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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Sources of sound
These notes are concerned with the mechanisms of sound production and propagation.
Music, calm speech, gently flowing streams or leaves fluttering in a breeze on a summer day
are pleasant and desirable sounds. Noise, howling winds, explosions and angry voices are
possibly less so. In all such cases we seek to understand the basic sources of the sound by
careful analysis of the equations of motions. Most mechanical sources are very complex, very
often involving ill-defined turbulent and perhaps combusting flows and their interactions
with vibrating structures, and the energy released as sound is usually a tiny fraction of
the structural and hydrodynamic energy of the source region. It is therefore important to
develop robust mathematical models that reliably incorporate this general inefficiency of
the sound generation mechanisms; small errors in source modelling can evidently lead to
very large errors in acoustic prediction.
To do this we consider a fluid that can be regarded as continuous and locally
homogeneous at all levels of subdivision. At any time t and position x = (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) the
state of the fluid is defined when the velocity v and any two thermodynamic variables are
specified for each of the fluid particles of which the fluid may be supposed to consist. The
distinctive fluid property possessed by both liquids and gases is that these fluid particles
can move freely relative to one another under the influence of applied forces or other
externally imposed changes at the boundaries of the fluid. Five scalar partial differential
equations are required to determine these motions. They are statements of conservation of
mass, momentum and energy, and they are to be solved subject to appropriate boundary
and initial conditions, dependent on the problem at hand. These equations will be used to
formulate and analyse a wide range of acoustic problems; our main task will be to simplify
these problems to obtain a thorough understanding of source mechanisms together with a
quantitative estimate of the radiated sound.
M. S. Howe 1 ¸1.1 Sources of sound
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1.2 Equations of motion of a fluid
The state of a fluid at time t and position x = (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) is defined when the velocity
v and any two thermodynamic variables are specified. Five scalar equations are therefore
required to determine the motion. These equations are statements of the conservation of
mass, momentum and energy. They must normally be supplemented by a thermodynamic
equation of state.
1.2.1 The material derivative
Let v
i
denote the component of fluid velocity v in the x
i
-direction, and consider the rate
at which any function F(x, t) varies following the motion of a fluid particle. Let the particle
be at x at time t, and at x+δx a short time later at time t +δt, where δx = v(x, t)δt + .
At the new position of the fluid particle
F(x + δx, t + δt) = F(x, t) + v
j
δt
∂F
∂x
j
(x, t) + δt
∂F
∂t
(x, t) + ,
where the repeated suffix j implies summation over j = 1, 2, 3. The limiting value of
(F(x + δx, t + δt) −F(x, t))/δt as δt →0 defines the material (or ‘Lagrangian’) derivative
DF/Dt of F:
DF
Dt
=
∂F
∂t
+ v
j
∂F
∂x
j

∂F
∂t
+v ∇F. (1.2.1)
DF/Dt measures the time rate of change of F as seen by an observer moving with the fluid
particle that occupies position x at time t.
1.2.2 Equation of continuity
A fluid particle of volume V and mass density ρ has a total mass of ρV ≡ (ρV )(x, t),
where x denotes the position of the centroid of V at time t (Figure 1.2.1). Conservation of
mass requires that D(ρV )/Dt = 0, i.e. that
1
ρ

Dt
+
1
V
DV
Dt
= 0. (1.2.2)
Now
1
V
DV
Dt
=
1
V
_
S
v dS, where the integration is over the closed material surface S forming
the boundary of V, on which the vector surface element dS is directed out of V. It is the
M. S. Howe 2 ¸1.2 Equations of motion
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fractional rate of increase of the volume of the fluid particle, and becomes equal to div v as
V →0. In this limit (1.2.2) can therefore be cast in any of the following equivalent forms of
the equation of continuity
1
ρ

Dt
+ div v = 0,
∂ρ
∂t
+ div(ρv) = 0,
∂ρ
∂t
+

∂x
j
(ρv
j
) = 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(1.2.3)
Figure 1.2.1
1.2.3 Momentum equation
The momentum equation is derived in a similar manner by consideration of the rate of
change of momentum D(ρV v)/Dt ≡ (ρV )Dv/Dt of a fluid particle subject to pressure p
and viscous forces acting on the surface S of V, and body forces F per unit volume within
V. It is sufficient for our purposes to quote the form of the resulting Navier-Stokes equation
ρ
Dv
Dt
= −∇p −ηcurl ω +
_
η

+
4
3
η
_
∇div v +F, (1.2.4)
where ω = curl v is the vorticity, and η and η

are respectively the shear and bulk
coefficients of viscosity, which generally vary with pressure, temperature and position in
the fluid. Viscous forces are important predominantly close to solid boundaries, where the
frictional drag is governed by the shear viscosity η. It is then a good approximation to
adopt the Stokesian model in which the contribution of the bulk viscosity is ignored.
Values of ρ, η and ν = η/ρ (the ‘kinematic’ viscosity) for air and water at 10

C and one
atmosphere pressure are given in the Table 1.2.1:
M. S. Howe 3 ¸1.2 Equations of motion
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ρ kg/m
3
η kg/ms ν m
2
/s
Air 1.23 1.764 10
−5
1.433 10
−5
Water 1000 1.284 10
−3
1.284 10
−6
Table 1.2.1
1.2.4 Energy equation
Consideration of the transfer of heat by molecular diffusion across the moving material
boundary S of the fluid particle of Figure 1.2.1, and of the production of heat by frictional
dissipation within its interior volume V leads to the energy equation
ρT
Ds
Dt
= 2η
_
e
ij

1
3
e
kk
δ
ij
_
2
+ η

e
2
kk
+ div
_
κ∇T
_
, (1.2.5)
where T, s are respectively the temperature and specific entropy (i.e. entropy per unit
mass), κ is the thermal conductivity of the fluid, and
e
ij
=
1
2
_
∂v
i
∂x
j
+
∂v
j
∂x
i
_
(1.2.6)
is the rate of strain tensor, which accounts for changes in shape of the fluid particle. Because
e
kk
≡ div v, the term involving the bulk coefficient of viscosity η

in (1.2.5) determines the
dissipative production of heat during compressions and rarefactions of the fluid.
To understand the significance of the rate of strain tensor, observe that the velocity v

relative to the centroid of the moving fluid particle at vector distance x

from its centroid,
is given to first order by (see ¸A.7)
v

i
= x

j
∂v
i
∂x
j
≡ x

j
1
2
_
∂v
i
∂x
j
+
∂v
j
∂x
i
_
+ x

j
1
2
_
∂v
i
∂x
j

∂v
j
∂x
i
_
=
1
2

∂x

i
_
e
jk
x

j
x

k
_
+
1
2
(ω ∧ x

)
i
where e
ij
and the vorticity ω are evaluated at the centroid. The term in ω therefore repre-
sents relative rigid body rotation of the particle about the centroid, at angular velocity
1
2
ω,
M. S. Howe 4 ¸1.2 Equations of motion
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with no change of shape. The gradient term, however, represents an irrotational distortion
of V, and is responsible for frictional forces and the conversion of mechanical energy into heat.
1.2.5 Equation of state
In the presence of velocity and pressure gradients a fluid cannot be in strict
thermodynamic equilibrium, and thermodynamic variables require special interpretation.
The density ρ and the total internal energy e per unit mass can be defined in the usual
way for a very small fluid particle without the need for thermodynamic equilibrium, such
that ρ and ρe are the mass and internal energy per unit volume. The pressure and all
other thermodynamic quantities are then defined by means of the same functions of ρ
and e that would be used for a system in thermal equilibrium, and the relations between
the thermodynamic variables are then the same as for a fluid in local thermodynamic
equilibrium, defined by equations of the form
p = p(ρ, s), p = p(ρ, T), s = s(ρ, T), etc. (1.2.7)
The equations of state (1.2.7) permit any thermodynamic variable to be expressed in terms
of any two variables, such as the density and temperature, although in applications it may
be more convenient to use other such equations. For sound propagation in an ideal fluid it
is usual to neglect dissipation and to assume homentropic flow: s = s
o
= constant. This
permits the fluid motion to be determined from the equations of continuity and momentum
and the equation of state p = p(ρ, s
o
), the energy equation being ignored. In more general
situations it is necessary to retain the energy equation to account for coupling between
macroscopic motions and the internal energy of the fluid.
Note, however, that the thermodynamic pressure p = p(ρ, e) defined in this way is
generally no longer the sole source of normal stress on any surface drawn in the fluid.
This is the case in a fluid of non-zero bulk viscosity (η

,= 0), whose molecules possess
rotational (or other internal) degrees of freedom whose relaxation time required for the
M. S. Howe 5 ¸1.2 Equations of motion
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re-establishment of thermal equilibrium after, say, a compression, is large relative to the
equilibration time of the translational degrees of freedom. When compressed (during an
interval in which div v < 0) the temperature must rise, but the corresponding increase
in the rotational energy lags slightly behind that of the molecular translational energy
responsible for normal stress; the thermodynamic pressure p accordingly is smaller than the
true normal stress (which equals p −η

div v).
1.2.6 Crocco’s equation
The momentum equation (1.2.4) can be recast by introducing the specific enthalpy
w = e + p/ρ of the fluid, in terms of which the first law of thermodynamics supplies the
relation
dw =
dp
ρ
+ Tds. (1.2.8)
The vector identity (v ∇)v = ω∧v +∇
_
1
2
v
2
_
and (1.2.8) permit the momentum equation
to be put in Crocco’s form
∂v
∂t
+∇B = −ω ∧ v + T∇s −νcurl ω +
_
ν

+
4
3
ν
_
∇div v +
F
ρ
, (1.2.9)
where ν

= η

/ρ and
B = w +
1
2
v
2
(1.2.10)
is the total enthalpy. In a perfect gas w = c
p
T = γp/(γ − 1)ρ, where c
p
is the specific
heat at constant pressure and γ = c
p
/c
v
, c
v
being the specific heat at constant volume.
Crocco’s equation finds application in the acoustics of turbulent, heat conducting flows.
M. S. Howe 6 ¸1.2 Equations of motion
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1.3 Sound waves in an ideal fluid
The intensity of an acoustic pressure p in air (relative to the mean atmospheric pressure)
is usually measured in decibels by the quantity
20 log
10
_
[p[
p
ref
_
,
where the reference pressure p
ref
= 2 10
−5
Pa. Thus, p = p
o
≡ 1 atmosphere (= 10
5
Pa)
is equivalent to 194 dB. A very loud sound ∼ 120 dB corresponds to
p
p
o

2 10
−5
10
5
10
(
120
20
)
= 2 10
−4
¸1.
Similarly, for a ‘deafening’ sound of 160 dB, p/p
o
∼ 0.02. This corresponds to a pressure of
about 0.3 lbs/in
2
, and is loud enough for ‘nonlinear effects’ to begin to be important.
The passage of a sound wave in the form of a pressure fluctuation is accompanied by a
back-and-forth motion of the fluid in the direction of propagation at the acoustic particle
velocity v, say. It will be seen (¸1.3.2) that
acoustic particle velocity ≈
acoustic pressure
ρ
o
speed of sound
,
where ρ
o
is the mean air density. The ‘speed of sound’ in air is about 340 m/sec. Thus,
v ∼ 5 cm/sec at 120 dB ; at 160 dB v ∼ 5 m/sec.
1.3.1 The wave equation for an ideal fluid
In most applications the acoustic pressure is very small relative to p
o
, and sound
propagation is studied by linearizing the equations of motion. We consider first the
simplest case of sound propagation in an ideal fluid – i.e. a homogeneous, inviscid,
non-heat-conducting fluid of mean pressure p
o
and density ρ
o
, which is at rest in the
absence of the sound. The energy equation (1.2.5) implies that Ds/Dt = 0 so that sound
propagation is homentropic (adiabatic) with s = s
o
≡ s(p
o
, ρ
o
) = constant throughout fluid.
The implication is that, in an ideal fluid there is negligible dissipation of the organized
M. S. Howe 7 ¸1.3 Ideal fluid
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mechanical energy of the sound by heat and momentum transfer by molecular diffusion
between neighboring fluid particles.
The departures of the pressure and density from their undisturbed values are denoted
by p

, ρ

where p

/p
o
¸ 1, ρ


o
¸< 1. The linearized form of the momentum equation
(1.2.4) for an ideal fluid (η = η

= 0) then becomes
ρ
o
∂v
∂t
+∇p

= F. (1.3.1)
Before linearizing the continuity equation (1.2.3) it is useful to make an artificial
generalization by inserting a volume source distribution q(x, t) on the right hand side:
1
ρ

Dt
+ div v = q; (1.3.2)
q is the rate of increase of fluid volume per unit volume of the fluid, and might represent, for
example, the effect of volume pulsations of a small body in the fluid (¸1.4). The linearized
equation is then
1
ρ
o
∂ρ

∂t
+ div v = q. (1.3.3)
Eliminate v between (1.3.1) and (1.3.3):

2
ρ

∂t
2
−∇
2
p

= ρ
o
∂q
∂t
−div F. (1.3.4)
An equation determining the pressure p

alone in terms of q and F is obtained by invoking
the homentropic approximation p = p(ρ, s
o
), where p
o
= p(ρ
o
, s
o
) in the undisturbed state.
Therefore
p
o
+ p

= p(ρ
o
+ ρ

, s
o
) ≈ p(ρ
o
, s
o
) + ρ

∂p
∂ρ
(ρ, s
o
), (1.3.5)
where the derivative is evaluated at the undisturbed value ρ
o
of the density. It has the
dimensions of (velocity)
2
and its square root defines the speed of sound
c
o
=
¸
¸
¸
_
_
∂p
∂ρ
_
s
, (1.3.6)
M. S. Howe 8 ¸1.3 Ideal fluid
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where differentiation is performed at s = s
o
, and evaluated at ρ = ρ
o
. In air c
o
≈ 340 m/s;
in water c
o
≈ 1500 m/s.
From (1.3.5): ρ

= p

/c
2
o
, and substitution for ρ

in (1.3.4) yields the inhomogeneous
wave equation
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
p = ρ
o
∂q
∂t
−div F, (1.3.7)
where the prime

on the acoustic pressure has been discarded. This equation governs the
production of sound waves by the volume source q and the force F. When these terms are
absent the equation describes sound propagation from sources on the boundaries of the
fluid, such as the vibrating cone of a loudspeaker.
The volume source q and (with the exception of gravity) the body force F would never
appear in a complete description of sound generation in a real fluid. They are introduced
only when we think we understand how to ‘model’ mathematically the real sources of
sound in terms of idealized volume sources and forces. In general this can be a dangerous
procedure because, as we shall see, small errors in specifying the sources of sound in a fluid
often result in very large errors in the predicted sound. This is because only a tiny fraction
of the available energy of a vibrating fluid or structure actually radiates away as sound.
When F = 0 equation (1.3.1) implies the existence of a velocity potential ϕ such that
v = ∇ϕ, in terms of which the perturbation pressure is given by
p = −ρ
o
∂ϕ
∂t
. (1.3.8)
It follows from this and (1.3.7) (with F = 0) that the velocity potential is the solution of
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
ϕ = −q(x, t). (1.3.9)
Causality can be invoked to justify the neglect of any a time-independent constants of
integration. Equation (1.3.9) is the wave equation of classical acoustics.
In the ‘propagation zone’, where the source terms q = 0, F = 0, the velocity v and the
perturbations in p, ρ (and in other thermodynamic quantities such as the temperature T,
M. S. Howe 9 ¸1.3 Ideal fluid
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internal energy e and enthalpy w, but not the specific entropy s, which remains constant and
equal to s
o
) propagate as sound governed by the homogeneous form of (1.3.9). The velocity
fluctuation v produced by the passage of the wave is the acoustic particle velocity.
1.3.2 Plane waves
A plane acoustic wave propagating in the x-direction satisfies
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2


2
∂x
2
_
ϕ = 0, (1.3.10)
which has the general solution (D’Alembert 1747)
ϕ = Φ
_
t −
x
c
o
_
+ Ψ
_
t +
x
c
o
_
, (1.3.11)
where Φ, Ψ are arbitrary functions that respectively represent waves travelling at speed
c
o
without change of form in the positive and negative x-directions. The acoustic particle
velocity v = ∇ϕ is parallel to the propagation direction (the waves are ‘longitudinal’).
The solutions (1.3.11) and the linearized (source-free) equations of motion can be used
to show that fluctuations in v, p, ρ

, T

and w

in a plane wave propagating parallel to the
x-axis are related by
v = ±
p
ρ
o
c
o
, ρ

=
p
c
2
o
, T

=
p
ρ
o
c
p
, w

=
p
ρ
o
, (1.3.12)
where p is the acoustic pressure, c
p
is the specific heat at constant pressure, and the ± sign
is taken according as the wave propagates in the positive or negative x-direction.
1.3.3 Speed of sound
In a perfect gas p = ρRT and s = c
v
ln(p/ρ
γ
), where R = c
p
− c
v
is the gas constant,
and in the linearized approximation
c
o
=
_
γp
o

o
=
_
γRT
o
. (1.3.13)
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Typical approximate speeds of sound in air and in water, and the corresponding acoustic
wavelength λ = c
o
/f at a frequency of f = 1 kHz are given in Table 1.3.1
c
o
λ at 1 kHz
m/s f/s km/h mph metres feet
Air 340 1100 1225 750 0.3 1
Water 1500 5000 5400 3400 1.5 5
Table 1.3.1 Speed of sound and acoustic wavelength
Example 1. Waves in a uniform tube generated by an oscillating piston The end
x = 0 of an infinitely long, uniform tube is closed by a smoothly sliding piston executing
small amplitude normal oscillations at velocity u
o
(t) (Figure 1.3.1a). If x increases along
the tube, linear acoustic theory and the radiation condition require that p = Φ(t − x/c
o
).
At x = 0 the velocities of the fluid and piston are the same, so that
u
o
(t) ≡
Φ(t)
ρ
o
c
o
, . ˙ . p = ρ
o
c
o
u
o
(t −x/c
o
) for x > 0.
In practice a solution of this kind, where energy is confined by the tube to propagate in
waves of constant cross-section, becomes progressively invalid as x increases, because of the
accumulation of small effects of flow nonlinearity. Nonlinear analysis reveals that at a point
in the wave where the particle velocity is v the wave actually propagates at speed c
o
+ v,
so that wave elements where v is large and positive produce ‘wave steepening’, resulting
ultimately in the formation of ‘shock waves’. This type of behaviour is important, for
example, for waves generated in a long railway tunnel by the piston effect of an entering
high-speed train.
Example 2. Reflection at a closed end (Figure 1.3.1b) Let the plane wave
p = p
I
(t − x/c
o
) approach from x < 0 the closed, rigid end at x = 0 of a uniform,
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semi-infinite tube. The reflected pressure p
R
(t + x/c
o
) is determined by the condition that
the (normal) fluid velocity must vanish at x = 0. Therefore p
I
(t)/ρ
o
c
o
− p
R
(t)/ρ
o
c
o
= 0,
and the overall pressure within the tube is given by
p = p
I
(t −x/c
o
) + p
I
(t + x/c
o
), x < 0.
Reflection at the rigid end causes ‘pressure doubling at the wall’ where p = 2p
I
(t).
Figure 1.3.1
Example 3. Reflection at an open end (Figure 1.3.1c) When the wavelength of the
sound is large compared to the radius R of an open ended circular cylindrical tube, the first
approximation to the condition satisfied by the acoustic pressure at the open end (x = 0) is
that the overall pressure p = 0. Indeed, because of the free expansion of the fluid outside
the tube, the pressure outside may be assumed to vanish compared to the incident pressure
M. S. Howe 12 ¸1.3 Ideal fluid
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p
I
(t − x/c
o
) ∼ p
I
(t). Then, integration of the linearized momentum equation over the
fluid contained in a spherical region V of radius R
s
, where R ¸ R
s
¸ λ = the acoustic
wavelength, reveals that
πR
2
p ≈

∂t
_
V
ρ
o
v
1
d
3
x ∼
fV p
I
(t)
c
o
,
where v
1
∼ O(p
I
(t)/ρ
o
c
o
) is the particle velocity parallel to the tube, p is the net pressure
within the tube close to the open end, and f is the frequency of the sound.
Therefore, near the open end
p ∼
fV
πR
2
c
o
p
I
(t) ∼
R
3
s
R
2
λ
p
I
(t) ¸p
I
(t) as λ =
c
o
f
→∞.
Thus, relative to the incident pressure, the pressure at the open end when λ ¸ R may be
assumed to vanish. The pressure wave reflected back into the tube at the end is therefore
approximately −p
I
(t + x/c
o
),
p ≈ p
I
(t −x/c
o
) −p
I
(t + x/c
o
), x < 0,
and the acoustic particle velocity in the mouth of the tube ≈ 2p
I
(t)/ρ
o
c
o
, twice that
attributable to the incident wave alone.
Example 4. Low frequency resonant oscillations in a pipe with open ends (Figure
1.3.1d) A pressure wave of complex amplitude p

and radian frequency ω propagating in
the ±x-direction has the representation p = Re¦p

e
−iω(t∓x/co)
¦. Therefore, the combination
p = Re
_
p

e
−iω(t−x/co)
−p

e
−iω(t+x/co)
_
vanishes at x = 0, and vanishes also at x = for those frequencies satisfying
e
iω/co
−e
−iω/co
= 0, i.e. sin(k
o
) = 0
where k
o
= ω/c
o
is called the acoustic wavenumber. This equation accordingly determines
the ‘resonance frequencies’ of an open-ended tube of length in the low frequency
approximation in which the pressure is assumed to vanish at the ends, viz
f =
ω


nc
o
2
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .
M. S. Howe 13 ¸1.3 Ideal fluid
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Thus, the minimum resonance frequency of a pipe of length = 1 m is about 170 Hz
(c
o
∼ 340 m/s in air), whose wavelength c
o
/f = 2 = 2 m does not depend on the speed of
sound.
The simple, one dimensional theory neglects energy losses from the ends of the tube
by radiation into the ambient atmosphere, and neglects also viscous and thermal losses
in ‘acoustic boundary layers’ at the walls of the tube. These cause the wave amplitude
to decay after several wave periods, so that resonant oscillations within the tube actually
persist only for a finite time after the source of excitation is removed.
M. S. Howe 14 ¸1.3 Ideal fluid
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1.4 Low frequency pulsations of a sphere
Small amplitude, irrotational motion produced by radial pulsations of a sphere of mean
radius a with centre at the origin satisfy the homogeneous equation
1
c
2
o

2
ϕ
∂t
2
−∇
2
ϕ = 0, r = [x[ > a. (1.4.1)
If the oscillations occur at frequency ω (proportional to e
−iωt
, for example), then ∂/∂t ∼ ω,
and very close to the sphere the two terms on the left of this equation are respectively of
orders k
2
o
ϕ and ϕ/a
2
, where k
o
= ω/c
o
is called the acoustic wavenumber. If k
o
a ¸1 the
sphere is said to be acoustically compact. The characteristic wavelength λ ∼ 2π/k
o
of
the sound produced by the pulsations is then much larger than the radius a. More generally,
a body is said to be acoustically compact when its characteristic dimension is small
compared to the wavelengths of the sound waves it is producing or with which it interacts.
In this limit the unsteady motion in the immediate neighbourhood of the sphere is governed
by the Laplace equation obtained by discarding the first term on the left of (1.4.1):

2
ϕ = 0, r > a. (1.4.2)
This is just the continuity equation div v = 0 for incompressible flow. The corresponding
pressure and density perturbations δp and δρ satisfy
δρ ≈
δp
c
2
o
.
In an incompressible fluid the pressure changes by the action of external forces (moving
boundaries, etc), but the density must remain fixed. Thus, the formal limit of incompressible
flow corresponds to setting c
o
= ∞.
M. S. Howe 15 ¸1.4 Pulsating sphere
AAS
1.4.1 Pulsating sphere in incompressible fluid
Let the normal velocity on the mean position r = a of the surface of the sphere be v
n
(t).
When the motion is incompressible we have to solve

2
ϕ = 0, r > a,
∂ϕ/∂r = v
n
(t), r = a
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
where r = [x[.
Figure 1.4.1
The solution must be radially symmetric, so that

2
ϕ =
1
r
2

∂r
_
r
2

∂r
_
ϕ = 0, r > a.
Hence
ϕ =
A
r
+ B, where A ≡ A(t), B ≡ B(t) are functions of t.
B(t) can be discarded, because the pressure fluctuations (∼ −ρ
o
∂ϕ/∂t) must vanish as
r → ∞, and a constant value of B has no physical significance. Applying the condition
∂ϕ/∂r = v
n
, r = a we then find
ϕ = −
a
2
v
n
(t)
r
, r > a. (1.4.3)
Thus, the pressure
p = −ρ
o
∂ϕ
∂t
= ρ
o
a
2
r
dv
n
dt
(t)
M. S. Howe 16 ¸1.4 Pulsating sphere
AAS
decays like 1/r with distance from the sphere, and exhibits the unphysical characteristic
of changing instantaneously everywhere when dv
n
/dt changes its value. For any time t
the volume flux ¯ q(t) of fluid is the same across any closed surface enclosing the sphere.
Evaluating it for any sphere S of radius r > a we find
¯ q(t) =
_
S
∇ϕ dS = 4πa
2
v
n
(t),
and we may also write
ϕ =
−¯ q(t)
4πr
, r > a. (1.4.4)
1.4.2 Point source in incompressible fluid
The incompressible motion generated by a volume point source of strength ¯ q(t)
concentrated at the origin is the solution of equation (1.3.9) with c
o
= ∞ and
q(x, t) = ¯ q(t)δ(x):

2
ϕ = ¯ q(t)δ(x), where δ(x) = δ(x
1
)δ(x
2
)δ(x
3
). (1.4.5)
The solution must be radially symmetric and given by
ϕ =
A
r
, for r > 0. (1.4.6)
To find A equation (1.4.5) is integrated over the interior of a sphere of radius r = R > 0,
and the divergence theorem is applied on the left:
_
r<R

2
ϕd
3
x =
_
S
∇ϕ dS, where S is
the surface of the sphere. Then
_
S
∇ϕ dS ≡
_
−A
R
2
_
(4πR
2
) = ¯ q(t).
Hence A = −¯ q(t)/4π and ϕ = −¯ q(t)/4πr, which agrees with the solution (1.4.4) for the
sphere with the same volume outflow in the region r > a = radius of the sphere. This
indicates that when we are interested in modelling the effect of a pulsating sphere at large
M. S. Howe 17 ¸1.4 Pulsating sphere
AAS
distances r ¸ a, it is permissible to replace the sphere by a point source (a ‘monopole’)
of the same strength ¯ q(t) = rate of change of the volume of the sphere. This conclusion is
valid for any pulsating body, not just a sphere. However, it is not necessarily a good model
(especially when we come to examine the production of sound by a pulsating body) in the
presence of a mean fluid flow past the sphere.
The solution (1.4.6) for the point source is strictly valid only for r > 0, where it satisfies

2
ϕ = 0. What happens as r → 0, where its value is actually undefined? To answer this
question we write the solution in the form
ϕ = lim
→0
−¯ q(t)
4π(r
2
+
2
)
1
2
, > 0, in which case ∇
2
ϕ = lim
→0
3
2
¯ q(t)
4π(r
2
+
2
)
5
2
.
The last limit is just equal to ¯ q(t)δ(x). Indeed when is small 3
2
/4π(r
2
+
2
)
5
2
is also
small except close to r = 0, where it attains a large maximum ∼ 3/4π
3
. Therefore, for any
smoothly varying ‘test’ function f(x) and any volume V enclosing the origin
lim
→0
_
V
3
2
f(x)d
3
x
4π(r
2
+
2
)
5
2
= f(0) lim
→0
_

−∞
3
2
d
3
x
4π(r
2
+
2
)
5
2
= f(0)
_

0
3
2
r
2
dr
(r
2
+
2
)
5
2
= f(0),
where the value of the last integral is independent of . This is the defining property of the
three-dimensional δ-function.
Thus the correct interpretation of the solution
ϕ =
−1
4πr
of ∇
2
ϕ = δ(x) (1.4.7)
for a unit point source (¯ q = 1) is
−1
4πr
= lim
→0
−1
4π(r
2
+
2
)
1
2
, r ≥ 0, (1.4.8)
where

2
_
−1
4πr
_
= lim
→0

2
_
−1
4π(r
2
+
2
)
1
2
_
= lim
→0
3
2
4π(r
2
+
2
)
5
2
= δ(x). (1.4.9)
M. S. Howe 18 ¸1.4 Pulsating sphere
AAS
1.4.3 Low frequency pulsations of a sphere in compressible fluid
Let us next calculate the radially symmetric sound produced by the acoustically compact
pulsating sphere of ¸1.4.1. Setting r = [x[ and observing that radial symmetry implies that

2
ϕ ≡
1
r
2

∂r
_
r
2

∂r
_
ϕ ≡
1
r

2
∂r
2
(rϕ) ,
it follows that (1.4.1) reduces to the one dimensional wave equation for rϕ
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
(rϕ) −

2
∂r
2
(rϕ) = 0, when r > a. (1.4.10)
The general solution rϕ = Φ(t −r/c
o
) +Ψ(t +r/c
o
), for arbitrary functions Φ and Ψ, yields
ϕ =
Φ
_
t −
r
co
_
r
+
Ψ
_
t +
r
co
_
r
, r > a. (1.4.11)
The terms on the right respectively represent spherically symmetric disturbances
propagating in the directions of increasing and decreasing values of r at the speed of
sound c
o
. Causality requires the incoming wave to be omitted, i.e. that Ψ = 0, because
Ψ(t + r/c
o
)/r necessarily represents sound arriving from r = ∞ and must be absent for
pulsations that started at some finite time in the past. This statement of the causality
principle is equivalent to imposing a radiation condition that sound waves must radiate
away from their source.
The outgoing wave function Φ is determined from the boundary condition ∂ϕ/∂r = v
n
(t)
at r = a, which gives
v
n
(t) =

∂r
_
_
Φ
_
t −
r
co
_
r
_
_
r=a
= −
1
a
2
Φ
_
t −
a
c
o
_

1
ac
o
∂Φ
∂t
_
t −
a
c
o
_
. (1.4.12)
But for a typical component of Φ(t) ∼ e
−iωt
of radian frequency ω,
e
−iω(t−a/co)
≈ e
−iωt
and
a
c
o

∂t
∼ k
o
a ¸1,
when the sphere is compact (k
o
a ¸ 1). Therefore, the time delay a/c
o
on the right of
(1.4.12) can be neglected and the time-derivative term discarded, giving Φ(t) ≈ −a
2
v
n
(t),
M. S. Howe 19 ¸1.4 Pulsating sphere
AAS
and
ϕ ≈ −
¯ q(t −r/c
o
)
4πr
, r > a (1.4.13)
where ¯ q(t) = 4πa
2
v
n
(t) is the rate of volume outflow from the sphere. The acoustic potential
at time t at a distant point r is seen to be the same as for incompressible flow (equation
(1.4.4)) except that it is delayed by the time of travel ∼ r/c
o
of sound from the sphere.
This result is typical of compact, pulsating bodies; the sound can always be expressed in
form (1.4.13) terms of the pulsational volumetric flow rate ¯ q(t).
M. S. Howe 20 ¸1.4 Pulsating sphere
AAS
1.5 Sound produced by an impulsive point source
The ‘impulsive’ point source of strength q = δ(x)δ(t) is non-zero for an infinitesimal
time at t = 0. The usual convention in acoustics, however, is to reverse the sign of the
source (so that q(x, t) = −δ(x)δ(t)), and to consider the corresponding inhomogeneous
wave equation (1.3.9) in the form
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
ϕ = δ(x)δ(t). (1.5.1)
Because the source vanishes for t < 0 we are interested only in the causal solution, which is
non-zero only for t > 0.
The solution is radially symmetric and of outgoing wave form, so that we can put
ϕ =
Φ(t −r/c
o
)
r
for r = [x[ > 0. (1.5.2)
The functional form of Φ can be determined by the method of ¸1.4.2, or more simply by
noting that
ϕ ∼
Φ(t −r/c
o
)
r
= lim
→0
Φ(t)
(r
2
+
2
)
1
2
when r → 0, and therefore that temporal derivatives ∂/∂t become negligible compared
to spatial derivatives ∂/∂r. In other words the solution must resemble that for an
incompressible fluid very close to the source. Hence we must have Φ(t) = δ(t)/4π and the
causal solution of (1.5.1) becomes
ϕ(x, t) =
1
4πr
δ
_
t −
r
c
o
_

1
4π[x[
δ
_
t −
[x[
c
o
_
. (1.5.3)
The sound wave consists of a singular spherical pulse that is non-zero only on the surface of
the sphere r = c
o
t > 0 expanding at the speed of sound; it vanishes everywhere for t < 0.
M. S. Howe 21 ¸1.5 Impulsive point source
AAS
1.6 Free space Green’s function
The free space Green’s function G(x, y, t, τ) is the causal solution of the wave equation
generated by the impulsive point source δ(x − y)δ(t − τ), located at the point x = y at
time t = τ. The formula for G is obtained from the solution (1.5.3) for a source at x = 0 at
t = 0 simply by replacing x by x −y and t by t −τ. In other words, if
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
G = δ(x −y)δ(t −τ), where G = 0 for t < τ, (1.6.1)
then
G(x, y, t, τ) =
1
4π[x −y[
δ
_
t −τ −
[x −y[
c
o
_
. (1.6.2)
This represents an impulsive, spherically symmetric wave expanding from the source at y
at the speed of sound. The wave amplitude decreases inversely with distance [x −y[ from
the source point y.
1.6.1 The retarded potential
Green’s function is the fundamental building block for solutions of the inhomogeneous
wave equation (1.3.7) of linear acoustics in an unbounded medium. Let us write this
equation in the form
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
p = T(x, t), (1.6.3)
where the generalized source T(x, t) is assumed to be generating waves that propagate
away from the source region, in accordance with the radiation condition.
This source distribution can be regarded as a distribution of impulsive point sources of
the type on the right of equation (1.6.1), because
T(x, t) =
__

−∞
T(y, τ)δ(x −y)δ(t −τ)d
3
ydτ.
The outgoing wave solution for each constituent source of strength
T(y, τ)δ(x −y)δ(t −τ)d
3
ydτ is T(y, τ)G(x, y, t, τ)d
3
ydτ,
M. S. Howe 22 ¸1.6 Green’s function
AAS
so that by adding these individual contributions we obtain
p(x, t) =
__

−∞
T(y, τ)G(x, y, t, τ)d
3
ydτ (1.6.4)
=
1

__

−∞
T(y, τ)
[x −y[
δ
_
t −τ −
[x −y[
c
o
_
d
3
ydτ (1.6.5)
i.e. p(x, t) =
1

_

−∞
T
_
y, t −
|x−y|
co
_
[x −y[
d
3
y. (1.6.6)
The integral formula (1.6.6) is called a retarded potential; it represents the pressure at
position x and time t as a linear superposition of contributions from sources at positions
y which radiated at the earlier times t −[x − y[/c
o
, [x −y[/c
o
being the time of travel of
sound waves from y to x.
1.6.2 Green’s function in one or two space dimensions: method of descent
The Green’s function for plane waves that propagate in one dimension (in a uniform
duct, for example) say parallel to the x
1
-axis, is the causal solution G(x
1
, y
1
, t, τ) of
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2


2
∂x
2
1
_
G = δ(x
1
−y
1
)δ(t −τ), where G = 0 for t < τ. (1.6.7)
This equation can be obtained formally by integrating the corresponding three dimensional
equation (1.6.1) over the plane of uniformity −∞ < x
2
, x
3
< ∞. This is Hadamard’s
(1952) method of descent to a lower space dimension. Using the formula (1.6.2) for G in
three dimensions, we find that (1.6.7) is satisfied by
G(x
1
, y
1
, t, τ) =
__

−∞
1
4π[x −y[
δ
_
t −τ −
[x −y[
c
o
_
dy
2
dy
3
=
_

0
δ
_
_
t −τ −
_
[x
1
−y
1
[
2
+ µ
2
c
o
_
_
µdµ
2
_
[x
1
−y
1
[
2
+ µ
2
=
c
o
2
H
_
t −τ −
[x
1
−y
1
[
c
o
_
, (1.6.8)
M. S. Howe 23 ¸1.6 Green’s function
AAS
where H(x) is the Heaviside unit step function (= 1, 0 according as x
>
<
0; see Appendix B).
In two dimensions sound waves propagate ‘cylindrically’ as functions of (x
1
, x
2
) and t,
and Green’s function can be found by descent, by integrating the three dimensional formula
over −∞< x
3
< ∞ to obtain
G(x, y, t, τ) =
H(t −τ −[x −y[/c
o
)

_
(t −τ)
2
−[x −y[
2
/c
2
o
, x = (x
1
, x
2
), y = (y
1
, y
2
), (1.6.9)
the causal solution of
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
G = δ(x
1
−y
1
)δ(x
2
−y
2
)δ(t −τ), G = 0 for t < τ.
In three dimensions G consists of a spherically spreading singular pulse that vanishes
everywhere except at the wavefront. The corresponding one dimensional Green’s function
is finite and consists of two simple discontinuities propagating in both directions from the
source at the speed of sound, to the rear of which the amplitude is constant and equal to
c
o
/2. The behaviour of G in two dimensions exhibits certain intermediate characteristics:
the wavefront consists of a circular cylindrical singular pulse radiating outwards from the
source at the speed of sound, but followed by a slowly decaying tail extending back to the
source point where its amplitude decreases like 1/(t −τ). From the view point of an observer
in three dimensions, the two dimensional source δ(x
1
−y
1
)δ(x
2
−y
2
)δ(t −τ) is equivalent to
a uniform, infinitely long ‘line’ source (parallel to the x
3
axis). The tail can be attributed
to the arrival of sound from distant points on this line source, which persists for all time
after the passage of the wave front, which can be regarded as produced by components of
the line source in the immediate neighbourhood of its intersection with the x
1
x
2
plane.
M. S. Howe 24 ¸1.6 Green’s function
AAS
1.7 Initial value problem for the wave equation
Our first application of the retarded potential integral is to the solution of ‘Cauchy’s
problem’, where it is required to calculate the sound at times t > 0 in terms of the state
of the acoustic medium at t = 0. This includes, for example, the problem of determining
the sound produced by the sudden rupture of a closed material envelope containing air at
high pressure (a ‘bursting’ balloon). Alternatively, the state of a system of sound waves
generated by sources in the distant past might be specified and it is desired to determine
their subsequent propagation.
The nature of required initial data at t = 0, say, may be deduced directly from the
homogeneous form of the wave equation (1.6.3), whose solution is required for t > 0. To do
this the equation is multiplied by the Heaviside function H(t), making use of the identity
H(t)

2
p
∂t
2
=

2
∂t
2
_
pH(t)
_


∂t
_
δ(t)p
_
−δ(t)
∂p
∂t
.
Then equation (1.6.3), with T(x, t) ≡ 0, becomes
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
(pH) =
1
c
2
o

∂t
_
δ(t)p
_
+
1
c
2
o
δ(t)
∂p
∂t
. (1.7.1)
This equation is formally valid for all time −∞ < t < ∞, with pH(t) ≡ 0 for t < 0.
The outgoing wave solution calculated using the retarded potential (1.6.6) determines
p(x, t)H(t) ≡ p(x, t) for t > 0 in terms of the initial pressure and velocity distributions:
p = f(x),
∂p
∂t
= −ρ
o
c
2
o
div v = g(x) at t = 0, (1.7.2)
where f(x), g(x) represent the prescribed initial values (∂p/∂t = −ρ
o
c
2
o
div v is just the
linearised continuity equation).
To evaluate the retarded potential integral for t > 0 we start from (1.6.5):
p(x, t) =
1
4πc
2
o
__
_

∂τ
_
f(y)δ(τ)
_
+ g(y)δ(τ)
_
δ
_
t −τ −
[x −y[
c
o
_
d
3
ydτ
[x −y[
. (1.7.3)
M. S. Howe 25 ¸1.7 Initial value problem
AAS
Introduce polar coordinates (r = [x − y[, θ, φ), with origin at the observer position x, so
that d
3
y = r
2
dr dσ, where dσ = sinθ dθdφ is the solid angle element. Then the integral
involving f(y) becomes
1
4πc
2
o
__

∂τ
_
f(r, σ)δ(τ)
_
δ
_
t −τ −
r
c
o
_
rdrdσ =
1
4πc
2
o

∂t
_
f(r, σ) δ
_
t −
r
c
o
_
rdrdσ
=

∂t
_
tf(c
o
t, σ)


=

∂t
_
t
¯
f(c
o
t)
_
,
where
¯
f(c
o
t) =
_
f(c
o
t, σ)


is the mean value of f(y) ≡ f(r, σ) on the surface of a sphere of radius r = c
o
t centred on
the observer position x (P in Figure 1.7.1).
Combining this with a similar calculation for the term in g(y), leads to Poisson’s (1819)
solution
p(x, t) =

∂t
_
t
¯
f(c
o
t)
_
+ t¯ g(c
o
t). (1.7.4)
Figure 1.7.1
If the initial values f(x), g(x) of the pressure and its time derivative are non-zero only
within a finite region bounded by a closed surface S (Figure 1.7.1), the mean values on the
right of (1.7.4) vanish except when the expanding spherical surface r = c
o
t cuts across S.
The pressure perturbation at P outside S is therefore non-zero only for r
1
< c
o
t < r
2
, where
M. S. Howe 26 ¸1.7 Initial value problem
AAS
r
1
, r
2
are the respective radii of the smallest and largest spheres centred on P that just
touch S. The acoustic pressure radiating from S is therefore non-zero only within a shell-like
region of space; at time t the outer surface of this shell is the envelope of the family of
spheres of radius c
o
t whose centres lie on S. Equation (1.7.4) also gives the solution for an
observer within S. For sufficiently small time the ‘inner’ envelope of the expanding family
of spheres forms a wavefront collapsing into the interior of S – this eventually crosses itself,
emerges from the ‘other side’ of S and expands to form the inner boundary of the radiating
shell.
Note that the right hand side of (1.7.1) can be cast in the form of the general source of
the linear acoustic equation (1.3.7)
ρ
o
∂q
∂t
−div F
where q(x, t), F(x, t) are impulsive volume source and body force distributions
q(x, t) =
1
ρ
o
c
2
o
p(x, 0)δ(t), F(x, t) = ρ
o
v(x, 0)δ(t), (1.7.5)
and where the formula for F is obtained from the linearised continuity equation
1
c
2
o
∂p
∂t
+ div(ρ
o
v) = 0.
Also, when the initial disturbance is non-zero only within a finite region bounded by the
surface S, the linearised momentum equation (1.3.1) implies that at any point x outside
S ∇
_

0
p(x, t)dt = −ρ
o
[v(x, t)]

t=0
≡ 0, because v = 0 before and after the passage of the
sound wave. Therefore
_

0
p(x, t)dt = 0 for all x, (1.7.6)
because the integral must vanish at infinitely large distances from S. Thus, the acoustic
pressure variation at x during the time interval r
1
/c
o
< t < r
2
/c
o
occupied by the wave
must always involve equal and opposite net compressions and rarefactions. This conclusion
is true for waves propagating in three and two dimensions, but not for one-dimensional
propagation. It is illustrated by the following example.
M. S. Howe 27 ¸1.7 Initial value problem
AAS
1.7.1 Sound radiated from a spherical region of initial high pressure
Let the initial uniform high pressure f(x) = p
0
> 0 be confined to stationary fluid in the
interior of a sphere S of radius a, so that g(x) = 0. Evidently, for the exterior point P in
Figure 1.7.2 at distance r from the centre O of the sphere, r
1
= r −a, r
2
= r + a, and the
pressure at P is non-zero only for r −a < c
o
t < r + a. During this time
¯
f(c
o
t) =
¯ σp
0

,
where ¯ σ =
_

0

_
Θ(t)
0
sinθ dθ = 2π¦1 − cos Θ(t)¦ is the solid angle subtended at P by the
spherical cap AB formed by the intersection of S and the sphere of radius c
o
t centred on P.
Hence, using the cosine formula (a
2
= r
2
+ c
2
o
t
2
−2rc
o
t cos Θ) for the triangle OAP, we find
¯
f(c
o
t) =
p
0
4rc
o
t
_
a
2
−(c
o
t −r)
2
__
H(c
o
t −r + a) −H(c
o
t −r −a)
_
,
and therefore
p(r, t) =

∂t
_
t
¯
f(c
o
t)
_
= −
p
0
2r
(c
o
t −r)
_
H(c
o
t −r + a) −H(c
o
t −r −a)
_
, r > a, (1.7.7)
which represents an outgoing spherical wave confined to the shell c
o
t −a < r < c
o
t +a that
decreases in amplitude like 1/r.
Figure 1.7.2
A similar calculation performed when P lies within the initial high pressure region
(r < a) gives
p(r, t) = p
0
_
1 −
(c
o
t + r)
2r
H(c
o
t + r −a) +
(c
o
t −r)
2r
H(c
o
t −r −a)
_
, r < a. (1.7.8)
M. S. Howe 28 ¸1.7 Initial value problem
AAS
The pressure at r inside S remains equal to p
0
until the arrival of the ‘rarefaction wave’ (the
second term in the large brackets) at time t = (a − r)/c
o
, which is subsequently reflected
from the centre r = 0 as a compression wave, after the passage of which the pressure is
reduced to zero.
The sequence of events is illustrated in Figure 1.7.3, where the nondimensional pressure
p/p
0
is plotted against r/a for a set of increasing values of c
o
t/a. The perturbation
pressure is initially uniform within S at c
o
t/a = 0 and vanishes elsewhere. Compression
and rarefaction waves radiate respectively into the exterior and interior of S as c
o
t/a
increases towards 1 . When c
o
t/a ∼ 1 the negative rarefaction peak becomes very large, and
ultimately p/p
0
→−δ(c
o
t/a−1) at r = 0. Long before this happens in a real fluid, however,
the large rarefaction is suppressed by nonlinear actions that increase the propagation speed
of the higher pressure sections of the inward propagating wave, thereby inhibiting the
formation of a deep negative pressure. After reflection at r = 0 at c
o
t/a = 1 the whole
disturbance becomes outgoing of ‘N-wave’ profile occupying a shell of thickness 2a, the
compression wavefront being at r = c
o
t + a and the pressure vanishing within the shell
at r = c
o
t. Spherical spreading causes the wave amplitude to decrease like 1/r. It is also
follows from formulae (1.7.7), (1.7.8) for the pressure that
_

0
p(r, t)dt = 0, even though the
initial pressure distribution p
0
> 0 within r < a.
M. S. Howe 29 ¸1.7 Initial value problem
AAS
Figure 1.7.3
1.7.2 Initial value problem in one dimension
The initial value problem for one dimensional propagation of sound parallel to the x
axis in unbounded fluid is governed by
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2


2
∂x
2
_
(pH) =
1
c
2
o

∂t
_
δ(t)f(x)
_
+
1
c
2
o
δ(t)g(x), −∞< x < ∞, (1.7.9)
where f(x), g(x) are the respective initial values of p and ∂p/∂t. This is solved by means
of the Green’s function (1.6.8), using the results (see equation (B.1.6) of the Appendix):
__
1
c
2
o

∂τ
_
δ(τ)f(y)
_
G(x, y, t, τ)dydτ =
1
2c
o
_
f(y)δ
_
t −
[x −y[
c
o
_
dy
=
1
2
_
f(x −c
o
t) + f(x + c
o
t)
_
__
1
c
2
o
δ(τ)g(y)G(x, y, t, τ)dydτ =
1
2c
o
_
g(y)H
_
t −
[x −y[
c
o
_
dy
=
1
2c
o
_
x+cot
x−cot
g(y) dy.
The combination of these results yields D’Alembert’s solution
p(x, t) =
1
2
_
f(x −c
o
t) + f(x −c
o
t)
_
+
1
2c
o
_
x+cot
x−cot
g(y) dy. (1.7.10)
M. S. Howe 30 ¸1.7 Initial value problem
AAS
A simple application of this formula is illustrated in Figure 1.7.4, for the case where the
fluid is initially at rest (g(x) ≡ 0) with p = f(x) ,= 0 only within the interval −a < x < a,
where it has the triangular waveform
f(x) = p
max
_
1 −
[x[
a
_
H
_
1 −
[x[
a
_
with peak pressure p
max
at x = 0. This pressure distribution splits symmetrically (see
figure), forming equal waves propagating without change of form to x = ±∞, and given for
t > 0 by
p(x, t)
p
max
=
1
2
__
1 −
[x −c
o
t[
a
_
H
_
1 −
[x −c
o
t[
a
_
+
_
1 −
[x + c
o
t[
a
_
H
_
1 −
[x + c
o
t[
a
__
.
Figure 1.7.4
M. S. Howe 31 ¸1.7 Initial value problem
AAS
1.8 Monopoles, dipoles and quadrupoles
A volume point source ¯ q(t)δ(x) of the type considered in ¸1.4 as a model for a pulsating
sphere is also called a point monopole. For a compressible medium the corresponding
velocity potential it produces is the outgoing solution of
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
ϕ = −¯ q(t)δ(x). (1.8.1)
The solution can be written down by analogy with the solution (1.6.6) of equation
(1.6.3) for the acoustic pressure. Replace p by ϕ in (1.6.6) and set T(y, τ) = −¯ q(τ)δ(y).
Then
ϕ(x, t) =
−¯ q
_
t −
|x|
co
_
4π[x[

−¯ q
_
t −
r
co
_
4πr
. (1.8.2)
This coincides with the corresponding solution (1.4.3) for a compact pulsating sphere.
Changes in the motion of the sphere (i.e. in the value of the volume outflow rate ¯ q(t)) are
communicated to a fluid element at distance r after a time delay r/c
o
required for sound to
travel outward from the source.
1.8.1 The point dipole
Let f = f(t) be a time dependent vector, then a ‘source’ on the right of the acoustic
pressure equation (1.6.3) of the form
T(x, t) = div
_
f(t)δ(x)
_


∂x
j
_
f
j
(t)δ(x)
_
(1.8.3)
is called a point dipole (located at the origin). The repeated subscript j in this equation,
implies a summation over j = 1, 2, 3 (see Appendix A). Equation (1.3.7) shows that
the point dipole is equivalent to a force distribution F(x, t) = −f(t)δ(x) per unit volume
applied to the fluid at the origin.
The sound produced by the dipole can be calculated from (1.6.6), but it is easier to use
(1.6.5):
p(x, t) =
1

__

−∞

∂y
j
_
f
j
(τ)δ(y)
_
δ
_
t −τ −
|x−y|
co
_
[x −y[
d
3
ydτ.
M. S. Howe 32 ¸1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .
AAS
Integrate by parts with respect to each y
j
(recalling that δ(y) = 0 at y
j
= ±∞), and note
that

∂y
j
δ
_
t −τ −
|x−y|
co
_
[x −y[
= −

∂x
j
δ
_
t −τ −
|x−y|
co
_
[x −y[
.
Then
p(x, t) =
1

__

−∞
f
j
(τ)δ(y)

∂x
j
_
_
δ
_
t −τ −
|x−y|
co
_
[x −y[
_
_
d
3
ydτ
=
1


∂x
j
__

−∞
f
j
(τ)δ(y)
_
_
δ
_
t −τ −
|x−y|
co
_
[x −y[
_
_
d
3
ydτ
i.e.
p(x, t) =

∂x
j
_
_
f
j
_
t −
|x|
co
_
4π[x[
_
_
. (1.8.4)
The same procedure shows that for a distributed dipole source of the type T(x, t) =
div f(x, t) on the right of equation (1.6.3), the acoustic pressure is
p(x, t) =
1


∂x
j
_

−∞
f
j
_
y, t −
|x−y|
co
_
[x −y[
d
3
y. (1.8.5)
A point dipole at the origin orientated in the direction of a unit vector n is entirely
equivalent to two point monopoles of equal but opposite strengths placed a short distance
apart (much smaller than the acoustic wavelength) on opposite sides of the origin on a line
through the origin parallel to n. For example, if n is parallel to the x-axis, and the sources
are distance apart, the two monopoles would be
¯ q(t)δ
_
x −

2
_
δ(y)δ(z) − ¯ q(t)δ
_
x +

2
_
δ(y)δ(z) ≈ −¯ q(t)δ

(x)δ(y)δ(z) ≡ −

∂x
_
¯ q(t)δ(x)
_
.
This is a fluid volume dipole. The relation p = −ρ
o
∂ϕ/∂t implies that the equivalent dipole
source in the pressure equation (1.3.7) or (1.6.3) is
ρ
o

∂x
_

∂¯ q
∂t
(t)δ(x)
_
.
M. S. Howe 33 ¸1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .
AAS
1.8.2 Quadrupoles
A source distribution involving two space derivatives is equivalent to a combination of
four monopole sources whose net volume source strength is zero, and is called a quadrupole.
A general quadrupole is a source of the form
T(x, t) =

2
T
ij
∂x
i
∂x
j
(x, t) (1.8.6)
in equation (1.6.3). The argument above leading to expression (1.8.5) can be applied twice
to show that the corresponding acoustic pressure is given by
p(x, t) =
1


2
∂x
i
∂x
j
_

−∞
T
ij
(y, t −[x −y[/c
o
)
[x −y[
d
3
y. (1.8.7)
1.8.3 Solution of the general linear acoustic equation
The sources on the right of the general linear acoustic equation (1.3.7)
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
p = ρ
o
∂q
∂t
−div F
are respectively of monopole and dipole type. The solution with outgoing wave behaviour
is therefore
p(x, t) =
ρ
o


∂t
_

−∞
q(y, t −[x −y[/c
o
)
[x −y[
d
3
y −
1


∂x
j
_

−∞
F
j
(y, t −[x −y[/c
o
)
[x −y[
d
3
y.
(1.8.8)
1.8.4 Vibrating sphere
Let a rigid sphere of radius a execute small amplitude oscillations at speed U(t) in
the x
1
-direction (Figure 1.8.1a) at sufficiently low frequencies that it may be assumed to
be acoustically compact. Take the coordinate origin at the mean position of the centre.
The sphere ‘pushes’ fluid away from its advancing front hemisphere, and the retreating
rear hemisphere draws in fluid from its wake. The sphere therefore resembles a dipole
source, and it is shown in ¸2.7 that the motion induced in an ideal fluid is equivalent to
M. S. Howe 34 ¸1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .
AAS
that produced by a point volume dipole of strength 2πa
3
U(t) at the position of its centre
directed along the x
1
-axis. The velocity potential is the solution of
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
ϕ =

∂x
1
_
2πa
3
U(t)δ(x)
_
. (1.8.9)
By analogy with (1.8.3) and (1.8.4), we have
ϕ(x, t) =

∂x
1
_
_
2πa
3
U
_
t −
|x|
co
_
4π[x[
_
_
. (1.8.10)
Now

∂x
j
[x[ =
x
j
[x[
. (1.8.11)
Applying this formula for j = 1, we find (putting r = [x[ and x
1
= r cos θ)
ϕ = −
a
3
cos θ
2r
2
U
_
t −
r
c
o
_

a
3
cos θ
2c
o
r
∂U
∂t
_
t −
r
c
o
_
near field far field
The ‘near field’ term is dominant at sufficiently small distances r from the origin that
1
r
¸
1
c
o
1
U
∂U
∂t

f
c
o
where f is the characteristic frequency of the oscillations of the sphere. But, sound of
frequency f travels a distance
c
o
/f = λ ≡ one acoustic wavelength
in one period of oscillation 1/f. Hence the near field term is dominant when
r ¸λ.
The motion becomes incompressible when c
o
→ ∞. In this limit the solution reduces
entirely to the near field term, which is also called the hydrodynamic near field; it decreases
in amplitude like 1/r
2
as r →∞.
M. S. Howe 35 ¸1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .
AAS
The ‘far field’ is the ‘acoustic’ region that only exists when the fluid is compressible.
It consists of propagating sound waves, carrying energy away from the sphere, and takes
over from the near field when r ¸λ. There is an intermediate zone where r ∼ λ in which
the solution is in a state of transition from the near to the far field. This accords with the
assumption that the sphere is compact and can be replaced by the point dipole: the motion
close to the sphere is essentially the same as if the fluid is incompressible i.e. the diameter
of the sphere is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength (a ¸λ).
Figure 1.8.1
The intensity of the sound generated by the sphere in the far field is proportional to ϕ
2
:
ϕ
2

a
6
4c
2
o
r
2
_
∂U
∂t
_
2
t−
r
co
cos
2
θ, r →∞.
The dependence on θ determines the directivity of the sound. For the dipole it has the
‘figure of eight’ pattern illustrated in Figure 1.8.1b, with peaks in directions parallel to the
dipole axis (θ = 0, π); there are radiation ‘nulls’ at θ =
π
2
(the curve should be imagined to
be rotated about the x
1
-axis).
M. S. Howe 36 ¸1.8 Monopoles, dipoles . . .
AAS
1.9 Acoustic energy equation
The acoustic energy equation in a stationary ideal fluid is obtained by taking the scalar
product of the velocity v and linearised momentum equation (1.3.1). The result is written

∂t
_
1
2
ρ
o
v
2
_
+ div
_
p v
_
−p div v = v F.
The term p div v on the left is rendered in a more useful form by substitution for div v from
the linearised equation of continuity (1.3.3)
div v = q −
1
ρ
o
∂ρ
∂t
= q −
1
ρ
o
c
2
o
∂p
∂t
.
The required energy equation is then obtained in the form

∂t
_
1
2
ρ
o
v
2
+
1
2
p
2
ρ
o
c
2
o
_
+ div
_
p v
_
= pq +v F. (1.9.1)
The term
c =
1
2
ρ
o
v
2
+
1
2
p
2
ρ
o
c
2
o
, (1.9.2)
is the acoustic energy per unit volume, the first part of which is obviously the kinetic
energy density. The second term is the compressional or potential energy component,
calculated as follows. Let V be the volume occupied by unit mass of the fluid, then ρV = 1,
and −
_
V
Vo
p

dV is the compressional energy per unit mass, where V
o
= 1/ρ
o
is the volume
occupied by unit mass in the absence of the sound, and p

is the perturbation pressure
produced by the volumetric change V −V
o
. Then the compressional energy per unit volume
is (to second order, and using the adiabatic formula dp

= c
2
o
dρ)
−ρ
o
_
V
Vo
p

dV = −ρ
o
_
ρ
ρo
p

d
_
1
ρ
_
=
1
ρ
o
c
2
o
_
p
0
p

dp

=
1
2
p
2
ρ
o
c
2
o
.
The divergence term in (1.9.1) governs the rate at which acoustic energy propagates
out of unit volume of fluid. The terms on the right are respectively the rates of production
of acoustic energy by the volume and force distribution sources. The energy balance is
perhaps more clearly exhibited by integration of the energy equation over the fluid region V
M. S. Howe 37 ¸1.9 Acoustic energy
AAS
bounded by a large closed surface S (Figure 1.9.1) that contains all of the acoustic sources.
Then

∂t
_
V
c d
3
x +
_
S
pv dS =
_
V
(pq +v F) d
3
x, (1.9.3)
which equates the sum of the rate of accumulation of energy within V and the energy flux
out through S to the rate of working of the acoustic sources.
1.9.1 Calculation of the energy flux
At large distances r from a source region we generally have
p(x, t) ∼
ρ
o
Φ
_
θ, φ, t −
r
co
_
r
, r →∞, (1.9.4)
where the function Φ depends on the nature of the source distribution, and θ and φ are
polar angles determining the directivity of the sound. From the radial component of the
linearized momentum equation
∂v
r
∂t
= −
1
ρ
o
∂p
∂r

1
r
2
Φ
_
θ, φ, t −
r
c
o
_
+
1
c
o
r
∂Φ
∂t
_
θ, φ, t −
r
c
o
_
. (1.9.5)
The first term in the second line can be neglected when r →∞, and therefore
v
r

1
c
o
r
Φ
_
θ, φ, t −
r
c
o
_

p
ρ
o
c
o
. (1.9.6)
By considering the θ and φ components of the momentum equation we can show that the
corresponding velocity components v
θ
, v
φ
, say, decrease faster than 1/r as r → ∞. We
therefore conclude from this and (1.9.6) that the ‘acoustic particle velocity’ is normal to
the acoustic wavefronts (the spherical surfaces r = c
o
t). In other words: sound consists of
‘longitudinal waves’ in which the fluid particles oscillate backwards and forwards along the
local direction of propagation of the sound.
The acoustic power Π radiated by the source distribution is given by the surface
integral of equation (1.9.3), which we can take in the form
Π =
_
S
pv
r
dS =
_
S
p
2
ρ
o
c
o
dS, (1.9.7)
M. S. Howe 38 ¸1.9 Acoustic energy
AAS
where the surface of integration S is that of a large sphere of radius r centered on the
source region. Because the surface area = 4πr
2
we only need to know the pressure and
velocity correct to order 1/r on S in order to evaluate the integral. Smaller contributions
(such as that determined by the first term in the second line of (1.9.5)) decrease too fast as
r increases to supply a finite contribution to the integral as r →∞.
Figure 1.9.1
In acoustic problems we are therefore usually satisfied if we can calculate the pressure
and velocity in the acoustic far field correct to order 1/r; this will always permit the
evaluation of the radiated sound power. The formula v
r
= p/ρ
o
c
o
is applicable at large
distances from the sources, where the wavefronts can be regarded as locally plane, but it is
true identically for plane sound waves. In the latter case, and for spherical waves on the
surface of the large sphere of Figure 1.9.1, the quantity
I = pv
r
=
p
2
ρ
o
c
o
(1.9.8)
is called the acoustic intensity. It is the rate of transmission of acoustic energy per unit
area of wavefront. For a plane wave c = p
2

o
c
2
o
, so that I = c
o
c, i.e. the plane wave energy
flux is equal to the energy density multiplied by the speed of sound.
M. S. Howe 39 ¸1.9 Acoustic energy
AAS
1.9.2 Example
For a transient acoustic source all of the wave energy radiates out through the distant
surface S in a finite time. Integration of the energy equation (1.9.3) over all times therefore
yields
_

−∞
_
S
pv dSdt =
_

−∞
_
V
(pq +v F) d
3
xdt. (1.9.9)
Let us verify this formula for the initial value problem of ¸1.7.1 of sound produced by the
sudden release of high pressure air from within the spherical region [x[ = r < a.
Outside the source region the pressure is given by equation (1.7.7), and the power
radiated through S is
Π =
_
S
p
2
ρ
o
c
o
dS = 4πr
2
_
p
2
o
4r
2
ρ
o
c
o
(c
o
t −r)
2
_
_
H(c
o
t −r + a) −H(c
o
t −r −a)
_
.
The total radiated acoustic energy E, say, determined by the left hand side of (1.9.9) is
therefore
E =
πp
2
0
ρ
o
c
o
_
(r+a)/co
(r−a)/co
(c
o
t −r)
2
dt =
2πa
3
3
p
2
0
ρ
o
c
2
o
. (1.9.10)
On the right of (1.9.9) we have, from equations (1.7.5), F = 0 and
q =
p
0
ρ
o
c
2
o
δ(t)H(a −r).
This must be multiplied by the pressure given by equation (1.7.8) for r < a, following which
E is calculated by evaluation of E =
_

−∞
_
V
pq d
3
xdt. But in doing this it must be recalled
that the radiated pressure is the causal solution of equation (1.7.1), and what is actually
calculated is not p but pH(t). Thus,
E =
p
2
0
ρ
o
c
2
o
_

−∞
_
|x|<a
H(t) δ(t)
_
1 −
(c
o
t + r)
2r
H(c
o
t + r −a) +
(c
o
t −r)
2r
H(c
o
t −r −a)
_
d
3
xdt

p
2
0
ρ
o
c
2
o
_

−∞
_
|x|<a
H(t) δ(t)d
3
xdt =
4πa
3
3
p
2
0
ρ
o
c
2
o
_

−∞
H(t) δ(t) dt
=
4πa
3
3
p
2
0
ρ
o
c
2
o
_
1
2
H
2
(t)
_

−∞
=
2πa
3
3
p
2
0
ρ
o
c
2
o
,
M. S. Howe 40 ¸1.9 Acoustic energy
AAS
which agrees with (1.9.10).
The integration with respect to time has made use of the result dH(t)/dt = δ(t). Readers
uncomfortable with this formal step should observe that the solution of the initial value
problem (1.7.1) can be carried through with negligible change of details, by replacing H(t)
and δ(t) by their corresponding ‘ sequences’ H

(t), δ

(t) (see Appendix B)
H

(t) =
1
2
+
1
π
tan
−1
_
t

_
, δ

(t) =

π(
2
+ t
2
)
, > 0,
in which case
_

−∞
H

(t) δ

(t) dt = [
1
2
H
2

(t)]

−∞
=
1
2
.
M. S. Howe 41 ¸1.9 Acoustic energy
AAS
1.10 Calculation of the acoustic far field
We now discuss the approximations necessary to evaluate the sound in the far field from
the retarded potential representation:
p(x, t) =
1

_

−∞
T
_
y, t −
|x−y|
co
_
[x −y[
d
3
y. (1.10.1)
We assume that T(x, t) ,= 0 only within a finite source region (Figure 1.10.1), and take the
coordinate origin O within the region.
Figure 1.10.1
When [x[ →∞ and y lies within the source region (so that [x[ ¸[y[)
[x −y[ ≡
_
[x[
2
−2x y +[y[
2
_1
2
= [x[
_
1 −
2x y
[x[
2
+
[y[
2
[x[
2
_1
2
≈ [x[
_
1 −
x y
[x[
2
+ O
_
[y[
2
[x[
2
__
i.e. [x −y[ ≈ [x[ −
x y
[x[
when
[y[
[x[
¸1. (1.10.2)
Similarly,
1
[x −y[

1
_
[x[ −
x·y
|x|
_

1
[x[
_
1 +
x y
[x[
2
_
. ˙ .
1
[x −y[

1
[x[
+
x y
[x[
3
when
[y[
[x[
¸1. (1.10.3)
The approximation (1.10.3) shows that, in order to obtain the far field approximation
of the solution (1.10.1) that behaves like 1/r = 1/[x[ as [x[ →∞, it is sufficient to replace
M. S. Howe 42 ¸1.10 Acoustic far field
AAS
[x −y[ in the denominator of the integrand by [x[. However, in the argument of the source
strength T it is important to retain possible phase differences between the sound waves
generated by components of the source distribution at different locations y; we therefore
replace [x −y[ in the retarded time by the right hand side of (1.10.2). Hence,
p(x, t) ≈
1
4π[x[
_

−∞
T
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x.y
c
o
[x[
_
d
3
y, [x[ →∞. (1.10.4)
This is called the Fraunhofer approximation.
The source region may extend over many characteristic acoustic wavelengths of the
sound. By retaining the contribution x y/c
o
[x[ to the retarded time we ensure that any
interference between waves generated at different positions within the source region is
correctly described by the far field approximation. In Figure 1.10.1 the acoustic travel
time from a source point y to the far field point x is equal to that from the point labelled
A to x when [x[ → ∞. The travel time over the distance OA is just x y/c
o
[x[, so that
[x[/c
o
−x y/c
o
[x[ gives the correct value of the retarded time when [x[ →∞.
1.10.1 Dipole source distributions
By applying the far field formula (1.10.4) to a dipole source T(x, t) = div f(x, t) we
obtain (from (1.8.5))
p(x, t) ≈
1


∂x
j
_
1
[x[
_

−∞
f
j
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_
d
3
y
_

1
4π[x[

∂x
j
_

−∞
f
j
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_
d
3
y, [x[ →∞, (1.10.5)
because the differential operator ∂/∂x
j
need not be applied to 1/[x[ as this would give a
contribution decreasing like 1/r
2
at large distances from the dipole.
However, it is useful to make a further transformation that replaces ∂/∂x
j
by the time
derivative ∂/∂t, which is usually more easily estimated in applications. To do this we
M. S. Howe 43 ¸1.10 Acoustic far field
AAS
observe that
∂f
j
∂x
j
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_
=
∂f
j
∂t
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_


∂x
j
_
t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_
=
∂f
j
∂t
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_

_

x
j
c
o
[x[
+
y
j
c
o
[x[

(x y)x
j
c
o
[x[
3
_
≈ −
x
j
c
o
[x[
∂f
j
∂t
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_
as [x[ →∞.
Hence, the far field of a distribution of dipoles T(x, t) = div f(x, t) is given by
p(x, t) =
−x
j
4πc
o
[x[
2

∂t
_

−∞
f
j
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_
d
3
y. (1.10.6)
Note that
x
j
[x[
2
=
x
j
[x[
1
[x[
,
where x
j
/[x[ is the jth component of the unit vector x/[x[. Thus, the additional factor of
x
j
/[x[ in (1.10.6) does not change the rate of decay of the sound with distance from the
source (which is still like 1/r) but it does have an influence on the acoustic directivity.
A comparison of (1.10.5) and (1.10.6) leads to the following rule for interchanging space
and time derivatives in the acoustic far field

∂x
j
←→−
1
c
o
x
j
[x[

∂t
. (1.10.7)
1.10.2 Quadrupole source distributions
For the quadrupole (1.10.6)
T(x, t) =

2
T
ij
∂x
i
∂x
j
(x, t)
and
p(x, t) =
1


2
∂x
i
∂x
j
_

−∞
T
ij
(y, t −[x −y[/c
o
)
[x −y[
d
3
y.
M. S. Howe 44 ¸1.10 Acoustic far field
AAS
By applying (1.10.4) and the rule (1.10.7), we find that the acoustic far field is given by
p(x, t) ≈
x
i
x
j
4πc
2
o
[x[
3

2
∂t
2
_

−∞
T
ij
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x y
c
o
[x[
_
d
3
y, [x[ →∞. (1.10.8)
1.10.3 Example
For the (1,2) point quadrupole
T(x, t) =

2
∂x
1
∂x
2
(T(t)δ(x))
equation (1.10.8) shows that in the acoustic far field
p(x, t) ≈
x
1
x
2
4πc
2
o
[x[
3

2
T
∂t
2
_
t −
[x[
c
o
_
, [x[ →∞.
If we use spherical polar coordinates, such that
x
1
= r cos θ, x
2
= r sinθ cos φ, x
3
= r sinθ sin φ,
we can write the pressure in the form
p(x, t) ≈
sin 2θ cos φ
8πc
2
o
[x[

2
T
∂t
2
_
t −
[x[
c
o
_
, [x[ →∞.
The directivity of the sound (∝ p
2
) is therefore represented by sin
2
2θ cos
2
φ. Its shape is
plotted in Figure 1.10.2 for radiation in the x
1
x
2
-plane (φ = 0, π). The four lobe ‘clover
leaf’ pattern is characteristic of a quadrupole T
ij
for which i ,= j.
M. S. Howe 45 ¸1.10 Acoustic far field
AAS
Figure 1.10.2
1.10.4 Far field of a compact source distribution
Phase variations x y/c
o
[x[ of sound arriving from different parts of a generalised source
T(x, t) are small if the source region is acoustically compact. Therefore, the far field
approximation ([x[ →∞) (1.10.4) becomes
p(x, t) ≈
1
4π[x[
_

−∞
T
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
+
x.y
c
o
[x[
_
d
3
y ≈
1
4π[x[
_

−∞
T
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
_
d
3
y.
This gives the principal component of the radiating sound unless it should happen that the
overall source strength is null, i.e., unless
_

−∞
T (y, t) d
3
y = 0. The amplitude of sound
waves in the far field is then crucially dependent on the existence of small phase mismatches
between different parts of the source, and must be determined by expanding the Fraunhofer
approximation in powers of x y/c
o
[x[:
M. S. Howe 46 ¸1.10 Acoustic far field
AAS
p(x, t) ≈
x
i
4πc
o
[x[
2

∂t
_

−∞
y
i
T
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
_
d
3
y +
x
i
x
j
8πc
o
[x[
3

2
∂t
2
_

−∞
y
i
y
j
T
_
y, t −
[x[
c
o
_
d
3
y
+
= dipole + quadrupole + (1.10.9)
Each term in this ‘multipole expansion’ is nominally of order ω/c
o
= k
o
¸ 1 relative to
its predecessor, where ω ∼ ∂/∂t is the characteristic source frequency and ∼ the diameter
of the source region. Therefore, the expansion is halted at the first non-zero term (see
Question 9 of Problems 1).
M. S. Howe 47 ¸1.10 Acoustic far field
AAS
Problems 1
1. Derive the relations (1.3.12) for plane sound waves.
2. Use the trial solution ϕ = Φ(t −|x|/c
o
) to solve the problem
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2


2
∂x
2
_
ϕ = δ(x)δ(t), ∞< x < ∞,
where ϕ = 0 for t < 0.
3. When the body force F = ρg in equation (1.3.1), where g is the acceleration due to gravity,
show that in the adiabatic approximation the linearised acoustic wave equation becomes
1
ρ
o
c
2
o

2
p

∂t
2


∂x
j
_
1
ρ
o
∂p

∂x
j
_
=
∂q
∂t
−div
_
p

g
ρ
o
c
2
o
_
,
where p

= p −p
o
, and the mean pressure, density and sound speed p
o
, ρ
o
, c
o
vary with depth
in the atmosphere. Deduce that the gravitational term on the right hand side can be neglected
provided ω g/c
o
, where ω is a typical acoustic frequency.
4. Consider the initial value problem (1.7.1), (1.7.2) in which the pressure p = p
0
= constant and
∂p/∂t = 0 at time t = 0 in 0 < x
1
< h. Show that Poisson’s solution (1.7.4) predicts plane wave
propagation parallel to the x
1
direction, and that the pressure wave radiating through a typical
exterior point P distance r
1
from the source region has amplitude
1
2
p
0
, arrives at time t = r
1
/c
o
and occupies a plane ‘shell’ of thickness h.
M. S. Howe 48 Problems 1
AAS
5. Derive D’Alembert’s solution (1.7.10) for the initial value problem in one space dimension from
Poisson’s formula (1.7.4).
6. At time t = 0 a plane acoustic wave p = ¯ p(x − c
o
t) propagating in unbounded fluid satisfies
p = ¯ p(x), ∂p/∂t = −c
o
¯ p

(x) (the prime denoting differentiation with respect to the argument).
Verify that Poisson’s solution (1.7.4) predicts that p = ¯ p(x −c
o
t) when t > 0.
7. Calculate the acoustic power (1.9.7) radiated by an acoustically compact sphere of radius a exe-
cuting small amplitude translational oscillations of frequency ω and velocity U(t) = U
o
cos(ωt),
where U
o
= constant.
8. As for Problem 7 when the sphere executes small amplitude radial oscillations at normal velocity
v
n
= U
o
cos(ωt), U
o
= constant.
9. Consider the outgoing wave solution of
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
ϕ =
sgn(x)H(a −|x|)U(t)
a
, a > 0,
where U(t) is known as a function of time. If the source region |x| < a is acoustically compact,
show that
ϕ(x, t)
a
3
cos θ
8c
o
|x|
∂U
∂t
_
t −
|x|
c
o
_
, |x| →∞,
where cos θ = x/|x|.
10. A volume point source of strength q
o
(t) translates at constant, subsonic velocity U. The velocity
potential ϕ(x, t) of the radiated sound is determined by the solution of
_
1
c
2
o

2
∂t
2
−∇
2
_
ϕ = −q
o
(t)δ(x −Ut).
Show that
ϕ(x, t) =
−q
o
(t −R/c
o
)
4πR(1 − M cos Θ)
, M =
U
c
o
,
where R is the distance of the reception point x fromthe source position at the time of emission of
the sound received at x at time t, and Θ is the angle between U and the direction of propagation
of this sound.
M. S. Howe 49 Problems 1

AAS 1.2 Equations of motion of a fluid The state of a fluid at time t and position x = (x1, x2 , x3) is defined when the velocity v and any two thermodynamic variables are specified. Five scalar equations are therefore required to determine the motion. These equations are statements of the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. They must normally be supplemented by a thermodynamic equation of state. 1.2.1 The material derivative Let vi denote the component of fluid velocity v in the xi -direction, and consider the rate at which any function F (x, t) varies following the motion of a fluid particle. Let the particle be at x at time t, and at x + δx a short time later at time t + δt, where δx = v(x, t)δt + · · ·. At the new position of the fluid particle F (x + δx, t + δt) = F (x, t) + vj δt ∂F ∂F (x, t) + · · · , (x, t) + δt ∂xj ∂t

where the repeated suffix j implies summation over j = 1, 2, 3. The limiting value of (F (x + δx, t + δt) − F (x, t))/δt as δt → 0 defines the material (or ‘Lagrangian’) derivative DF/Dt of F : ∂F ∂F DF ∂F = + vj +v· ≡ Dt ∂t ∂xj ∂t F. (1.2.1)

DF/Dt measures the time rate of change of F as seen by an observer moving with the fluid particle that occupies position x at time t.

1.2.2 Equation of continuity A fluid particle of volume V and mass density ρ has a total mass of ρV ≡ (ρV )(x, t), where x denotes the position of the centroid of V at time t (Figure 1.2.1). Conservation of mass requires that D(ρV )/Dt = 0, i.e. that 1 Dρ 1 DV + = 0. ρ Dt V Dt Now
1 DV V Dt

(1.2.2)

=

1 V

S

v · dS, where the integration is over the closed material surface S forming

the boundary of V, on which the vector surface element dS is directed out of V. It is the M. S. Howe 2 §1.2 Equations of motion

AAS fractional rate of increase of the volume of the fluid particle, and becomes equal to div v as V → 0. In this limit (1.2.2) can therefore be cast in any of the following equivalent forms of the equation of continuity
1 Dρ ρ Dt ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ ∂t

 + div v = 0,           
∂ (ρvj ) ∂xj

+

+ div(ρv) = 0,   = 0.

(1.2.3)

Figure 1.2.1 1.2.3 Momentum equation The momentum equation is derived in a similar manner by consideration of the rate of change of momentum D(ρV v)/Dt ≡ (ρV )Dv/Dt of a fluid particle subject to pressure p and viscous forces acting on the surface S of V, and body forces F per unit volume within V. It is sufficient for our purposes to quote the form of the resulting Navier-Stokes equation ρ Dv 4 = − p − ηcurl ω + η + η Dt 3 div v + F, (1.2.4)

where ω = curl v is the vorticity, and η and η are respectively the shear and bulk coefficients of viscosity, which generally vary with pressure, temperature and position in the fluid. Viscous forces are important predominantly close to solid boundaries, where the frictional drag is governed by the shear viscosity η. It is then a good approximation to adopt the Stokesian model in which the contribution of the bulk viscosity is ignored. Values of ρ, η and ν = η/ρ (the ‘kinematic’ viscosity) for air and water at 10◦ C and one atmosphere pressure are given in the Table 1.2.1:

M. S. Howe

3

§1.2 Equations of motion

AAS ρ kg/m3 Air Water 1.23 1000 ν m2/s 1.433 10−5 1.284 10−6

η kg/ms 1.764 10−5 1.284 10−3

Table 1.2.1 1.2.4 Energy equation Consideration of the transfer of heat by molecular diffusion across the moving material boundary S of the fluid particle of Figure 1.2.1, and of the production of heat by frictional dissipation within its interior volume V leads to the energy equation ρT Ds 1 = 2η eij − ekk δij Dt 3
2

+ η e2 + div κ T , kk

(1.2.5)

where T, s are respectively the temperature and specific entropy (i.e. entropy per unit mass), κ is the thermal conductivity of the fluid, and eij = 1 2 ∂vj ∂vi + ∂xj ∂xi (1.2.6)

is the rate of strain tensor, which accounts for changes in shape of the fluid particle. Because ekk ≡ div v, the term involving the bulk coefficient of viscosity η in (1.2.5) determines the dissipative production of heat during compressions and rarefactions of the fluid. To understand the significance of the rate of strain tensor, observe that the velocity v relative to the centroid of the moving fluid particle at vector distance x from its centroid, is given to first order by (see §A.7) vi = xj = ∂vi 1 ≡ xj ∂xj 2 ∂vj ∂vi + ∂xj ∂xi + xj 1 2 ∂vj ∂vi − ∂xj ∂xi

1 ∂ 1 ejk xj xk + (ω ∧ x )i 2 ∂xi 2

where eij and the vorticity ω are evaluated at the centroid. The term in ω therefore represents relative rigid body rotation of the particle about the centroid, at angular velocity 1 ω, 2 M. S. Howe 4 §1.2 Equations of motion

so ). Note.5 Equation of state In the presence of velocity and pressure gradients a fluid cannot be in strict thermodynamic equilibrium. For sound propagation in an ideal fluid it is usual to neglect dissipation and to assume homentropic flow: s = so = constant. s). e) defined in this way is generally no longer the sole source of normal stress on any surface drawn in the fluid. S. defined by equations of the form p = p(ρ. s = s(ρ. such as the density and temperature.2. This is the case in a fluid of non-zero bulk viscosity (η = 0). T ).2. whose molecules possess rotational (or other internal) degrees of freedom whose relaxation time required for the M. such that ρ and ρe are the mass and internal energy per unit volume. however. The pressure and all other thermodynamic quantities are then defined by means of the same functions of ρ and e that would be used for a system in thermal equilibrium. represents an irrotational distortion of V. and thermodynamic variables require special interpretation. The density ρ and the total internal energy e per unit mass can be defined in the usual way for a very small fluid particle without the need for thermodynamic equilibrium.2 Equations of motion . p = p(ρ. 1. etc. T ). The gradient term.2. although in applications it may be more convenient to use other such equations. In more general situations it is necessary to retain the energy equation to account for coupling between macroscopic motions and the internal energy of the fluid.7) The equations of state (1.AAS with no change of shape. however. and is responsible for frictional forces and the conversion of mechanical energy into heat. the energy equation being ignored. and the relations between the thermodynamic variables are then the same as for a fluid in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This permits the fluid motion to be determined from the equations of continuity and momentum and the equation of state p = p(ρ. that the thermodynamic pressure p = p(ρ. (1. Howe 5 §1.7) permit any thermodynamic variable to be expressed in terms of any two variables.

Crocco’s equation finds application in the acoustics of turbulent.2. where cp is the specific heat at constant pressure and γ = cp /cv . say. but the corresponding increase in the rotational energy lags slightly behind that of the molecular translational energy responsible for normal stress. Howe 6 §1.2. M. the thermodynamic pressure p accordingly is smaller than the true normal stress (which equals p − η div v).2 Equations of motion . heat conducting flows. In a perfect gas w = cpT = γp/(γ − 1)ρ. ρ (1. a compression. cv being the specific heat at constant volume.8) 1 2 v 2 and (1.2.8) permit the momentum equation to be put in Crocco’s form ∂v + ∂t where ν = η /ρ and B = w + 1 v2 2 (1.2.4) can be recast by introducing the specific enthalpy w = e + p/ρ of the fluid.6 Crocco’s equation The momentum equation (1.9) is the total enthalpy. When compressed (during an interval in which div v < 0) the temperature must rise. ρ (1.AAS re-establishment of thermal equilibrium after.2. S. is large relative to the equilibration time of the translational degrees of freedom. 1.10) B = −ω ∧ v + T s − νcurl ω + ν + 4 ν 3 div v + F . in terms of which the first law of thermodynamics supplies the relation dw = The vector identity (v · )v = ω ∧ v + dp + T ds.2.

This corresponds to a pressure of about 0.2) that acoustic particle velocity ≈ acoustic pressure . v ∼ 5 cm/sec at 120 dB . which is at rest in the absence of the sound. The ‘speed of sound’ in air is about 340 m/sec. where the reference pressure pref = 2 × 10−5 Pa. It will be seen (§1.2.3. S. p = po ≡ 1 atmosphere (= 105 Pa) is equivalent to 194 dB. Similarly. Thus. in an ideal fluid there is negligible dissipation of the organized M. Howe 7 §1. a homogeneous.1 The wave equation for an ideal fluid In most applications the acoustic pressure is very small relative to po .3 lbs/in2 . 1. ρo × speed of sound where ρo is the mean air density. ρo ) = constant throughout fluid. non-heat-conducting fluid of mean pressure po and density ρo .AAS 1.5) implies that Ds/Dt = 0 so that sound propagation is homentropic (adiabatic) with s = so ≡ s(po . The passage of a sound wave in the form of a pressure fluctuation is accompanied by a back-and-forth motion of the fluid in the direction of propagation at the acoustic particle velocity v.3 Ideal fluid . Thus. The implication is that. at 160 dB v ∼ 5 m/sec. p/po ∼ 0. for a ‘deafening’ sound of 160 dB.02. We consider first the simplest case of sound propagation in an ideal fluid – i. The energy equation (1. A very loud sound ∼ 120 dB corresponds to 120 2 × 10−5 p ≈ × 10( 20 ) = 2 × 10−4 5 po 10 1.e. and is loud enough for ‘nonlinear effects’ to begin to be important.3 Sound waves in an ideal fluid The intensity of an acoustic pressure p in air (relative to the mean atmospheric pressure) is usually measured in decibels by the quantity 20 × log10 |p| pref . inviscid.3. and sound propagation is studied by linearizing the equations of motion. say.

3) p = ρo ∂q − div F. It has the dimensions of (velocity)2 and its square root defines the speed of sound co = M.3.5) where the derivative is evaluated at the undisturbed value ρo of the density. so ) in the undisturbed state.1) Before linearizing the continuity equation (1. The linearized equation is then 1 ∂ρ + div v = q.AAS mechanical energy of the sound by heat and momentum transfer by molecular diffusion between neighboring fluid particles.3.3.4).2. ∂ρ (1.2.3. for example. ρ where p /po 1.3) it is useful to make an artificial generalization by inserting a volume source distribution q(x.4) An equation determining the pressure p alone in terms of q and F is obtained by invoking the homentropic approximation p = p(ρ.3 Ideal fluid . ∂t (1. (1. so ) ≈ p(ρo .3.4) for an ideal fluid (η = η = 0) then becomes ρo ∂v + ∂t p = F. S.3. Howe ∂p ∂ρ 8 . so ).3): ∂ 2ρ − ∂t2 2 (1.1) and (1.3.2) q is the rate of increase of fluid volume per unit volume of the fluid. the effect of volume pulsations of a small body in the fluid (§1. so ) + ρ ∂p (ρ.3. t) on the right hand side: 1 Dρ + div v = q. ρ /ρo < 1. so ). The departures of the pressure and density from their undisturbed values are denoted by p . and might represent. ρ Dt (1. where po = p(ρo .6) §1. Therefore po + p = p(ρo + ρ . ρo ∂t Eliminate v between (1. s (1. The linearized form of the momentum equation (1.

where the source terms q = 0.3 Ideal fluid .7) where the prime on the acoustic pressure has been discarded. The volume source q and (with the exception of gravity) the body force F would never appear in a complete description of sound generation in a real fluid. in terms of which the perturbation pressure is given by p = −ρo ∂ϕ .3. ρ (and in other thermodynamic quantities such as the temperature T.8) It follows from this and (1.9) is the wave equation of classical acoustics. They are introduced only when we think we understand how to ‘model’ mathematically the real sources of sound in terms of idealized volume sources and forces.AAS where differentiation is performed at s = so . ∂t (1. In air co ≈ 340 m/s. In general this can be a dangerous procedure because. the velocity v and the perturbations in p. as we shall see. in water co ≈ 1500 m/s. S.5): ρ = p /c2 . such as the vibrating cone of a loudspeaker. F = 0.3. Howe 9 §1.3.4) yields the inhomogeneous o wave equation 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 p = ρo ∂q − div F. small errors in specifying the sources of sound in a fluid often result in very large errors in the predicted sound. From (1.9) Causality can be invoked to justify the neglect of any a time-independent constants of integration. ∂t (1. This equation governs the production of sound waves by the volume source q and the force F. Equation (1. and substitution for ρ in (1.7) (with F = 0) that the velocity potential is the solution of 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 ϕ = −q(x.1) implies the existence of a velocity potential ϕ such that v= ϕ. (1.3. t).3. This is because only a tiny fraction of the available energy of a vibrating fluid or structure actually radiates away as sound. and evaluated at ρ = ρo . In the ‘propagation zone’. When F = 0 equation (1.3.3. M. When these terms are absent the equation describes sound propagation from sources on the boundaries of the fluid.3.

3.11) (1.3. w = .AAS internal energy e and enthalpy w. p.12) where p is the acoustic pressure. T = .3. T and w in a plane wave propagating parallel to the x-axis are related by v=± p p p p . (1.3 Ideal fluid . Howe γpo /ρo = 10 γRTo. and the ± sign is taken according as the wave propagates in the positive or negative x-direction.13) §1. The solutions (1.10) where Φ. co co (1.2 Plane waves A plane acoustic wave propagating in the x-direction satisfies 1 ∂2 ∂2 − 2 ϕ = 0. ρo co co ρo cp ρo (1. 1. 1. The velocity fluctuation v produced by the passage of the wave is the acoustic particle velocity. which remains constant and equal to so ) propagate as sound governed by the homogeneous form of (1.3. but not the specific entropy s. cp is the specific heat at constant pressure.3.9). and in the linearized approximation co = M.3. The acoustic particle velocity v = ϕ is parallel to the propagation direction (the waves are ‘longitudinal’). S. ρ = 2. where R = cp − cv is the gas constant.3.3.3 Speed of sound In a perfect gas p = ρRT and s = cv ln(p/ργ ). ρ .11) and the linearized (source-free) equations of motion can be used to show that fluctuations in v. c2 ∂t2 ∂x o which has the general solution (D’Alembert 1747) ϕ = Φ t− x x +Ψ t+ . Ψ are arbitrary functions that respectively represent waves travelling at speed co without change of form in the positive and negative x-directions.

resulting ultimately in the formation of ‘shock waves’. p = ρo co uo (t − x/co ) for x > 0. for example.1 Speed of sound and acoustic wavelength Example 1. In practice a solution of this kind.˙.1a). rigid end at x = 0 of a uniform. Nonlinear analysis reveals that at a point in the wave where the particle velocity is v the wave actually propagates at speed co + v. so that wave elements where v is large and positive produce ‘wave steepening’. M. because of the accumulation of small effects of flow nonlinearity. so that uo (t) ≡ Φ(t) . Example 2. If x increases along the tube.3.5 1 5 Table 1.3. Waves in a uniform tube generated by an oscillating piston The end x = 0 of an infinitely long. Howe 11 §1. uniform tube is closed by a smoothly sliding piston executing small amplitude normal oscillations at velocity uo (t) (Figure 1.3.1b) Let the plane wave p = pI (t − x/co ) approach from x < 0 the closed. where energy is confined by the tube to propagate in waves of constant cross-section. and the corresponding acoustic wavelength λ = co /f at a frequency of f = 1 kHz are given in Table 1. At x = 0 the velocities of the fluid and piston are the same. for waves generated in a long railway tunnel by the piston effect of an entering high-speed train. linear acoustic theory and the radiation condition require that p = Φ(t − x/co ). S.AAS Typical approximate speeds of sound in air and in water.3. becomes progressively invalid as x increases.1 co m/s Air Water 340 1500 f/s 1100 5000 km/h 1225 5400 mph 750 3400 λ at 1 kHz metres feet 0. Reflection at a closed end (Figure 1.3 Ideal fluid .3 1. This type of behaviour is important. ρo co .

3.1c) When the wavelength of the sound is large compared to the radius R of an open ended circular cylindrical tube. because of the free expansion of the fluid outside the tube.3. Therefore pI (t)/ρo co − pR (t)/ρo co = 0. Figure 1. Reflection at an open end (Figure 1. x < 0.AAS semi-infinite tube. the first approximation to the condition satisfied by the acoustic pressure at the open end (x = 0) is that the overall pressure p = 0. Howe 12 §1.3 Ideal fluid . The reflected pressure pR (t + x/co ) is determined by the condition that the (normal) fluid velocity must vanish at x = 0. the pressure outside may be assumed to vanish compared to the incident pressure M. and the overall pressure within the tube is given by p = pI (t − x/co ) + pI (t + x/co ).1 Example 3. Reflection at the rigid end causes ‘pressure doubling at the wall’ where p = 2pI (t). Indeed. S.

where ko = ω/co is called the acoustic wavenumber. Therefore. . f R may be Thus. Example 4. S. 2π 2 n = 1. the pressure at the open end when λ assumed to vanish. Howe n co ω ≈ . 2. 3. p is the net pressure within the tube close to the open end. and the acoustic particle velocity in the mouth of the tube ≈ 2pI (t)/ρo co . and f is the frequency of the sound. and vanishes also at x = eiω /co for those frequencies satisfying i.3 Ideal fluid . .1d) A pressure wave of complex amplitude p and radian frequency ω propagating in the ±x-direction has the representation p = Re{p e−iω(t x/co ) }. The pressure wave reflected back into the tube at the end is therefore approximately −pI (t + x/co ). . sin(ko ) = 0 − e−iω /co = 0. 13 §1. relative to the incident pressure. twice that attributable to the incident wave alone.3. reveals that πR2p ≈ ∂ ∂t ρo v1 d3 x ∼ fV pI (t) . This equation accordingly determines the ‘resonance frequencies’ of an open-ended tube of length in the low frequency approximation in which the pressure is assumed to vanish at the ends.AAS pI (t − x/co ) ∼ pI (t). co Rs λ = the acoustic V where v1 ∼ O(pI (t)/ρo co ) is the particle velocity parallel to the tube. the combination p = Re p e−iω(t−x/co ) − p e−iω(t+x/co ) vanishes at x = 0. Then. x < 0. . Low frequency resonant oscillations in a pipe with open ends (Figure 1.e. p ≈ pI (t − x/co ) − pI (t + x/co ). Therefore. viz f= M. where R wavelength. near the open end p∼ R3 fV pI (t) ∼ 2s pI (t) πR2 co R λ pI (t) as λ= co → ∞. integration of the linearized momentum equation over the fluid contained in a spherical region V of radius Rs .

The simple. whose wavelength co /f = 2 = 2 m does not depend on the speed of sound. the minimum resonance frequency of a pipe of length = 1 m is about 170 Hz (co ∼ 340 m/s in air). Howe 14 §1.AAS Thus. and neglects also viscous and thermal losses in ‘acoustic boundary layers’ at the walls of the tube. one dimensional theory neglects energy losses from the ends of the tube by radiation into the ambient atmosphere. so that resonant oscillations within the tube actually persist only for a finite time after the source of excitation is removed. S. These cause the wave amplitude to decay after several wave periods. M.3 Ideal fluid .

If ko a 1 the sphere is said to be acoustically compact.4. Howe 15 §1. The characteristic wavelength λ ∼ 2π/ko of the sound produced by the pulsations is then much larger than the radius a. r = |x| > a. where ko = ω/co is called the acoustic wavenumber. More generally.4.4 Low frequency pulsations of a sphere Small amplitude. but the density must remain fixed. (1. irrotational motion produced by radial pulsations of a sphere of mean radius a with centre at the origin satisfy the homogeneous equation 1 ∂ 2ϕ − c2 ∂t2 o 2 ϕ = 0. for example). r > a. The corresponding pressure and density perturbations δp and δρ satisfy δρ ≈ δp .1) If the oscillations occur at frequency ω (proportional to e−iωt . the formal limit of incompressible flow corresponds to setting co = ∞. In this limit the unsteady motion in the immediate neighbourhood of the sphere is governed by the Laplace equation obtained by discarding the first term on the left of (1. c2 o In an incompressible fluid the pressure changes by the action of external forces (moving boundaries.4 Pulsating sphere .2) This is just the continuity equation div v = 0 for incompressible flow.AAS 1. (1. M.1): 2 ϕ = 0. S. Thus. then ∂/∂t ∼ ω. and very close to the sphere the two terms on the left of this equation are respectively of 2 orders ko ϕ and ϕ/a2 . etc).4. a body is said to be acoustically compact when its characteristic dimension is small compared to the wavelengths of the sound waves it is producing or with which it interacts.

r2 ∂r ∂r r > a. ∂ϕ/∂r = vn (t).  r > a.AAS 1. B ≡ B(t) are functions of t. (1.4. Applying the condition ∂ϕ/∂r = vn . so that 2 ϕ= 1 ∂ ∂ r2 ϕ = 0. the pressure ∂ϕ a2 dvn p = −ρo = ρo (t) ∂t r dt M. Howe 16 §1.3) . r r > a. Hence ϕ= A + B. r B(t) can be discarded.4.1 Pulsating sphere in incompressible fluid Let the normal velocity on the mean position r = a of the surface of the sphere be vn (t). When the motion is incompressible we have to solve 2 ϕ = 0.4 Pulsating sphere a2vn (t) . S.1 The solution must be radially symmetric. because the pressure fluctuations (∼ −ρo ∂ϕ/∂t) must vanish as r → ∞. r = a we then find ϕ=− Thus. r=a Figure 1.         where r = |x|. where A ≡ A(t).4. and a constant value of B has no physical significance.

4πr r > a.4. For any time t the volume flux q (t) of fluid is the same across any closed surface enclosing the sphere.3.5) The solution must be radially symmetric and given by ϕ= A . which agrees with the solution (1. t) = q(t)δ(x): ¯ 2 ϕ = q (t)δ(x).4) for the q q sphere with the same volume outflow in the region r > a = radius of the sphere.6) To find A equation (1.2 Point source in incompressible fluid The incompressible motion generated by a volume point source of strength q (t) ¯ concentrated at the origin is the solution of equation (1.5) is integrated over the interior of a sphere of radius r = R > 0.4. where S is −A × (4πR2 ) = q (t).4) 1. r for r > 0. This indicates that when we are interested in modelling the effect of a pulsating sphere at large M. and the divergence theorem is applied on the left: the surface of the sphere.AAS decays like 1/r with distance from the sphere. Then ϕ · dS ≡ S 2 r<R ϕd3 x = S ϕ · dS. ¯ Evaluating it for any sphere S of radius r > a we find q(t) = ¯ S ϕ · dS = 4πa2vn (t).4.4. Howe 17 §1. ¯ R2 Hence A = −¯(t)/4π and ϕ = −¯(t)/4πr. ¯ where δ(x) = δ(x1)δ(x2)δ(x3). (1. (1.4.4. and exhibits the unphysical characteristic of changing instantaneously everywhere when dvn /dt changes its value. and we may also write ϕ= −¯(t) q . S.4 Pulsating sphere .9) with co = ∞ and q(x. (1.

9) M. it is not necessarily a good model (especially when we come to examine the production of sound by a pulsating body) in the presence of a mean fluid flow past the sphere. in which case 2 ϕ = lim →0 3 2 q(t) ¯ 4π(r2 + 2) 2 2 5 . S. > 0.4. (1. The solution (1. What happens as r → 0. However. 5 The last limit is just equal to q(t)δ(x).4. Therefore.4. not just a sphere.4. (1. for any smoothly varying ‘test’ function f (x) and any volume V enclosing the origin lim 3 2 f (x)d3 x 4π(r2 + 2) 5 2 ∞ →0 V = f (0) lim 3 2 d3 x 4π(r2 + 2) 5 2 ∞ →0 −∞ = f (0) 0 3 2r2 dr (r2 + 2) 2 5 = f (0). Thus the correct interpretation of the solution ϕ= for a unit point source (¯ = 1) is q −1 −1 = lim →0 4π(r2 + 4πr where 2 −1 of 4πr 2 ϕ = δ(x) (1.AAS distances r a. where it attains a large maximum ∼ 3/4π 3 . where it satisfies 2 ϕ = 0. Indeed when ¯ is small 3 2/4π(r2 + ) 2 is also small except close to r = 0. it is permissible to replace the sphere by a point source (a ‘monopole’) of the same strength q(t) = rate of change of the volume of the sphere. where the value of the last integral is independent of . r ≥ 0.7) 2) 2 1 .6) for the point source is strictly valid only for r > 0. where its value is actually undefined? To answer this question we write the solution in the form ϕ = lim →0 −¯(t) q 4π(r2 + 2) 1 2 . Howe 18 §1.4 Pulsating sphere . This is the defining property of the three-dimensional δ-function. This conclusion is ¯ valid for any pulsating body.8) −1 4πr = lim →0 2 −1 4π(r2 + 2) 2 1 = lim →0 3 2 2) 2 5 4π(r2 + = δ(x).

r2 ∂r ∂r r ∂r2 it follows that (1. 1).4.4. which gives ∂ Φ t − vn (t) = ∂r r  r co   r=a = − 1 a 1 ∂Φ a Φ t− − t− . (1.1) reduces to the one dimensional wave equation for rϕ 1 ∂2 ∂2 (rϕ) − 2 (rϕ) = 0. Causality requires the incoming wave to be omitted.4. (1. the time delay a/co on the right of (1.10) The general solution rϕ = Φ(t − r/co ) + Ψ(t + r/co ). S. Howe 19 §1. c2 ∂t2 ∂r o when r > a. that Ψ = 0.3 Low frequency pulsations of a sphere in compressible fluid Let us next calculate the radially symmetric sound produced by the acoustically compact pulsating sphere of §1. Setting r = |x| and observing that radial symmetry implies that 2 ϕ≡ 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂ r2 ϕ≡ (rϕ) .4.11) The terms on the right respectively represent spherically symmetric disturbances propagating in the directions of increasing and decreasing values of r at the speed of sound co . because Ψ(t + r/co )/r necessarily represents sound arriving from r = ∞ and must be absent for pulsations that started at some finite time in the past.AAS 1. M.4 Pulsating sphere .1. i. Therefore. The outgoing wave function Φ is determined from the boundary condition ∂ϕ/∂r = vn (t) at r = a. giving Φ(t) ≈ −a2vn (t).4. 2 a co aco ∂t co (1. yields ϕ= Φ t− r r co + Ψ t+ r r co .12) can be neglected and the time-derivative term discarded.12) But for a typical component of Φ(t) ∼ e−iωt of radian frequency ω.4. e−iω(t−a/co ) ≈ e−iωt when the sphere is compact (ko a and a ∂ ∼ ko a co ∂t 1. r > a. for arbitrary functions Φ and Ψ.4.e. This statement of the causality principle is equivalent to imposing a radiation condition that sound waves must radiate away from their source.

S. the sound can always be expressed in form (1.4. r>a 4πr (1. pulsating bodies.13) terms of the pulsational volumetric flow rate q(t).4 Pulsating sphere .AAS and ϕ≈− q (t − r/co ) ¯ . This result is typical of compact. ¯ M.4. The acoustic potential ¯ at time t at a distant point r is seen to be the same as for incompressible flow (equation (1. Howe 20 §1.4.13) where q (t) = 4πa2vn (t) is the rate of volume outflow from the sphere.4)) except that it is delayed by the time of travel ∼ r/co of sound from the sphere.

3) The sound wave consists of a singular spherical pulse that is non-zero only on the surface of the sphere r = co t > 0 expanding at the speed of sound. so that we can put ϕ= Φ (t − r/co ) for r = |x| > 0.1) Because the source vanishes for t < 0 we are interested only in the causal solution. Howe 21 §1.5. In other words the solution must resemble that for an incompressible fluid very close to the source.9) in the form 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 ϕ = δ(x)δ(t). r (1.2) The functional form of Φ can be determined by the method of §1. S.5. Hence we must have Φ(t) = δ(t)/4π and the causal solution of (1. which is non-zero only for t > 0. it vanishes everywhere for t < 0. or more simply by noting that ϕ∼ Φ(t − r/co ) Φ(t) = lim 1 →0 (r2 + 2 ) 2 r when r → 0.5. and therefore that temporal derivatives ∂/∂t become negligible compared to spatial derivatives ∂/∂r. M. however. The solution is radially symmetric and of outgoing wave form.5 Impulsive point source .1) becomes ϕ(x.AAS 1. t) = 1 r δ t− 4πr co ≡ 1 |x| δ t− . and to consider the corresponding inhomogeneous wave equation (1.2. 4π|x| co (1.4.5. (1. The usual convention in acoustics. is to reverse the sign of the source (so that q(x.5 Sound produced by an impulsive point source The ‘impulsive’ point source of strength q = δ(x)δ(t) is non-zero for an infinitesimal time at t = 0.3. t) = −δ(x)δ(t)).

(1. This source distribution can be regarded as a distribution of impulsive point sources of the type on the right of equation (1. The formula for G is obtained from the solution (1. The outgoing wave solution for each constituent source of strength F (y. in accordance with the radiation condition.2) 2 G = δ(x − y)δ(t − τ ). S.AAS 1. Let us write this equation in the form 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 p = F (x.3) for a source at x = 0 at t = 0 simply by replacing x by x − y and t by t − τ . t) is assumed to be generating waves that propagate away from the source region. y. The wave amplitude decreases inversely with distance |x − y| from the source point y. τ ) = 1 |x − y| δ t−τ − . 1. τ )d3ydτ. In other words.1). y.6. M.6 Green’s function . because ∞ F (x.3) where the generalized source F (x. where G = 0 for t < τ. (1.6.3. τ )δ(x − y)δ(t − τ )d3 ydτ. t. τ )δ(x − y)δ(t − τ )d3 ydτ is F (y. y.6. 4π|x − y| co (1. τ )G(x. spherically symmetric wave expanding from the source at y at the speed of sound. t. Howe 22 §1.6.1) This represents an impulsive.6 Free space Green’s function The free space Green’s function G(x.5. t) = −∞ F (y.1 The retarded potential Green’s function is the fundamental building block for solutions of the inhomogeneous wave equation (1.6. located at the point x = y at time t = τ . t. t).7) of linear acoustics in an unbounded medium. if 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o then G(x. τ ) is the causal solution of the wave equation generated by the impulsive point source δ(x − y)δ(t − τ ).

This is Hadamard’s (1952) method of descent to a lower space dimension.6) is called a retarded potential.e. τ )G(x. is the causal solution G(x1 . y1.8) §1.6.2) for G in three dimensions. 1. t) = 4π ∞ −∞ F y.4) = 1 4π ∞ −∞ |x − y| 3 F (y.6) The integral formula (1.6.AAS so that by adding these individual contributions we obtain ∞ p(x.2 Green’s function in one or two space dimensions: method of descent The Green’s function for plane waves that propagate in one dimension (in a uniform duct. τ ) = −∞ |x − y| 1 δ t−τ − dy2 dy3 4π|x − y| co  ∞ = 0 δ t − τ − |x1 − y1 |2 + µ2 co   µ dµ 2 |x1 − y1|2 + µ2 = M. p(x. Using the formula (1. we find that (1.6.6. y1.6. τ ) of ∂2 1 ∂2 − G = δ(x1 − y1 )δ(t − τ ). S. Howe co |x1 − y1 | H t−τ − . τ )d3ydτ (1. y. |x − y|/co being the time of travel of sound waves from y to x. (1.6 Green’s function . t) = −∞ F (y. c2 ∂t2 ∂x2 1 o (1.1) over the plane of uniformity −∞ < x2. for example) say parallel to the x1 -axis. x3 < ∞.7) is satisfied by ∞ G(x1 . t − |x − y| d3 y. it represents the pressure at position x and time t as a linear superposition of contributions from sources at positions y which radiated at the earlier times t − |x − y|/co . where G = 0 for t < τ. 2 co 23 (1.5) 1 i. t.6.6.6.7) This equation can be obtained formally by integrating the corresponding three dimensional equation (1. τ ) δ t−τ − d ydτ |x − y| co |x−y| co (1. t.6. t.6.

The tail can be attributed to the arrival of sound from distant points on this line source. The behaviour of G in two dimensions exhibits certain intermediate characteristics: the wavefront consists of a circular cylindrical singular pulse radiating outwards from the source at the speed of sound. see Appendix B).9) G = δ(x1 − y1 )δ(x2 − y2 )δ(t − τ ). but followed by a slowly decaying tail extending back to the source point where its amplitude decreases like 1/(t − τ ).6 Green’s function . G = 0 for t < τ. infinitely long ‘line’ source (parallel to the x3 axis). t. by integrating the three dimensional formula over −∞ < x3 < ∞ to obtain G(x. S. which persists for all time after the passage of the wave front. to the rear of which the amplitude is constant and equal to co /2. 0 according as x > < 0. x2). y = (y1 . (1. The corresponding one dimensional Green’s function is finite and consists of two simple discontinuities propagating in both directions from the source at the speed of sound. x2) and t. y. y2). and Green’s function can be found by descent. Howe 24 §1. M. the two dimensional source δ(x1 − y1)δ(x2 − y2)δ(t − τ ) is equivalent to a uniform. From the view point of an observer in three dimensions. x = (x1 . which can be regarded as produced by components of the line source in the immediate neighbourhood of its intersection with the x1x2 plane.6. In two dimensions sound waves propagate ‘cylindrically’ as functions of (x1. In three dimensions G consists of a spherically spreading singular pulse that vanishes everywhere except at the wavefront. τ ) = the causal solution of 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 H(t − τ − |x − y|/co) 2π (t − τ )2 − |x − y|2/c2 o .AAS where H(x) is the Heaviside unit step function (= 1.

say.2) where f (x). To do this the equation is multiplied by the Heaviside function H(t).6.7. 2 ∂t co co ∂t (1.AAS 1. g(x) represent the prescribed initial values (∂p/∂t = −ρo c2 div v is just the o linearised continuity equation). making use of the identity H(t) ∂2 ∂ ∂p ∂ 2p = 2 pH(t) − δ(t)p − δ(t) . t) ≡ 0.6.7 Initial value problem for the wave equation Our first application of the retarded potential integral is to the solution of ‘Cauchy’s problem’.7. the state of a system of sound waves generated by sources in the distant past might be specified and it is desired to determine their subsequent propagation. The outgoing wave solution calculated using the retarded potential (1. t)H(t) ≡ p(x.3) M. the problem of determining the sound produced by the sudden rupture of a closed material envelope containing air at high pressure (a ‘bursting’ balloon). |x − y| (1. The nature of required initial data at t = 0. This includes. o ∂t (1. ∂p = −ρo c2 div v = g(x) at t = 0.5): p(x. t) = 1 4πc2 o |x − y| ∂ f (y)δ(τ ) + g(y)δ(τ ) δ t − τ − ∂τ co d3 y dτ .7. becomes 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 (pH) = 1 ∂ 1 ∂p δ(t)p + 2 δ(t) . may be deduced directly from the homogeneous form of the wave equation (1. 2 ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t Then equation (1. whose solution is required for t > 0.7 Initial value problem . with F (x. for example. with pH(t) ≡ 0 for t < 0.1) This equation is formally valid for all time −∞ < t < ∞.3). Alternatively. Howe 25 §1. To evaluate the retarded potential integral for t > 0 we start from (1.6.3).6. S. where it is required to calculate the sound at times t > 0 in terms of the state of the acoustic medium at t = 0.6) determines p(x. t) for t > 0 in terms of the initial pressure and velocity distributions: p = f (x).

so that d3 y = r2 dr dσ. with origin at the observer position x.AAS Introduce polar coordinates (r = |x − y|. φ). θ. The pressure perturbation at P outside S is therefore non-zero only for r1 < co t < r2. leads to Poisson’s (1819) solution p(x. ∂t dσ 4π where ¯ f(co t) = f (co t. g(x) of the pressure and its time derivative are non-zero only within a finite region bounded by a closed surface S (Figure 1.7. Howe 26 §1. σ) is the mean value of f (y) ≡ f(r. σ) δ t − rdrdσ ∂τ co 4πc2 ∂t co o dσ ∂ tf (co t.7. Combining this with a similar calculation for the term in g(y).4) vanish except when the expanding spherical surface r = co t cuts across S.7. σ) = ∂t 4π ∂ ¯ = tf (co t) . Then the integral involving f(y) becomes 1 4πc2 o ∂ r 1 ∂ r f(r. σ) on the surface of a sphere of radius r = co t centred on the observer position x (P in Figure 1.4) Figure 1.1).1).7.7. g ∂t (1.1 If the initial values f(x). σ)δ(τ ) δ t − τ − rdrdσ = f (r.7 Initial value problem . the mean values on the right of (1. S. t) = ∂ ¯ tf (co t) + t¯(co t). where M. where dσ = sin θ dθdφ is the solid angle element.

3. S. t)dt = 0 for all x. It is illustrated by the following example. For sufficiently small time the ‘inner’ envelope of the expanding family of spheres forms a wavefront collapsing into the interior of S – this eventually crosses itself. when the initial disturbance is non-zero only within a finite region bounded by the surface S.5) and where the formula for F is obtained from the linearised continuity equation 1 ∂p + div(ρo v) = 0. t)]∞ ≡ 0. The acoustic pressure radiating from S is therefore non-zero only within a shell-like region of space. Therefore p(x.AAS r1 .7) ρo ∂q − div F ∂t where q(x.6) because the integral must vanish at infinitely large distances from S. r2 are the respective radii of the smallest and largest spheres centred on P that just touch S. 0)δ(t).7. emerges from the ‘other side’ of S and expands to form the inner boundary of the radiating shell.7 Initial value problem .4) also gives the solution for an observer within S.7. t) = 1 p(x. c2 ∂t o Also. at time t the outer surface of this shell is the envelope of the family of spheres of radius co t whose centres lie on S.1) can be cast in the form of the general source of the linear acoustic equation (1. Note that the right hand side of (1. Thus. but not for one-dimensional propagation. t)dt = −ρo [v(x. the acoustic pressure variation at x during the time interval r1/co < t < r2/co occupied by the wave must always involve equal and opposite net compressions and rarefactions. (1. 0 (1. the linearised momentum equation (1. M.7. Equation (1. F(x. t) = ρo v(x. t). Howe 27 §1.3. This conclusion is true for waves propagating in three and two dimensions.7. because v = 0 before and after the passage of the t=0 ∞ sound wave. ρo c2 o F(x. t) are impulsive volume source and body force distributions q(x.1) implies that at any point x outside S ∞ 0 p(x. 0)δ(t).

t) = p0 1 − (co t + r) (co t − r) H(cot + r − a) + H(cot − r − a) .7) H(co t − r + a) − H(co t − r − a) . and the pressure at P is non-zero only for r − a < co t < r + a.8) M. Hence.7. t) = ∂ ¯ tf(co t) ∂t = − p0 (co t − r) H(co t − r + a) − H(cot − r − a) .1 Sound radiated from a spherical region of initial high pressure Let the initial uniform high pressure f (x) = p0 > 0 be confined to stationary fluid in the interior of a sphere S of radius a. using the cosine formula (a2 = r2 + c2 t2 − 2rco t cos Θ) for the triangle OAP. r2 = r + a.7.2 at distance r from the centre O of the sphere. for the exterior point P in Figure 1. r1 = r − a. 2r r > a.AAS 1. Howe §1. 2r 2r 28 r < a. Figure 1.2 A similar calculation performed when P lies within the initial high pressure region (r < a) gives p(r.7. (1. Evidently.7 Initial value problem .7. we find o p0 ¯ a2 − (co t − r)2 f (co t) = 4rco t and therefore p(r. f(co t) = 4π where σ = ¯ 2π 0 dφ Θ(t) 0 sin θ dθ = 2π{1 − cos Θ(t)} is the solid angle subtended at P by the spherical cap AB formed by the intersection of S and the sphere of radius co t centred on P. (1.7. S. which represents an outgoing spherical wave confined to the shell co t − a < r < co t + a that decreases in amplitude like 1/r. so that g(x) = 0. During this time σp0 ¯ ¯ .

which is subsequently reflected from the centre r = 0 as a compression wave. The sequence of events is illustrated in Figure 1. ∞ 0 p(r. the large rarefaction is suppressed by nonlinear actions that increase the propagation speed of the higher pressure sections of the inward propagating wave.7. t)dt = 0. Spherical spreading causes the wave amplitude to decrease like 1/r. where the nondimensional pressure p/p0 is plotted against r/a for a set of increasing values of co t/a. When co t/a ∼ 1 the negative rarefaction peak becomes very large.8) for the pressure that initial pressure distribution p0 > 0 within r < a. the compression wavefront being at r = co t + a and the pressure vanishing within the shell at r = co t. (1. Compression and rarefaction waves radiate respectively into the exterior and interior of S as co t/a increases towards 1 . Howe 29 §1. After reflection at r = 0 at co t/a = 1 the whole disturbance becomes outgoing of ‘N-wave’ profile occupying a shell of thickness 2a. thereby inhibiting the formation of a deep negative pressure.AAS The pressure at r inside S remains equal to p0 until the arrival of the ‘rarefaction wave’ (the second term in the large brackets) at time t = (a − r)/co . and ultimately p/p0 → −δ(cot/a − 1) at r = 0. even though the M.7.3. The perturbation pressure is initially uniform within S at co t/a = 0 and vanishes elsewhere.7). however. S. It is also follows from formulae (1.7 Initial value problem . after the passage of which the pressure is reduced to zero.7. Long before this happens in a real fluid.

x−co t The combination of these results yields D’Alembert’s solution p(x. using the results (see equation (B. τ )dydτ = 2 co 2co 1 = 2co g(y)H t − x+co t |x − y| dy co g(y) dy.10) §1. τ )dydτ = f (y)δ t − dy 2 ∂τ co 2co co 1 f (x − co t) + f(x + co t) = 2 1 1 δ(τ )g(y)G(x. t.6. x−co t (1.1.7.7.AAS Figure 1. t.6) of the Appendix): 1 ∂ 1 |x − y| δ(τ )f (y) G(x. y. y.8).7. t) = M. −∞ < x < ∞.2 Initial value problem in one dimension The initial value problem for one dimensional propagation of sound parallel to the x axis in unbounded fluid is governed by ∂2 1 ∂ 1 1 ∂2 − 2 (pH) = 2 δ(t)f (x) + 2 δ(t)g(x).7.3 1. Howe 1 1 f(x − co t) + f(x − co t) + 2 2co 30 x+co t g(y) dy.9) where f(x). g(x) are the respective initial values of p and ∂p/∂t. c2 ∂t2 ∂x co ∂t co o (1. S.7 Initial value problem . This is solved by means of the Green’s function (1.

and given for t > 0 by p(x. t) 1 = pmax 2 1− |x − co t| |x − co t| |x + co t| |x + co t| H 1− + 1− H 1− a a a a .AAS A simple application of this formula is illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1. S.4. This pressure distribution splits symmetrically (see figure).7.7 Initial value problem .7. where it has the triangular waveform f(x) = pmax 1 − |x| |x| H 1− a a with peak pressure pmax at x = 0.4 M. for the case where the fluid is initially at rest (g(x) ≡ 0) with p = f(x) = 0 only within the interval −a < x < a. forming equal waves propagating without change of form to x = ±∞. Howe 31 §1.

fj (τ )δ(y) ∂yj |x − y| 32 §1. dipoles and quadrupoles A volume point source q(t)δ(x) of the type considered in §1. t) = 4π M. 1. For a compressible medium the corresponding velocity potential it produces is the outgoing solution of 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 ϕ = −¯(t)δ(x). .6.6.1 The point dipole Let f = f (t) be a time dependent vector.4 as a model for a pulsating ¯ sphere is also called a point monopole.8 Monopoles. dipoles .3. 3 (see Appendix A).3) is called a point dipole (located at the origin).2) This coincides with the corresponding solution (1.8. but it is easier to use (1.6).e.3) for a compact pulsating sphere. The sound produced by the dipole can be calculated from (1. S. t) = −¯ t − q |x| co 4π|x| ≡ −¯ t − q 4πr r co . Howe ∞ −∞ δ t − τ − |x−y| 3 ∂ co d ydτ.6.8 Monopoles.6.4. . .8.3) for the acoustic pressure. Replace p by ϕ in (1. (1.8. then a ‘source’ on the right of the acoustic pressure equation (1. Equation (1.AAS 1. τ ) = −¯(τ )δ(y).5): 1 p(x. q Then ϕ(x.6) and set F (y.7) shows that the point dipole is equivalent to a force distribution F(x.6) of equation (1.3) of the form F (x. implies a summation over j = 1.6. Changes in the motion of the sphere (i.1) The solution can be written down by analogy with the solution (1. t) = div f (t)δ(x) ≡ ∂ fj (t)δ(x) ∂xj (1.6. in the value of the volume outflow rate q (t)) are ¯ communicated to a fluid element at distance r after a time delay r/co required for sound to travel outward from the source. t) = −f (t)δ(x) per unit volume applied to the fluid at the origin.8. The repeated subscript j in this equation. q (1. 2.

6.8. the two monopoles would be δ(y)δ(z) − q(t)δ x + ¯ δ(y)δ(z) ≈ − q(t)δ (x)δ(y)δ(z) ≡ − ¯ ∂ q(t)δ(x) . and note that |x−y| |x−y| ∂ δ t − τ − co ∂ δ t − τ − co =− . t − |x−y| co |x − y| d3 y. t) = 4π |x−y| ∂  δ t − τ − co  3 fj (τ )δ(y) d ydτ ∂xj |x − y| −∞ ∞   1 ∂ = 4π ∂xj i.4) The same procedure shows that for a distributed dipole source of the type F (x. ∂xj 4π|x| (1. ∂t M. .8. dipoles . For example. The relation p = −ρo ∂ϕ/∂t implies that the equivalent dipole source in the pressure equation (1.e.3. ¯ ∂x 2 2 This is a fluid volume dipole. . t) = 4π ∂xj ∞ −∞ fj y. (1. t) = div f (x.8 Monopoles. Howe 33 §1. and the sources are distance q(t)δ x − ¯ apart. t) = . t) on the right of equation (1. the acoustic pressure is 1 ∂ p(x.AAS Integrate by parts with respect to each yj (recalling that δ(y) = 0 at yj = ±∞). ∂yj |x − y| ∂xj |x − y| Then 1 p(x. . S.7) or (1.5) A point dipole at the origin orientated in the direction of a unit vector n is entirely equivalent to two point monopoles of equal but opposite strengths placed a short distance apart (much smaller than the acoustic wavelength) on opposite sides of the origin on a line through the origin parallel to n. ∞ −∞ fj (τ )δ(y)   δ t−τ − |x−y| co  |x − y|  d3 ydτ   |x| ∂  fj t − co  p(x. if n is parallel to the x-axis.6.3) is ρo ∂ ∂x ∂q ¯ (t)δ(x) .3).

and it is shown in §2. t) = ∂ 2Tij (x. |x − y| (1.8. S.3.1a) at sufficiently low frequencies that it may be assumed to be acoustically compact. t − |x − y|/co ) 3 d y. Take the coordinate origin at the mean position of the centre.8.4 Vibrating sphere ∞ −∞ Fj (y.3). A general quadrupole is a source of the form F (x.7) 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 p = ρo ∂q − div F ∂t are respectively of monopole and dipole type.8. t) ∂xi∂xj (1. The solution with outgoing wave behaviour is therefore p(x. .8.7) 1.3 Solution of the general linear acoustic equation The sources on the right of the general linear acoustic equation (1.6) in equation (1. dipoles . t − |x − y|/co) 3 d y. Howe 34 §1.6.AAS 1.8.8) Let a rigid sphere of radius a execute small amplitude oscillations at speed U (t) in the x1-direction (Figure 1. .8.8. The sphere therefore resembles a dipole source.2 Quadrupoles A source distribution involving two space derivatives is equivalent to a combination of four monopole sources whose net volume source strength is zero. t) = ρo ∂ 4π ∂t ∞ −∞ 1 ∂ q(y. The argument above leading to expression (1. and is called a quadrupole. t) = 1 ∂2 4π ∂xi∂xj ∞ −∞ Tij (y. . t − |x − y|/co ) 3 d y− |x − y| 4π ∂xj 1.5) can be applied twice to show that the corresponding acoustic pressure is given by p(x.8 Monopoles. |x − y| (1. and the retreating rear hemisphere draws in fluid from its wake. The sphere ‘pushes’ fluid away from its advancing front hemisphere.7 that the motion induced in an ideal fluid is equivalent to M.8.

we find (putting r = |x| and x1 = r cos θ) cos ϕ = − a 2r2 θ U t − 3 (1.8.8.10) Now xj ∂ . we have   |x| 3 ∂  2πa U t − co  ϕ(x. t) = . which is also called the hydrodynamic near field. sound of frequency f travels a distance co /f = λ ≡ one acoustic wavelength in one period of oscillation 1/f. |x| = ∂xj |x| Applying this formula for j = 1. The motion becomes incompressible when co → ∞.8.8 Monopoles.9) By analogy with (1.11) r co − a3 cos θ ∂U 2co r ∂t t− r co near field far field The ‘near field’ term is dominant at sufficiently small distances r from the origin that 1 r 1 1 ∂U f ∼ co U ∂t co where f is the characteristic frequency of the oscillations of the sphere. The velocity potential is the solution of 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 ϕ= ∂ 2πa3U (t)δ(x) . it decreases in amplitude like 1/r2 as r → ∞. In this limit the solution reduces entirely to the near field term. ∂x1 4π|x| (1. Hence the near field term is dominant when r λ. M.8. .8.3) and (1.AAS that produced by a point volume dipole of strength 2πa3U (t) at the position of its centre directed along the x1-axis. S. . ∂x1 (1. But. .4). dipoles . Howe 35 §1.

.1 The intensity of the sound generated by the sphere in the far field is proportional to ϕ2: a6 ϕ ∼ 2 2 4co r 2 ∂U ∂t 2 cos2 θ.8 Monopoles. the diameter of the sphere is much smaller than the acoustic wavelength (a λ). Figure 1. π 2 (the curve should be imagined to . carrying energy away from the sphere. For the dipole it has the ‘figure of eight’ pattern illustrated in Figure 1. and takes over from the near field when r λ. there are radiation ‘nulls’ at θ = be rotated about the x1-axis). It consists of propagating sound waves. There is an intermediate zone where r ∼ λ in which the solution is in a state of transition from the near to the far field.e. dipoles . The dependence on θ determines the directivity of the sound.1b. Howe 36 §1. π).8. S. M. t− cr o r → ∞.AAS The ‘far field’ is the ‘acoustic’ region that only exists when the fluid is compressible. This accords with the assumption that the sphere is compact and can be replaced by the point dipole: the motion close to the sphere is essentially the same as if the fluid is incompressible i.8. . with peaks in directions parallel to the dipole axis (θ = 0.

AAS 1. the first part of which is obviously the kinetic energy density. Howe 37 §1.1). where Vo = 1/ρo is the volume occupied by unit mass in the absence of the sound.3. Then the compressional energy per unit volume is (to second order. 2 2 ρo c2 o (1. then ρV = 1. The second term is the compressional or potential energy component. ∂t 2 The term p div v on the left is rendered in a more useful form by substitution for div v from the linearised equation of continuity (1.3) div v = q − 1 ∂ρ 1 ∂p =q− . and using the adiabatic formula dp = c2dρ) o V ρ −ρo Vo p dV = −ρo p d ρo 1 ρ = 1 ρo c2 o p p dp = 0 1 p2 .1) governs the rate at which acoustic energy propagates out of unit volume of fluid.9. (1.9 Acoustic energy equation The acoustic energy equation in a stationary ideal fluid is obtained by taking the scalar product of the velocity v and linearised momentum equation (1.3.2) 1 p2 1 ρo v 2 + 2 2 ρo c2 o + div p v = pq + v · F.9 Acoustic energy . and p is the perturbation pressure produced by the volumetric change V − Vo . The energy balance is perhaps more clearly exhibited by integration of the energy equation over the fluid region V M. ρo ∂t ρo c2 ∂t o The required energy equation is then obtained in the form ∂ ∂t The term 1 1 p2 E = ρo v 2 + . and − V Vo p dV is the compressional energy per unit mass.9. The terms on the right are respectively the rates of production of acoustic energy by the volume and force distribution sources.9.1) is the acoustic energy per unit volume. Let V be the volume occupied by unit mass of the fluid. The result is written ∂ 1 ρo v 2 + div p v − p div v = v · F. 2 ρo c2 o The divergence term in (1. calculated as follows. S.

9 Acoustic energy M. S.9.9. decrease faster than 1/r as r → ∞. vφ.7) §1.3). t − .3) which equates the sum of the rate of accumulation of energy within V and the energy flux out through S to the rate of working of the acoustic sources. t − co r co ≡ p .9. We therefore conclude from this and (1. Then ∂ ∂t E d3 x + V S pv · dS = V (pq + v · F) d3 x.1) that contains all of the acoustic sources. φ.9. 1. (1. ρo co (1. and therefore vr ∼ 1 r Φ θ.1 Calculation of the energy flux At large distances r from a source region we generally have p(x. t − r co co r ∂t co The first term in the second line can be neglected when r → ∞. From the radial component of the linearized momentum equation ∂vr 1 ∂p = − ∂t ρo ∂r r 1 ∂Φ r 1 + θ. and θ and φ are polar angles determining the directivity of the sound.6) that the ‘acoustic particle velocity’ is normal to the acoustic wavefronts (the spherical surfaces r = co t).9. t) ∼ ρo Φ θ.9.9. The acoustic power Π radiated by the source distribution is given by the surface integral of equation (1.AAS bounded by a large closed surface S (Figure 1.4) where the function Φ depends on the nature of the source distribution.9.6) (1. which we can take in the form Π= S pvr dS = 38 S p2 dS. ≡ 2 Φ θ. r → ∞.9. φ. t − r r co . (1. φ. In other words: sound consists of ‘longitudinal waves’ in which the fluid particles oscillate backwards and forwards along the local direction of propagation of the sound. ρo co (1.5) By considering the θ and φ components of the momentum equation we can show that the corresponding velocity components vθ . φ. Howe . say.

It is the rate of transmission of acoustic energy per unit area of wavefront. but it is true identically for plane sound waves. where the wavefronts can be regarded as locally plane.9.8) is called the acoustic intensity. and for spherical waves on the surface of the large sphere of Figure 1.9 Acoustic energy . For a plane wave E = p2 /ρo c2. Smaller contributions (such as that determined by the first term in the second line of (1. i.1. Because the surface area = 4πr2 we only need to know the pressure and velocity correct to order 1/r on S in order to evaluate the integral.1 In acoustic problems we are therefore usually satisfied if we can calculate the pressure and velocity in the acoustic far field correct to order 1/r.5)) decrease too fast as r increases to supply a finite contribution to the integral as r → ∞. In the latter case. Figure 1. so that I = co E. this will always permit the evaluation of the radiated sound power. the plane wave energy o flux is equal to the energy density multiplied by the speed of sound. the quantity I = pvr = p2 ρo co (1. M. Howe 39 §1.9. The formula vr = p/ρo co is applicable at large distances from the sources.9.AAS where the surface of integration S is that of a large sphere of radius r centered on the source region. S.e.9.

ρo c2 o This must be multiplied by the pressure given by equation (1. and the power radiated through S is Π= S p2 p2 o dS = 4πr2 (co t − r)2 2ρ c ρo co 4r o o H(cot − r + a) − H(cot − r − a) . 3 ρo c2 o (1. The total radiated acoustic energy E.7. E = p2 0 ρo c2 o p2 0 ρo c2 o ∞ H(t) δ(t) 1 − −∞ ∞ −∞ |x|<a 3 (co t + r) (co t − r) H(co t + r − a) + H(co t − r − a) d3 x dt 2r 2r ∞ ≡ 4πa3 p2 0 H(t) δ(t)d x dt = 3 ρo c2 |x|<a o ∞ 1 2 H (t) 2 −∞ H(t) δ(t) dt −∞ = 4πa3 p2 0 3 ρo c2 o = 2πa3 p2 0 .1).8) for r < a. S.7). following which E is calculated by evaluation of E = ∞ −∞ V pq d3 x dt.9) Let us verify this formula for the initial value problem of §1.9.7. from equations (1. say.AAS 1. 3 ρo c2 o 40 §1.9. Outside the source region the pressure is given by equation (1.5).9) we have.9) is therefore E= πp2 0 ρo co (r+a)/co (r−a)/co (co t − r)2 dt = 2πa3 p2 0 .10) On the right of (1.9 Acoustic energy M.3) over all times therefore yields ∞ ∞ pv · dS dt = −∞ S −∞ V (pq + v · F) d3 x dt.9. Thus.7. But in doing this it must be recalled that the radiated pressure is the causal solution of equation (1. Howe .1 of sound produced by the sudden release of high pressure air from within the spherical region |x| = r < a.9. F = 0 and q= p0 δ(t)H(a − r). and what is actually calculated is not p but pH(t). determined by the left hand side of (1. (1. Integration of the energy equation (1.7.7.9.9.2 Example For a transient acoustic source all of the wave energy radiates out through the distant surface S in a finite time.

−∞ 2 2 M. The integration with respect to time has made use of the result dH(t)/dt = δ(t). Readers uncomfortable with this formal step should observe that the solution of the initial value problem (1.9.10). H (t) δ (t) dt = [ 1 H2(t)]∞ = 1 . by replacing H(t) and δ(t) by their corresponding ‘ sequences’ H (t). Howe 41 §1. S.1) can be carried through with negligible change of details.7. 2 π δ (t) = π( 2 + t2 ) .AAS which agrees with (1. > 0.9 Acoustic energy . δ (t) (see Appendix B) H (t) = in which case ∞ −∞ 1 1 t + tan−1 .

(1.1).10. Howe 42 §1.1 When |x| → ∞ and y lies within the source region (so that |x| |x − y| ≡ |x| − 2x · y + |y| 2 2 1 2 |y|) 1 2 2x · y |y|2 = |x| 1 − + 2 |x|2 |x| i. t − |x−y| co |x − y| d3 y.e.2) Similarly. 1 x·y 1 ≈ + |x − y| |x| |x|3 when 1.10.3) shows that.3) The approximation (1.AAS 1. Figure 1. it is sufficient to replace M. t) = 0 only within a finite source region (Figure 1.10 Acoustic far field . and take the coordinate origin O within the region.10.10. ≈ 1 x·y 1+ |x| |x|2 |y| |x| . (1. S. t) = 4π ∞ −∞ F y. |y|2 x·y ≈ |x| 1 − +O |x|2 |x|2 |y| x·y when |x − y| ≈ |x| − |x| |x| 1 ≈ |x − y| 1 |x| − x·y |x| 1.10. ˙. (1.1) that behaves like 1/r = 1/|x| as |x| → ∞.10 Calculation of the acoustic far field We now discuss the approximations necessary to evaluate the sound in the far field from the retarded potential representation: 1 p(x.10.1) We assume that F (x. in order to obtain the far field approximation of the solution (1.10.

10.1 Dipole source distributions By applying the far field formula (1. t) we obtain (from (1. The travel time over the distance OA is just x · y/co |x|.4) This is called the Fraunhofer approximation. in the argument of the source strength F it is important to retain possible phase differences between the sound waves generated by components of the source distribution at different locations y. t − −∞ |x| x.10.2). S.10. Hence. To do this we M. t) = div f (x.1 the acoustic travel time from a source point y to the far field point x is equal to that from the point labelled A to x when |x| → ∞. t) ≈ 1 4π|x| ∞ F y. However.8.10.y + co co |x| d3 y. In Figure 1. (1. so that |x|/co − x · y/co |x| gives the correct value of the retarded time when |x| → ∞.10. Howe 43 §1. p(x. By retaining the contribution x · y/co |x| to the retarded time we ensure that any interference between waves generated at different positions within the source region is correctly described by the far field approximation.AAS |x − y| in the denominator of the integrand by |x|.10. which is usually more easily estimated in applications. it is useful to make a further transformation that replaces ∂/∂xj by the time derivative ∂/∂t.5)) p(x. |x| → ∞. 1. (1.10 Acoustic far field . However. The source region may extend over many characteristic acoustic wavelengths of the sound.4) to a dipole source F (x.5) ∞ −∞ ≈ fj y. co co |x| because the differential operator ∂/∂xj need not be applied to 1/|x| as this would give a contribution decreasing like 1/r2 at large distances from the dipole. t) ≈ 1 ∂ 1 4π ∂xj |x| ∂ 1 4π|x| ∂xj ∞ −∞ fj y. we therefore replace |x − y| in the retarded time by the right hand side of (1. t − |x| x · y 3 + d y. t − |x| x · y 3 + d y co co |x| |x| → ∞.

6) (1. A comparison of (1.10. t − |x − y|/co ) 3 d y. the far field of a distribution of dipoles F (x. t) = div f (x. t − |x| x · y 3 + d y. t) F (x.10. t − |x| x · y ∂ + × co co |x| ∂xj t− |x| x · y + co co |x| = y.10. t) = ∂xi∂xj and p(x.10. = 2 |x| |x| |x| where xj /|x| is the jth component of the unit vector x/|x|.10.10. t) = 1 ∂2 4π ∂xi∂xj ∞ −∞ −xj ∂ 4πco |x|2 ∂t ∞ −∞ fj y. t − |x| x · y + co co |x| as |x| → ∞.6) ∂ 2Tij (x.10.10 Acoustic far field M. S. t) = Note that xj xj 1 . t) is given by p(x. the additional factor of xj /|x| in (1.6) does not change the rate of decay of the sound with distance from the source (which is still like 1/r) but it does have an influence on the acoustic directivity.6) leads to the following rule for interchanging space and time derivatives in the acoustic far field 1 xj ∂ ∂ .AAS observe that ∂fj |x| x · y y. t − yj (x · y)xj |x| x · y xj + − + × − co co |x| co |x| co |x| co |x|3 y.7) Tij (y. Howe . ≈ − xj ∂fj co |x| ∂t Hence. t − + ∂xj co co |x| = ∂fj ∂t ∂fj ∂t y. ←→ − ∂xj co |x| ∂t 1.2 Quadrupole source distributions For the quadrupole (1. co co |x| (1. |x − y| 44 §1. Thus.5) and (1.

t) ≈ x1 x2 ∂ 2 T 4πc2|x|3 ∂t2 o t− |x| .10. co |x| → ∞.10. t − |x| x · y 3 + d y. such that x1 = r cos θ.10.3 Example For the (1. If we use spherical polar coordinates. Its shape is plotted in Figure 1. (1. co |x| → ∞. The four lobe ‘clover leaf’ pattern is characteristic of a quadrupole Tij for which i = j. we find that the acoustic far field is given by p(x.10. The directivity of the sound (∝ p2 ) is therefore represented by sin2 2θ cos2 φ. Howe 45 §1. x3 = r sin θ sin φ.8) shows that in the acoustic far field p(x.8) 1.10 Acoustic far field .2) point quadrupole F (x.2 for radiation in the x1x2 -plane (φ = 0. M. t) ≈ sin 2θ cos φ ∂ 2T 8πc2 |x| ∂t2 o t− |x| .10.AAS By applying (1. S. we can write the pressure in the form p(x. t) = ∂2 (T (t)δ(x)) ∂x1∂x2 equation (1.10. π).4) and the rule (1. t) ≈ xi xj ∂ 2 4πc2 |x|3 ∂t2 o ∞ −∞ Tij y. x2 = r sin θ cos φ.7). co co |x| |x| → ∞.

t) d3 y = 0. The amplitude of sound waves in the far field is then crucially dependent on the existence of small phase mismatches between different parts of the source. S.y + co co |x| d3 y ≈ 1 4π|x| ∞ F y.4) becomes p(x.10.4 Far field of a compact source distribution Phase variations x · y/co |x| of sound arriving from different parts of a generalised source F(x.e. t − −∞ |x| x. Howe 46 §1. t) are small if the source region is acoustically compact. and must be determined by expanding the Fraunhofer approximation in powers of x · y/co |x|: M.. i.2 1.AAS Figure 1. This gives the principal component of the radiating sound unless it should happen that the overall source strength is null.10. t − −∞ |x| co d3 y. the far field approximation (|x| → ∞) (1. unless ∞ −∞ F (y.10 Acoustic far field .10. t) ≈ 1 4π|x| ∞ F y. Therefore.

where ω ∼ ∂/∂t is the characteristic source frequency and (1. t − |x| co d3 y = dipole + quadrupole + · · · Each term in this ‘multipole expansion’ is nominally of order ω /co = ko its predecessor. Therefore. S.10 Acoustic far field .9) 1 relative to ∼ the diameter of the source region.10.AAS p(x. M. the expansion is halted at the first non-zero term (see Question 9 of Problems 1). t) ≈ ∂ xi 2 ∂t 4πco |x| ∞ −∞ yiF y. Howe 47 §1. t − + ··· |x| co d3 y + xi xj ∂ 2 8πco |x|3 ∂t2 ∞ −∞ yi yj F y.

where ω is a typical acoustic frequency. Use the trial solution ϕ = Φ(t − |x|/co) to solve the problem ∂2 1 ∂2 − 2 c2 ∂t2 ∂x o where ϕ = 0 for t < 0.7.1). show that in the adiabatic approximation the linearised acoustic wave equation becomes ∂ 1 ∂ 2p − 2 ∂t2 ρo co ∂xj 1 ∂p ρo ∂xj = ∂q pg − div .1). ∞ < x < ∞.7. where p = p − po . Deduce that the gravitational term on the right hand side can be neglected provided ω g/co. arrives at time t = r1/co 2 and occupies a plane ‘shell’ of thickness h. Show that Poisson’s solution (1. M. S.4) predicts plane wave propagation parallel to the x1 direction.AAS Problems 1 1. and that the pressure wave radiating through a typical exterior point P distance r1 from the source region has amplitude 1 p0. where g is the acceleration due to gravity. 4. co vary with depth in the atmosphere. ρo .3. When the body force F = ρg in equation (1. ∂t ρoc2 o ϕ = δ(x)δ(t). Howe 48 Problems 1 .3. 3. Consider the initial value problem (1.12) for plane sound waves. (1. and the mean pressure. density and sound speed po .7. 2. Derive the relations (1.2) in which the pressure p = p0 = constant and ∂p/∂t = 0 at time t = 0 in 0 < x1 < h.

At time t = 0 a plane acoustic wave p = p(x − cot) propagating in unbounded fluid satisfies ¯ p = p(x). t) = −qo (t − R/co ) . M. Calculate the acoustic power (1. If the source region |x| < a is acoustically compact.7. show that ϕ(x. where U (t) is known as a function of time. S.AAS 5. As for Problem 7 when the sphere executes small amplitude radial oscillations at normal velocity vn = Uo cos(ωt).7. co |x| → ∞. Consider the outgoing wave solution of 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o 2 ϕ= sgn(x)H(a − |x|)U (t) . co 2 a3 cos θ ∂U 8co|x| ∂t t− |x| . ∂p/∂t = −co p (x) (the prime denoting differentiation with respect to the argument). ¯ ¯ Verify that Poisson’s solution (1. Howe 49 Problems 1 . Uo = constant. ¯ 7.10) for the initial value problem in one space dimension from Poisson’s formula (1.7. 6.7) radiated by an acoustically compact sphere of radius a executing small amplitude translational oscillations of frequency ω and velocity U (t) = Uo cos(ωt).9.4) predicts that p = p(x − co t) when t > 0. A volume point source of strength qo (t) translates at constant. where R is the distance of the reception point x from the source position at the time of emission of the sound received at x at time t. 10. where Uo = constant. t) of the radiated sound is determined by the solution of 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 o Show that ϕ(x. and Θ is the angle between U and the direction of propagation of this sound. a a > 0. 8. Derive D’Alembert’s solution (1. The velocity potential ϕ(x. 9. 4πR(1 − M cos Θ) M= U . ϕ = −qo (t)δ(x − Ut).4). subsonic velocity U. t) where cos θ = x/|x|.

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