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Title: Use of digital image modeling for evaluation of concrete pavement macrotexture and wear.

Saumya Amarasiri, Manjriker Gunaratne, and Sudeep Sarkar (2011). Journal of Transportation Engineering . Accepted September 1, 2011; posted ahead of print September 3, 2011.

Descriptors : BRDF, texture, skid resistance, reflection, pavement

Purpose: Research hypothesis of the paper is, whether concrete pavement macrotexture can be measured by image analysis of the pavement.

Materials and Methods: Macrotexture measurement using image analysis is a useful technique. In the method, surface roughness was measured by the specific optical characteristics of images and the optimum camera settings. The Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) of surface texture with uniform color was used to make synthetic image of the pavement. The results were verified by tests in the laboratory specimen. Afterwards, brightness of the pavement surface was measured using intensity histogram.

Results: According to the result, change in roughness shifted of histogram towards whiteness in the intensity scale which indicated increasing brightness. For different macrotexture condition brightness of the surface was different. Finally, brightness measuring method was proposed for measuring the macrotexture of the pavement.

Discussion: I will be using the research method to find out if the method is applicable to measure macrotexture of asphalt pavement. The method seems promising and the results are as per expectation.

Title: Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection. Ward G.J (1992). Computer Graphics 26(2), pp 265-272.

Descriptors: algorithms, measurement, theory, verification, three-dimensional graphics, reflectance, monteCarlo, raytracing, shading.

Purpose: In the paper a new method and device for measuring the spatial reflectance distributions of surfaces are introduced.

Materials and methods: In the paper, a new method of surface reflectance property measuring tool was introduced. In the research, incident and reflected angles of light was measured using gonioreflectometer, a device which was used to measure two types of reflection specular reflection and diffuse reflection. After the data collection, two models were invented for surface reflectance measurement for isotropic Gaussian model and anisotropic Gaussian model. In the final part of the model, a numerical procedure of surface rendering technique was introduced.

Results: After formulating the theory, the reflectance property of different surface and materials were published. The results from the proposed method were verified by the existing method.

Discussion: Surface reflectance property measurement technique of this paper became popular and widely used in computer graphics. In my research, I have to use this method for asphalt pavement synthetic image formation.

Title: Fading and color changes in colored asphalt quantified by the image analysis method. Deng-Fong Lin , Huan-Lin Luo (2004). Construction and Building Materials 18(2004), pp 255261 .

Descriptors: Colored asphalt pavement; QUV test; Image analysis.

Purpose: In the paper, fading and color change criterion of color asphalt was observed by ultraviolet light weathering test.

Materials and Methods: Color asphalt sample was prepared by adding green and red dye with clear asphalt mixture. The samples were tested in QUV (ultraviolet light weathering simulator) tester for different duration. For different amount of dye added, intensity change was observed. Intensity measurement was performed in both RGB (Red, green, blue) color scale and HSI (Hue , Saturation, Intensity) color scale. To measure the intensity, an optimum imaging set up was used. .

Results: Performances of red and green asphalt were compared. Besides, change in intensity was measured for different dye amount. The percent of dye for which the intensity change is stable was determined.

Discussion: The research is relevant with my research, as I am also considering color change of asphalt to address discoloration problem. In the paper, I learned a new method of color change simulation using ultraviolet light. The application of the results seems confined to only red and green color pavements.

Title: Modeling of Crack Depths in Digital Images of Concrete Pavements Using Optical Reflection Properties. Saumya Amarasiri; Manjriker Gunaratne, M.ASCE; and Sudeep Sarkar (2010). Journal of Transportation Engineering , Vol. 136, No. 6,pp 489-499.

Descriptors: Optical; Reflection; Properties; Pixel; Intensity; Cracks; Joints; Digital; Images; Depths; Widths.

Purpose: Image analysis technique was applied for shallow cracks of concrete pavement.

Materials and Methods: Surface reflectance property was used to measure the shallow crack depth. For the theory Wards BRDF was considered. Longitudinal, transverse crack and joints of concrete was modeled in the method. Depending on type of crack, reflectance properties were selected. Variation of image intensity was modeled for each crack type. Moreover, three BRDF were developed for each crack type. Developed theory was verified by the tests in the laboratory. Concrete specimen was prepared for the tests.

Results: Predictions of the maximum pixel intensity reduction for a number of modeled longitudinal and transverse cracks were compared with those of the corresponding actual images. The results of model matched with the actual image which represents the authenticity of the method.

Discussion: This research finding is important for me as I will extend the work to filed application. The model was verified by the laboratory test samples. I will work on the field application. Crack property of the field is different than the cracks generated in the laboratory. The results were promising and enough evidences were provided for the support of the model which made the research publishable and reliable for further research.

Ttile: Mean Profile Depth of Pavement Surface Macrotexture Using Photometric Stereo Techniques. Amin El Gendy and Ahmed Shalaby (2007). Journal of Transportation Engineering , Vol.133, No. 7, pp 433-440.

Descriptors: Road surface; Pavement management; Measurement; Friction; Imaging techniques; Surface properties.

Purpose: In the research, applications of photometric stereo techniques were used to measure the mean profile depth of macrotexture of the pavements.

Materials and Methods: In the paper along with manual measurement of surface profiles, four source photometric stereo techniques were introduced. For the specific imaging system equation of reflected intensity at any point was formulated. Later, a photometric stereo system was proposed for a specific digital camera location. Optimal lighting position was determined of a lighting apparatus. Secularity and shadowing effects were considered. Afterwards, a pavement recovery system was introduced. Whole set up was used to measure mean profile depth of the pavement samples.

Results: Imaged based mean profile depth was compared with manually measured readings. The mean profile depths computed from the photometric technique were smaller than those computed from manual measurements. The best model was found to be at a zenith angle of 30 with a coefficient of determination of 0.92.

Discussion: The method seems interesting as it provides me a different approach for pavement macrotexture measurement. I can compare my research findings with this the results of this method.

Title: Relationship of Aggregate Texture to Asphalt Pavement Skid Resistance Using Image Analysis of Aggregate Shape. Eyad Masad, Anthony Luce, Enad Mahmoud, and Arif Chowdhury (2007). Final Report for Highway IDEA Project 114.

Descriptors: Skid Resistance, Aggregate, Texture, Micro-Deval, Imaging, Polishing.

Purpose: 1. Developing a new method for measuring the resistance of aggregates to polishing. 2. Measuring texture of a wide range of aggregates in order to identify the distribution of the different scales of texture (i.e., coarse versus fine texture) and their contribution to skid resistance. 3. Measuring the skid resistance of pavements constructed using different aggregate sources and gradation. 4. Relating coarse aggregate texture to pavement skid resistance.

Materials and Methods: In this study, aggregate texture before and after polishing is measured using the Aggregate Imaging System (AIMS). AIMS is a computer automated system that includes a lighting table where aggregates are placed in order to measure their physical characteristics. Besides, The Micro-Deval test was used as the mechanism for polishing aggregates. An experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between aggregate texture and asphalt pavement skid resistance. The skid measurements were taken using a skid trailer following ASTM E274-97. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05 was used to test the significance of both the aggregate type and mix type on the value of skid number using the statistical package SPSS version 11.5.

Result: The method was developed for measuring the influence of coarse aggregate texture on asphalt pavement skid resistance. The method was capable of explaining the differences in skid resistance of pavement sections that were constructed using three different aggregate sources and three different gradations. The result also indicated that the developed method can be used by engineers to select the acceptable aggregate texture levels to improve asphalt pavement skid resistance and thereby enhance the safety of motorists, especially in wet weather conditions.

Discussion: In the study, aggregate degradation was discussed and was measured using Aggregate Imaging System. With the polishing affect the change in friction of pavements were measured. As I am working with the image analysis and macrotexture of the pavements, the research findings will help me to perform my research.

Title: Application of digital image processing to quantitative study of asphalt concrete microstructure . Yue, Z.Q.; Bekking, W.B.; Morin, I( 1995). Transportation Research Record, (1492), pp. 53-60.

Descriptors: Image Processing, Microtexture, Asphalt concrete,

Purpose: The research objective of the study is as follows. (a) A detailed description of the digital image analysis technique, (b) Morphological measurements of AC microstructure, (c) Applications to AC microstructure including the effects of different field and laboratory compaction methods.

Materials and Methods: Field cores or laboratory-prepared AC specimens were cut using a Circular masonry saw with a diamond-tip blade in multiple vertical or horizontal plane cross sections. A Microteck flat bed scanner with Picture Publisher's scanning functions was used to convert pictures into digital files that can be processed by computer. The resolution of picture scanning was set to the highest practical value to increase the accuracy of measurements. Picture Publisher (version 4.0), was then used to manually outline the boundaries of aggregates on the digitized image. An image analysis statistics software called MOCHA was used to calculate the values of morphological parameters of aggregates from the image file.

Results: Using the digital image-processing technique, the basic measurements were calculated for the geometries and distributions of coarse aggregates on the two cross sections.AC microstructure characteristics (i.e., the internal structure of coarse aggregate distribution was further confirmed by analyzing more AC mixtures and specimens using the digital image processing technique. The digital image-processing techniques were applied to the quantitative study of the microstructure of different AC mixes such as SMA and LSM compacted in the laboratory or field.

Discussion: The research is relevant with my research as the image analysis was used for the microtexture measurement. In the study a digital scanner was used for imaging of asphalt

concrete and later two computer software were used for image analysis. I can use the research method to improve the results.

Title: Automatic Road Pavement Assessment with Image Processing: Review and Comparison. Sylvie Chamb on a nd Je an-Marc Moliard (2011). International Journal of Geophysics. Volume 2011, Article I D 989354, 20 pages.

Descriptor: Image acquisition, Storage, Image processing, crack detection.

Purpose: In the study, there are three sets of hypotheses, Those are: 1)Photometric hypotheses (a) The crack pixels are darker than the road pixels. (b) The gray level distributions of road crack and road surface are independent.

(2) Geometric hypotheses: (a) A crack is a thin continuous object. (b) A crack is a set of connec-ted segments with different orientations. (c) A crack does not have a constant width on the whole length.

(3) Photometric and geometric hypotheses: (a) The points inside a crack can be considered as points of interest, from a photometric and/or a geometric point of view.

Materials and Methods: For image processing, the semiautomatic methods and the automatic detection approaches were considered. Based on histogram analysis and global level statistics, gray level distributions (the road pavement distribution and the crack distribution) were separated . In the research method, Morphological method (Morph) was compared with e newly developed Adaptive Filtering and Markovian Model (GaMM). Several steps were considered for morphological method . Those are: (1) Preprocessing of the images: to reduce the influence of the texture and to increase the contrast between the road pavement and the crack.(2) Binarization by thresholding (3) Refinement by closing (4) Segmentation with shape analysis (5) Extraction of the characteristics of the cracks. In the GaMM method, an adaptive filtering based algorithm Was considered and later a Markovian segmentation that was taken into account for the particular geometry of the crack.

Results: This paper gives a review about image-processing methods for the crack detection of road pavement. Besides, a new method for the detection of road cracks has been introduced, and a new evaluation and comparison protocol for automatic detection of road cracks has been developed. A new method, GaMM , has been validated by the proposed protocol and compared to a previous one , Morph. This evaluation shows the complementarily of the two methods: the Morph method obtains more true positives than the GaMM method whereas this one reduces the percentage of false positives.

Discussion: In the current paper, along with image analysis an statistical algorithm is considered. In my research objective, along with pavement roughness, shallow crack measurement is also included. This research will be helpful to study shallow crack.

Title: Illumination Models and Surface-Rendering Methods. Donald Heren, M. Pauline Baker (1997). Computer Graphics. Second edition. Chapter 14, pp 494-562.

Descriptors: Light source, reflection coefficient, illumination model.

Purpose: In this chapter of the book, different surface rendering methods in computer graphic design are presented.

Materials and Methods: Surface rendering is very important in computer graphic design area. In the chapter of this book, basic concepts of illuminating source and their application in surface rendering methods are illustrated. For any illuminating condition, how the light reflects and contributes to generate an image is described. Besides, two surface rendering model: 1.Phong specular reflection model, 2. Warn model is also introduced. Along with the point light source how distributed light source participate in the surface illumination is clearly described.

Results: In the chapter, different types of surface rendering methods and their applications are explained. Out of all topics I have selected only Phong model which is relevant with my research.

Discussion: As mentioned earlier, in my research, I am working with synthetic image to address the asphalt pavement intensity contribution from asphalt discoloration. This chapter helped me understanding the about different light sources and their application in the synthetic image formation.

Title: Color Models and Color Applications. Donald Heren, M. Pauline Baker (1997). Computer Graphics. Second edition .Second edition. Chapter 15, pp 564-582.

Descriptors: Color Concepts, RGB Color Model, YIQ Color Model , HSV Color Model.

Purpose: In this chapter, different color models for computer graphics are illustrated. Color models are important for synthetic image formation.

Materials and Methods: In this chapter, various methods for color application are mentioned. Different color is introduced with their wavelength. Among all the models, RGB color model is widely used for its simplicity in application. In RGB color model a three dimensional cube is considered in which along the major axes red, green and blue color is used. All the other colors are represented with the combination of red, green and blue color. In the color cube, grayscale is introduced along the space diagonal. Grayscale was used in my research.

Discussion: RGB color model has an important application in my research. I am considering gray scale image for analysis. Using the change in intensity distribution of gray image of asphalt, macrotexture will be measured.

CGN 6945 Graduate Research Methods

Assignment 2

REJA E RABBI U46584302