen that the

overall source strength is null, i.e., unless

_

T (y, t) d

3

y = 0. The amplitude of sound

waves in the far eld is then crucially dependent on the existence of small phase mismatches

between dierent parts of the source, and must be determined by expanding the Fraunhofer

approximation in powers of x y/c

o

[x[:

M. S. Howe 46 1.10 Acoustic far eld

AAS

p(x, t)

x

i

4c

o

[x[

2

t

_

y

i

T

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

_

d

3

y +

x

i

x

j

8c

o

[x[

3

2

t

2

_

y

i

y

j

T

_

y, t

[x[

c

o

_

d

3

y

+

= dipole + quadrupole + (1.10.9)

Each term in this multipole expansion is nominally of order /c

o

= k

o

1 relative to

its predecessor, where /t is the characteristic source frequency and the diameter

of the source region. Therefore, the expansion is halted at the rst non-zero term (see

Question 9 of Problems 1).

M. S. Howe 47 1.10 Acoustic far eld

AAS

Problems 1

1. Derive the relations (1.3.12) for plane sound waves.

2. Use the trial solution = (t |x|/c

o

) to solve the problem

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

x

2

_

= (x)(t), < x < ,

where = 0 for t < 0.

3. When the body force F = g in equation (1.3.1), where g is the acceleration due to gravity,

show that in the adiabatic approximation the linearised acoustic wave equation becomes

1

o

c

2

o

2

p

t

2

x

j

_

1

o

p

x

j

_

=

q

t

div

_

p

o

c

2

o

_

,

where p

= p p

o

, and the mean pressure, density and sound speed p

o

,

o

, c

o

vary with depth

in the atmosphere. Deduce that the gravitational term on the right hand side can be neglected

provided g/c

o

, where is a typical acoustic frequency.

4. Consider the initial value problem (1.7.1), (1.7.2) in which the pressure p = p

0

= constant and

p/t = 0 at time t = 0 in 0 < x

1

< h. Show that Poissons solution (1.7.4) predicts plane wave

propagation parallel to the x

1

direction, and that the pressure wave radiating through a typical

exterior point P distance r

1

from the source region has amplitude

1

2

p

0

, arrives at time t = r

1

/c

o

and occupies a plane shell of thickness h.

M. S. Howe 48 Problems 1

AAS

5. Derive DAlemberts solution (1.7.10) for the initial value problem in one space dimension from

Poissons formula (1.7.4).

6. At time t = 0 a plane acoustic wave p = p(x c

o

t) propagating in unbounded uid satises

p = p(x), p/t = c

o

p

Verify that Poissons solution (1.7.4) predicts that p = p(x c

o

t) when t > 0.

7. Calculate the acoustic power (1.9.7) radiated by an acoustically compact sphere of radius a exe-

cuting small amplitude translational oscillations of frequency and velocity U(t) = U

o

cos(t),

where U

o

= constant.

8. As for Problem 7 when the sphere executes small amplitude radial oscillations at normal velocity

v

n

= U

o

cos(t), U

o

= constant.

9. Consider the outgoing wave solution of

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

=

sgn(x)H(a |x|)U(t)

a

, a > 0,

where U(t) is known as a function of time. If the source region |x| < a is acoustically compact,

show that

(x, t)

a

3

cos

8c

o

|x|

U

t

_

t

|x|

c

o

_

, |x| ,

where cos = x/|x|.

10. A volume point source of strength q

o

(t) translates at constant, subsonic velocity U. The velocity

potential (x, t) of the radiated sound is determined by the solution of

_

1

c

2

o

2

t

2

2

_

= q

o

(t)(x Ut).

Show that

(x, t) =

q

o

(t R/c

o

)

4R(1 M cos )

, M =

U

c

o

,

where R is the distance of the reception point x fromthe source position at the time of emission of

the sound received at x at time t, and is the angle between U and the direction of propagation

of this sound.

M. S. Howe 49 Problems 1

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