Fluid Mechanics Review for EIT

References: Fluid Mechanics, s" edition by F.M. White; McGraw-Hili, 2003. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, s" edition by Munson, Young, Okiishi; Wiley, 2005.

P. Papas (ppapas@mines.edu) Division of Engineering, 8308 Colorado School of Mines Golden CO 80401

EGGN 351 - Introduction

to Fluid Mechanics

EQUATION

SHEET

[Final Exam]

Acceleration

of a fluid particle:

Steady flow energy equation (one inlet, one outlet)
2 ) 1

a

_

= -Dt

DY

=-

oY oY oY oY + u- + v- + wot 8x 8y oz

P V ( -+a-+z pg 2g

= (.!!... P9

+

0: ~2

-g

+

z)

+ hrriction
2

hpump+ hturbine Ideal Gas Law:
pip

= RT,

R

= RIM, R =

8.314 kJ/(kmol.K)

Steady incompressible
p

flow (Bernoulli Equation) p P V2 + - + gz) = const 2
2

Buoyancy force: FB = 'Yftuid(displaced volume)

(

V2 -+- +gz)

P

2

1

(

Continuity Equation 8p -

Hydrostatics constant density: Cartesian coordinates

- + V.(pV) =0

ot

where
1'= P9

-+-+-+-=0 at ox Navier-Stokes

op

opu

8pv

oy

opw oz

Equations (Incompressible Newtonian fluid)

Hydrostatic

force on planar surface:

-Dt = -Cartesian coordinates

DY

'iJp
p

+vV2V +9

-_

F = 'YhcGA

yep

=-

Ix'x'

sin 8
' XCP

hCGA

=-

Ix'Y'

sin 8

hCGA

where, CG denotes the centroid of the flat surface, 8 is the angle between the fiat surface and the horizontal, Ix'x' is the second moment of area of the fiat surface, and Ix'y' is the product of area of the fiat surface, where the "s refer to axes going through the centroid. Note that the signs in these equations depend on the direction of the y axis. Here it is assumed that the y axis is directed "upward." Reynolds Theorem

ou ou OU 1 ap +v- +w- = --ot ox oy oz pax + 02u a2u 02u) +v ( ox2 + oy2 + oz2 + gx OV 8v OV OV 1 op - +u- +v- +w- = --+ ot ox oy oz p oy 02v 02v 02V) +v ( ox2 + oy2 + az2 + 9y ow Ow ow ow lap - +u- +v- +w- = --+ ot ax oy az paz 02w a2w 82w) ( ox2 + ay2 + oz2 + 9z +11
Bu

+u-

~ I :t (1 ,Pf3
s~

=

~\.

dV)

+

1

CA

p{JY . dA

Internal Flow Entrance length, laminar flow: Lei D :::: .06 ReD 0

where B is an extensive variable and f3 is the corresponding intensive variable.

o

PART I

Ii ,

'---

;

.

0023 slug/ ft3 2...077 lb/ ft3 r a K Po 220x104 kPa 323.1.94 slug/ ft3 10-3 N .s/m2 3.o Fluid Properties The following are some of the common fluid properties you should be familiar with: density specific weight viscosity p=M ¥ (11.0x10-5 N.OOSlb/ft 3 viscosity u c/ kinematic viscosity speed of sound specific weight surface tension bulk modulus ( \ v -5 m 2/s -4 ft sec 2/ c 343 m/s 1130 ft/sec 12 N/m3 0.JkRT (k"i.45 kPa 0.2) (11..073J/m2 O.1 ) (11.J Property density Symbol p Definition mass volume shear stress velocity gradient viscosity density velocity of propagation of a small wave weight volume stored energy per unit area -vo ume 1 6 pressure 6 volume Water (200e.(1 il¥ = ~ Kj P cgas = .L PH20 K=..yf.6xl0 L6xl0 1000 kg/m3 1.s/m2 2 x 10.000 psi 2.4) r: \.34 psia ~- ) vapor pressure pressure at which liquid & vapor are in equilibrium .5 lb .1..23 kg/m3 0.4 Ib/ft3 0.sec/ ft2 10~ m2/s 10-5 it2/sec 1480 m/s 4900 it/sec 9800·N/m 62.i!. 68°F) Air (STP) 1.7 x 10·7 lb .1.3) r=pg=~ Jl=_'r_ duJdy kinematic viscosity specific gravity bulk modulus speed of sound cli'luid v= Jl P SG =.se ft 2 1. = 1..

T-2 -G- .o Dimensions associated with Common Physical Quantities FLT MLT System Acceleration Angle Angular acceleration Angular velocity Area Density Energy Force Frequency Heat Length Mass Modulus of elasticity Moment of a force Moment of inertia (area) Moment of inertia (mass) Momentum Power Pressure Specific heat Specific weight Strain Stress Surface tension Temperature Time Torque Velocity Viscosity (dynamic) Viscosity (kinematic) Volume Work L1'-2 ~L°r' T-2 T-I L2 FL-~2 FL F T-I FL L FL -IT2 FL -2 FL L4 FLT2 System LT-2 MOL°r' T-2 T-I L2 ML-3 MUT-2 MLT-2 T-1 MUT-2 L M ML -IT-2 MUT-z L4 ML2 MLT-1 MLzT-3 ML -IT-2 L2T-28-1 ML -2T-2 MOLOTO ML -IT-2 MT-2 '0 " FT FLT-1 FL -2 L2T-28-1 FL -3 FOLOTO FL~2 FL-1 8 T FL LT-1 FL-2T L2T-1 L3 FL 8 T MUT-2 LT-1 ML-1T-1 L1T-1 L3 M£"l.

.. _ . \' ". ~ @ 51 ~ >=>.\ 1 X 10-2 2 1 X 10-' 8 6 '\'..---:::--.. SAE·l0Woil .~~ ' ~~ Men:ury K..J. rFI 180 220 o ...--.-.... ~ ..7"----_.~~-------::::-. carbon tetrachloride ---Water ~ __ // Octane 1 X 10B 5 . .ratur. -~ 1 X 10-2 > ~~~ 1 X 10-' S 6 \ ~~----I X 10-4 ... ' "~ SAE·l0W·30oil X /". E "":l 2..rosene - 1 X 10-3 B .::- _ Heptane o 20 40 Temperature 60 (oCI 80 100 ...l..Shear Stress 't r Non-Newtonian Huid (cfIlatant) o Viscosity is defined by 't ... \' .. ....0 1.~~--.' .0 8 6 4 .----=--.. du/dy Non-Newtonian fluid (pseudoptastic) \ Strain rate Viscosity vs Temperature Temp..

expands until it fills its space . d) decreases near the surface bu t approaches a constant value. the pressure b) decreases linearly with elevation. e) decreases exponentially with elevation.. has a viscosity that always decreases with temperature. always moves when subjected to a shearing stress. . and density. c) density . pressure. c) cannot be related to elevation.. a) temperature."1 isothermal atmosphere a) is constant with elevation. • Viscosity has dimensions of d) MjLT e) MLjT The viscosity of a fluid varies witt. and pressure. d) temperature e) temperature.PART I: FLUID PROPERTIES Example Problems • A fluid is a substance that a) b) c) d) e) is essentially incompressible. has a viscosity that always increases with temperature. • In 2. b) pressure.

5 c) 0.• A torque of 1. 2 - " " ~ a) 0. Estimate the viscosity cu <.4 b) 0. eN·s/m ).3 I I · I · ~ I · 17~~ 'rn~ r-< 4 em .6 N·m is needed to rotate the cylinder at 1000 rad / s.1 d) 0.2 e) 0.

.---!.P2) Hydraulic jump: Y2 Yl -1 Note: Assumes no elevation difference between pressure taps.712 ~ 0..:_::..ID) -3..JJ 1... Critical depth (rectangular Yc channel): AR = b2 / AI' is the aspect ratio..94 .. and Y2 the depth after the jump.!.~:) = 2V = + 32J. + VI + 2 8 Fri Turbornachlnery Net Positive-Suction Head: NPSH Yl is the depth before the jump...lam . m= .Entrance length.8 log = n(Q*)1/2 (gH*)3/4 ... b is the wing span. _(q2)1/3 9 Obstruction flow meters CdAt \/1I q = Qlb is the discharge per unit width.---==-_ ~pU2A Open Channel Flows The Manning formula: Lift-induced drag: CD ~ CD..711 ~ =fD Laminar flow in a circular pipe: u(r) =U max (1. Rh is the hydraulic radius: and So is the channel slope.7 2.LLV pgD2 (D ) D2 1 1/4 Umax h _ 128J.? _ 2g Pv pg h I is the dissipation head.] ReD Common form: N'.:.32 Q2 . = . Pi = pg + v.....:.JJ = -2.4 Rei(6 Darcy-Weisbach: hf L V2 2g NOTE: n is in rps... Pump Similarity: 2 . subscript i denotes the pump inlet and Pv is the lqiuid vapor pressure.!~ External Flows (n[rpm])(Q* [gpm])l/2 (H*lJtJ)3/4 Drag Coefficient: CD Lift Coefficient: = FD .94 .7 [(c. turbulent flow: Lei D ~ 4..J (34 V 2P(PI ..-rrpgD4 Flow-rate effect correction (Anderson): 0..711 Specific speed Rigorous form: N ' S Colebrook's formula: _1_ (Ql )0.>..11 + 6. n is the Manning roughness parameter.!::.9 _.fJ Haaland's formula: _ 1 ~ -1..0Iog [eiD 3.. Maximum efficiency for similar pumps Size effect correction (Moody): 1 -112 1.:. Frl = VI!.LLQ j..oo + -rrlR c 2 a: = LO in the SI unit system and 1..J9Yi the Froude number before the jump.51 ] ReD.486 in the BG system.:..

.... Moody Diagram 3.5 p V2 A) Part IV: Control Volume • • • • continuity AI V I = A2 V 2 momentum L F = pQ(V r V I} energy . +W /yg = [V/-VI2]/2g +[Pl-PI]/Y + ~-Zl + head losses Things to review: 1..0/n } 1 - ~-- ... p = MN specific weight.Basic knowledge what a fluid is and basic fluid properties Properties density .... • forces on plane & curved surfaces • buoyancy Part III: Dimensionless Parameters and Similitude o • Reynolds number • Froude number • Drag coefficient inertial force/viscous force Re = Vlp/Jl = V d/v 2 inertial force/gravity force Fr = V /lg drag force/inertial force CD = drag/(. hydraulic radius RH = AlP ARH1/3S1l2 Part V: Open Channel Flow • Chezy-Manning equation .... ..... y = W N viscosity .. Jl = -r/[duldy] kinematic viscosity . losses • friction factor (Darcy...Weisbach) ...l/p specific gravity SG = pipruo vapor pressure Pressure at which liquid & vapor are in equilibrium • Fluid • • • • • • Part II: Fluid Statics based on the principle dp = Y dh • manometers ........ Q = 1... Bernoulli's Equation . [V/-V/]/2g +[pZ-PI]/y + ~-ZI = 0 2.... h..v = J. = f (LID) (Vl/2g) • minor losses L: KL V2/2g 4... Fluid Mechanics Review for EIT Oart I: General .

.o PART II o.

- l/ -- .~ . o .o Hydrostatics Typical Problems: Manometers Forees on a Plane Forees on Curved Surfaces Buoyancy These problems are solved by using the pressure distribution derived from: dp = 'Y dh Or p = 'Y h if y is constant.

6 ~ + .22 + 0 x 0.· 2ZX . 51 = 1.13) -I~- . . 0 • 13 X I = 9810 N/m3.2 O~.J -. S2 = 0.t ) s. C) .0.2 = 343 Pa t.Manometers o Air 8) Water 2cm 13 em Oil ~ CD ® ~=0. = O.6.J fl.20 + 1. .Ps = 9810( .9 x . and S. .13 Yw + o.6 x 0. y'./3 I.5 where "II = i'rJ (-.22 /!:'..9. /IJ +.Thus ~Ir PI . .9 ® 0 ® 20 em 51 == 1.P..0.- P.13 + 0.

-t~- .Hydrostatic Forces Flat Plane: .y he A Location of force yp = Yc + I. /(Ye A) inclined plane area (view from above) Force on 2-D inclined plane area. Hydrostatic force on Plane: F .

6) • Tne force F.~PARTII: FLUID STATICS t Example Problems • The pressure p.0 Hg (SG= 13.5 d) 1. a) 51.3 b) 48.0 e) 37.9 c) 2. In kP a. 15 .2 d) 40.5 e) 0. .0 c) 45. is a) 25 1000 N b) 8. in Newtons.36 .

........... to just open the 3-m-wide gate is a) 55 b) 60 c) 65 d) 70 ..e) 75 ......• The force P............................ _ ............ in kN. .................. ......

PART III -li~ .

Part III. = FpfFm Important Force Ratio Numbrs: Reynolds Number: Ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces: R = L V/v Reynolds Number Similarity: LV) LV ( -:-. Dimensionless Parameters and Similitude Similitude and Dimensional Analysis Laws if similitude make it possible to predict the performance of he prototype from the tests on the model • Geometric Similarity • Kinematic Similarity • Dynamic Similarity Scale ratio: L. ~ . = LpfLm Vr = V plY m F. == R.. == (-:-)" Froude Number: Ratio of Inertia and Gravity forces: F = \T/-J(gL) Note: Used only if have a free surface . R.

diameter D. . e) mass flux to kinematic viscosity.. and density p into a dimen- sionless group.Example Problems • Arrange pressure P. a) pQ2 I pr:/ b) pI pQ2D4 c) pD4pIQ2 d) pD4 I pQ2 e) pI pQ2 _. c) mass flux to viscosity. • • The Reynolds number is a ratio of a) velocity effects to viscous effects. flow rate Q. d) flow rate to kinematic viscosity. b) inertial forces to viscous forces.I.

a) 0.0047 d) 0.• What flow rate. in m /s.0015 3 • It is proposed to model a submarine moving at 10 ml s by testing a 10:1. is needed using a 20:1 scale model of a dam over which 4 m3/s of water flows? .0068 c) 0. in mis. What velocity.010 b) 0. scale model.0022 e) 0. would be needed in the model study? a) 1 b) 10 c) 40 d) 80 e) 100 .

21_- .o PART IV .

p. Therefore Momentum Equation: a at f cv vp d¥ + f' cs V pV . -P T 2+ ~U[ v~ gZout = p. 2 P2Q2 = PIQl Liquid flow at low speeds. and volume fiowrate. = 2: Fcontents of the control volume ' Energy Equation: - POU!. as in this example. may be considered incompressible. ptn + V. Q. fi dA . we obtain from Eq.o Control Volume Equations Continuity Equation: Since the mass flowrate is equal to the product of fluid density. 2 .n + gZin + Wshaft net in loss .

The liquid in a piezometer would rise to this level../ . r "- ". Valve . Hydraulic grade line (HGL): formed by the locus of points located a distance of ply above the center of the pipe. <.. . Hydraulic grade line (HGL) and energy grade line (EGL) for a piping system..J-( _.'2._ __ ~ j ' .. <.<. _' .. Energy grade Line (EGL): formed by the locus of points a distance V2/2g above the HGL..o (hJvalve Energy Grade Line -. The liguid in a pitottube would rise to this level. "- t'.. ". _--- -.-..-...--. V2 <. HGL - p r .

.2 kg/m a} 2. • 'What force. . 2 em dia . · · · . in Newtons.4 b) 3. find F.8 3.. . .6 v = 80 m/s . .• (Momentum) 1£ the density of the air is 1. . ·· ·· · · .6 c) 4. d) 7. acts on the nozzle? 4 em dia 800 kPa a) 4020 b) 3230 c) 2420 d) 1830 e) 161 . in Newtons. ..6 e) 9..

4 c) 5. will be a) 8. ~ v:'~i'H£(5G = 13. . .0 b) 6. a) 8 v b) 7 ~ . water @5 c) 6 e) 4 t 10 C!TI ~v - .8 e) 3.PART IV: Control Volume Problems Example Problems • (Continuity) The velocity in a 2-crn-dia pipe is 20 m/ s.6 . ..2 d) 4. the velocity. If the pipe enlarges to 5-crn-dia.2 • (Bernoulli's) Calculate V. in m Zs. in m/ s.

: ..-'..•. .':. . ~: .006 0.... 0...' . J -~ .1 Reynolds number VO/v The Moody Diagram.. ..01 0....05 0.• ._ ._ 0 .) .. \ i- ii- 0.. ~... .-·-.03 iI~ Cb ::n Q) I .-'. ...02 -: " 0 -' IQ 0.........:/. .... CU .O-i 0......... · ..toI.06 0.. _... ..._.''':' .·..··V!~I·""" ....008 0..·...~.\.04 ...0002 00001 0 '" Cb i- O.. ".06 0.. r ·c o c: 0 0. .025 0. .. ttl -e A::.....~:.• ...._ ~ 0.· •.05 O...- 0.004 . :'.....002 0.'._ u.0006 (IJ c Cb ::J ::..0006 0._ 0 0.02 0..0] 0.._I.. •..015 0. •."~: ......• . . -.... .009 0000 ...05 3 5 J - 5 B 10fl ] 5 J 5 ....0004 0.... ~..07 0.!_:...000...... ~..":' ..01 0._ .QlS - - 0...001 0.09 0.. .. •..•......·.... ... - •• '''f' .•. ........ -..

0·--- Losses in a Developed Pipe Flow Head loss that results from the wall shear in a developed flow (Darcy-Weisbach): .0 log (€/d + Redfl/2 2.. ~p y = Where f= 64fRe Re <2100 h = fL v L D 2g 2 fl/2 1- =- 2.51) 3.7 .\.

c) decreases with wall roughness. c) varies accor~g to the 1/7th power law. e) the Darcy-Weisbach . e) increases with flow rate. equation. b) Darcy's law. d) increases with diameter. • (Losses) The head loss in a pipe flow can be calculated using a) the Bernoulli equation. • (Losses) The shear stress in a turbulent pipe flow a) varies parabolically with the radius. c) the Chezy-Manning equation.• (Losses) In a completely turbulent flow the head loss a) increases with the velocity. d) is zero at the center and increases linearly to the wall. d) the Momentum equation. e) is zero at the wall and increases linearly to the center. b) increases with the velocity squared. b) is constant over the pipe radius.

024 d) 0.The Moody diagram is sketched.026 e) 0.028 .020 b) 0. the friction factor is a) 0. c) vary according to the 1/7th power law. e) be maximum at the wall and decrease linearly to the center . • . Neglecting rrunor losses. d) be unpredictable and is thus not used. a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E B c f D Re • (Losses) W~ter ~ows throug~ a l~cm-dia.022 c) 0.- ~LOSSeS) The velocity distribution in a turbulent flow in a pipe is often assumed to a) vary parabolically. The average velocity is 6 m/ s. lOO-m-longpipe connecting two reserV?ll"S w~th an . b) be zero at the wall and increase linearly to the center. The friction factor for turbulent flow in a smooth pipe is given by curve .elevation differer:c~ of 40 m.

p)::: l=t===:.::. in kW. by the 85% efficient pump if Q = O.:::::::. --=~:.02mJ Is..==-I 80m el _:_:_ _.• -\-10SSeS) Find the energy required.~I~~~ 6 em dia 100m cast iron pipe a) 14 b) 20 c) 28 d) 35 e) 44 \ ._- =---===-- 2 Orne I _---4 water 20° C.

. PART V ." n '_ .

016 .012 .05 Planed wood Unplaned wood Finished concrete Unfinished concrete Sewer Pipe Brick Cast iron.025 . straight Corrugated metal flumes Rubble Earth with stones and weeds Mountain streams .49 if English units Average Values" of the Manning n Wall Material Manning n .03 .035 . wrought iron Concrete pipe Riveted steel Earth.017 .014 .o Chezy-Manning Equation Q = (kin) A RH213 S 112 where RH = hydraulic radius = area/wetted perimeter area A n = = cross-sectional Manning number obtained from table below = k 1.015 .013 .0 if SI units or 1.013 .012 .015 Wall Ma terial Manning n .022 .

that A = 0. Flow over a 27-m high dam is to be studied in a lab with a 3-m-high model. Flow through a sudden contraction in a pipe (a) is usually laminar . The dimensions of dynamic viscosity ~ are (a) MLTI (b) ML·IT (c) ML·IT1 (d) M"'LT 3.'lter htnge """""""'" . the fluid thickness about t is 1j (e) 85 mm "<. The pressure loss due to friction in a horizontal section of constant diameter pipe is usually determined by (a) continuity equation (b) Chezy-Manning equation (c) Bernoulli's equation (d) Darcy equation (f) Navier-Stokes equation 4. plate (a) 8 mm (b) 16 mm (e) 30 nun (d) 51 mm 6.3 m~/s d) 9 m~/s (e) 0. Assume p ~ 1000 kg/rrr'. and V ~ 20 mls.9 m~/s 5.EIT Practice Exam in Fluid Mechanics 1.. (b) results in a significant energy loss (c) can be analyzed using Bernoulli's equation (d) has a relatively small loss coefficient (e) does not tend to separate 2. the model flow-rate should be 3 • • (a) 30 m~/s (b) 3 m Is (e) 0.02 m2 A • '\' v_] F At a plate radius 0[20 em. If the river has a flow rate of 74 m3/s. The force P required per meter of gate width (into the paper) is (a) 29 kN (b) 33 kN (c) 35 kN (d) 103 kN (e) 980 kN 3m 60· \. Consider the jet of water striking the plate.

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