T U K DRIVERS MANUAL RC

Prepared by

JOHN SAUNDERS
and

PETER THOMSON

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS FEDERALOFFICE O ROADSAFETY F DOCUMENTRETRIEVALINFORMATION

Report No.
CR91

Date
June 1990

Pages
136

ISBN
642 51387 2

ISSN
0810-770X

nile and Subtile
Truck Drivers Manual

Author@)
John s u n d e r s and Peter Thomson

Pertorming Organisafion
National Road Transport IndustryTraining Committee Ltd 75-79 Chetwynd Street North Melbourne Victoria, 3051

Sponsor
Federal Office of Road Safety GPO Box 594 CANBERRAACT 2601

Available from Federal Officeof Road Safety
GPO Box 594 CANBERRA ACT 2601

Abstract
A manual to assist an applicant to get the knowledge and skills necessary to obtain a truck driver's licence and then become an expert professional driver inthe road transport industry.The manual is designed to be used to achieve uniform testing and licensing standards throughout Australia. The manual covers topics including vehicle operation and maintenance, safe driving practices, acts and regulations, and a guide public relations. to

Keywords
TRUCKSAFElY TRUCKDRIVERMANUALROAD COMMERCIAL DRIVERS LICENCE
SAFE"

DRIVER TRAINING

CONTENTS

PAGE

VEHICLE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE .................................................................................. Steering, Accelerating, Gear Changing and Braking ..........................................................................

3 3

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ii .

............... .. . .. .. .... .... ........... ....... . . .. ........ .... ... .. .. .... ....... ... .. . DefensiveDnvlng ... ........................... .. ...... .. ...... ... ............. ...... .......To Check your Space Cushion Ahead (Time Lapse Method) .... .......... ... ......... .. . . .... .......... 111 .. ...... ...Space .... .. ............... ............. . ........ .... .. .. ..... ........... ........ ........... .. .. ....... . ........... ......... . . ..... .Space to the Sides .............. . .. ................ ... ... . .... .... ............... ... Knowledge Questions . ..... ....... ....... Accidents .... ..... . ..... .... ........ . ......... .... . . . ...... ........ ... .. .. .... ... .... ... .. . ... .... ......... ..... .............. .. .... ... ....... ....... ... ..... ... .... ......... ......... . .. . .. .. ... ..... .... ... . ............. ........ .. ..... ....Space Behind ... ..... ... .. . .. ....... . ...... ..... .... ........ .. . . .. . ....... . . .. ....... ... . ... .. ......... ... ............. ..... ... ................. ........ .. ... ................. .. .. ... ........... ............... ...... ....... ........... ... ..... .......... ... . . ... .. ... . ...... .............. ...... ............... ............ ........ Night Driving ... .. ...... ............ ...... ... ........ ............... ................... ........... ...... ... .... .. .... . ... . ............................ ... ......... ..... .......... .... . ....... . ..... ... ..... ... . ~ 87 87 87 88 88 88 89 89 89 90 90 90 92 92 93 Breakdown and Accidents .......... ... ...... ..... ... . ... ..... ............ ........... ................ .... .. ..... .. .. .....Above .... ... .. ... .. . ............. ... .. Knowledge Questions ... . ..... . .... .. . ............... ....... .. ........... . . .. ...... ...... . . .. .... 95 95 95 97 99 ......... . .......... .... ........... ................ ...... .. .. . .... . ............. ..... ............. ..... ......... .... .... . ........ .. . ....... ....... .... ....... ........... ...... . . .......... Superior Observation Skills ....... .. ..... .... ..... . ........ ......... .... ............... . ........... ....... .............. .. ...... Driver Vlslon ...... . ................................ ... .. ... . .... ..... Wheel ChangiLg .... ....... ... ..... .... .. ....... .. . . .......... ....... . ................. . ............... ...... ............ .. . . .. ..... ..... . .... ........ ..... . ....... . SpaceAhead ..... .... ... .. . . ... .......... ..... ................... ... . .... ....... .. ... . The Systemof Vehicle Control .. .. The Professional Driver .... ..... .... .. ......... . .... ................. .... ............ . ......... .. .... .. ........ .......... . .. .... ..................... . ........... ..... ... . ........ ... .... .. ............ .. ....... . ....... . . ......... ..A Definlhon ... .. ........ ... .. ... .............. .. .. ...... .... ........... ... .... ..... ........ ...... Breakdowns .... .. ..... . Wet Condlhons ... .. ..... . . Space Cushion .. ...... ........ Defensive Dnvlng ... .. .....

............................... .......................................................... ................................. Skidding ......................................Loss of Air Pressure .........................Trailer Skids .............................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................................. Dangerous Goods...... ..................... Knowledge Questions ............................................................ 112 ........................................................... .............................................................. ................ Evasive Steering ............................. ................ ........................................ ................ Seat Belts ................................................ ........... ....................Emergency Procedures .................... 119 119 120 120 121 122 DICTIONARY OF TRUCKINGTERMS ............................. The Truck Driver’s Ten Commandments ................................................................ ................... The Changing Image of the Truck Driver ......................................................................................Drive WheelSkids ........................................ .......................................................................... ..... Good P.............................................. .............................. Emerrencies .......................................................... .............................................................. ......................................................................................................... 115 116 116 117 PUBLIC RELATIO................................................................................................ Alcohol and Drugs .................. ...............................................NS ...................... APPENDIX A .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................ Brake Failure ......................................... 109 111 ACTS AND REGULATIONS ......... .......................................................................................................................................................... Leaving the Road .............................................. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ............... Apphcahon of Road Laws ........ 112 Speed Limits ....... Following Distance .... Dangerous Goods ........................................................................................................................................................................ ....................................................... ... Knowledge Questions .... Hours of Driving and Log Books .......................is Good for Drivers ..................................Loss of Hydraulic Pressure ............................AllWheel Skids .................................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... Giving Way ...........................................................FrontWheel Skids .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. - 10 0 100 100 101 102 103 103 104 104 104 104 105 105 105 106 107 108 ........................................................................... Fires ..................... .................................................................................................. 9 112 112 113 114 114 114 Road Laws .......................................................................................................... ...................... Tyre Failure ..................... Having the Right Attitudes ...................................... Level Crossings ................................................................ ............................................Brake Failure on Hills ........................................................ ............. Safe Driving Practices: A Summary ....................................... 134 136 iv .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................R....................... Missed Gear Shift ...........................................

Officers of the WA PoliceDepartment's Licensing and Services Branch. We would liketo acknowledge the assistance received from thefollowing organisations. Victorian Branch of the TWU. adjunct to the development of the theory and practical tests for graduated The work on boththe manual and tests has also been supported by the NationalRoad Transport Industry TrainingCommittee. Driver Education Centre of Australia. The State Road Transport Industry Training Committees and Councils. NRMA of New South Wales. States and Territories. John Saunders Peter Thomson May 1989 V . and particularlyits former Executive Officer. CliffJohnston. Ken saw the manual asan important driver's licences.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The development of a manual for truck driverswas first proposed by Ken Briggs of the South Australian Road Transport Industry Training Committee. and the Australian Army. The Federal Office of Road Safetyprovided thebulk of the fundsfor the project. Officers of the Australian Road Transport Federation. The Road TrafficAuthorities of the Commonwealth.

you need to keep in mind the followingpoints: This manual is primarily intended for drivers of trucks. the licensing authority. coaches. tractors and road sweepers. and specialised commercial driving schools in your state or territory. Answers to some oi the questions in the knowledge tests are not covered in this manual becausetheydealwith things youshouldlearn when receiving practical driving instruction. We strongly recommend that you also get professionaldriving instruction for the type of vehicle you expect to be driving. 1 . You can find out about professional driving instruction from the Road Transport Industry Training Council. PROFESSIONAL DRIVING INSTRUCllON It is not possible ina manual of this sizeto cover every aspect of driving needed for all makes and types of vehicle. The manual does not replace the driving handbooks provided by state and territory transport authorities which explain basicroad rules and driving requirements. You need to understand boththe manual and the handbook thoroughly. EFFICIENCY AS WELL AS SAFEPl The manual can help you become a better truck driver whether you are a novice or old hand and that will benefitboth you and yourcompany. Australian and overseas experience has shown that proper training of truck drivers significantly reduces vehicle maintenance costs (by almost half in some instances)and improves fuel economy. LIMITATIONSOF THIS MANUAL When using this manual. Nor isit possibleto learn the required practical skills solely from a book. If you are unable to answer the questions you should seek training from a professional driving instructor.INTRODUCTION A MANUAL F R MEPROFESSIONALDRIVER O This manual is intended to help you get the knowledge and skills necessary to obtain a truck drivefs licence and then become an expert professional driver in theroad transport industry. If you follow the instructions and standards set out in this manual you are sureto becomea safer and more efficient heavy vehicle operator.graders. It does not attempt to cover the special knowledge and techniques needed for driving other types of heaw vehicles such as buses.

These questions are verysimilar to the ones you will be answering in the Knowledge Test. If you find you are getting most of them right. You must passtwo tests on the informationcontained in the manual: THE KNOWLEDGE TEST THE PRACTICAL DRIVING TEST You should pass the knowledge test first.how well you will have to perform to pass the tests. conditions and standards are required. you are probably ready to take the Knowledge Test. At the beginning of each section is an explanation of the knowledge. CONDITIONS . I t is not yet possible to gain Australia-wide agreement on the knowledge. performance. that KNOWLEDGE . WHEN AREYOUREADYTO BE TESTED? The person who has been training you be the best judgeof when you are ready to take the will tests. Individual states and territories could well differ even thoughthey are moving towards anational standard. PERFORMANCE -what you need to be able to do in the practical driving test. Where there are differences. 2 . the authors have chosen what they see as the best approximation of the nationalview.HOW T U E THE MANUAL O S The manual is divided into sections. performance. STANDARDS . conditions and standards that apply to each section.how youwill be tested.the information you need to know for the knowledge test. You can also see if you are ready by answering the questions at the end of each section.

CONDITIONS Knowledge test : examination conditions Some performance can tasks be : on-road and/or off-road. During thepractical test you must demonstrate ability to safely and efficiently: an move off from the kerb into a traffic flow make left and right turns 9 between narrow and wide roads into and out of laned and divided roads at traffic lights and roundabouts move off uphill and downhill select the appropriate gear for the vehiclespeed. accelerating. STANDARDS You must pass the knowledge which deals with controlling the vehicle before taking test the practical driving test. ACCELERATING. acceleration. acceleration.VEHICLE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE STEERING. PERFORMANCE: You must be able to operate a truck competently and safely by using correct steering.trafficsituationandroad conditions in all circumstances control the operation of an automatic transmission (if fitted) operate all braking systems on the vehicle double de-clutch gearboxes. changing gears and braking in a truck. GEAR CHANGING AND BRAKING KNOWLEDGE: You must know and understand the correct procedures for steering. gear changing and braking skills.gear changing and braking. Practical test demonstrated in simulated situations. 3 . upanddownthrbugh the gears non-synchromesh on When performing these tasks you will be judged on your ability to smoothly co-ordinate your steering.

Steering The steering wheel should normally be held lightly with both hands. tightly can leadto fatigue and prevent smooth On greasy or slippery surfaces a light grip is particularly important because it enablesyou to 'feel' the reaction of the front wheels on the road. 4 and 8 on the dial) used by drivers of older. This rule is most important when driving on rough uneven ground. or 4 .e. Ten t o two Q u t h re r art e to Figure 2. the hands are opposite each other at and 3 on the dial(Refer Figure 2. particularly when cornering The correct position for your hands on the steering wheel varies according to the size and position of the steering wheel. Another favoured position is that shown as 'ten to two'. not power-assisted)may or braking. Manual steering (i. most commonly recommended The position is 'a quarter to three' of 9 where. if the steering wheel is viewed as the face a clock. require a firmer grip. The 'twentytofour'position(handsat heavy-steering vehicles is not recommended for modern easily steered vehicles because it restricts steering movement.1 Recommended position of hands onsteering wheel To allow you to exercise maximum steering control at all times you should not rest your elbows on your legs or any part of the vehicle.1). Gripping the wheel too movement when steering. You should also avoid using a grip which has your thumbs on the inside of the wheel. The steering wheel can kick hard enough to break your thumbs if the front wheels hit a potholeor some otherobject.

or even a pedestrian or other When turning left you may need to position thevehicle to the right of your lane before beginning the turn (ordo the opposite when turning right). Figure 2.5 metres long (8 metres in WA) and is fitted with a sign reading ‘Do NOT OVERTAKE TURNING VEHICLE.(Refer Figure 2. to allow extra clearance for cut-in. On sharpturns you may even need to begin your turn from an ‘outside’ lane which is not marked as a turninglane (a ’non-assigned‘lane). (Refer Figure 2. This causes the rearof the vehicle to ’cut-in’when turning.3) In some states this is permissible only if the vehicle is more than 7.Negotiating Corners When a vehicle turns. street signs and vehicle.2 Example of ‘cut-in’of the rear of a vehlcle ona turn It is important for drivers to allow for cut-in when cornering and driving around curves to prevent the rear wheels running off the road and damaging kerbing. trafficlights.2) ”. the path of the back wheels has a smaller radius than that of the front wheels. power poles. 5 .

2 kmh) so that you have ample time to turn the steering Your slow speed will also allow other drivers more wheel to full lock for the sharp turn. Correctly position the vehicle on the road as it approaches the intersection junction.3 Turnlng from an outside ('non-asslgned') lane I I I I Sharp Turns The following are some important points to observe when making sharp or restricted turns.5 metres and displays a signon the rear which reads:. or Reduce speed to 'very slow' (e. 'Ern in I estern Australia 1 1 I I I I Figure 2. or check that therear wheels have reached the correct position before you start the turn. Use your turn signals and brake lights to give other drivers as much warning of your intentions as possible. - Keep a constant watch on traffic movements in your mirrors throughout theturn.g. time to see what you are doing.~ I I I I ""_ ' I I I I I ( Note thatturning in this manner is only permissible in same states if the vehicle is longer than '7. - 6 . using yourmirrors. Drive into the intersection junction more deeply than normal and.

Entering the curve asclose as possible to the outer edge also gives the driver thebest view ahead. Negotiating Curves The driver should enter a curve wide (from the outside).- Use your mirrors to make a final check on surrounding traffic before turning and to maintain acheck on vehicle clearance (especially as affected by ‘cut-in’) during the turn. That method increases the radiusof the vehicle’s path through the curve and lessens sideways (centrifugal) force the vehicle. 7 . to This is especially important whenmaking a turnfrom a ’non-assigned‘lane as previously mentioned. and set up a line that will bring him close to the inside andthen leave thecuwe wide. Watch carefully for drivers who may attempt overtake on the inside of your vehicle. That reduces stresson the vehicle and its load and increases the on road-holding safety margin.

4 Correct line of travel to minlmlse vehlcle stress and increase safety margin Oh r Steering Factors fe Other factors which the truck driver needsto be aware of when negotiating curves and corners include: resonance roll roll momentum weight transfer load movement (including the effects of live’ loads). However a simple example will illustrate the danger they can cause. 8 . You will need to ask your trainerto explain how these factors interact to affect the vehicle when turning a corner.Figure 2.

However. Removing both hands from steering wheel the Removing either hand from the steering wheel for an unnecessarily long time (e. if the vehicle is able to at 'C' to continue past point and the driver then steers the left. The driver safely negotiates the left-hand bend at point A and the vehicle rolls to the right. Sbends andviolent lane changes can present a similar hazard. Turning the steering wheel too much or too little. The ' ' ' ' vehicle rolls to the driver then swings the rightat B to travel around the roundabout and the to it ' ' left. Allowing the hands to drop to the lower half of the steering wheel.5. or maintaining a turn too longresulting in thevehicle following an erratic course. - 9 . ask your trainer for information about factors mentioned and the use this knowledge to work out how lo maintain the stability and safety of your vehicle. the driverof a ioaded truck intendsto proceed straight through a roundabout.g. This danger is not restricted to roundabouts.5 Overturning of vehicle dueto resonance roll and other factors This can occur asurprisingly low speed which may be quite safe for another typeof truck even at when fully laden. increasing the roll still further and possibly overturning the vehicle on to its left side point 'C' as shown. transferringmore weight to the left-hand side of the vehicle. the vehicle will roll back to the right still more violently and is even more likely to overturn.' p Figure 2. Common Driving Faults Which Affect Steering - Gripping the steering wheel too tightly. this timeon to its right side at i n t 'D. But this time i t rolls much further than did atpoint Abecause the directionalchanges of the vehicle match its roll resonance. At this point the load might even shift.In Figure 2. To prevent it happening to you. when gear changing or operating controls).

6 A power jack-knifecaused by harsh acceleration when cornering 10 . you should slow the vehicle to the correct cornering speedbefore entering the corner and then apply only light throttle to 'balance' the vehicle so that it is neither accelerating nor decelerating while turning thecorner. (Can lead to resonance roll) Enteringbends and corners too fast. a This placesgreatcr demandson the driver when using the accelerator and clutch. Accelerating Accelerating a truck requires skill and care because the engine is generally larger and slower revving and tendsto be more sluggish in its response than car. is Moving off from rest and gear changing must be as smooth as possible to avoid damage or excessive wear. You should be especially wary in of this danger whencornering on a road surface which is wet. especially when they are lightly loaded.- Making sudden or sharp deviations in course such as cutting orcutting in too sharply out when overtaking. To minimise the risk. transmission. That can cause serious problems for semis or truck trailer combinations. a 'kangaroo hop' start in a loaded truck can seriously damage clutch. Many of the components in a fully laden truck are more highly stressed than in a car and the safety margin preventing damage therefore less. Braking in bends and corners.6. Figure 2. if precise. driveshaft andaxle assemblies. slippery or has a negative camber. For example. When drive wheels spin. the semi-trailer or trailer can continue forward under its own momentum pushing the drive wheels sideways andjack-knifing the unit as shown Figure 2. can Accelerating harshly or too early on a comer cause the drive wheels to spin. well co-ordinated and smoothgear changes are to be achieved.

Your complete understanding of the braking systemof your vehicle and skill in usingit correctly are essential to your safety and that of the general public. usually vacuum assisted. the vehicle should normally have a vacuum reserve sufficient for 2 or 3 brake applications. All light and some medium trucks hydraulic brakes. The Many medium and some heavy trucks use air-over-hydraulic brake systems.The engine must be kept running in order to maintain power assistance to the brakes. If the engine does stop. Hydraulic fluid hasan affinity to water and graduallybecomes pollutcd through condensation. overwhelming majority of those trucks also have exhaust brakes. The fluid should be replaced periodically (some manufacturers say annually). The following brief explanations will help you understand the operating principlesof the various systems.The master cylinder is connected to slave cylinders in thewheels. There are threetypes of brakingsystems found on trucks. 11 . engine vacuum is used to provide power assistance and so reduce driver effort. Full air brakes arenow virtually standard onheavy trucks and some medium trucks and are the most expensive type of system.the harder the brake shoes or pads are applied.Braking As a professional truck driver you should always aware of the danger posed by your vehicle be should youlose control of its speed or direction. Hydraulic Brakes Hydraulic brakes basically consist of a master cylinder which functions as a pump. The more force applied to the brake pedal. use which operate in much the sameway as car brakes. Never drive a vehicle if you are not familiar with its braking system. One of the more serious problems of hydraulic brake systems is that the brakes can fail if the brake fluidin the wheel cylinders boils. In many hydraulic brake systems. That can happen under extreme braking conditions if the boilingpoint of the hydraulicfluid has been lowered through contamination with moisture. operated by the brake pedal.or the pads against discs. These press the brake shoes against the the brake drums. When the brake pedal is pushed. the piston in the master cylinder forces fluid through thepipes to the slave cylinders forcing their pistons outwards.

In an air brake system. You will also learn that when the vehicle is loaded. This high pressure airis then directedto air chambers located beside each wheel. the pedal will need to be pushed further down to achieve the same degree of braking as when unloaded. or brake pad against the the is is disc. the springs will automatically apply the brakes. Spring brakes are therefore 'fail-safe'. They alsoallow simple coupling trailers and. The special advantages of spring brakes are that can act as: they Emergency brakes When.) On some vehicles a special air-operated emergency release system may also be fitted. Since the spring brakes are designed to cope with a fully loaded vehicle and the driver has no control over the emergency system. If the air supplyto the brakes is reduced or fails completely. provide a very quick response. the brakes will automatically come on if the air pressure drops. either by repairing and restoring pressureto the system or by mechanically winding each spring only back with a spanneror key.Full Air Brakes Full air brakes are used heavier and multi-axle vehicles because they can supplymore brake on pressure than other systems. the air supplyto the spring brakes is cut and the off brakes automatically come on. there is not enough pressure hold the brakes in to the 'off' position. With hydraulic brakes the pedal moves down a fixed distance as you first apply them and then the amount of braking achieved depends on how hard you push the pedal. the wheels often lock u p before the vehicle has stopped. Spring Brakes ( o r 'Maxi-brakes') All current air-braked vehicles and most air-braked vehicles on the road today are equipped with in spring loaded parkingbrakes. i f they are a of modem system. Even if the parking brakehas not been applied. through a failureof the system. The amount of braking is determined how far you by You open the air valve when you push the pedal against the return spring. (The reason for some of those long skid marks occasionally seen on the highways. (This makes the parking brake inoperative and is done to move the vehicle off the road. 12 . the spring brakes automatically bring the vehicle to a stop. The brakescan only be to released by supplying air pressure the brakechamber diaphragm which compresses the spring to and allows the linkage to move to the 'off' position. to be NOTE Air brakes feel different from hydraulic brakes.) After this has happened there are only two ways the brakes can be released. With this type of brake there is a spring the air brake chamber beside eachwheel which acts on the brake linkage force the brake'on'. Parking brakes When the parking brakeis applied. If the pedal valve pushed further down. The air pressureacts on a diaphragm in each chamber which in turn forces a pushrod to move a linkage and mechanically force the brake shoes against the drum. learn from experience how far to push the pedal to get the required degree of braking without locking the wheels. Pushing the brake pedal opens a valve which releases compressed air from a tank. the pedal is connected to a spring loaded valve. more air released from thetank increasing the pressure and causing the brakes applied harder.

(Some drivers may use the trailer brakes to prevent the vehicle speed increasing when down shifting gears. - Trailer Hand Brake Trailer air brakes are operated with the prime moveror truck brakes through the foot pedal A separate hand valve allows the trailer brakes to be applied independently but is not used for normal braking.) They work best at high engine revs. Engine brakes (except Mitsubishi's new t y p e ) cause extra exhaust noise making their use undesirable in residential areas. If you have brake incompatibility problems between prime mover and trailer. Properly used. Mitsubishi uses a separate valve for their engine brake. However these practices can be dangerous for inexperienced drivers and are therefore not recommended. to an increased braking safety margin and The three most common types of retarding system used are: The exhaust brake whichis a valve which restricts the exhaust so that the engine compresses air into the exhaust manifold. bring the matter to your employers attention immediately. The procedures for operating these devices vary so you will need to ask your trainer to explain the types you will be using. This can result in the unbraked trailer pushing the prime mover sideways causing a jack-knife or rollover. or use it momentarily to reduce trailer sway. be kept in mind - Some retarders work best at higher engine speeds and you must be careful not to over rev the engine which cancause serious damage. If the normal service brakes are then applied the cold prime still mover brakes will work normally while the overheated trailer brakes will have little braking effect.Auxiliary Brakes o Speed Retarders r These devices are found on medium and large vehicles and will slow but not completely stop the vehicle. Some drivers find the trailer hand valve convenient for preventing the vehicle from rolling backwards when moving off on a hill. The braking force of a retarder can cause a lightly loaded vehicle to skid and even jack-knife on icy or slippery roads. 13 . They act either on the engineor the drivetrain and are therefore independent of the service brakes. The engine brakewhich consists of a mechanism acting on the engine valves so that air is compressed to maximum pressure in the cylinders and released at very high pressure at the top of the compression stroke. Nor should you try to use the trailer brake to keep the rig straight when braking. however. and when in use absorb the vehicle's momentum by being 'driven' by the road wheels.(Fuel is also cut offwhen the exhaust brake is operating. Exhaust brakes are generally more effective on naturally aspirated engines thanturbocharged ones. they minimise brake use leading reduced brakewear. Using the trailer brakes instead of the service brakes is an extremely dangerous practice because they will soon overheat and fade. Two general precautions should. These units are fitted to the drivetrain. The electric or hydraulic retarder.

Braking on Hills
Complete loss of brakes when descendinghills is one of the ‘nightmare’ experiences truck drivers occurs as a result poor vehicle maintenance or poor driving of fear most. In most cases the failure practices (or a combination of both).In most instances therefore, brake loss can be prevented. And on the rare occasion when it can’t, safe driving practices can minimise the dangers. One of the most common causes of brake loss on long downgrades is overheating due to failure to select a low enough gear and/or failure to properly use auxiliary brakes. Overheating leads to brake fade in which the brake linings completely lose their grip and no longer slow the vehicle.
By following correct driving practices a professional truck driver never allows these conditions to arise.

Truck speed down hill should becontrolled by use of the engine, the gears and auxiliary brakes. The brakes should be held in reserve for coping with emergencies, traffic conditions or sharp comers. Some trainers believe that if you need to apply the brakes more than twice during a normal descent, you should be a lowergear. in

If it is necessary to use the brakes during a descent you should try to brake only when the vehicle is travelling in a straight line. Braking on abend increases the risk of skidding and should only be resorted to in an emergency. If you mustbrake on a bend,do so as gently as possible.

CAUTION: There are a few truck types with American componentry still being assembled in Australia with turbocharged engines that offer almost no rctardation, and which have no auxiliary braking system. They come in both truck and prime mover form and though they have good foundation brakes, should be treated with extreme caution by anyone unfortunateto find himself at the top of a long downgrade with a loadedone.

Avoid fanning (repeatedly applying and releasing) the brakes. This techniquehasbeen conclusively proven to increase brake temperature. It does not, as some believe, improve brake cooling. In air brake systems particularly, repeated applications also wastes compressed air, reducing the pressurereserve in the tanks which may beneeded in an emergency.

Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS)
Many of the latest trucks have anti-lock braking systems (ABS) which are designed to prevent wheel lockup and improvemanoeuvrability under braking.
As many experienced drivers know, maximum braking occurs when the wheels are just on the point of locking. However, if a wheel does lock and skidding occurs, braking effectiveness is reduced.

Maximum emergency brake application with an equipped vehicle simply involvesflooring ABS the pedal andallowing the ABS to regulate the braking effort and prevent skidding. The will ABS only operate when the skid limit has been reached and that is where maximum deceleration occurs. If the ABS is faulty, a warning light comes on and the brake system revertsnormal operation to with wheel lockagain possible.

14

Water on the Brakes
When brakes are wet they may be unreliable or maywork at all. not

You should cautiously apply the brakes as soon as possible after driving through water deep If enough to wet them to see if they are working properly. they pull to one sideor do not work efficiently, they mustbe dried out. That can be accomplished by stopping and giving them few a minutes to dry if they are warm.
The most common practice is to drive slowly along the road with the brakes on until they heat up enough to dry off and restore their effectiveness. Leave lots of stopping room until the brakes are right.

BrakingRules
Brake early and gradually Applying brakes early makes for smoother stops, better control,less wear and tear on the vehicle and cooler brakes. It also makes your actions more predictable and therefore safer. Brake in a straight line
it The more firmly you need to brake, the more important is that the vehicle is travelling in a straight line.Braking on bends is dangerous due to the risk of skidding or overturning, and should only be done in an emergency, Always brake before you enter a turn, not during the turn.

Allow for the load The proportional differencein mass between a loaded and unloaded truck is much greater than for a car or bus. You therefore need to adjust your driving habits different loads, especially with regardto for braking. When your vehicle is fully loaded it requires far more brakingeffort to slow down or stop S O you will have to leave more braking distance. When your vehicle is empty or lightly loaded, braking stability is reduced, chances of and wheel lock up and skidsis increased. Be prepared! Match your brakingto the road surface Always adjust your braking technique suit the roadsurface. Allow extra braking distance to oily, gently ifthe road surfaceis unpaved, highlycambered, or slippery (wet, and brake more must constantly watch road surface conditions as worn smooth). To be able to do this you you drive. Ease off as the vehicle slows Ease off the brake pedal as the vehicle slows down because it takes less braking effort to continue slowing at the same rate. do not, thevehicle willcome to an abruptor violent If you stop andcould even lock the wheels in slippery conditions. Always aim for smooth jerk-free a stop. Water onthe brakes Always test the brakes immediately after driving through deep water.

15

Gear Shifting
Using the gearbox properly on a truck not only means being able to shift smoothly but knowing the right gearto shift to and exactly when to do it. Changing gears is one of the fundamental skills every truck driver must master. Correct gear to changing is necessary for trouble-free andefficient operation of a truck but is also essentialits safe operation. Failure to select the correct gear or engage a two speed axle ratio before commencing a long descent for example, could have disastrous consequences. Skilful gear shifting comes only with practice and isone of the hallmarks of a goodprofessional truck driver.

Te Correct Gear h
The correct gear is the one that enables the engine operate at its most efficient speed for the to task it is doing. The correct gear for descending along hill is onewhich holds thevehicle speed constant without repeated brake applications or engine over-revving. For the most efficient hill climbing, the yet correct gear allows the engine to operate at a speedjust above maximum torque, fast enough to ensure adequatecooling.
Most heavy engine manufacturers have a normal engine operating range from 1100 to 2000. poor pulling power, Operating below the maximum torque revs the bottom of the range gives at poor fuel efficiency and is hard on the bottomend of the engine. It is called lugging or labouring.

Operating above therevs at which the engine achieves its rated poweris inefficient and slower than shiftingup a gear.Exceeding the red line, usually when descendinghills can cause serious engine damage. of Accelerating or hillclimbing with a load often demands the use the full operating rev range, especially in the higher gears. But normal running speeds fairly flat terrain do not require maximum power and torque and on thus allow the useof the "green" or "economy" band for best fuel consumption and least engine 1400 and 1800 rpm with the best fuel wear and tear. The green band usually runs between consumption at 1650 to 1750 revs.

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9

Other gear changing indicators Somesmallervehicles are notfittedwithatachometer ('rev counter'), and the manufacturer may recommend road speed ranges for each gear. Experienced truck driversalso become used to the sound and of the engine andmay feel use these as guides in gear shifting. However, improved sound-proofing and recent changes in engine design make thatdifficult. can
is The high torque band a petrol engineis at a higher engine speed range and not as of broad as that a diesel engine. of

This means the petrol engine does not have the same ability 'hang on' in a gear as a to diesel. Gear changes will therefore need to be more frequent and at higher engine speeds.

16

and morefuel efficient than ”normal”shifting. revs at low Here is an example progressive shifting. can lead to overstressing and to failure of drivetrain components. easier.‘35 Figure 2. Progressive shifting shouldbe used on all trucks. of Point Shift Gear Shift 1to 2 2 to3 (Engine Speed) 1200 rpm 14W rpm 1 0 rpm 60 3 to 4 4 to 5 1800rpm 1800 rpm 5 to 6 Remaining gears (6 to 10) 1800 rpm 17 . This lets the engine‘s torque do the work and that is what moderndiesels are all about.7 Operating speed rangesof a typlcal heavy vehlcle dlesel engine Progressive Shifting Progressive gearshifting reduces drivetrain stress at low speeds and is smoother. ENGINE SPEED . the a You should also remember that range change gearboxes have considerable overlap the low in range because the same gears are used in high range atspeeds where wind and rolling resistance make the gearsplits critical for achieving good performance.7. That means the gear ratios were is made for high rangeand revving the engines u p in low range just a waste of time. and brands practitioner as cowboy. Winding the engine the governor inthe lower gearswastes fuel. quieter.An example of the operating speed ranges of a typical heavy vehicle diesel engine is shown in Figure 2. Shift atlow speed. Progressive shifting simply means shiftingat lowrevs inlow gears progressively raising the shift points on the way up through the gears.

Ideally. so be patient. The Spicer clutch brake is engaged by depressing clutch right to the floor. If you force the gearstick you candamage and eventually destroy thesynchronisers. no further change engine revs and no in shock loading of the drivetrain whenthe clutch is re-engaged. there should be virtually no gearstick resistance. clutch and your sense of timing.13. You can help the synchronisers by correct use of the throttle. the less the better. Anything less is second best but be patient. Doing so will bum out theclutch brake. Very experienced drivers learn to judge engine speeds time gear shifts so accurately that they and can change constant mesh gearboxes quite smoothly without using the clutch. it will not go in until you get the revs and timing right.10. It is extremely important to determine whether the vehicle type you drivehas a Spicer clutch. Most constant mcsh gearboxes in use in Australia are Eaton Roadrangers in 9. so don’t! - Gear Shifting Constant Mesh Transmission In a non-synchromesh transmission the matching of the speeds of thc two gears to be engaged depends entirely on the driver’s judgement and skill.15. it will take awhile. and Spicer 7. double dedutching is essential for changing down and strongly recommended for changingup. It is used to reduce the the timc taken to smoothly engagea gear from a dead stop.9.12 and 18 speed.10. Only cowboys go to governor in lower gears.Gear Shifting Synchrmesh Transmission When shifting gears in a synchromesh transmission the two gears which are to be engaged are brought to the same speedfor smooth engagement by means of small synchronising clutch. Ask your employer or supervisor if there is any doubtwhen you drive a vehicle for the first time.20 types and some have splitters. speed.9.12. 18 . You will feel theresistance on thegearstick lessen as the two cogs match speed and that is whcn you should complete the shift. The Spicer clutch brake is most commonly found on trucks with American drivelines. All manufacturers of synchronised truck gear boxes agree that double-clutching is not good for them. The most accurate method for downshifting is to increase engine revs to match road speed with the clutch depressed whileselecting the lower gear. It is a skill which every truck driver mustlearn. and 18 speed models. You will generally find that shifting relatively low revs in the lower gears makes shiftingeasier at and smoother. a This synchronising clutch will not allow them to engage until the two speeds are matched. Other types include Mack 8. WARNING: You should never depress a Spicer clutch right to the floor for normal shifting.14. You can tell how accurate your shifting is by the amount of resistance of the gearstick as you select the next gear. the - For the beginning truck driver. also on heavy Isuzus.10. or when going from a forward to gear reverse. but is not used on European trucks. Most constant mesh boxes are range change Constant meshboxes often have Spicer dutches with clutch brakes which help to stop the gears from spinning. You’ve got it dead right when that happens. Remember that synchronised boxes are notoriously cold blooded in the morning but loosen will up after a few minutes of driving. There are nosynchronisers on the gears so even if you bendthe gearstick.

Table 2. at same the time depressing accelerator the to reapply power. differences between the techniques for shifting up and down. 4 3 3 - This stephelpsslowthespinning gearsthe to speed required for meshing. it Shift gear lever to neutral (The engine should now be speeding up. release the clutch pedal brieflv and then demess again.) 2 Shiftgearlever to neutral.) When the enginespeedhasalmost dropped to that required for the next higher gear. Read your operating manual. 5 5 Table 2. This helps to match or synchronise the gears being engaged. Shift into the required lower gear. using your accelerator to readjust engine speed to match that requiredfor the deired gear. If the engine accelerated -quickly the engine will only need to be engaged for a brief moment. 3. but very important. Engage the clutch quickly and smoothly. - 4 Shift into the required higher gear.(The engineshouldnow be slowing down. Holding it down may cause fully the engine speed to increase too much.1. do not force return to neutral and start again at Step the it. UP -SHlFTING 1 DOWN-SHIFTING 1 Depress the clutch while at the same time partly releasing the accelerator. This step increases the gear speed to that required for meshing.For some makes of transmission this is a fairly common practice. however it can cause serious damage if not performed correctly. time the at same depressingaccelerator the to reapply power. (You mustcompletelyreleasethe accelerator to allow the engine to slow as quickly as possible to match the next gear speed. 19 .1 Double Declutching Smooth double de-clutching requires practice and familiarity with your vehicle. If you have trouble engaging desired gear. (The accelerator must be held down justfar enoughto increase engine speed to that required for the next gear. get used to your vehicle and seek advice from your trainer before youeven think about trying it! Double De-clutchingConstant M e s h Geuboxes Double de-clutching (or 'double clutching' as it is also known) is a special gear shifting technique in which the clutch pedal is depressed very briefly.) 2 Completely release accelerator and depress clutch pedal at the same time.) Release the clutch pedal and when the enginespeedhasbuilt u p to the required for next revs the gear. depress the pedal again. Engage the clutch quickly and smoothly. while the gear lever passes through neutral during ashift. Note carefully The procedurewill be more easily understood ifyou study the steps in the slight.

at least 10 kmh slower) before you commence This is necessary because. IT SHOULD ONLY BE USED IN A N EhfERGENCY 20 . This procedure applies no matter whether you are a learner or an experienced driver. the vehicle will gain speeddown the shifting gears.g.USE THE BRAKES TO STOP THE VEHICLE AND THEN MOVEOFF AGAIN FROM REST. special For a steep descent requiring low gears should use the you brakes to completely stop thevehicle to before selecting the required lower gear.while maintaining pressure the gear lever. of the hill and you must ensure that the EMERGENCY PROCEDURE FOR WSSED GEAR SHIFT There can be some instances when missed gear shift canbe dangerous. as you shiftgears. as An Australian Army technique engaging a for missed gear in an emergency is follows: . If the gear you a wish to engage is necessary to control the vehicle speed ( e g . the gearswill slide intomesh. down shift is necessary during a descent. speed gain does not prevent engagement lowergear. reengage the highergear and begin the down shift procedure again.push the gearlever into the gate the required gearas far asit will go (the gears of will be gratingas you do this) . The vehicle is then allowed move off from rest only after the new gearhas been selected. Don’t take chances! If a down shift which is missed is not necessary for control of vehicle speed (e.leave the clutch pedal out (clutch engaged) . on a flat road). through unforeseen circumstances.when the engine and gear speeds match.preparing to descend ahill) and you cannot engage it after two attempts . If the gradient is only slight you should the brakesto slow the vehicle to a speed well below use that normally needed for the down shift (e. THIS PROCEDURE WILL CAUSE ABNORMAL WEAR AND MAY DAMAGE THE TRANSMISSION. Do not allow the vehicle to continue coasting while you struggle with the gears.Down-shifting During Descent (Emergencyonly) If.g. speed up the engine on . a precautions mustbe taken.

Brakes alone may be incapable of doingthis as they can overheat and fade (lose their braking power). Manual over-ride is used to lock the transmission into a single gear or bracket of gears and braking. isvitally important if the vehicle has an automatic transmission. Using too much throttle leads to which causes increased wear to the engine and transmission. This applies to allvehicles but. always select the lower of the two gears. To prevent this happening: Neveral!ow the engine to over rev while descending a hill. When manually over-riding to prevent hunting. Use of the manual over-ride also helps to maintain an economical and stress free engine speed and can be used in heavy traffic to reduce unnecessary gear changing when repeatedly accelerating and slowing down. General Gecn Shifting Rules * Going up hills You may have enough speed and power to climb a hill without changing gears. Generally engine revs should not fall below the maximum torque speed. to prevent 'hunting' (repeated gear changing between two gears). The accelerator can increase engine speed through torque converter slipby delaying up shifts or higher engine rev peaks in each gear as the vehicle gains speed. control of thevehicle will be lost as it continues to gain speed. 21 . It may be necessary to downshift atslightly higher revs or tw-o gears at a time on steep grades wherethe truck is decelerating rapidly. That's what diesels are all about.Automatic Transmission There are two ways which you can control engine speed in a truck equipped with automatic in an transmission: with the accelerator and by manually over-riding automatic gear selection. and should be used as necessary when descending hills to provide the required engine when ascendinghills. the unplanned upshiftwill reduce engine retardation makingit necessary to use the brakes to reduce speed. Attempting change gearson a descent can result to in getting stuck in neutral and losing control of the vehicle. Howeverthe engine is over-revved while if being used to retard vehicle speed down a hill. Always reduce speed and downshift to the required gear before you begin the descent. but give the you torque achance to work before shift down. * Before going down a hill When going down a long or steep hill you need engine compression to help hold the vehicle to a safe speed. WARNING ENGINE OVER-REV WITH AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION Some automatic transmissions on heavy vehicles will automatically over-ride a locked setting and shift into the next higher gear if the engine is over-revved This feature is designed to prevent damage to the engine. you must downshift to prevent the engine from lugging. for the reason outlined. If the engine showsany sign of gaining speed during a descent and you need to use the service brakes to control vehicle speed. if you begin to lose speed. upshifting to the next gear each time the engine overspeeds. However. If for any reason the brakes cannot cope with this extra load. and high fuel consumption. the gear you have manuallyselected is too high and you should be in a lower gear.

The following are just some of the risksassociated with coasting. let alone stoppingthe vehicle.If the vehicle speed becomes too great or if the brakes are usedduring a descent - they may overheat and become incapable of even slowing. It may not be possible to reengage a gear when needed. Downshifts waste fuel and increases clutch. If the engine stalls while coasting it may be impossible to engage any gear and loss of air pressure or the brakes may becomeineffectiveor completely fail due to vacuum assistance. Coasting is extremely dangerous. In residential areas. the compressor may not be able to to maintain air pressure leading loss of the brakes. You will also lose your powersteering.. Slowing and stopping When stoppingor slowing avehicle it is usually best to use the brakes and to down shift only when it becomes necessary to accelerate.Don't do it! 22 . Engaging the clutch while coasting may damageit or even bum it out. WARNING: NEVER COAST ANY VEHICLE Never under any circumstances allow a vehicle to coast in neutral or in gear with the clutch disengaged. This extremely dangerous practice can easily lead to loss of vehicle control and has caused many accidents. unnecessary downshifting causes extra noise and pollution. especially if vehicle speed has increased beyond engine rev limits. Repeated brake applications between downshiftswaste compressed air and increase wear andtear on the braking system. . Itcan also wheels. over rev the engineor lock up the drive With the engine just idling during coasting. transmission and enginewear. Before entering a sharp curve You should reduce your speed before you enter a sharp curve or comer. Should an emergency occur during a downshift (which takes 2 to 4 seconds) the driver may be caught unprepared with foot off the brake andthe vehicle out of gear. The practice of shifting down through the gears as you decelerate recommended because: is not generally - It adds to the driver's workload. damage thetransmission. Downshift to get your revs for efficient auxiliary braking andyou should ideally have up engine revs near maximum torque level when you acceleratesmoothlyout of the turn.

of the 23 . (Descriptions of some of these components boxes.) National trucking magazines such as Truck. power dividers and diff the may be found in Dictionary of Trucking Terms at the back of this Manual. joey locks. gearbox types and special features found on modemtrucks (let alone some of the old ones). He will probably also give you some general information on components such as splitters.Other Drive-train Components It is impractical to explain here how to operate all the components. You will receive advice from your instructor about any special features on the training vehicle. two speed axles. and Truck & Bus also do many easy to read articles on the operation both current equipment and latest technical developments.

4 Double declutching A is not necessary on a synchromesh transmission. Brake firmly only when travelling in a straight line. brake in repeated short firm applications D Vary the brake pressureaccording to the conditions of the road surface.KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS STEERING. D can only be used when down shifting. B must notbe used when shifting gears in a constant mesh transmission. 24 . C cannot be used when 'progressive shifting'. C gentle and smooth use of the accelerator pedal. D not passing any other vehicles. 3 Which ONE of the following statements isNOT a ruleof braking? A Brake early and gently. ACCELERATING. B staying in alower gear rather than shifting up. B C When descending ahill. GEAR CHANGING AND BRAKING 1 Which diagram shows one of the recommended positions for the driver's hands under normal straight ahead driving conditions? @ A 2 B C D You should keep exhaust noise down in residential areas by A coasting as much as possible.

D recommended way of reducing skidding on a slippery roadsurface. C recommended way of reducing engine wear.5 Coasting in neutral is a A recommended way of saving fuel.) 25 . B dangerous driving practice. (You can check your answers to these questions in the ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section a t the back of this manual.

The parking or reversing will be judged for smooth. Drivers will also be assessed on their ability to carry out checks for hazards before parking and reversing. STANDARDS: You must pass the knowledge test parking and reversing before taking the practical on test. backing into a loading baywhich is madeof poles and cones ('witches hats'). PERFORMANCE You must be able to park and reverse a heavy vehicle competently and safely.PARKING AND REVERSING KNOWLEDGE You must know the procedures for parking and reversing as explained in this section of the manual.some performance tasks can be demonstrated in simulated situations.For example. 26 . CONDITIONS Knowledge tests : examination conditions Practical test : on-road and/or off-road. well-controlled vehicle movement and accurate vehicle placement in each of the abovecases. During the practical test you must: drive forward into a parallel park leaving the vehicle a distance of no more than 30cm from the kerb reverse along botha straight path and curved path reverse into aparallel park leaving a distance of no more than 45cm from kerb reverse into a loading dock which is no more than 1 metre wider than vehicle (poles and cones can be usedfor this purpose). and ontheir use of rear vision mirrors.

9 show the difference. Empty or lightly loaded dogs can be easily skidded with lockable turntables but the possible turning radius should always be kept as wide as 27 .8 and 2. be They are used primarily for backing straight and caution should used when reversing loaded trailers where turning is involved.e.Reversing The procedures for reversing a rigid motor vehicle are different from those of an articulated vehicle. unless they have a locking turntable ordolly. to Figure 2. have steerable frontwheels) With an articulatedvehicle or a 'pig' trailer (which does not you should begin by turning the bottom the steering wheel in direction you want of the the rear of the vehicle (i. the trailer) go. Truck and dogcombinations are fairly unusual Australia except for tipperwork and in in Western Australia where eight axled combinations have payload advantages oversemis. or any vehicle with a trailer. once the traileris moving in the required direction the steering wheel turned so that the prime mover follows a similar path to that of the is trailer. especially on bitumen where they cannot skid easily. Dog trailers canbe extremely difficultto reverse for the uninitiated. used only on dog trailers withwheelbase of 4 metres or a Locking turntables are usually less because of lateral stresses. Figures 2.9 Reversing an atticulated vehicle In the case of the articulatedvehicle.8 Reverslng a rlgld vehlcle Figure 2. Which Way to Turn the Wheel In the case of a rigid motor vehicle you should begin by turning the steering wheel so that the top of the wheel moves in the direction you wish to move the rear of the vehicle.

if Try not to rely entirely on your mirrors. . sure it is operating. and that clearly understand the signals the guide use. In some vehicles you may be able to put your head out the window occasionally to check the position of your vehicle. Reversing destination so that you are into traffic is more dangerous than reversing out of it.Check First and Warn Others B Before reversing you should walk around yourvehicle to check for any hazards. Remember that you will even when using a guide. get outand have alook. It is often possibleto arrive from a different direction and around to the right. Figure 2. you. where possible. (Refer Figure 2. back You must warn those around you that you are about to reverse. it is always best to reverse from the roadway into your able to driveforward when reentering the traffic. e sure to check overhead clearances and thatthe surface you are about reverse ontowill carry to your vehicle's weight. as the driver vehicle. another person asa guide. make You should reverse slowly so that you can make small corrections in steering necessary. and before moving should sound your horn or other warning device if necessary. Avoid Reversing Where Possible Reversing is difficult and potentially dangerous and should be avoided whenever possible. Reverse turns to the left are dangerous and should be avoided whenever possible because the driver usually cannot see the rear of his trailer. If ever in doubt.10 Position of good vislbility for a guide when reversing.10) Make sure. before you begin that your guide clearly understands what you plan to do. The best position for the guide is generally at the rear of the truck where he or she is visible to you. 2a . If reversing is unavoidable. If your vehicle is fitted with a reverse warning buzzer. are responsible for the safety of the of the manoeuvre. Use Mirrors and a Guide Use your mirrors and.

D Neither I or II is likely to result in an accident. 29 . less dangerous than where there is no turning involved B D C equally dangerous as one to theleft. less dangerous than one to the left. B Situation 11.KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS PARKING AND REVERSING 1 The diagrams below show two trucks moving out into the street Sltuatlon I Sltuatlon I I Which of the two situations is themore likely to result in an accident? A Situation I. 2 Which of the following statements is correct? A reversing turn to the right is A more dangerous than one to the left. C Both I and II are equally likely.

~~~~

~~

~

~~~

~

~~~~

3

The driver of an articulatedvehicle wants to reverse from position I to position I1

Which one of the following shows position to which the front wheelsmust be turned as the the vehicle begins moving?

A

a

c

4

In reversing, all of the following driving practices are recommended, EXCEPT one, which one?

A Using horn or similar warning device.
B

Keeping hand brake partly engaged.

C Walking around vehicle to check for hazards.
D Using rear vision mirrors.

(You can check your answersto these questionsin the ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section at the back of this manual.)

30

OPERATINGPROCEDURES

KNOWLEDGE You must know the correct procedures for operating systems of your vehicle. PERFORMANCE

the various components and

You must be able correctly start, operate and shut down engine. You must also be to the able to prepare thevehicle forovernight parkingor for hand-overto another driver.
CONDITIONS

Knowledge test : examination conditions. Practical test : correct demonstration of any procedures this from section nominated by the examiner plus general observance of correct operating procedures during thepractical driving test. STANDARDS

You must be able to pass the knowledge test before taking the practical test.
During the practical test you must be able to correctly: cold-start the engine operate the engine during the drivingtest shutdown the engine perform an end of shift vehicle check set the controls and secure the complete vehicle for overnight parking.

31

OPERATINGPROCEDURES
Starting a Truck Engine
Starting the engine of a heavy vehicle is simple if you follow the basic steps outlined below. Doing it the wrong way can make difficult or even impossible to start the engine may even it or damage it. to Check your operating manual any special steps or other variations applicable your vehicle. for

If it is the first start for the day you should perform an under bonnet check making especially sure to check the oil and coolant levels.
Apply the parking brake. Ensure gearbox is in neutral. Make sure engine brake is switched off or the high oil pressure generated by the cold oil may damage the brake mechanism. Push in theBowden cable (often marked ’Stop’)if so equipped (Most modem diesels and all petrol engines shut down the key). off

If the engine is cold:

-

Diesel: Most small and some medium size diesels have a starting heater or glow plugs. Many now cutout automatically and the dash lightgoes out. Allow 15 to 50 seconds for the others to heat up (Some vehicles have a light to indicate when they are readyto start). Direct injection diesels do not have glow plugs. All big diesels are direct injection. Petrol: Depress accelerator to floor and if fitted with a manual choke pull out the choke control (amount of choke depends on temperature; lower temperature more choke). Release the accelerator.

-

Push the clutch pedal down so as to disconnect the transmission from the engine. If the clutch is left engaged the starter must also turn the gears in the transmission-quite a heavy load when theoil is cold. Partially open the throttle by depressing the accelerator pedal about one quarter of its travel.
9

Hit the starter. In normal conditions the engine should fire within about 5 seconds. If it doesn’t, recheck your settingsbefore trying again. When the engine starts, hold the speed constant at about800 rpm (fast idle) and check the oil pressure. If oil pressure does not register within 5 seconds of starting, switch the engine off and find out why. As soon as the engine is running smoothly (usually after 15 to 30 seconds) cautiously release the clutch. (Caution is recommended case the transmission is not in neutral.) in With some engines it may necessary to use the hand throttleor fast idle control while be the engine warms up.Set the control just high enough to smooth out the idle.While the engine is warming you can carry out other daily up checks on the vehicle.

DANGER: Never run an engine in a confined space (e.g. dosed shed or warehouse). Carbon monoxide inthe exhaust gases can cause unconsciousness and death.

32

wastes fuel and can harm any engine. manifolds and turbochargers get literally red hot. Common symptoms are warped valves. the engine of a truck works incredibly hard when hauling a full load. When climbing long hills engine parts such as exhaust valves.A truck with the Stop control in the 'run' position can be accidently bump started if left in gear. if 33 . heavy loads and high hill operating temperaturesof truck engines require drivers toobserve some special procedures when shutting down. Turbochargers are especially vulnerable as the turbine takes some minutes to wind down o from its60. that is they compress a fuel air mixture until gets so hot it that it ignites spontaneously withoutthe need fora spark plug. If an engine is abruptly shut down in that condition it can be seriously damaged by rapid. This is because diesels are compression ignition engines. while others use aBowden cable. I CAUTION. uneven cooling called thermal stress. Always leave the Bowden cable stop control out when thctruck is parked. extreme operatingconditions such as sustained climbs. depending how hard it has been worked. As a general rule. an engine shouldbe shut down it is to be left standing for more than 10 minutes.Shutting Down and Idling a Truck Engine Turbochargers. Prolonged idling. Diesel Engine Safety Unlike petrol engines which are shut down turning off the ignition. Most modern diesels are shut downoff the key by an electric solenoid that cuts off the fuel. Whether it is petrol or diesel. however. OO or morerpm andthere is no oil pressure for the bearings after the engine stops. diesels are usually by stopped by shutting off the fuel supply to the engine. cracked manifolds and seized turbochargers. Even in moderate operating conditions somethese problemscan occur so it is best to of on idle the engine for 2 to 5 minutes before shut down. even on a flat open highway.

not Switch off all systems and isolate battery Switch off the lights (except parking lights if needed). If you are driving a refrigerated van. Air tanks should be drained several times per day to eliminate moisture. the Most trucks have a "wet tank" that receives air directly from the compressor. etc. They work best when the truck is onthe level. the Select a safe parking place Position the vehicle in a safe parking place where it will not be a danger to other road users or an annoyance to residents. Most modem trucks have drain valves that are operatedby pulling a cord or wire. They are a general guide and may not apply in some circumstances. 34 . so that the front wheels will run into the kerb should thevehicle begin to roll. Always try to park on level ground where there no risk of the vehicle moving shouldit is be tampered with the brakes fail. If it is absolutely necessary to park on a hill. the fuel tanks shouldcompletely filled. leading to water condensing and collecting in the bottom of the tank. moist air being drawn in to the tank as the temperature drops. It only takes a fewseconds to drain becausethe contaminants are on bottom of the tank. do park itin a residential area with the refrigerator unit operating.You should switch on the parking lights if the vehicle is parked on the road at night. oil and other contaminants fromthe system. The recommended procedures arelisted below. Choose a place where the vehicle is easily visible both day and night (a well lit and highly visible area will also lessen the risk of theft or vandalism). radio. Refuel the vehicle If the vehicle is to be left standing overnight. That is where the moisture condenses and thatis the tankt h a t should be drained most often. If the vehicleis fitted with a battery isolation switch and no electrical components need to be left operating. be This prevents cold. you should prepare the vehicle for its next shift. Water in the fuel can seriously damage injection system of a diesel engine. chock all or wheels of at least one axle and turn the steering wheel to full lock. After you have parked for the night is a good time. Some trucks have automatic drain valves. turn it off.End of Duty Procedure At the end of your work day. air conditioner.

35 . bottles. unnecessary papers. etc. from the driving cabto get it ready for the next day.Tidy the driving cab Remove old rubbish. Perform a walk-around check so Walk around thevehicle and as you do check - the wheels and tyres for leaks beneath the vehicle that the wheel chocks are in place that the loadis secure and thatthe cargo doors are locked that the parking lights and reflectors are clean and that the parking lights are switched on if necessary - - Fill out log book and report problems Complete your driving log for the day and complete the vehicle log noting anything unusual which has occurred. in Lock the vehicle Close all windows andlock thecab doors. makz a special note of i t in the vehicle log and'notify your mechanic or fleet maintenance supervisor writing. If you have found anyvehicle problem which needs attention.

a 2 Which of the following is nota recommended stepin preparing a vehicle to stand overnight? A Completely fill the fuel tanks. Return the stop control of a diesel engine the operating position after shut to down. B C Leave the vehicle parked in gear. D Long periods of idling can harm a petrol engine but notdiesel engine. D Idling a turbocharged engine before shutting itdown will damage the turbocharger. 3 Which of the following is incorrect? A Condensed moisturein the fuel can harm a diesel engine. the battery shouldbe isolated when the vehicle is left standing overnight. D Drain the air tanks. B Air tanks should be drained at least once a day. 36 .KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS OPERATINGPROCEDURES - 1 Which of the following is incormt? A Both petrol and diesel engines should idled for a few minutes before stopping them. be B Turbocharged engines require longer normalization times than engines. C If possible. do naturally aspirated C Diesel engines are stoppedby cutting off the fuel supply.

This section outlines the procedure need to learn and follow. at least until you know when and where is safe to vary them. then return and couple again. injury and vehicle damage if not performed correctly. PERFORMANCE You must be able to demonstrate the coupling and uncouplinga semi-trailer using the of correct procedure. You must passthe knowledge test beforecommencing the practical test. Introduction Coupling and uncoupling a prime mover and semi-trailer (referred to in the industry as 'picking up' or 'dropping' a trailer) is a task which can lead to serious accidents. it 37 . During the practical test you must drop off the semi-trailer. We strongly recommend you follow the procedures M O W closely. drive the prime mover approximately 50 metres away. up You will be assessed on your ability to follow the correct procedure and perfom the set tasks safely. during the driving test.COUPLING AND UNCOUPLINGSEMI-TRAILERS To have a licence to drive articulated vehicles you must be able to couple and uncouple a semi-trailer. you KNOWLEDGE You must know the correct steps to be followed to couple and uncouple a semi-trailer safely. CONDITIONS: Knowledge test Practical test STANDARDS: : : examination conditions off-road.

Continue winding. even onflat ground. Chocks should not benecessary on trailers fitted with spring brakes (Maxi-brakes)but are a sensible precaution and should used if available.You should alwaystry to drop your trailer on flat ground. Itis best to chock the semi-trailel's front in case the landinglegs collapse axle and the rear axle(s) lifts. mud. Take the pressure off by gently rocking the prime mover forward and and then try to release again. back Separation Double check that the trailer brake hoses and electric cable are disconnected and stowed. You should stop winding when the prime mover ceases rising or you can just see air between the trailer skid plate and the turntable. Stow them properly on the prime mover making sure that connectors are kept free of dust and water and that they the cannot become caught up on the tailshaft. and as you do so. STOP! Find out why while the prime mover is still holding up the front of the semi-trailer. 3a . ~~ WARNING If the front of the trailer starts go down and turntable comes up at to the the front as you are moving forward.gravel and hot bitumen. (The landing gear to the is likely tosink intoloose dirt.UNCOUPLING (DROPPING OFF) A SEMI-TRAILER Level and firm surface Before uncoupling make sure your rig is parked in a level area on a surface which is firm enough to support the trailer landing gear and load.) Lower the landing gear Lower the landing gear until the supports are firmly in contact with the ground. Then release the prime mover parking brake and slowly drive forward in a straight line making sure the trailer stays put. the rear of the prime mover will rise on its suspension as semi-trailer weight is transferred to the landing gear. Precautions for soft ground surface Place suitably strong timber or other flat supports beneath the landing gearif the ground surface is not firm enough support the weight of trailer andits load. Release the turntablejaws If the release handle cannot be moved. Disconnect hoses and cables Disconnect the air hoses and electrical cables from the trailer. be Parking on a grade . the jaws may be under load. its Prime mover and semi-trailer in a straight line Apply parking brakes and trailer brakes Chock the trailer wheels Parking on flat ground.ALWAYS USE CHOCKS IF IT IS NECESSARY TO PARK A TRAILER ON A GRADE.

or the turntable could even pass beneath the kingpin allowing the prime mover cab to hit the trailer. Make sure the top of the turntableis well greased whenit is used in the locked position.) Adjust the trailer height or re-position the vehicle if necessary. About centimetres is ideal. king pin. WARNING: Nevertry to back a primemover under asemi-trailer without first ensuring it will stay put. trailer should in a straight line when Use the mirrors to help you line u p on the trailer. The prime mover and in be coupling. of Caution: If the trailer is too low the prime moverchassis or edge of the turntablecan hit latch the trailerfront instead of going under. If the trailer has a block welded to the skid plate about 30cm to the rear of the kingpin. turntable andjaws for damage. 3 Immobilise thetrailer Place chocks behind at least one wheel. make is sure the turntable the type that turns and unlocked. 'Chasing' a trailer which moves during coupling is a dangerous and irresponsible practice. Don't do it! 4 Trailer height Check that the turntable and king pin are lined up. Make sure the turntablejaws are open. the parking brakes should alreadybe on. Check that the air hoses and is cables are well clear and will not be caught when the prime mover reversed into its final position. is The turntable will need to be locked in position for trailers without the block.COUPLING (PICKING UP) A SEMI-TRAILER 1 Position the prime mover Reverse the prime mover into position straight front of the trailer. If the trailer is equipped with spring brakes. stop the prime mover just in front and apply the parking brake. the turntable may not properly on to the kingpin. Check that the heightof the trailer skid 5 plate is slightly lower than the centretheturntable. 39 . WARNING: Backing under a trailer from the side can push the trailer sideways and damage or collapse the landing gear. 2 Inspect thecoupling Check the trailerskid plate. If too high.

see if the prime mover has manual shutoff valves on its trailer brake plumbing. 12 Raising landing gear Raise thelanding gear. a gap is visible. You should hear (and Visual check that trailer is locked on Get out and check that the turntable jaws have locked on to the kingpin. kingpin. engine. 15 Remove and stow wheelchocks.5 Coupling up Slowly reverse the prime mover under the trailer until the turntable jaws lock around the possibly feel) this asthe jaws closeand lock into place. Check also that there is enough clearance between the landing gear and the rearthe truck frame allow for turning. on Make sure the trailer is sitting on the turntable checking that no gap exists between firmly by If the set the turntable and trailer skid plate. of to 14 Air leaks and trailer lightcheck Switch off Run the engine until the air pressurehas reached its maximum in the air tanks. 13 Clearance checks Check that thereis enough clearance for normal movement between the prime mover (frame and wheels) and the trailer frame. Caution: Make sure the trailer does not move with the landing legsdown or they may be damaged. Keep winding until it fully raised. Connect hoses and cables Connect the airhoses and electrical cables making sure they are properly supportedto avoid damage. 11 Secure the vehicle Apply the parking brakes and turn on emergency flashers and side and lights for a trailer tail light check. Try lowering the trailer on landing gear slightly and the should close. switch trailer brake hose connections and try again. 6 7 Check release lever Check that the coupling release lever is in the 'locked'position. If not. Apply and release the trailer brakesto check their operation. trailer may have been too high. 10 Give trailer a tug test Check that the trailer is locked on by attempting to moveoff in first gear with the trailer brakes on. 8 9 Activate the trailer brakes American and some Japaneseprime movers require youto supply airto the trailer brakes by switching the tractor protection valve from'emergency' to 'normal'. fully apply the trailer brakes and walk around thevehicle listening for air leaks and checking trailer lights. Repeat this check to be absolutely sure. Make sure that the head of the pin is not sitting top of the jaws. check to the gap see what the problem is. If not. The prime mover should not move. 40 . You should hearthe air release and linkages operate. Make sure the handle is properly is stowed. If still not.

) 41 . B perform a tug test. (You can check your answers to the question in the ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section at the back of this manual. release the turntable jaws.KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS COUPLING AND UNCOUPLING SEMI-TRAILERS 1 Which of the following is INCORRECT? A uncoupling on a hill should be avoided B all turntables need to be locked when the semi-trailer skid plate has a block behind the kingpin C prime mover and semi-trailer should be lined up straight before coupling D it is best to chock the wheels on the front axle when uncoupling a semi-trailer 2 The last thing to do afterthe semi-trailer is properly coupled is to A connect the air lines. C D raise the landing gear.

42 .LOADING THE VEHICLE KNOWLEDGE You will need to know the correct principles for arranging and securing various loads on vehicles to ensure that they are transported safely and reach their destination in good condition. If you operate interstate you need to make sure you know the requirements for other cross state states in which you drive. STANDARDS Drivers must pass the knowledge test before commencing the practical test. Driver’s Loading Responsibilities You are responsible getting yourcargo to its destination in good condition and without to for risk other road usersand the general public and thatmeans it must be correctly loaded and secured firmly on your vehicle. PERFORMANCE: You must be able to demonstrate correctly to the examiner how you would arrange and secure various forms cargo. of CONDITIONS: Knowledge test : examination conditions : actual or simulateddemonstration of the correct procedures to be Practical test followed in arranging andsecuring cargo. Always be sure your vehicle is within the limits when you boundaries. These limits are determined bythe number of and type of tyres on each axle. and thespacing of the axles. You must also know the mass and dimensional limits applicable to your vehicle and understand the international cargo symbols. Satisfactory knowledge of the correct loading of two types of cargo as selected by the examiner. 9 Some of these mass limits varyfrom state to state although theyare moving towards standard will limits. Arranging and Distributing the load Mass limits:When loading yourvehicle you must ensurethat it does not exceed any of the legal limits for: Gross Vehicle Mass (GVM): The loaded mass of the vehicle 9 Gross Combination Mass (GCM):The loaded mass of the vehicle plus the loaded mass of any trailers it is towing Axle Mass: Load limits are specified for each axle and group of axles.

Badly balanced loads lead to poor stability and handling.1 Incorrect: ositioned Load t o oaC o r r e c t : f r rearward Figure 2. larger and heavier items shouldplaced at the bottom.11 shows examples of good and poor distribution of mass.Even Distribution o MOSS f The load should be spread to keep the centre of gravity as low as possible.12.(Refer Figure 2.12 Load c o r r e c t l y n c o r r e c t : I Load t o o far Posltlonlng o heavy cargofor correct sharing of load between axles f 43 . In extreme cases your vehicle could become a serious danger to other road users (Figure 2.) Correct: Good load SDread Incorrect: High centre of mass & excessive front axle load. Where the load is be stacked. The centre of gravity of the load should be on or as near as possible to the centre line of the vehicle. Heavy solid items should ideally be placed in frontof light crushable ones. redistribute the load. Whenever you add or remove cargo. to maintain good weight distribution. if necessary.11 Arranging the cargo for even dlstrlbutlon of weight and low centre of gravlty Arronging the L a od If the cargo is a compact heavy object itshould be positioned so that each axle or axle group gets of its proper share the load and the vehicle sits evenly on its suspension. Figure 2.

A 4 . It may also be used to support and level the load.g. Metal platforms are usually more slippery than wooden ones and may require extra precautions. Correct vehicle: Before undertaking to transport any cargo you musthave a vehicle suitable for the type of cargo to be transported and with enough load capacity. half In most circumstances half thetotal restraint required should come from lashings. between metal cargo and metal truck platform). every vehicle should be fitted with a loading headboard or bulkhead fitted rack. transverse beams. dry and free of grease and loose material.13 Correct lateral balance of load Securing the load Movement of cargo onthe back of a truck is likely unless thecargo is secured. When using dunnage you should use single rather than multiple layers and make sure it is securedso it cannot move.) the right. mats. (Figure Incorrect: Load improperly balanced Correct: Load p r o p e r l y balanced Figure 2. chains or strapping and devices like gates.13 shows correct and incorrect examples of this. bulkheads. Maxirnise friction: You cannot depend entirely on friction to prevent load movement but you should maximise the friction between the load and the truck platform by ensuring contacting the surfaces are clean. chocks and dunnage and the friction between theload and the deck.etc.The cargo should also be positioned so that themass is evenly distributed each side the centre of to of the vehicle. It is necessary to restrain cargo by lashings such asropes. Metal on metal provides very little frictional restraint and should avoided wherever possible. be Use of dunnage: Dunnageis packing material (pieces of timber. For safe loading. The capacity of the cargo restraints preventing forward movement must equal load mass and the those preventing rearward and sideways movement equal the load mass. With the cargo correctly positioned thevehicle should not lean either the left or 2.) which may be placed between layersof cargo or between thecargo and the truck platformto provide better frictional restraint (e. plywood. bulkheads and chocks. to the front of the cargo deck. The other half should come from baulking arrangements including headboards.

you shouldplace the load hard against a large baulking such as a timber which is firmly fixed to the truck platform. except for light loads. front-rack. webbing. Blocks. object Where that is not possible. For this reason. wedges and chocks may also be used to prevent cargo movement. chain and cable. it does notaffect the rest. Lashings and other restraints should be arranged so that if one component slackens or breaks.14) INCORRECT WRRECT Figure 2. When using lashingsyou should ensure: They are tight enoughto prevent movement of the load. to When anchoringto the rails. 45 . you should alwaysplace the cargo hard against the headboard. The lashing used must be appropriate for the cargo. strong enough for the job and in good condition.Use of baulking: If satisfactory distributionof mass can be achieved and the shape of theload allows it. you should only use anchorage points close to the vehicleframe or the platform cross-members. (ReferFigure 2. or bulkhead of the vehicle so it cannot move forward during braking. always attachlashingsclose to the tie rail supports rather than the unsupported section of the rail.14 Anchoring lashlngs to the tle r a i l Correct choice and applicationof lashings: The most common types of lashings used are ropes. If used. Suitable anchorage points: In order to fix the cargo safely to the truck you must use anchorage but points which are strong enoughto withstand not only the initial lashing also the far greater forces which can occur when the vehicle is being driven. but nottight enough to damage it. they should be of adequate size and strength and must be properly secured to the truck platform.

polystyrene foam filling) you should not rely on atarpaulin to restrain it. 46 .15) INCORRECT: Lashing more at than 60" from horizontal.15 Arrangement of lashings to prevent forward or backward movement of the load Lashings should be protected from sharp edges on boththe load and the vchicle. CORRECT Lashing less than at 60" and as close lo horlzonlal as possible. rearward or sideways movement of the load should be as close to horizontal as possible and never at an angle of more than 60 degrees so from thehorizontal. tarpaulins should be used only as protection from weather.Lashings intended to prevent forward.16 Preventing damage to lashings All lashings (and other restraints) should checked periodically during a trip. For all normal loads. the strains on the lashings are great thatthey can no longer do the job effectively. Figure 2. (Refer Figure 2.16) Figure 2. If the angle is more than60 degrees. (Refer Figure 2. be Use of tarpaulins: Unless the load is very light and bulky (e.g.

Otherwise a suitable arrangement of lashings over the top the pallet and its cargo must beused. or if the truck is dangerously unbalanced. However there to are some additional rules: Vertical movement and tippingof the pallet shouldbe prevented by placing a lashing or other restraintacross the top of the pallet. Lashings lhrough paiiet Baulklng horizontal movement.17 shows at examples of how pallets should k secured. Each pallet on the top layer must have at least one cross-lashing. 41 . all of the preceding rules apply palletised cargo. it must also prevent sideways movement of the pallet.If the truck becomes dangerously unbalanced due to cargo movement while on the road.) Lashings over bad Lashings over load to prevent vertical Baulking horizontal Lashings through pallet bases to prevent movement. Always check your vehicle height after loading a container-it may be higher than you expect. If after placing it on your truck you find the maximum axle loads are exceeded. you should refuse to accept the container. do not continue driving. of 9 Whatever system of restraint is used. In many instances you may be transporting a sealed container and therefore have no control over the way in which the cargo has been packed inside. Figure 2.17 Examples o the correct methods to use In securing pallets f Freight containers: Most freight containers conform to International Standards dimensions (EO) but some do not.Special Considerations Cargo on pallets: Ingeneral. Forward and rearward movement should prevented by passing restraints through the be base of the pallet for a cargo fully secured to the pallet. Any pallet which stands above thegeneral load height should have least two cross-lashings. (Figure 2.

18 Typical devices usedto attach freight containers vehicles to For more detailed information it is strongly recommended that you refer to another publication entitled:The Truck Loading Code A Recommended Code of Practice For The Safety Of Loads On RoadVehiclesavailablefromAustralianGovernment Publishing Service Book Shops capital in cities. This publication provides a comprehensive andeasily read guideto all aspects of vehicle loading.It is essential that any vehicle used to transport containersbe fitted with special securing devices such as twist locks. twist locks are mandatory. Pin locks or an adaptor frame may sometimes be used (Refer Figure 2.18) but in some states. T y p i c a l t w i s t Lock a r r a n g e meic u r i n g sP n t en device Figure 2. - 48 .

You must also observe special precautions in loading anddriving. putting the liquid in several smaller tanks and by ensuring whenever possible. Dangerous goods and unusual cargo: There aresome materials which arc defined by government acts as dangerousgoods. pneumatic-tyred earth-moving machinery and passenger vehicles. If you are to transport dangerous goods you mayneed to hold a special permit showing you have passed a one or two day Dangerous Goods course. The 'Users Guide to the Australian Dangerous GoodsCode' is a clear summary of the Code and howit applies toroad transprt drivers. Examples of live loads arc: bulk liquids. wet concrete. its equipment and the way the cargo is loaded may need to conform to a specified code and thetruck may need a Dangerous Goods permit or license. Two useful publications arc: The 'Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail' published by the Australian Government Publishing Service forms the basis for virtually all State Dangerous Goods legislation. The danger can be reduced by restricting load movement as much as possible. livestock. tanks or compartments are either empty or completely full. It is available at $8. If not adequately restrained. Dangerous Goods legislation and requirements are stringent and rightfully so. Your vehicle. hanging meat. For bulk liquids this can be done by baffles in tanks. You might also be required to display special marking signs for that particular cargo. Livestock needs to be loaded so that the animals arc allowed only the minimum space to move.90 from: The National Road Transport Industry Training Committee 75 Chetwynd Street North Melbourne 3051 Tel: (03) 329-0502 Live loads: A live load is one which cannot be completely secured and is able to move about within the load space. Before you transport any cargo classified as 'dangerous goods' you should check with the relevant authorities regarding anyspecial requirements. You must know at least enough aboutDangerous Goods to know when not to load and what not to do. Contact the state authorities listed in Appendix A at the back of this manual for further information. a live load can seriously affect the stability of the transporting vehicle because of shifts in the centre of gravity and the momentum generated by the moving load.Loading Regulations Each state and territory has dimension and weight regulations. 49 . Pneumatic-tyred carthmoving machinery and passenger vehicles need tobe secured firmly to the load platform so that the vehicles cannot bounce excessivelyon their tyres or suspensions. You should be familiar with these regulations for the states and territories in which you drive. as well as loading safety requirements and special requirements for loads exceeding normal limits.

International cargo symbols: There are seven internationally recognized symbols used on cargo.19 International cargosymbols . HERE HOOKS THIS HAY UP KEEP AWAY CARE WITH FROM HEAT K E E P DRI FRAGILE - H A NU L E ~S NO SLING HEAVY WEIGHT THIS END Figure 2. The symbols are shown in Figure 2.19. These are designed to inform persons handling it of the type of cargo and any special handling procedures.

Keeping the overall load height low reduces stability. B Friction cannot be relied upon to prevent movement of cargo when driving. D stack heavy items at the bottom. Braking places higher forces on load restraints than does acceleration. B place heavy items close to thecentre-line of the vehicle. C distribute the mass as evenly as possible. C D 3 When securing the load to your vehicle you should A Try to reduce friction between the cargo and the truck platform B use several layers of dunnage in preference to onelayer Leave a small space between the cargo and anybaulking object used. C D not use tarpaulins as a means of load restraint on anything but very light and bulky loads. 51 . 2 Which of the following is INCORRECT? A You should check the balance of the load and redistribute it if necessary whenever you add or remove cargo.KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS LOADING THE VEHICLE 1 Which of the following is INCORREn? In arranging cargo on your you should truck A place heavy items at the rear of the load.

4 Match theinternationalcargo symbolswith their correct descriptionsbywriting corresponding description number in the box beside each symbol. the 1 Sling here 3 4 Fragile .handle with care Keep away fromheat Thisway up 5 (You can check your answersto these questions inthe ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section at the back of this manual.) 52 .

KNOWLEDGE You must know the items on your vehicle which should be checked daily. have it checked. do not drive it until ithas been thoroughly checked. If you arc responsible for your own vehicle maintenance. 53 . In carrying out the prescribed checks you should be able to explain to the examiner the procedure being followedand the purpose of the check. YOU will be able to notice small changes in theoperation of the controls. as This section lists checking procedures which should be followed to ensure your vehicle is roadworthy and prepared for a day’s work or an extended trip. For example. including your own! If. heavy and sometimes cumbersome. CONDITIONS: Knowledge test : examination conditions : performance of a typical daily safetycheckcoveringall of the items Practicaltest in the DAILY checklistplus anytwoitems selected by theexaminerfromthe WEEKLY/PRE-TRIP checklist. Your action could save lives. you may notice a change in the ‘feel‘ of the brake pedal or in the position of the steering wheel when driving straight ahead. Be curious and look for the cause. Record it in your vehicle logand report it to your fleet manager for action. If incorrectly handled. weekly and before each trip. Perhaps the semi-trai!er may appear to be tracking differently. If you have any suspicion that your vehicle is unsafe. However. you findsomething that does not seem right. get your mechanic to check it. as a result of checks you make. (DAILY and WEEKLY/PRE-TRIP checklist items are shown onpages 70 and 71. PERFORMANCE You must be able to demonstrate how to carry out the necessary safety checks of your vehicle. the handling of the vehicle or its appearance. Introduction A truck driver’s licence permits you to drive vehicles which are large. pass in the A practical t e t is 80%of the checks demonstrated correctly. Sever ignore such changes. They are early warnings of conditions that could cause breakdowns or become dangerous.MAINTAINING THE VEHICLE Pre-trip and other periodical inspections drivers must make of the vehicle. You must also know howto carry out such checks. STANDARDS: Drivers must pass the knowledge test before commencing the practical test. you should do more thanjust make sure these checksare carried out As you gain experience in truck driving you will become more familiar with your vehicle. As a professional driver you need to appreciate that your safety and the safety of others depends on the proper functioning of your vehicle as well yourcare and skill in driving. these vehicles are much mom dangerous than a car.

a A simple walk-aroundcheck should be performed as amatter of habit whenever the truck is stopped.There are two types of vehicle checks: 1 DAILY CHECKLIST These are the checks which every heavyvehicle driver must know and be able carry out. make sure that those responsible are actually carrying them out. as the driver. on long trips. must make sure they are done. But if you are a private operator.vehicle stationary Systems operation vehicle moving - . of In some circumstances these more comprehensive checks may be carried outby persons other than the driver (fleet maintenance staff for example). to They must be performed each day before driving commences and. they are divided into groups: five - Generalexternalinspection Enginecompartmentinspection In-cab inspection Systems operation .you may need to perform the checks. 2 WEEKLY OR PRE-TRIPCHECKLIST The weekly checklist includes all the daily checks and others which need to be performed regularly to ensure the safety your vehicle. To assist you to perform the inspections systematically. you If don’t do them yourself. You. before recommencing driving after meal or restbreak.

GL A EXTERNAL INSPECTION WEEKLY Vehicle Posture Leaks Load Turntable Wheels and R m s Tyres Brake System Steering System Suspension System Fuel System Exhaust System Vehicle Posture Leaks Load Turntable Wheels and Rims Tyres Fuel System ENGINE COMPARTMENT INSPECTION WEEKLY General Check Fluid Levels Electrical System Belts and Pulleys Air Brake Compressor Cooling System Bonnet Locks DAILY General Check Fluid Levels Belts and Pulleys Bonnet Locks IN-CAB INSPECTION WEEKLY Vehicle Entry Vehicle Registration Emergency and Safety Equipment Vision and Seating Engine Start-up Cab Housekeeping Tilt-cab Loch Minor Controls DAILY Vehicle Registration Vision and Seating Engine Start-up Cab Housekeeping Tilt-cab Locks Minor Controls TABLE 2.2 (Part 1 ) Vehlcle Safely Checks .

Any servicing or repairs needed as a result of these checks must only be carriedout by mechanics or other suitably qualified persons. 56 .2 (Part 2) Vehlcle Safety Checks IMPORTANT The procedures outlined are general procedures only. and for additional checks necessary for your particularvehicle. They do not replace the regular maintenance checks specified in the service manual whichmustbe performed by qualified persons.Adjustment Hydraulic Brakes Vacuum Assistance System DAILY Lights. These procedures are only intended to show truck drivers how to check their vehicle so as to be reasonably certain that they are safe to drive.Complete Vehicle .Trailer System . Check your vehicle operating handbook for detailed information regarding settings. Reflectors& Signs Air Suspension Steering Clutch Transmission Pedals Air Brakes .SYSTEMS OPERATION -Vehicle Stationary 1 WEEKLY Lights. Reflectors Signs & - SYSTEMS OPERATION -Vehicle Moving WEEKLY Trailer Brakes Steering On-road Check DAILY Trailer Brakes On-road Check TABLE 2. adjustments etc.

brake fluid and fuel. . Check that the turntable plate is greased. loaded vehicles (such asflat-tops and trays). Oil. coolant. the transmission. Vehicle ride height: If any partof the vehicle appears to sag orsit lower than usual you should check that it notoverloaded and thatthe load is correctly distributed. or open if you are bobtail. Check that the jaws are properly locked around the kingpin. check beneath the vehicle for fresh drops of oil. is . . Leaks Vehicle lean: As you walk around the vehicle check that it sits squarely on the ground.GENERAL EXTERNAL TNSPECTION Vehicle Posture . . a shifted or unbalanced load or some problem with the suspension. Load . the rear axle and the fueltanks. 57 . Pay particular attention to the areas below the engine compartment. air and other leaks: During your inspection. Listen also for air leaks from the brake system and air suspension. safety equipmentand emergency procedures information) are correctly stowed or installed. Load-related items: Make sure that all load-related items (such as loading/unloading aids. engine coolant. dangerous goods signs. that thesides. . General load security: On open. Excessive leaning to one side may mean a flat tyre. loading bars and straps are inplace so that the Cargo vans: On cargo vans make sure the load is properly secured and that the doors areclosed and properly fastened. Shipping containers: If your truck carries shipping containers make surethe 'twist locks' are correctly securing the container to the truck. Turntable Check that the turntablerelease handle is in the locked position if trailer is on. make sure the load has not shifted. tailgate and liftgate are properly secured and that the tarpaulins andlashings are firm.

If you suspect a or it to be loose it can only be properly checked for tightness with a wheel-wrench. 58 . Tyres Tyre pressures: Check tyre pressures using a pressure gauge that you are sure is accurate. the tyres may overheat andcatch fire. nails. Tread wear: Badly worn or bald tyres are more likely to puncture or blow out. glass or other objects which have become wedged in the tread and could puncture or damage the tyre. Check that the tread is not separating from the casing. make sure the side walls of dual tyres are not can touching. bulges. and signs of wearcaused by repeated contact with other partsof the vehicle.) if Tyre fitting: If new tyres have been installed check that they are fitted correctly. (If a multi-piece rim using lock rings is found to be damaged. If this happens the tyre valve can be torn out or damaged.) Low tyre pressure on the front wheels can cause heavy steering and poor vehicle control. Objects wedged between tyres cancause serious tyre damage or failure. Remove any stones. If they are. Dual tyres: When the vehicle is loaded. If pressure is low in either or both tyres and they aretouching. You should also remove any rocks or other objects wedged between the dual tyres or between the wheel and brake drum. Loss of lubricant can damage wheel bearings and prevent the brakes from working. Make especially sure that the wheel rims have been correctly assembled (lock rings propcrly the installed. Low pressure on rear wheels and trailer wheels more difficult to detect while driving is dual particularly withdual tyre assemblies. etc. tighten the nuts holding the rims on. If there isany doubt deflate tyre before handling. You or should also check that the valve-stems are not damaged fouling other components. Wheel nuts and lugs: Check that all wheelnuts and lugs are correctly fitted and properly nut tightened. Small can wheel to lock during braking amounts o f lubricant on brake linings actually cause a when the brakes are cold (often the first sign o f an oil or brakefluid leak ina wheel). If the valve is okay. 9 Grease or oil leaks: Look for grease or oil leaks from the wheel bearings. (signsof rust around a nut lug may indicate is loose).Wheels and Rims Rim damage: Check that the wheel rims are not bent or damaged. These rims can cause very serious injury they come apart while the tyre is inflated. Tyre condition: Check the side walls and the treads of the tyres for cuts. (You can't check tyre pressure properly kickingor thumping the by tyres. Hydroplaning can also occuron wet roads leadingto loss of steering and braking control. the tyre should be deflated before handling. overheating. Lack of tread depth also reduces grip on slippery surfaces and this can lead to braking skids. poor steering response and jack knifing.). While checking the wheel nuts and lugs you shouldalso make sure that the wheel spiders have not spun in the rims. tyre damage and tyre fires occur.

Hydraulic systems: Check that the hydraulic hoses are not touching other components or leaking. Check the steering gear box mounting bolts and the steering arm for signs of looseness (sometimes indicated by traces of rust or wear marks). drums can be easilyseen.) Check also for signs of wear or damage due to contact with other components. Steering linkage: Check that all parts of the steering linkage are propcrly attached. of Steering gear box: Check the steering gear h x for oil leaks. 59 . wear or damage due to contact with othercomponents. Brake drums: Wherethebrake overheating. cracks or damage. I ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~ NOTE: An operationalcheck of the brakes is carried out later in the inspection after the engine isstarted. Steering System N O T E On some vehicles (particularly tilt-cabs) some of these steering checks may be more easily carried out as part the ENGINE COMPARTMENT INSPECTION. (Again lookfor rustor wear marks as a sign of looseness.Brake System NOTE: On some vehicles (particularly tilt-cabs) some of these brake checks may be camed outmore easily as partof the ENGINE COMPARTMENT inspection. check them for signs of Air systems: Check that brakechambers and other components securely attached and are that the linkages and hoses are properly connected and show no evidence of contact with other components. Power steering: Check hoses and other power steering components for signs of leakagc. Look for signsof fluid leakage around the wheel cylinders and atthe bottom of the back plate which supports the shoes.

Check Fuel lines and filters: Check thatfuellinesaresecure. Check for frame cracks around the attachment points. Exhaust System Muffler and pipes: Check that the muffler and exhaust pipes are properly supported and not leaking. Check rubber bushings for wear or damage. Shock absorbers:If shock absorbers are fitted. cracks. Check for signs of wear or damagedue to contact between suspension components and frame the or body.Suspension NOTE: On some vehicles (particularly tilt-cabs) some of the frontsuspension checks may be carried out more easily as part of the ENGINE COMPARTMENT INSPECTION. (Leaks will be checked after starting the engine. bends or missing parts. Check the fuel filters for the presence of excessive water or wax. check the mountings for looseness and the rubber bushingsfor wear. check them for leaks or damage. or any combustible materials are not close enough to the exhaust to cause any risk of fire or damage. Fuel System Fuel tanks: Make sure the fueltanks are properly secured and not damaged or leaking.) Air suspension: Check bellows and air lines for signs contact with other components of or damage.) Adjustable axles: If the vehicle has adjustable axles make sure that the locking pins are all properly inplace and arecorrectly secured by the safety clamps.U-bolts and torque arms for looseness. spring pins. . Check that tank caps are properly fitted. or (Missing spring clips will allow leaves to twist out from their proper position. the fuel level. Suspension linkages andattachments: Check the spring brackets.notleaking.andcorrectly positioned away from the hot exhaust and dangerof entanglement with other objects. electrical cables. Leaf springs: Check leaf springs for leaves which are broken.Check that all hoses and other attached components secure and ingood are condition. missing have shifted. Fire danger: Make sure fuel lines.

Other levels: Check the levels of engine coolant in the radiator (and coolant reservoir). Release the radiator cap carefully to avoid any risk of scalding. NOTE: On tilt-cab vehicles some of the checks for Brake. General Check Damaged and missingparts: After opening the engine compartment. in some forward control vehicles. coolant. access to the engine compartment is gained by tilting the cab forward. power steering. If the vehicle is equipped with hydraulic brakes check the brake fluid level in the master cylinder. and the air compressor and fuel injection pump (if not lubricated by the engine system). automatic transmission. However. pay particular attention to the high tension wiring and components. missing oil filler cap or loose air cleaner bolt. 61 . fuel or hydraulic fluid leaks. Check also around the manifold and exhaustsystem for signsof exhaust gasleaks. carry out a general check for damaged or missing parts and signs of improper servicing such as a cracked fan shroud. Fluid Levels Oil levels: Check the oil levels in the engine. 1 I Electrical System Battery: Make sure the battery is properly secured and that the terminals are tight and free of corrosion. electrolyte in the battery and fluidin the windscreen washers. CAUTION Do not check the coolant level while the engine is hot. Leaks: Check for signs of oil. Steering and Suspension Systems from the GENERAL EXTERNAL INSPECTION can be performed more easilyas part of this ENGINE COMPARTMENT INSPECTION.ENGINE COMPARTMENT INSPECTION In most vehicles an engine compartmentinspection will involve lifting the bonnet. If the vehicle has spark plugs. they should be kept clean and dry. Wiring: Make sure that all cables and wiring are properly secured and that all terminals are firmlyconnected.

power steering pump and air conditioner. Make sure all other components are clear of the blades. Hoses: Check all coolant hoses for cracks or weakness and for leaks at theconnections. If it is possible to turn a pulley around inside its belt the belt is too loose and should be adjusted. bent or loose bladcs and worn bearings. Cooling System Radiator and fan: Check that the radiator is not blocked by insects or grass seeds and that the radiator shroud is secure and undamaged. Belt tension: Check the tension of all belts. water pump.) Any belts showing signs of cracking or fraying should be replaced. air compressor. - 62 . Air Brake Compressor Air intake screen: Check that the intake filter on the air-brake compressor is not blocked. Check that the radiator shutters (if fitted) arenot damaged or seized.Belts and Pulleys Belt condition: Check that all drive belts are in place for the alternator (or generator). (Note: Somc components use twin belts.Check the fanfor damaged. Bonnet Locks Check that the bonnet locks are properly secured.

Adjust the driving mirrors suit your driving to position. If you also have emergency lamps check their condition. With the windscreen wet. Vehicle Entry Check that the ladder. Emergency and Safety Equipment Check that you have all the necessary emergency and safety equipment and that it is in good condition.IN-CAB INSPECTION In this part of your vehicle inspection you check the controls for correct functioning andsettings. Windscreen wipers: As you clean the windscreen also clean the wiper blades and check their condition.) The penalty for driving an unregistered (and uninsured) vehicle can be disqualification from holding a driver’s licence. Check that the doors close properly and latch securely.scratches or pitting. Vehicle Registration Check that the vehicle registration has not expired. You also start the engine. a Vision and Seating Glass: Clean all windows and mirrors to ensure clear vision. 63 . step and grab handles or rails are secure. First aid kit: If a first aid kit is provided. and tools for minor repairs such as jack and wheel wrench. While cleaning also check them for cracks. Emergency reflectors and lamps: Check that you have at least three emergency reflectors. the cab safety and vision. (Some of this equipment maybe located elsewhere on the vehicle. check that it is complete and correctly stowed. you can also check wiper operation.) Your equipment should include the following: - Fire extinguishers: Check that you have the required number and correct type for your particular cargo and that they are fully charged. (This is especially important if the vehicle is not one you regularly drive. Spares and tools: Check that you have spare fuses and light globes. Seating and mirrors: Adjust the seat to the correct driving position and then check and adjust the seat belt. the emergency equipment.

Engine Start-up Preparation: Check that the parking brake is on and that the transmission is in neutral. If cut-off occurs below 690 kPa (100 psi) or above 860 kPa (125 psi) some further attention needed. it takes some time for theoil fault. check that all instruments and gauges are working and that readings are within normal the limits. Check the time taken to build up from 350 kPa to 620 kPa (50 psi to 90 psi). - low air pressure warning buzzer should operate continuously. Set the engine shutdown knob or lever the 'RUN' position. If it is greater than5 minutes the air brake system may need further attention. air pressure gauge should show a gradual increase. Pressure loss after 10 minutes should not be more than 70 kPa (10 psi). Instruments and gauges: With the engine running.) air compressorcut-off should occur when the pressure is within range 690 kPa to the 860 kPa (100psi to 125 psi). That is: oil pressure gauge should begin to register within 5 seconds of starting the engine and then rise normal pressure to amp gauge shouldbegin to register a charge after afew seconds - voltmetershould show gradual increase from initial starting voltage operating voltage coolant and oil temperature gauges should gradually rise normal range to to normal oil. Air brake system: If the vehicle is fitted with air brakes the following should also be checked: NOTE: The pressures and times quoted below are intended as typical examples only. Check your vehicle operating manual or ask your trainer or the manufacturer what the figures should be for your vehicle. to Starting: If the engine is adiesel equipped with glow plugs and it is cold. coolant and charge warning lights should switch within the first fewseconds off of start-up. is - Shut down engine: Having allowed the engine to run during the preceding checks it may now be shut down. pressure should be checked again after the vehicle has been standing for about 10 minutes. until air pressure builds u p to at least 410 kPa (60psi). . Do not over revthe engine on start-up or while to reach all components and for the components to warm to their proper working tolerances. Do not operate the brakes during this time. If the oil off try pressure does not register within 5 seconds switch the engine and to determine the cold. allow 15 to 50 seconds for the glow plugs to heat up before cranking the engine. Pressing the clutch pedal down eases the load on the starter. Air pressure drop: Note the air pressure reading when the engine is switched This off. Listen for air leaks as you move around the vehicle completing other checks. Startthe engine and allow it to idle until correct oil pressure is registered by the oil pressure gauge. (To prevent damage to turbocharger bearings due to oil starvation do not shut down a turbocharged engine until has been running at least 5 it minutes after a cold start. (This check is dealt with inmore detail later in this section.) Make sure the parking brake is applied so that the vehicle cannot move.

check operation of controls and units warning lights not alreadychccked (e. Minor Controls NOTE You may find it most convenient to check the Minor controls at the same time as the Lights. Reflectorsand Signs checksin the next section. Tilt-cab Locks Check that the tilt<ab locks are properly secured.oil pressure) - 65 .check switch operation head and parking lights . demister. Check the following controls. air conditioner .Cab Housekeeping Remove any rubbish from inside the cab which could distract you or interfere with your driving. Check especially that there areno the loose items on the floor which could roll around and lodge beneath pedals or papers and books on top of the dashboardwhich could reflect in thewindscreen. Make sure all equipment is properly stowed. switches and warning lights for correct settings and to make certain they areall functioning: - windscreen wipers and washers (make sure windscreen is wet whcn wipers are operated) horn turn indicators -check switch operation.check switch operation and high beam indicator light heater.g. warninglight and buzzer hazard warning lights .

and clearly visible. . turn. or directly from a wall if it is close enough. Remember to turn the ignition key and all switches 'off' afterwards. It will be easier if you have an assistant to help you with some of these checks. Air Suspension Air bellows: After the air pressure hasbuilt up check that thebellows arc supporting the vehicle and that the vehicle is level. For some of the checks anassistant will beneeded. Ask the assistant to apply the brakeswhile you check the brake lights. the turning indicator lights (and buzzer. and all reflectors. make sure they are clean. tail lights and number plate lights. Check the parking lights.I SYSTEM OPERATION -VEHICLE STATIONARY I In this part of your inspection you check the operationof the major controls and vehicle systems. if fitted) and finally the hazard warning lights. if fitted).clearance lights. Make sure that all required signs and dangerous goods labels are correctly displayed and legible. your assistant can help you as you check the reversing lights (and buzzer. Lights. If you do not have an assistantyou may be able to perform some of these checks using the reflection from windows of a building or car. Driving lights and reflectors: Check the headlights on both high and low beam. and that the red and yellow marker plates. Listen for air leaks in the system. Any faulty light globes or lenses should be replaced. securely attached to the vehicle. so turn the keyto the 'on' position. if required. Reflectors and Signs Condition and cleanliness: As you check the components listed under this heading. Make sure that the bellows are not contacting other components or are damaged. Similarly. are clean and fitted to the rear of the vehicle. Brake. reversing and hazard warning lights: Some of these lights may be wired through the ignition.

check that the gear lever and other transmission controls operate properly. Clutch Free-play and disengagement: Check the free-play of the clutch by pushing in the pedal until a slight resistance is felt. about 15 cm is acceptable - check the condition of the steering linkage check for any sign of looseness in the steering joints and steering arm attachingbolts - if the vehicle is equipped with power steering these checks may be carried out with the engine running (provided the parking brake is applied and therear wheels are chocked) while carrying out these checks listen for any unusualnoises from the power steering Pump. Check that the clutch disengages properly by pushing in the pedal and holding it in while you move the gear lever and outof reverse gear several in times. Too much free-play can cause gear clashing. The following check points should be observed when undertaking this - with the front wheels in the straight-ahead position check the free play by turning the steering wheel to one side until the road wheels begin to move. The gears should not grate after the first engagement. the gears are more likely to grate) if the transmission oil is hot. If there is no free-play.Steering Free-play and linkage: Here again it would be helpful to havean assistant. In particular make sure to press the accelerator firmly to the floor (with the engine switched off) checking of that it shows no signsticking. attention to the clutch may be required. If they do. Check that the pedalactions are not excessively loose or stiff. This check is more sensitive (Le. Pedals Condition and operation: Check that the rubber pads are properly fitted and in good order. clutch slip and thrust bearingwear can occur.5 and 5 crn (about 1 to 2 inches). 67 . Transmission Shifting action: With the engine running and the clutch pedal held down. Normal free-playis between 2. then turn in the just other direction until theroad wheels again move - the steering wheel movement fromone side to the other ona vehicle equipped with an power steering should not exceed 10 cm travel at the rimof average truck steering wheel as yourassistant turns the steering wheel about half a turn towardseach lock for a vehicle without power steering.

take careful note of the items mentionedin steps 4. This is done in order remove condensed moisture (water) to from the tanks and allow checking of to other componentsin the system. 1 Immobilise the vehicle: Make sure the vehicle is on firm level ground and that the parking brakes are applied andall wheels on at least one drive are securely chocked. NOTE It is essential that thevehicle is on firm level ground andthe wheels are chocked because at stages during the inspection all brakes will be released. Start engine: Turn the ignition key on. Do not perform this air brake inspection if these conditions cannot met. Close all drain cocks and valves after the system has been drained.) Watch also for signs of oil in the drained water. NOTE: If your vehicle is an articulated or combination unit. Check your vehicle operating manualor ask your trainer the manufacturer what be the figures should for yourvehicle.5 and 6. frontand axle rear. .Air Brakes Complete Vehicle The following is a stepby-step procedure whichwill enable youto carry out a completeweekly or pretrip inspection of your air brake system. If more than just a trace of oil is present. The low pressure warning buzzer and/or light should begin operating continuously. Start engine andrun at fast-idle (approximately 1000 rpm) the to build up pressure in the reservoirs. the compressor may need servicing. (Water in system causes corrosion and decreased brake the component service life. steps 1 to 11 should be carried out with the trailer brakes conn&ted. - NOTE All pressures and times quoted in this section are intended astypical examples or only. be 2 Drain all tanks:Completely empty all air from the tanks by opening the drain valves. Low pressure warning cut-off: The low pressure warning device should continue operating until the air pressurereaches at least 410 kPa (60 psi). While pressure is building. I 3 4 NOTE Brake system manufacturers recommend that air tanks be drained daily.

Where time permits. 10 Loss of pressure protection: With the engine switched off. if may helpto lightly tap the pressure gauge it appears to be sticking. This time will vary from onevehicle to another depending on the tank capacities. this check can be performed more accurately by allowing the vehicle to stand for 10 minutes and watching for a pressuredrop of no more than 70 kPa (10 psi). Have the system checkedi f - the time ever varies by more than a minute. If the above limits arc exceeded. (5 minutes maybe a satisfactory time if tank capacity is large or the engine speed is set low. Excessive pressure drop as the brakes arc applied can be due to a fault in the system or may indicate (You can verify whether theyneed adjusting by checking the that the brakes need adjusting. Release parking or spring brakes:Check that the vehicle is on firm level ground and the not wheels are securely chocked (as specified in step 1)-otherwise do carry out this step.) NOTE If service and reserve tanks are f e d through individual check valves. the service gauge will reach a predetermined pressure before reserve tank begins to build-up. The low air pressure warning device should begin operating within the range of 280 kPa to 410 kPa (40 psi to 60 psi) and the tractor protection valve should switch from 'ncrmaY to 'emergency' position within the range 140 kPa to 310 kPa (20 psi to 45 psi). or if possible. 11 Apply the parking brakes: Reapply parking brakes and start the engine to build u p full the - pressure before continuing with yourinspection. While the vehicle stands for5 minutes note any drop in pressure. or 20 kPa (3 psi) per minute for articulated or combination vehicles.) Continue to hold the brakes on for one. the time exceeds 5 minutes. Pressure loss system standing:Run the engineuntil maximum pressure has been reached (It and then shut it down. have it checked.5 Rate of pressure build up: Check the time taken for the pressure to increase from 350 kPa to 620 Wa (50 psi to 90 psi). Any further pressure drop should not be faster than 15 kPa (2 psi) per minute for rigid vehicles. Apply the brakes: Apply the brakes fully by pressing the brake pedal to the floor and holding it there. two minutes. on thefirst occasion you do this test. If outside thisrange. In other systems where the reserve tank is f e d from the service tank through acharging valve.) If the pressuredrop in 5 minutes exceeds 35 kPa (5 psi) the system should be checked. Release the parking brake. making sure the tractor protection valve is in the 'normal' if position. push-rod movementas outlined laterin this section. have the system checked. You should record the actual time taken and watch for any change each time you repeat thetest (always usingthe same engine speed). reduce air pressure in the tanks by repeatedly pumping the brake pedal. The pressure drop should not be more than 85 kPa (12 psi). but have it checked tobe sure. This ensures thatall brakes are released including the spring brakes fitted. pressure build-up should be steady and equal on both gauges. the Maximum cut-off pressure: Check the pressure at which the unloader valve operates and no further pressure build-upoccurs. 69 . type of compressor and engines p e d used. This should be at least 690 kPa (100 psi) but must not be greater than860 kPa (125psi).

Air brakes -Trailer system If your vehicle is an articulated unit. (This emergency application of the brakes should be capable of holding the vehicle for at least 15 minutes. 70 . prevent airloss. steps 1 to 11 should have been carried out with the trailer brakes connected. making sure the air couplings are properly locked. CAUTION Take care when disconnecting air couplings under pressure. those obtained in step 14 Return system to normal: Re-connect the trailer hoses. the tractor protection valve should have switched from the ‘normal‘ to the ’emergency‘ position and sealed off the prime mover system so no air could escape through the trailer hoses. This can be verified by checking for movement of the trailer brake linkage. the Fully apply thefoot brakes and hold the pedal down. Pressurelosses should be no more than 9. Start the engine recharge the air tanks. Apply the parking brakes. 12 Breakaway application: After ensuring that - the vehicle is on firm ground with the wheels chocked (step 1) the air tanks are fully pressurised the tractor protectionvalve is in the ’normal’ position the trailer brakes are fully released disconnect the airhoses between the prime mover and trailer. NOTE: Some vehicles are fitted with cut-off valves on the air couplings which also tractor protection valve may not operate. The trailer brakes should immediately and automatically apply. If these are fitted. Protect your eyes from the release of compressed air and hold the coupling components firmly to prevent them flying apart.) 13 Check tractor protection valve operation: When the trailer hoses were disconnected. The following additional steps should also becarried out with these vehicles.Reset the tractorprotection valve and to ‘normal’.

Repeat the check for each of the other wheels. If the pedal goes all the way to the floor or noticeably further be than usual.Air Brake Adjustment IMPORTANT The procedure which follows is designed to assist you to check brake adjustment. You will also need an assistant to help you carry out the checks. Re-applythe parking brakeafter this check. Have the system checked Maximum pressure check With the engine running. rapidly pump the pedal 3 times. This measurement should only be used as an approximate check on a vehicle which is unfamiliar to you. CAUTION Keep your fingers clear of the linkage when carrying outthic check. release the parking brake normally. If push-rod movement varies greatly from one if wheel to another or exceeds specificationhave the brakes checked to see they are worn or need adjusting.) With the (if necessary) and apply the foot-brake engine running. Total movementshould not be more than the distance specified in the manual. adjustment or bleeding of the system is required. If the pedal moves more than half way down. service is required. air 71 . If adjustment is required it must only be done by a qualified person. Before you can checkthis you will need to find out from yourvehicle manual or from the equipment manufacturer what are the acceptable limits of movement.the totalmovementshouldnotexceed 5 cm (2 inches). Push-rod movement: With the air tanks fully charged and the parking brakes released. Slow application check: Apply the foot brake very slowly taking about 15 seconds to achieve full pedal travel. Note: The preceding three checks do not apply to over hydraulic systems. This inspection is carried out by checking the amount of brake cylinder push-rod movement at each wheel. note the movement of the brake chamber push-rod for one the wheels as yourassistant of applies and releases the foot brake. As a roughguide. Hydraulic Brakes Pedaltravelandfirmness: (Note: If the parkingbrake is notmounted on the transmission it will need to be released for this check so chock the wheels. The need to bleed the air from the system may be indicated if the pedal feels soft or 'spongy' rather than firm. If you drivethe vehicle regularly find out the correct measurement. apply brakes with the maximum force possible and hold the application for about 5 seconds. hydraulic seals in the systemmay leaking. If the pedal moves further down duringthis time.

first inspect the brakes as explained in the previous section. 'Hydraulic Brakes'. the system should checked. fully apply the brakes and of note the rate vacuum loss (tap the gaugeif the needle is sticking).Vacuum Assistance System For vacuum assisted brakes. Vacuum loss brakes applied: With the engine switchedoff. - 72 . Check that the air filter on the vacuumassistance unit isnot blockedand correctly fitted. Warning signal: With the engine switched off. be Hoses and air filter: Check that all hoses are properly secured and in good condition. Then carry out the following additional checks ofthe vacuum system: Build up maximum vacuum: Run the engine until maximum vacuum is reached in the vacuum reservoir. pump the brakes until the low vacuum warning signal operates.If the signal does not operate before the pressure drops below 2M)mm (Hg).If vacuum islost at a be rate of more than 12mm (Hg)per minute the system should checked.

Steering Steering action: Drive the vehicle forward at no more than 5 kmh and turn the steering wheel first to full right lock.) On-road check After driving the first 50 kilometres of a trip.You will need to turn thewheel quickly if space is limited. you should check the temperatures of the tyres. If it does. firmly apply the parking brake and gently try to move off again. gently drive the vehicle forward about one metre. then to full left lnck and return to straight ahead. Check also for oil. test the slack in the turntable coupling by gently driving the prime mowr forward and then gently reversing back.apply thetrailer brake only and tryto move off again.SYSTEMS OPERATION -VEHICLE MOVING In this final part of your vehicle inspection you will be driving the vehicle (although only for a short distance and at low speed). Makesure the load is still secure. If the brakes pull to one side. remove the wheelchocks (if in place). Stop the vehicle. A high temperature could indicate an under-inflated tyre. Stop the vehicle. If there seems to be any abnormal movement i n the coupling. they should be checked before driving thevehicle. If it does. The vehicle should notmove. check that theair lines are all connected correctly and repeatthe test. do not drive the vehicleuntil the fault is repaired. Turntable (fifth wheel) slackness: With the trailer brakes applied. Before commencing you should apply the parking brake. be The vehicle should not move. stop in a safe place away from traffic flow and briefly check around the vehicle. 73 . water or other leaks. respond sluggishly or feel unusual in any way. a binding brake or faulty wheel bearings. (Note: An empty parkinglot is a good place for this check. Trailer (if attached) Trailer brake: Release all brakes on the vehicle and gently drive the vehicle forward about one metre.Investigate anything unusual.particularly any strange noises such asknocks or scrapes which could indicate a fault. For example. the parking brake should checked before the vehicle is driven. hubs and brake drums by touching them with your hand.If the trailer brakes still do not work. find out why and correct the fault. Brakes Parking brakes: With all brakes released. and check that the surrounding area clear of traffic and is other obstructions. Service brakes: Drive the vehicle forward in first gear at about 5 kmh (walking pace) and then apply the foot brakes as hard as you would in an emergency.

The purpose of this list is to Refer to the Weekly/Pre-trip checklist for detailed instructions for performing any of the Daily Checks. The Daily checks listed here are included in the more extensive Weekly/Pre-trip checklist and will not be covered again in depth here. Table 2.DAILY CHECKLIST These are the checks you must perform each day before you take a truck on the road. 74 .2 shows all of the checks and can be ahelpful guide. Most out to of them are also checks you should perform whenever you stop your vehicle for an extended break (such asfor a meal or test) during along trip. enable you to carry out the checks ina methodical sequence.

GENERAL EXTERNAL INSPECTlON

Vehicle posture

Vehicle lean Vehicle rideheight.
Leaks

Oil, coolant and other leaks beneath vehicle Air leaks in brakes or suspension.
Load

Load security - on open loaded vehicles and cargo vans Shipping containers - securely mounted Load related items -safety equipment, dangerous goods, signs, etc. Turntable Turntable handle in locked position Jawsproperly locked Plate greased.
Wheels

No bent or damaged rims Wheel nuts and lugs tight, wheel spider hasnot spun in rim No grease or oil leaks.
Tyres Pressures Tyre condition - wear, damage, wedged stones. Fuel System Fuel level, leaking or damaged tanks and lines.

75

ENGINE COMPARTMENT INSPECTION

General Check

Damaged or missing parts Leaks.
Fluid Levels Oil, coolant, battery, windscreen washers, hydraulic brake fluid.

Belts and Pulleys Belt condition and tension.
Bonnet Locks Bonnetlocks properly secured.

76

IN-CAB INSPECTION

Vehicle Registration Check whether expired (if it is not your regular vehicle). Vision and Seating Clean all windows and mirrors Clean and check windscreen wiper blades Adjust seating and mirror positions.

1

Engine Start-up Gear lever in neutral, clutch pushed down Start engine - watch for oil pressure within 5 seconds Checkinstrumentsand gauges Air brake system: Low air pressurcwarning - Rate of pressure build up - Maximum pressure at cut-off Switch off engine Check air prcssure drop and listen for leaks.
~

Cab Housekeeping
Remove rubbish, stow equipment.

Tilt-cab Locks Tilt-cab locks properly secured. Minor Controls NOTE: Checks of Minor controls can be conveniently done at the same time as the ‘Lights, Reflectors and Signs’ checkslisted next. Check all controls, switches and warning lights for correct settings and operation.

77

. . 7a .undamagedand working. SYSTEMS OPERATION -VEHICLE STATIONARY - Trailer Check that trailer brakes are working properly. Reflectors and Signs Check condition and cleanliness of all lights. Brakes . Check turntable slackness.hazardwarninglights . reflectors and signs Check driving lights and reflectors-undamaged and all working Check brake. Check thatparkingbrakesare working properly Check service brakes at slow speed. . On-road Check Stop and externally check vehicle after first 50 km of a trip.reversing.turn.SYSTEMS OPERATION-VEHICLE STATIONARY I all Lights. .

drain all air tanks. 3 'Hydroplaning' most commonly occurs A as a result of hydraulic brake fluid loss. on drive wheels. B C D Clutch free play.KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS MAINTAINING THE VEHICLE 1 Which of the following is not a 'daily check' item? A Tyre pressures. 2 Which of the following shouldbe the first item checked immediately after engine start-up? A Battery charge rate. Air pressure build up. 5 In checking a hydraulic braking system. 79 . Lights and reflectors. D loss of vacuum assistance. B C chock the wheels. B Low air pressure warning signals. with new tyres. D disconnect the trailer hoses. Oil levels. C that the parking brake is still applied. B the need to bleed air from the system. C D Engine oil pressure. a 'soft' or 'spongy' pedal may indicate A worn brake linings. 4 In carrying out a weekly or pre-trip inspection of the complete brake system your first step should be to A start the engine. B D C on very wet roads.

to emergency position when the air pressure B C 310 .6 me tractor protection valve should switch drops to A 80 .310 kl'a (20 .45 psi).65 psi).620 kPa (70 .450 kPa (45 .) . D 140 . (You can check your answers to these questionsin the ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section at the back of this manual.70 psi).480 kPa (65 . 450 .90 psi).

CONDITIONS: Knowledge test Practical test STANDARDS: : : examination conditions on-road driving test. If you have any physical or medical conditions which may affect your ability to drive a heavy vehicle safely such as a spinal complaint. PERFORMANCE: All driving. General Health and Safety Driving a truck is demandingwork and itrequires you to be physicallyfit and mentally alert so that you performat your best. compensate so that you can still 81 . NOTE In some states anapproved medical examination maybe required before you are granted a truck driver's licence. diabetes or a heart complaint. If you have any problem with your vision you should seek advice regarding yoursuitability for professional driving. The following are someof the importantfactors affectingdriver safety. Drivers must have a knowledge of health and safety issues and maintain the standards required by the appropriate statelicensing authorities. you should discuss your suitability as a truck driver with yourdoctor. It is usually possible to correct the problem or adjust your driving styleto drive safely. the ability to judge distances. Drivers must be fit and healthy to a standard set by the industry. Eyesight Sharp eyesight. good peripheral (side) vision and being able to recognize different colours are all extremely important elements of a driver's overall vision requirements. maintenance and loading must be carried out with drivers taking care of their health and safety. Physical Fifness You must be physically fit to be a professional truck driver. By adopting a healthy lifestyleand following safe practices in your driving you can ensure that your driving performance is always of a high standard.SAFE DRIVING PRACTICES DRIVER HEALTH AND SAFEW KNOWLEDGE You must know how to maintain your health and safety as a driver and understand why this isimportant to the road transport industry.

If you find yourself a tending to stare straight ahead with fixed gaze. Many drivers find it helpful to the direct fresh cool air ontotheir faces. Avoid large. Keep your eyes moving. etc). Always follow the rules regardingthe number of hours of driving permitted in any given time period. Stop and take a break. driving performance drops rapidly. You will find that you begin making poor judgements and over-reacting to situations. Recognizing the symptomsof fatigue and knowing how to combat them will help you become a safer driver. One of the most obvious effects of decreased nightvision is a reduction inthe ability of the eyes to recover from dazzling lights. you arebecoming fatigued. - - As fatigue increases. - a2 . take a Frequent short stops are better than occasional long ones. preferably a littleon the cool side.This can be a serious problem the truck driver who drives long distances at for night. - Make sure there is plenty of fresh air entering cabin. Maintain cabin temperature at a comfortable level. Fatigue Professional drivers are often at the wheel for long hours and fatigue can become a serious problem. The symptoms are: ~ frequent yawning heavy eyelids dryness of the mouth sore eyes shivering double vision. (Better still. These rules arefor your safety and the safety of others. you should not even allow the symptoms to appear. Stop after every 2 or 3 hours driving. Light meals. or have difficultyin maintaining focus.A common problem experienced by older drivers is a reduction innight vision.) The following rules will help you combat fatigue: Make sure youget adequate sleep. constantly switching your gazeas you drive. break. tyres. get out of your vehicle and exercise. These breaks are also an ideal time for checking your vehicle (load. plus snacks during driving will help you stay alert. You should stop and rest immediately when you notice any of these symptoms. Posture You should always adjust your driving positionso that you are sitting upright with yourback and shoulders against the back of the seat and your legs well supported by the front of the seat cushion. A poor drivingposition will increase fatigue andmay aggravate any spinal or muscular problems you have. heavy meals before driving.

betaken. DNpS It is dangerous to drive under the influence of any drug. Illegal drugs (such as marijuana) can seriously affect your driving performance and shouldnever to keepyouawakewhiledriving. Don’t be misled into thinking that drinking coffee or taking cough drops can counter the effects of alcohol or prevent it being or detected in your blood on your breath. the speed of other vehicles and distances between vehicles. even half an hour maybe enough to enable you to continue drivingsafely. a Fatigue resistance: Alcohol makes you sleepy. the Remember: Fatigue is a contributing factor in many of horrific accidents on our highways. Therefore. or alcohol and drugs. The message is clear: alcohol and drivingdon’t mix! Alcohol is adrug which canaffect your drivingperformance in the following ways: Judgment: Difficulty in judging your speed. Do not place your life and the lives of others at risk. check with your doctor about whetherit is safe to drive do not mix drugs or take alcohol with drugs Alcohol Accident statistics show that alcohol is a factor in 40 to 50% of all fatal road accidents and that 75%of drivers or riderskilled in single vehicle road accidents have been drinking alcohol. Co-ordination: Driving involves performing many tasks at the same time. you won’t have any idea how bad your driving of really is. You shouldalsoavoidtakingstimulants Combinations of drugs. - Sense of confidence: You will be more likely to take risks you would not normally take. check that it is safe for you to drive when you are taking it. Furthermore. Even drugs prescribed by a doctor while can affect driving ability.- If you feel sleepy. By reducing your ability to do more than one thing attime your standardof driving islowered.Two hours is plenty. Alcohol is eliminated from the body quite slowly. If you feel tired. if your doctorprescribes medication. take abreak. If you have drunkalcohol there are no short cuts to gettingit out of your system-time is the only way. The important rules you should always observe as aprofessional driver are: do not take any drugs unless they are medically prescribed if you are taking medically prescribed drugs.can have unpredictable and dangerouseffects and should be avoided. pull off the road and take a short nap. .

amount and type of food consumed. . The actual figure varies from person to person and is dependent on body size.1 in the section entitled ‘Acts and Regulations’. thetime required to reduce the alcohol in your system asafe drivinglevel can be to up to 12 hours. don’t drive.05% in one hour. or even longer in extreme cases. theBlood raised to 0. amount of body fat.1 are consumed on an empty stomach.It takes about Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of an average person is three hours for that person’s body to eliminate the alcohol of each standard drink. this information if you plan to become a professional Maximum permissible Blood Alcohol Concentration levels for drivers in the various states and territories are given in Table 4.1 ‘Standard Drinks’ all of which contain aboutthe same amount of alcohol If 3 of the standard drinks shownin figure 3. In some cases it can even be an offence to drive within24 hours of drinking alcohol regardless of how much you drink (DangerousGoods Act). IMPORTANT These figures are given only illustrate how alcohol is absorbed and to eliminated by the body. Depending on how much alcohol you have drunk. Particular combinations of these factors could mean that alcohol might have a greatereffect on you thanfor the ’average’ person described. it will be 9 hours before the alcohol has been completely eliminated. at least until you are certain the alcohol has been eliminated from your system. Thus if the person consumed three drinks. More detailed information on drinking and driving is readily available from state motoring authorities and associations.Figure 3. The penalties for drink-driving offences are severe all and may includeloss of licence leading to disqualification from driving in states andterritories in Australia. The only sure rule for professional drivers is: If you drink. It strongly advised that you obtain and use is truck driver. Warning It is an offence to drive with more than theprescribed concentration of alcohol in yourblood. the timeof day and even the mood of the individual.

Someof the most common dangers are: Entering and leaving the driving c a b Always use the steps. move the vehicle well clearof the roadway to avoid danger from passing traffic. Slippery surfaces: Beware of slippery surfaces on the vehicle (load platforms. ( S e e figure 3.2) road Lifting: Always follow safe lifting practices. rear o vehcie. I ADDroach cab door Leave cab by walking towards horn lront of vehicle.2 Approachlng and leaving a vehicle safelyby faclng oncoming traffic .Injuries As a truck driver you will frequently be working in situations where your physical safety is at risk. being especially careful when you are tired. Climb down from the cab (or trailer deck backwards. Take extra care when working on the off side of the vehicle. Climb down carefully and use steps if provided. always face the oncoming traffic so you don’t get hit from behind. never jump down. Use the correct jacking and wheel changing procedures in the section called ‘Breakdowns and Accidents’. Look around the comer the cab before stepping out on the because motorists willnot see you coming. Switch on hazard waming lights and set up waming triangles or lights. and no joke. Jumping: Do not jump down fromyour vehicle.wear it. Be especially careful when returning to the cab. Minor knee and back injuries are cumulative. If you havea reflective safety vest. all it‘s When your truck is parked on the roadside: Always check your mirror before opening the cab door. steps) and around the vehicle (wet or oily surfaces). f c I Figure 3. Approach your cab door from the front of the truck to minimise of exposure time and enable you to face the traffic. They’re called “micro-traumas”. If you mustcheck the off side of the truck. Numerous books and leaflets are available on how to lift objects safely. foot-holds and grab handles provided. Beware of passing traffic. Avoid twisting your back unnecessarily. They add up. chassis frame. Wheel Changing: If possible.

(You can check your answers to these questions inthe ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section at the back of this manual. 2 As a professional driveryou should only drinkalcohol A if you're also drinking coffee to keep alert. drinking wine. C continue driving at a slower speed. D pull off the road and rest. D how fatigued the driver is.KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS DRIVER HEALTH AND SAFETY 1 If you become very tired when driving the best thing to do is A turn on the radio and openthe windows. B during driving hours if it is in moderation. C if you need to reduce tension while driving.) . B drink coffeeto stay awake. 3 A driver's reaction time is least affectedby A drinking low alcohol beer. D after you have completed your driving for the day. B C the type of food eaten.

STANDARDS: ( e g . drivers who will not have had as much training as will be non-professional Courtesy on the road and defensive driving will demonstrate your professionalism and encourage a more tolerant attitude towardstruck drivers and the road transport industry. systematically and considerately. PERFORMANCE: You must be able to demonstratethe use of defensive driving techniques CONDITIONS: Knowledge test : examination conditions : on-road driving.DEFENSIVE DRIVING KNOWLEDGE You must know the principles of defensive driving underall road conditions. the other motorist is at fault. Some conditions Practical test simulated in off-road tests. and the goods are transporting. The defensive driver minirnises danger and aggravation on the road by driving carefully. the vehicles to they drive. a The Professional Driver The majority of other road users you will encounter when driving you. - Defensive drivers know and observe the laws and regulations relatingthe road. they Being technically or legally in the right is no compensation for the death. injury or property damage that road accidents can cause. wet roads) be may Drivers must passall the appropriatesections of the knowledge test. 07 . but also avoids becoming involved in accidents caused by other road users. Defensive Driving A Definition A defensive driver is one who not only avoids causing accidents. even if by law. The defensive driver is prepared to give way toavoid the possibility of a crash. During the practical test drivers must show thatthey drive in defensive manner underall conditions.

gives you the room to stop. and on both sides of your vehicle. be If conditions are poor due to rain.You must know what is happening ahead.to the rear. Following another vehicle tooclosely is one of the most common avoidable causes of collisions. keeping your moving. You should be seeing what is 12 yourself sufficient happening at least seconds aheadof your vehicle or you will not be giving time to take anynecessary action. most don’t look far enough nordo they actively analyse what theysee. Failure to observe carefully is a major cause of accidents. Some authorities recommend that you leave 1 second of following intervalfor every 3 metres of vehicle length. and frequently checking both mirrors. If the conditions are very poor it should be increased even further. Space Cushion Defensive drivers maintain a safe’space cushion’ all around their vehicle. change lanes or take any your vehicle or other roadusers.Superior Observation Skills Defensive driving requires that you develop superior observation skills. you need to know whatis happening all around yourvehicle. 0a . To drive safely. Althoughall drivers look ahead. This protective space cushion necessary action without endangering you. Space Ahead - The space ahead is the most important. your following interval should about 6 seconds. this space should be increased to 8 seconds. if your vehicle is 17 metres long. In good driving conditions your vehicle of should be at least 4 seconds behind the vehicledirectly in front you. The space cushion is the distance from your vehicle to the other vehicles around you. Thus. The superior observation skills you should develop involve scanning. low visibility or a bad road surface. eyes looking as far aheadas possible.

To check your space cushion ahead (Time Lapse Method) - pick out an object at the side of the road. However you can help the other driver keep thecorrect distance by: - maintaining a constant speed slowing down gradually avoiding sudden stops signalling any manoeuvre well ahead - If you arebeing tailgated.3 shows you how thisis done. start counting the seconds until your vehicle reaches it. Figure 3. (Keeping clear of other vehicles on either side allows you another 'way out' in caseof emergency. Keep to theleft when approaching oncoming traffic and on multi-laned roads. 1 Driver sass c a r level W h Ire. Allow at least 1metre and preferably metres if space permits. that will soon be passedby the vehicle ahead. Figure 3. The elapsed time should let you know if you are too close.) Space Behind Obviously the space cushion behind your vehicle is mainly under the control of the driver following you. Don't drive beside another vehicle for longer than necessary. increase your frontspace cushion to give yourself more to time slow gradually. such as a tree. as soon as the vehicle passes the object. Let the other driver pass as soon as you can. up (usually 60 metres) between Space to the Sides The space cushion on your sides also be maximised by keeping to the centre of your can 2 lane. It's best to leave enough room a carelessly opened car door or a person for standing next to a parked car.3 The four second space cushlon Note: Most states and territories have legislation specifying a minimum following distance heavy vehicles outside built areas. Don't pass too close to parked cars. .

A defensive driver is always conscious of these blind spots and watches for vehicles pedestrians moving into them. awnings. The System of Vehicle Control which is described below is widely considered to be the most efficient method of driving a motor vehicle.But all 'round vision is restricted by corner pillars. etc.4 shows how extensive the blind spots can be. The six features of the system are: 90 . Figure 3. Know the height of your vehicle (including the load) anddon't takc chances with overheadobstacles such as power lines.Space Above With most trucks space overhead is also important. bonnets. the load. or Areas in which driver's vision is obslructed Figure 3. in One of the main aimsof defensive driving is make sure the driver approachesa traffic hazard to at the correct speed and in the rightgear and position on the road. bridges. Driver Vision Truck drivers know they can see ahead over traffic. rear vision mirrors. trailer bodies and even air filters. crests and around bends better than car drivers due to their seating height above the road.4 Blind spots ona typical atticulated combination The Sysfem o Vehicle Control f Truck driving requiresconcentration and careful thinking because continually changing road and traffic conditions demand frequent alterations course and speed. The System of Vehicle Control is a drill considered insequence by the driver on the approach to any hazard. the This allows the driverto safely avoid or negotiate the hazard and drive vehicle clearof it.

(Indicatorsare used to signal your intention change course.) - safely. A an left turn is to be made. an to appropriatespeed. If after checking mirrors it issafe to turn.soundahorn warning if necessary and commence the turn. 7 ' : Fiqure 3. Firm acceleration should not commence until the vehicle is travelling in a straight line at or beyond 6B. In slippery or rough road conditions acceleration a t 6A should be very gentle (just sufficient to maintain speedandstabilisethe vehicle). The correct line of approach is planned. - - - - You must practise this system that itbecomes an automatic response any road hazard so to An e'xanlple of hc turn. sounding the horn whatever action is appropriatefor the situation. if necessary. 2 MIRRORS & SIGNALS 2 3 ALTER SPEED Speed is reduced to enable safe turning. Take appropriate road position to make turn. An appropriate gear is selected to enable the vehicle to accelerate away from the intersection. or Acceleration the correct amount of acceleration is appliedto leave the hazard safely. turning.Indicatorsareused signal intention. In goodroad conditionsmoderateacceleration can at begin 6A with firmer acceleration commencing at 6B. Evasive Action avoid or negotiate the potential hazard by stopping.Mirrors are checked again.5 A i appllcatlon of the System of Vehlcle Control 91 . taking into account the vehicle. Mirrors are checked & to see if it is safe to diverge and then make a to left turn. Always use the mirrors to check rear wheelposition for clearance if turning. road surface and haffic conditions. In thiscase the particular hazardis a left e5 of the system canbe applied to any driving situation. Mirrors and Signals -the mirrors are used to check surrounding haffic to see that it is to safe to change course or alter speed. 1 I IB I COURSE The hazard is intersection. Alter Speed Slow down to negotiate the hazard Gears and Mirrors select the best gear to enable the vehicle to safely negotiatethe hazard and have enough power pull away.but: the prinl to make useof the system follows.. 4 3 GEARS & MIRRORS 41a I = ' " 5 EVASNE ACTION 6 "4& I D ACCELERATION When accelerate safe.Again check theposition of surrounding traffic in the to if mirrors to be sure that it is still safe to turn or diverge necessary. accelerating.Course the driver observes the hazard and decides on the correct line to safely and efficiently approach and negotiate it.

Make sure your vehicle is straight before acceleratingor braking. Your vehicle will take much longer to stop or slow down so allow yourself more room by increasing your space cushion at least 8 seconds.Don’t look directly at the lights of oncoming vehicles but look instead at the left side of the road ahead. When driving at night there is an increased risk of fatigue due to the natural inclination of the body to ’shut down’ in response to its biological rhythms. to Your cornering speed also must be reduced to prevent skidding. If oncoming drivers failto dip their lights. Having a dirty windscreen strains your and can bring on fatigue. Driving on wet roads requiresthat you drive at speed that gives you room to brake graduallyto a a stop within the distance you can see. you require a clean windscreen. the Always drive within your headlight beam that you are able to safely stop within distance you can clearly see. or spin the wheels when accelerating-any one of which can result in an accident.Beware also of ’highway hypnosis’ in which the constant repetitionof the white or yellow lines induces a trance-like state leavingthe driver effectively asleep at the wheel with his/her eyes open. Don’t forget to clean your mirrors. clean.Night Driving To’be able to see clearly and observe carefully while driving at night.” Switching your lights high beam only increases the to chances of a collision. and adjusted properly. This risk is greatest in the early hours of the morning. no matter what the posted speed limit is. The dazzle from oncoming vehicles through a dirty windscreen makes it very difficultto see. Accelerate and brake carefully to avoid wheel spin or skidding. in Dazzle is a constant problem with night driving. Always check that your brakes are operatingeffectively after negotiating deep water such as a ford or creek crossing. resist the temptation to ”get even. The defensive driver always takes account ofroad conditions and surroundingsand never loses control of the vehicle. eyes You should clean thewindscreen inside and out and make certain that washers and wipers are in good condition. lock the wheels when braking. 92 . & Wet Road Conditions Wet roads reduce tyre grip and make it far more likely that your vehicle will slide when cornering. Accelerate more gently. Do the right thingby dipping yourlights for oncoming drivers andfor drivers you are following. Your lights must be good condition. Two blinded drivers are more dangerous than one. Remember alsothat headlightsoften leave the sides of the road poorlylit.

C give way to any other drivers who look as thoughthey will not give way. wearlightlytintedsunglasses.KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS DEFENSIVEDRIVING 1 When other vehicles are required to give way to you at an intersection you should A always offer to give way to other trucks. C 8 seconds. 4 If you are dazzled by the lights of oncoming vehicles you should A look slightly to the left of the road ahead rather than directly at the oncoming vehicles. B Course -> gear -> signal -> brake -> mirror -> accelerate. look to a point about 12 metres above the oncoming vehicle. D Course -> signal -> brake -> mirror -> gear -> accelerate. 3 To maintain a safe ‘space cushion’ around your truck on an open road in good driving conditions. D always take right of way so as not to confuse the other drivers. the recommended minimum distance betu. 2 Which one of the following most closely matches the recommended sequence of actions in the ”System of Vehicle Control”method of approaching a hazard? A Course -> brake -> mirror -> signal -> gear -> mirror -> accelerate. 93 .een your vehicle and the one in front is the distance you travel in A 60 seconds. D 4 seconds. B 12 seconds. C Course -> mirror -> signal -> brake -> gear -> accelerate. B C D switch your lights to high beam to counteract the dazzle. B signal all other drivers to see if they want to go first.

) 94 . you can stop within the distance you can see clearly ahead. you should A follow the vehicle in front moreclosely than normal so as to keep it in sight B drive inthe right hand rather than hand lane. C use your highbeam headlights for clearer vision. if you need to. D slow downso. to allow extra clearance for left cyclists and pedestrians.5 Where your visibility is limited due to rain or fog. (You can check your answersto these questions in the ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section at the back of this manual. if possible.

or a t least minimise the danger and inconvenience to those directly involved. When an accident occurs those involved may be distressed. Being calm and able to offer the appropriate assistance could save a life. You as a professional should be prepared and able to provide help. it is best to send someone else for assistance and remain with your vehicle. Breakdowns Broken-down vehicles are a hazard to the safety of other road users. 95 .or location (like just over the crest of a hill. weather. as required by state regulations if help is needed. They are more dangerous when the vehicle is hard to see due to darkness. However if this is not possible.) If your vehicle breaks down orbecomes unsafe to drive you should: 9 park it off the road. and other roadusers. PERFO-CE You must be able to carry out correct procedures in the event of a breakdown an the or accident. STANDARDS Drivers must pass in the appropriate sections of the knowledge test. confused or angry. make sure yourvehicle and its load are secure before you leave and donot leave it unattended for longer than is absolutely necessary. lead Professional drivers spend muchmore time on the road than normal motorists and are thusmore likely to comeupon thescene of an accident. This turmoil may create additional danger and to further accidents. or come upon an accident.KNOWLEDGE You must know the procedures to adopt whenyour vehicle breaks down or when you are involvedin. Accidents Human error isby far the mostcommon cause of accidents. if possible switch on your four-way flashers (hazard warning lights) place reflectors or other warning devices at appropriate places. CONDITIONS Knowledge test : examination conditions Practical test: not tested.

essential procedures to bc followed in anyaccident are: 1 2 Stop immediately and turn off the engine Switch on your hazard warning lights Provide urgentassistance to the injured k g .) earlier if a dangerous situation Take details of the accident including: names and addresses of any drivers. carry emergency procedures. etc names and addresses of witnesses other drivers' licence numbers and the registration numbers of other vehicles involved. 4 Place warning devices at appropriate locations to prevent another accident. leaking k petrol. plus any information which could help identify the owners those vehicles of names and identification numbers of police at the scene or to whom theaccident has been reported time. 7 8 If transporting dangerous goods. ask passing motorists. Seek medical help (use CB radio. risk of being hitby passing traffic) or they are unconsciousand need to be placed in the coma position. weather conditions. after emergency services arrive. you should report the accidentto them as soon as practicable and in any case. pedestrians. passengers. telephone). ask nearby residents. (This may haveto be done out exists. within 24 hours. 9 If police do not attend. remove them from avehicle on fire) 3 NOTE: W NOT move injured persons unlessthey are in immediate dangerg . if required. .You should know and understand the state regulations concerning correct accident procedures The (including dangerous goods regulations). place. 5 6 or use a Continue to assist the injured until help comes and. speeds. damage etc You should also be prepared to give the other drivers similar information about your own vehicle and driving licence.

The place you select for wheel changing should also be level and firm cnough to allow the jack to be used safely. and as a Remember professional truck drivers are on the road far more than most other drivers result are likely to witness more accidents. you Crack (loosen) the wheel nuts (no more than one turn)before you jack the vehicle. the following procedure should be observed changing wheels. If you do stop on or near the road. In many cases it becomes necessary in difficult or uncomfortable conditions (on the roadside. John Ambulance Association AustralianRed Cross Society Wheel Changing Changing a wheel is one of the less pleasant tasks a truck driver must perform. Drive your vehicle. Other road users must be able to see your vehicle clearly as they approach and you must be protccted from passing traffic. Place the jack on a firm surface (using timber to support i t if necessary) and jack the vehicle be high enough to allow the replacement wheel to fitted without furthcr jacking. and behind the wheels on any axle other than the one willbe jacking. for example). place your warning devices (reflective triangles or portable lamps) in position on the road and sw-itch on your hazard warning lights. Apply the parking brake and place chocks in front of. when Do not attempt to change a wheel in a dangerous situation. BECOME TRAINED IN FIRST AID (WHAT YOU LEARN COLJD SAVE A LIFE) First aid courses are conducted by Ambulance authorities in some states St. Your assistance couldsave lives. on a flat tyre if necessary.10 Report the accident to your employer and your insurance company. * If possible. For your own safety and others safety. 97 . until you can stop in a safeplace. in hot or rainy weather or at night. place a safety stand under the vehicle.

Repcat 50 the check after another50 km if any problem was found.6) 0 0 0 0 0 @ 0 0 @ @ 0 0 @ @ @ I 0 0 @ 0 @ 0 Figure 3. Re-check the wheel for movement of the rim and tightness of the nuts after km. tighten the wheel nuts in a diagonalsequence ( S O that YOU d o not move from one nut the one next to it). 90 . Following a diagonalsequence helps ensure the to wheel will run true.6 Typlcal wheel nut tightening sequences Fully tighten all wheel nuts after the jack has been lowered and the wheel is on the ground. (Refer Figure 3.When refitting awheel.

leave the engine running while you go for help. (You can checkyour answersto these questions in the ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section at the back of this manual. D drive it slowly to the nearest service station keeping off main roads as much as possible. B C D turn on your 'hazard warning lights'. 3 When parking your disabled vehicle on the shoulder of the road it is most important that you should A place the transmission in high gear. C D Record details of the accident. B C not drive it until repairs have been made.) . which one of the following should you do first after stopping your vehicle? A Assist the injured. note theproblem in the log book and driveit slowly to the nearest service station. Check for leaking fuel.I 1 KNOWLEDGEQUESTIONS BREAKDOWNS AND ACCIDENTS If yourvehicle is in an unsafe condition as a result of damage or accident you should A drive it slowly to the nearest service station by the most direct route. 2 If you areinvolved in a serious road accident. B Obtain names and addresses of witnesses. stay inside the vehicle until help arrives.

You can drastically reduce the likelihood of such emergencies by: driving defensivelyso that you are alwaysin control of your vehicle making certain.~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~~ EMERGENCYPROCEDURES KNOWLEDGE You must know the causesof emergencies and the appropriate thingsto do in cases of to emergency. STANDARDS You must pass the appropriate section of the knowledgetest. you may still be required situations during your driving: to deal with any of the following Skidding Rigid trucks behave much cars when theystart to skid but the first warning a semi-trailer or like trailer gives could well be seeing it sideways in the rear view mirror. PERFORMANCE: You must be able to demonstrate an understandingof the proceduresand techniques to be used inemergency situations. skidding. to Even if you take precautions. CONDITIONS: Knowledge test : examination conditions Practical test : not tested. to . This could be a problem with a load of dangerous goods. tyre failure or even afire. coarse steering or harsh acceleration and a defensive driver is unlikely to encounter one except in unusual circumstances (eg. brake failure. before every journey. Emergencies As a professional driver you are bound to face an emergency at some stage in your driving career. severe braking. You must also know the regulations that apply the transport of dangerous goods. that your vehicle is well maintained and in a safe condition knowing whatcargo you are carrying and what do with it if there is a problem. Most truck skids are due to poor driving techniques like excessive speed. resulting fromtyre failure on a bend). Avoiding a skid is better than doing a save but every driver needsbe aware of the diffcrent to types of skids and how control them.

drive wheel lock up can sometimes occur in an articulated vehicle (causing a jack-knife).ease off the brakes until traction is regained and then brake more gradually and gently. CONTROLLING A DRIVE WHEEL SKID ARTICULATED VEHICLE 1 I I 0ir.7) Drive wheel spin or lock u p is usually due to excessive acceleration braking (sometimes made or worse by over-steering). - You should report any such brakemismatch to your employer. This ismost likely to happen on prime movers with aggressive drive axle brakes (usually ADR 38 trailer brakes. The trailer brakes may not operate atall in extreme cases into and can lead to the trailer pushing the rear of the prime mover sideways a jack-knife. nptcially if they are coupled to the latest The mismatch is worst in low pressure brake applications (like in careful.ctan 01 drwo wheel rkd Figure 3. 101 . so the problem gets fixed. preferably in writing. that is.7 Controlling drive wheel sklds Other causes of drive wheel skids on slippery surfaces: on a very slippery surface. American). steer towards the direction in which the drive wheels are skidding.Drive Wheel Skids: (Figure 3. gradual braking on slipperysurfaces). a light touch of the trailer brakes can also help straighten the vehicle. in an articulated vehicle. Auxiliary brakes or speedretardersshouldnotbeusedunderslipperyconditions because they increase the chance of drive wheel lock u p when the service brakes are applied.ease off the accelerator until traction is regained and then gently re-apply the accelerator If due to excessive braking . If the skid has caused the drive wheels to begin moving sideways you will also need to make steering corrections: - steer into the skid. They are controlled in the following ways: If due to excessive acceleration .

straighten the front wheels. this time accelerating and steering as gently as possible The correct reaction to a front wheel skid during brakingis: ease off the brakes. It is also commonly caused by coarse steering and driving too fast. start off again if safe to do so. re commence braking and steering more gently Figure 3. The correct reaction to a frontwheel skid during acceleration is: - ease off the accelerator straighten the front wheels use brakes to slow or completely stop the vehicle when skidding has stopped. Easy does it.8) This type of skid is more likely to occur when your vehicle is incorrectly loaded and thcrc is insufficient weight on the front wheels.Front Wheel Skids: (Figure 3. when skidding has stopped reapply brakes more gently. the Direction of front wheel skid If during aceeleration: * * Ease off accelerator Straighten front wheels * Use brakes to slowor stop the vehicle * When skidding has stopped.8 Controlling a front wheel skid 102 . r commence e acceleration and steering more gently II during braking: ' Ease OH brakes * Straighten front wheels *When skidding has stopped.

harsh or sudden braking. . lightly loaded. or loaded incorrectly.9) Trailer skids are more likely to occur when the trailer is empty. or a slippery road surface. a slight tap on the accelerator may helpto pull the trailer back in line with the prime mover check the setting of thetrailer brake proportioning valve (if fitted) after control has becn regained Release brakes I regaln o l r a h wheel lrwlmn . . They are usually the resultof excessive speed or over-braking and are very difficult to detect because no sensation of skidding is felt by the driver until skid is well developed.All Wheel Skids This type of skid is normally caused by excessive speed. approach to a hazard so as An all wheel skid is best avoided bycommencing braking early on the to allow the vehicle to be braked more gently while still travelling in a straightline. . If it is safe to do so. Trailer Skids: (Figure 3. To correct an all wheel skid. .9 Controlllng a trailerwheel skid. Lghlly lap acderalw itsalo~odoso Figure 3. the The correct reaction to a trailer skid is to: ease off the brakes until traction is regained. then resume brakingmore gently. release the brakes until the wheels turn without skidding.

try to be in the emergency laneor at the roadside when the vehicle comes to a stop. If safe. the spring brakes on many vehicles will automatically stop the vehicle. A on steering movement should controlled and if a quick turn is to be made safely you must: be not use the brakes this increasesthe chances of skidding as the turn.) as at Do not movethe truck again until hydraulic pressure is restored. the greater the chances only turn the required amount. to hold therelease button down so that youcan control the brake pressure and avoid locking the wheels. When they do. possibly causing If become damage to the drive train. stop asquickly as you can by: Shifting down gears and using the engineto slow the vehicle. This will also force the air compressor to work harder thusincreasing air to the system. 104 .If fully applied in an emergency they may lock up the drive shaft. When this occurs. especially at high engine revs on light and medium trucks use the emergency or parking brake. more gently appliedthey may rapidly overheat and useless due to brake fade. Be sure however. A warning light or buzzer will indicate low air pressure.Evasive Steering As a defensive driver you should keep both handsthe steering wheel as much as possible. To cope with loss of hydraulic pressure you should: try pumping the brakes to build up some hydraulic pressure shift down gearsusing the engine to slow the vehicle use the exhaust brake which can be quite effective. it is usually because poor maintenance of standards or incorrect use. When the air supply drops drastically. Loss o f Hydraulic Pressure Loss of hydraulic pressurecan be even more serious because vehicles with hydraulicbrakes often do not have an emergency braking system. (Note: Most transmission mounted parking brakes are designed be either fullyon. apply the brakes to make use of whatever air pressure is available. Loss o f Air Pressure Loss of air pressure can be caused by air leaks or over-use of the brakes. When the vehicle is going slowly enough. apply the parking brake lastlow aspeed as possible. This is likely to lock the wheels and you should be prepared to make suitablesteering corrections. or to off. If the other measures are slowing truck sufficientlyafter a the loss of hydraulic pressure. quicker and sharper you of skidding or rolling over be prepared to turn the wheelback to counter theeffects of resonance roll and ‘live’ loads and thus prevent the vehicle overturning Brake Failure Properly maintained brakes rarely fail.

on Most road shoulders can safely support a heavy vehicle when they are dry but you should be especially careful when they are wet. on a flat road).preparing to descend a hill) and you cannot engage it after two attempts . If your nearside front wheel starts to dig in and the steering wheel pulls hard left as you come off the bitumen. re-engage a higher gear and begin the downshift again. pull back onto the roadway while you still have momentum up. If you regularly use the same route. leaving theRoad While driving a truck you will sometimes need to move off the bitumen and onto the road shoulder. 105 .Brake Failure o n Hills Long downhill grades should be approached with caution. If a missed downshift is not necessaryfor control of vehicle speed k g . This allows you tokeep extra retardation in reserve for an emergency. This may mean running off the road into s o f t ground. select a gear so that you are only partially relying on the auxiliary brake to control vehicle speed. you should attempt to stop the vehicle before it gains more s p e e d e v e n if it means damaging the vehicle. These precautions will avoid the need to ride the brakes which can lead to overheating and brake failure.g. If the brakes fail completelywhile descending a hill and youcannot control your speed by down shifting. Do not try to 'ride out' a brake failure unless you canquite clearly see a safe way of slowing and a stopping the vehicle (e. straight road with an uphill gradient ahead and no traffic). Try to sideswipe whatever you are using to slow the truck down instead of going head on into it which is more dangerous for you and damaging for the truck. especially when passing oncoming traffic narrowroads or highways.g. THEN MOVE OFF AGAIN FROM REST. Do not allow the vehicle to continue coasting while you struggle with the gears. If the gear you wish to engage is necessary to control the vehicle speed (e. if possible. If using an auxiliary brake or speed retarder. fences. using hedges.USE THE BRAKES TO STOP THE VEHICLE. Before commencing a descent you should alwaysbe: in the correct gear at the correct speed. become familiar withthe locations of safety rampsand other avenues of escape when descending hills. You can often get a hint from the depth of the tyre marks left by previous vehicles which have pulled over. guard rails and light scrub (butnot large trees) toslow and stop thevehicle. WARNING: There are tens of thousands of kilometres of roads in Australia where you to can go in up your hubs within two metres of the bitumen in the wet. Missed GearShift There are some instances when a missed gear shift can be dangerous.

An unusual vibration or rattling sound may be the only sign of a rear tyre failure. Failure of a drivewheel tyre or trailer tyre on the other hand usually muchless dangerous and is may even go unnoticed by drivers. 106 . GENERAL FREIGHT GOES OFF FOR STOCK CRATES. Keep a close watch on your tyres in the rear vision mirrors as you drive. The following rules will help you prevent a tyre failure. do so gently to avoid skidding. FURTHER. (The vibration is caused by the flat tyre twisting on the rim or disintegrating. the rattle is caused by the loose rim parts. Be especially watchful for any sideways jump as your nearside wheels off the bitumen and drop try to pick a place where the shoulderthe same height as the road. try to keep the offside wheelson the bitumen to aid steering. OR EMPTY TRUCKS GO OFF FOR LOADED ONES. WARNING: IT IS CUSTOMARY IN ROADTRAIN COUNTRY THAT RIGID TRUCKS OFF THE ROAD TO LET ROAD TRAINS ON BY OR SEMIS WILL PULL COMPLETELY A NARROW BLACKTOP. avoid braking.Slow down to reduce the chance of throwing stones at passingtraffic and to help keep control while your wheels are in the dirt. until the vehicle has slowed down. avoid heavy braking and harsh steering andbe prepared for the possibility of skidding. is When passing on narrow roads. THE REASONS SHOULDBE OBVIOUS. pick a place where the shoulder isclose to the same height as the roadway andmove back onto the bitumen being careful of sideways jump. steer the vehicle carefully and smoothly. ESPECIALLY FOR TRIPLES STOCK CRATES. Visually check your tyres whenever you stop your truckfor a break. AND DOUBLES GO OFF FOR TRIPLES. Afterleaving the roadway. If the steering feels unusually 'heavy' or pulls to one side. any If you are pulling completely off the road. ~~~ Avoid heavy braking while one or both sets oftyres are in the dirt After passing the oncoming traffic. The steering can wheel maybe wrenched from the driver's hands and steering control may belost. If a tyre failure occurs you should: keep a firm grip on the steering wheel. Ifyou need to brake. brake as much as possible on the bitumen as the shoulder is likely to have a loose surface. traction and ride.) If you hear a loud 'bang' which you cannot account for. lyre Failure A front tyre failure on a truck be quite serious. The same procedures can be used to detect punctures or blow-outs. if possible. stop and check all tyres for a blowout. stop and check your tyresespecially the frontones.

Fires Fires are often the result of carelessness with the vehicle or its load. uncouple the prime mover if safe to do so and move it away 9 if the engine compartment is on fire. The airflow past the burning tyre will keep the flames away from the load and help cool the adjacent tyres. it may be possible to remove it from the vehicle. try to extinguish it with water or a foam extinguisher. if the fire is in a closed van or container. Check wheels. Shovelling sand or dirt ontoit may help smother the flames if nothing else is available.g. Know your equipment and how to use it if the trailer is onfire. 30 kmh) alongthe road until the tyre has disintegrated and been thrown from the rim. and buildings notify the emergency services via your CB radio or by asking other road users to contact the services use the correct fire extinguisher. You should only resort to this method on an open road where there is little trafficand a low risk of starting roadside grass fires. petrol stations. Be particularly careful with petrol engines. 107 . If possible. If a smouldering tyre cannot be extinguished. To minimise the risk of fires you should: make regular checks of the vehicle during the trip. tyres and the vehicle body for signs of heat follow prescribed vehicle operating procedures check the instruments and mirrors as part of your regular scanning routine follow recommended procedures when handling flammable goods In the event of a fire you should stop the vehicle well away from anything else that may burn such as long grass. Do not lift the bonnet more than is necessary to fight the fire because the increased air flow could make thc fire flare. Reading theinstructions when you have a fire is too late. In some circumstances a tyre fire on a drive wheel or trailer wheel can be prevented from spreading to the vehicle by continuing to drive at a safe speed (e. turn off the engine. open the doors slowly and only far enough to direct water or extinguishers onto the blaze if a tyre is smouldering or on fire. leave the bonnet closed to reduce air flow to the fire and direct extinguishers from underneath or through louvres or the radiator.

Dangerous Goods If your vehicle is involved inan accident or breaks down while carrying dangerous goodsyou should: switch on the hazard warning lights (if batterydoes not need to be disconnected) set out reflective warning signs warn any people who may at risk be follow the instructions givenin the Emergency Procedures Guide which should be in a pocket on the inside of the driver's door notify the police. 108 . fire brigade and any othernecessary emergency service provide assistance and information to the emergency services inform the prime contractor (the personor company for whom you are transporting the goods) what has happened.

Keep to the left except when overtaking slow-moving vehicles or when moving into psition to make a right turn. Overtaking should onlybe attempted when the manoeuvre canbe accomplished with absolute safety forall vehicles involved. traffic and weather conditions into account. Neverattempt toovertakewhenapproachingthetop of a hill. other drivers.SafeDriving Practices:A Summary . Never speed up to prevent another driver from overtaking. 109 . railroad crossing or any other place where you do not have a clear view of theroad ahead or where you cannot see traffic approaching from a side road. side road. At night. Don't follow other heaw vehicles too closely. When being overtaken. . . reduce speed to enable the other driver to pass you quickly. . . Use indicators to signalyour intention to change lanes when overtaking Never be impatient to overtake a vehicle which is travelling slowly or erratically. . . dip your lights after being overtaken to avoid creating unnecessary glare in the other driver's mirror. Never use the size of your vehicle to force another driver to give way. intersection. If necessary. Speed should never be greater than the traffic laws permit. curve.bridge. . . When you are about to overtake. give the driver plenty of warning by sounding your horn or a quick flashof the headlights. even where the rules state that they Always be prepared to yield to should yield. Curves and turns should be taken a t reduced speed taking into account the distance you can see ahead. Your driving speed should also take road. The driver maybe lost and looking for directions or be in some sortof difficulty. Leaveenough space between you and the heavy vehicle ahead so that faster traffic can pass you and move back into the left lane. the sharpness of the curve and traffic conditions at the time. . you should keep well to the left. .

Plan your route so that your need for reversing is minimised. Watch your clearance under trees. underpasses. road signs. for - Keep exhaust noise to a minimum in residential areas. especially on long wheel base or articulated vehicles. Inspect the area you are about to reverse into beforeyou begin the manoeuvre Be aware of your vehicle’s height. Watch for the ’cut-in’of the rear wheels on a turn.Safe Driving Practices:A Summary (continued) Always signal your intention to turn. 110 . Never reverse into traffic if you can avoid it. Check traffic conditions before and during the turn. school zones. traffic signals. hospital zones and small towns. Keep a look-out for signs specifying overhead clearances and alternative routes high vehicles. This can be done by keeping engine revs down and avoiding the use of engine and exhaust brakes.

C may lead tojack-knifing. B It may be caused by tyre failure. B may be caused by harsh braking. C You should never try to separate theprime mover from its trailer. D are controlled by steering away from the direction the vehicle is skidding 2 If your air pressure warning device sounds while you are driving an articulated vehicle or trailer combination.) 111 . D The bonnet should not lifted to fight an be engine fire unless absolutely necessary (You can check your answers to these questions on theANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section at the back of this manual. C D try to stop beforethe spring brakes apply themselves. you should A pump the brakes to restore the pressure. which one? A It is often the result of driver carelessness. shift to neutral and coast until pressure builds up. 3 When a truck fire occurs.KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS EMERGENCYPROCEDURES 1 Which of the following is INCORRECT? Drive wheel skids A may be caused by harsh acceleration. all of the following are true EXCEPT one. B place the tractor protection valve in the 'emergency' position.

CONDITIONS: road laws as they apply to the vehicle that you Knowledge test : examination conditions. or stop if necessary. That should be contained in State Road Codes and the books produced in each state for those studying for their driver's licence. It is the dutyof all drivers to avoid collisions and where necessary to give way to other drivers and pedestrians. PERFORMANCE You must demonstrate that you can apply your knowledge of the road laws when driving. You must gain a pass in the remainder. The laws are almost the same for all classesof driver. situations: The Give Way rules need to be known for the following at intersections - at stop signs at give waysigns 112 . THE LAW DOES NOT GIVE ANYONE INDISPUTABLE 'RIGHT OF WAY' Make sure the other driver is going to yield to you before proceeding: there may be circumstances when the other driver is unaware of your approachor unable to giveway. Practical test: demonstrate ability to apply road laws during on-road practical test. Remember that road laws are constantly being revised and the latest versions may be obtained from state trafficauthorities.ACTS AND REGULATIONS ROAD LAWS KNOWLEDGE You must know and understand the drive. Some of the differences which do exist are explained below. Giving Way Knowledge of Give Way rules is essentialto yoursafety and thesafety of others. and allow theother driver or pedestrian to proceed safely. f Applicalion o Road Laws This manual does not provide detailed information on road laws. STANDARDS: You must gain a perfect score for these sectionsof the knowledge and practical tests that are considered essential. To 'give way' means thatif there is a reasonable likelihood of a collision you must slow down.

It i s not worth the risk of trying to beat the system by means of CB radio. Professional truck drivers are not entitled any special privileges and should. incidentally. It has been a long since the days of the 80 kmh truck speed limit time even by the Police. radar detectors or jammers (which. which was largely ignored. be setting to an example for the amateurs. Note: Motorists should stop for stationary trams except when they are at safety zones where passengers are protectedfrom passing traffic. Thecurrent laws are basically reasonable and shouldbe followed.Motorists may also proceed past at5 kmh when a tram is standing aterminus.at 'T junctions when 'V turning when about to turn right at cross-overs on divided roads at Turn Left Anytime With Care' signs with trainsor trams from privatedriveways when leaving a parking space when changing lanes atpedestriancrossings at school crossings. are only of limited effectiveness). The 100 kmh law recognises that it is safest to have all traffic moving at about the same speed because that reduces the for overtaking. in fact.or when they are waved pastby a uniformed tramwayemployee or police officer. An 80 kmh maximumgeared road speed is compulsory for road trains Australia-wide. need But New South Wales introduced some truck speed restrictions following several accidents involving heavy vehicles. There are also signed truck speed limitsin designated areas where there are special conditions like long downgrades. except for the NorthernTerritory where there is truck speed limit. 113 . Exceeding speed limits risks a fine and accumulationof demerit points which can lead to loss of licence and thusloss of livelihood. at Speed Limits A uniform nationaltruck speed limit of 100 kmh wasagreed to by theStates and came into effect no in 1988.

1 lists the permissible Blood AlcoholConcentration (BAC) levels for drivers in the various states and territories. Buses. should drive only with zero BAC. Do not change gears while driving across the railway line after stopping. otherwise. Driving laws relating to alcohol. 114 . or during your driving shift. If you are taking a drug prescribed by a doctor you should ask him if it can affect your driving ability and if there is any additional risk drinking alcohol while taking the drug.level Crossings Special restrictions apply to some vehicles approaching level railway crossings which are not equipped with warning devices. You should also be aware that some companies have their own rules regarding alcohol and drugs and thesecan even stricter than the state laws. In some states there are also limited exemptions for delivery drivers who frequently enter and leave vehiclesand whotravel at low speeds. be For your information Table4. drugs and breathalysers vary from state to state. It is your responsibility to ask the question. Seat Belts If a seat belt is fitted to your vehicle you should wear it whenever you are driving. It is strongly recommended that you. Remember-some combinations of alcohol and drugs (including those prescribed by your doctor) can seriously affect your ability to driveeven if both are taken within normally 'safe' or prescribed limits. fuel tankers and trucks carrying dangerous goods must stopat these unguarded level crossings and make sure there are no trains coming. Alcohol and Drugs The best advice is not to drive if you have been drinking or taking drugs. This reduces the chance of your vehicle stalling or breaking down on thetracks. as a professional driver. Publication of this table should not be taken to imply in anyway that it is acceptable industry practice for you to drink even small amounts of alcohol before. The doctor or chemist may not remember totell you. Most State seat belt regulations do not apply to heavy vehicles but many unrestrained truck drivers suffer injuries beingflung about inside the cabin during accidents. gates or barriers. You must know these laws because the penalties for breaking them can be severe and even result in automatic loss of licence.

Obviously the to recommended following distance for a truck should be greater than that of a passenger car. distance should ( S e e page 89) Apart from these general rules. These laws are designed ensure road safety. 200 ----.Figure 4. for B-Doubles in at least one state the following distance is metres). the time-lapse method was suggested as a way of determining what this be. most states between trucks outside builtup areas.LICENCE CATEGORY F u l l Licence Probation Learner Restriction Table 4. The distance specified by each state varies from 60 to 100 metres. In the section Defensive Driving. You should check these laws for your vehicle in your state or territory (eg. and territories also specify a minimum distance to The main purpose of this law is to allow other motorists sufficient space pull back into their driving laneafter passing.1 Permlsslble blood alcohol concentratlon(gm/lOOml) for various states/territories and licence categories(as at May 1989) Following Distance The road laws for all states and territories require that you follow other vehicles at a safe or reasonable distance.1 Ti-]- FOLLOWING DISTANCE " " " " " - Minimum following distance between heavy vehlcles 115 .

You shouldknowandcomplywith the regulations for each state youdrive in. An excellent user‘s guide to the Australian Dangerous Goods Code is available from your local Road Transport Industry Training Committee. You must carry three reflective breakdown triangles. 116 .Dangerous Goods If you are to carry a cargo of ‘dangerous goods’ (as defined by the Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail) you and your vehicle must conform toall the necessary state regulations. fitted to the inside of the drivefs door. registration or licence showing that you have attended a dangerous goods course. You may also need specialguides for the specifictype or types of Dangerous Goods you arecarrying. You must carry shipping documentation Goods Code). Your truck may need to be specially licensedfor the purpose and you. Most states and territories require drivers to keep log books so they can ensure those driving hour limits are kept. A Vehicle Fire and Emergency Procedure Guide AS1678 must be carried in a holder. and Emergency Information Panels should be displayed in the correct places on the vehicle. may need to have a special endorsement. Hours o Driving and L o g Books f There are driving hour regulations in most states which specify the maximum number of hours behindthewheelandtherequired rest breaks. if required. For more detailed information contact the relevant authority in your state or territory. including breathing protection and suitable torch. 2 The required number and type of fire extinguishers. as the driver. The State Regulationsare based on the Australian Code but there are some differences. The basicrules for the transportation of dangerous goodsabove certain specified quantities are: 1 The proper dangerous goods labels (also known as placards) indicating the class of goods carried. in good working order must be attached to the vehicle. (see User’s Guide to the Australian Dangerous 3 4 5 6 You must have suitable protective clothing.

D Truck 2 to X only. B C both X and Y. D neither X or Y. 4 In the drawing on right which of thetrucks must give way to the others? the A Truck X to Z only. B C Truck Y to X only.KNOWLEDGEQUESTIONS ROADLAWS 1 In which one of the following cases should the black truck give way to thewhite car? 2 In which oneof the following cases should the black truck give way? !$-FJRRIF PEDESTWA\NS A B C D 4 A B c D 3 Consider the black truck which has just entered the roundabout and is going to make a 'U"tum as shown The black truck should give way to A vehicle X only. vehicle Y only. 117 . Truck X to Y and 2.

5 What is the maximum permissible speed for a heavy truck if no otherlimits apply? A There is no maximum in the road laws. 6 Which one of the following vehicles do NOT have to stop before proceedingacross a level crossing without any warning devices. C 100 km per hour.) 1 I8 . gates or barriers? A buses B unloaded fuel tankers C trucks loaded with poisonous substances D trucks carrying earth-moving machinery (YOU can check your answersto these questionsin the ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS section a t the back of this manual. B 110 km per hour. D 90 km per hour.

Having the Right Attitudes What makes you a good driver? A simple answer is that the best drivers have the fewest accidents. but there is more to being a good driver than your accident rate. without necessarily being considered a good driver by your industry. whether you are an employee or an owner driver. They want them to have certain attitudes towards their job. courteous or discourteous. These attitudes include friendliness. You can have an accident-free driving record.PUBLICRELATIONS KNOWLEDGE You must know and understand the reasons for the importance of public relations in the transport industry. CONDITIONS: Knowledge test Practical test STANDARDS: : : not tested demonstration of appropriate attitudes during driving test The driver must demonstrate relaxed courteous style of driving and tolerance towards a other road users. During the driving test situations will arise that result in drivers behaving in different ways. a driver's response may vary between relaxed or tense. courtesy and non-aggressive behaviourAth on and off the road. Employers expect more than knowledge and driving skills from their employees. friendliness and politeness are seen as most important by your company and thepublic with whomyou deal. Attitudes like courtesy. For example. The examiner will use a checklist to recordresponses to the situations when appropriate. PERFORMANCE You must demonstratethe appropriate attitudes which createa good public image for the company you work for. 119 . aggressive or non-aggressive. Your attitudes will help determine how successful you are in the industry.

R. Calm and relaxed drivers find their jobs more enjoyable and usually live longer and healthier lives. high tech industry have different ideas about the drivers they want in control of their vehicles. many other drivers do not possess your level of skill. Getting uptight aboutpoor drivers accomplishes nothing and remember stress and illness that go hand in hand. makes you that company’s Driving a truck with your nameor your employer‘s name on the side or representative. Many film and advertisement makers lead us to believe that truckies are hard drinking. expensive equipment without abusing it. that Most of the top companies are very concernedwith their public image and requiretheir drivers to wear uniforms andbe clean and neat on the job as well as being courteous bothin and out of the truck. a broad knowledge of transport regulations and road laws and a level-headed approach towardstheir work and thepeople they work with.The Changing Image o the Truck Driver f The image of thetruck driver ascowboy. 120 . Remember. stamina. Drivers still need strength. good vision and co-ordination but they now also need more intelligence. The old adage of ’count to 10’ can help. so beloved by the media is rapidly becoming obsolete. of Good P. hard playing men with little regard road laws and even for those whoenforce them. As a new driveryou need to appreciate whythese requirements are an important part the job. Driving a heavy vehicle can be very stressful and towards the end a long drive or shift. is Good for Drivers Practising good public relations has positive benefits for both yourbusiness and you personally. When you behave rudely aggressively the publicassociate that behaviourwith your company and kind of bad publicrelations loses business. for less Transport operators in todays competitive. able to get the most from modem. Try to understand that part of a professional driver’s job is to help keep the average amateur driver from killing or injuring himself on the road.’ It probably won’t solve anything andit almost certainly won’t make them better drivers. i t can of be very easy to become frustrated by the mistakes and incompetence others. so resist the temptation to give someone a ’blast. Today’s truck drivers need to be well trained and highly skilled professionals.

WATER AND OTHER EQUIPMENT BEFORE STARTING OUT. OIL. * * * * * DON'T HESITATE REDUCE TO YOUR SPEED INSTANT POTENTIAL DANGER APPEARS. DON'T FIGHT SLEEP. GETOFF THE ROAD AVD TAKEA SHORT REST. IF DROWSY. LIGHTS. MAKE EVERY ON LONG EFFORT TO LETFOLLOWINGTRAFFICOVERTAKE.THE TRUCKDRIVER'S TEN COMMANDMENTS * * * * * CHECK BRAKES. FUEL. PARTICULARLY CHILDREN DON'T TAILGATE.KEEPENOUGHDISTANCEBETWEENYOURVEHICLEAND THE ONE AHEAD TO ALLOW FASTER VEHICLES TO OVERTAKE. 121 .ESPECIALLY GRADES WHERE YOU ARE MOVING SLOWLY ALWAYS BE PREPARED TO GIVE WAY TO AVOID A POTENTIAL ACCIDENT NEVER DRINK ALCOHOL WHILE ON THE ROAD OR BEFORE STARTING A TRIP. AND BE READY TO STOP THE GNE OTHERDRIVERSTHEBREAKSTHATYOUWISHTHEYWOULDGIVETO YOU. AND DURING EACH LONG TRIP PARK YOUR PERSONAL PROBLEMS BEFORE YOU GET BEHIND THE WHEEL KNOW AND FOLLOW T H E ROAD LAWS WATCH OUT FOR PEDESTRIANS.

An abbreviation for anti-lock brakes. If mounted behind the main gearbox it is sometimes called a 'jwy box'. or stump puller.A vehicle with flexibly connected sections. AXLE GROUP . A-TRAIN . Usually applied to a prime mover and semi-trailer as opposed to a truck and trailer which is called a combination vehicle. AMMETER . Axle groups in Australia are required to be loadsharing. The trigger in the coupling automatically releases the spring loaded towing pin when the trailer drawbar eye touches it.A solid object. ADR -Australian Design Rule. Also called a crawlcr. an illegal and dangerous practice.They are also usually cheaper and lighter than a cabover with the same powertrain. See Trailer Hitch.Slang termfor coasting down hills in neutral. BOBTAIL .An air-activated release catchon a tipper tailgate which isoperated from the cab. AUXILIARY GEARBOX .See Intercooler AGGREGATE MASS . but as manoeuvrable.A n articulated vehicle with a second semi-trailer attached to the rear of the first semi-trailer bymeans of a turntable.A set of regulations governing vehicle design (e.DICTIONARY OF TRUCKINGTERMS ABS .A prime mover without a semi-trailer attached.A vehicle where the driver sits behind theengine which is covered by a bonnet (the Americans call it a hood).a ball coupling usually used for attaching a rigid vehicle to a pig trailer. Called a B-Train inNorth America.A type of turntable on which the top section rotates on thebottom through a series of bearings. Better able to handle the heavy vertical load of a pig trailer than a Ringfedcr type coupling.Usually refersto a prime mover and semi-trailer towing a trailer.A suspension in which the weight of the vehicle is supported by air bags containing compressed air and the axles are held in position longitudinally and laterally by bushed rods. 122 . ADR 38 covers heavy vehiclebraking systems.The maximum allowable loaded mass of a particular vehicle or combination comprising the GVM or GCM plus theoverload tolerance applicable in a given state. B-DOUBLE . AUTOMATIC TOW COUPLING -The most common type of heavy trailer hitch in Australia and Europe. BAULKING . BARTLEIIT HITCH . not BOG COG .An amp gauge ANGEL GEAR . AIR TRIP . Also called MexicanOverdrive. BONNEIITED VEHICLE . Far easier to couple up than the cheaper American type pintle hook.g. Commonly referred to as a Ringfeder. ARTICULATED VEHICLE .) AlTERCOOLER . often a large piece of timber placed against the load and fixed securely to the vehicle to prevent movement of the load. Bonnetted heavy trucks are aerodynamically superior to cabovers because of their wedge shape. BALL COUPLING -See Bartlett Hitch BALL RACE.A very low gear which is not used in normal circumstances. AXLE LOAD -The total load transmitted to the road by all the wheelsand tyres on that axle.A group of axles (or a single axle) supporting one section of a vehicle.A secondary gearbox which may be located before or after the main gearbox to provide additional overdrive or reduction ratios. AIR SUSPENSION .

a linelocated between the extreme axles of the group. especially on tri-axle trailers. a linelocated 1 / 3 of the way from the dual axles in the group.g. BULKHEAD . CHOCKS . Swapping Cogs is shifting gears. CABOVER OR CAB OVER ENGINE (COE) . salt. Also called a Loading Rack. Used for any loose bulkcommodity (e. The driver shifts the dog clutch between two gears compared with a crash where he box actually shiftsthe gears.A container that is fitted with loading hatches on the roof and discharge hatches on the doorsor front wall. BULKER . Allows shorter overall vehicle length for better manoeuvrability and has better all around view for the driver.Acontainer fitted with fold down front and back bulkheads. Constant meshgearboxes are non-synchronised and rely on driver skill in controlling enginerevs and good timing to shift properly. CLEATS .A piece of steel or heavy timber firmly attached to the vehicle (often bolted to the chassis) to support the load and/or prevent it moving. Scotches or Gluts. the centre-line of that axle.A rigid truck (or bus) towing one or more trailers.A gear or gear ratio. COLLAPSIBLES . top the Used in conjunction with Side Curtains. CAP TARPAULIN .g.A device actuated by the last inch of clutch pedal travel which brakes the spinning gears inthe transmission.A truck with the cab mounted directly above the engine and front axle. a 6x4 or if twin steer 8x4 vehicle.) Chocks may also be used ahead of and behind road wheels to prevent movement of the vehicle. front The axle of the group tends to lock up. Ratio changes are effected by means of dog clutches which lock the required gear to its shaft. sugar.can also be used for shifting while going uphill. BOLSTER . 123 . For tandem axles where of one axle is fitted with dual and one with single tyres.A term sometimes applied to the gate at the front a tray body or flat toptrailer of which is built heavier than side gates. COG .A suspension in which there is a transfer of vertical loading from oneaxle to another in the same axle group when the brakes are applied. tyred axle. CHASSIS .A transmission in which all gears remainin mesh at all times. It COAMING -The side rail of a tray.See B-Double. CENTRE OF A N AXLE GROW -For single axles. Docs not include load carryingor attaching components (e. For tandem axles with equal numbers tyres.BOGIE DRIVE . CAB CHASSIS . CAB GUARD .See Chocks. CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSION . For twin steer axle groups .Suitable blocks used primarily to restrain loads which could move during transit. (Also known as Cleats. Roadrangers are the most common constant mesh boxes in Australia followed bySpiers. body or turntable).A steel structure fitted behind cab on a primemover to stop parts of the load the striking the cab. coal). a linelocated midway betweenthose axles. The drive is usually transmittedfrom one axle to the otherby means of a short drive shaft called a jack-shaft. BRAKE REACTIVE SUSPENSION .A vehicle frame.A truck with only the cab fitted. usually slightly raised. COMBINATION VEHICLE . B-TRAIN . Bogie drive prime movers are the most common type in Australia.A prime moveror truck with two drive axles at the back.A tarpaulin fitted over the of load and about halfway down gates. CLUTCH BRAKE . It is used with non-synchronised gearboxes to pick up first or reverse gears when stationary. COE trucks are dominant in Europe because they allow longer trailers within an overall length limit.a line located midway between the two For tri-axle groups .

A device which make? the vehicle maintain a preset speed and turns off when the driver touches the brakesor accelerator. DOUBLEDE-CLUTCHING. Standard lengths are for 20 and 40 feet. Most curtain-siders in Australia are Tautliners. a ratio of 13).A shiftingtechniqueusedon non-synchronised gearboxes. It involves letting the clutch pedal out briefly while the gearstick passes through neutraland helps ensure that the gears are spinning at the same speed when they come together. CRASH BOX . or where a wheel lifts off the ground.CONTAINER . Also called a doubleshuffle. DOG -A device used to tension chains when securing loads.Locks the differential so that each drive wheel receives the same amount of torque which prevents loss of traction through onewheel spinning.A trailer w-ith tw-o axle groups. 124 . Mustbe used only in slippery conditions.The distance from the line of the towing pivot. to the centre-line of the leading axle group of the trailer. They are increasingly popular because they can be loaded or unloaded from the sides unlike a normal van and they have faster turnaroundtimes than vans or flat tops which require tarping. DOUBLE TRAILER COMBINATION .A leg that holds atrailer drawbar a t coupling height to make hooking up easier. A dolly can also be a device for spreading the weight of overdimensional loads overmore wheels.A vehicle consisting of a prime mover. a draw bar and an group.Direct drive transmissions have a 1:l top or high gear. the front group being steeredby the drawbar coupled to the towing vehicle. A two trailer roadtrain.A van type body with curtain sides that held down along the sides by are straps attached to the tie rail and pulled tight lengthwise by a ratchet. such asduring cornering. CRUISE CONTROL .See Dog Trailer.A transmission ratio in which the output shaft of the transmission turns at exactly the samespeed as the input shaft Le. DIFFERENTIAL LOCK . It includes a axle turntable. DOLLY . DIRECT DRIVE .A very low gear which isnot used under normal circumstances. CURTAIN-SIDER . semi-trailer and a trailer. DRAWBAR STAND . Also called a Bog Cog or Stump Puller. Usually fitted with receptacles for twist locks in each comer and provision on the base forklift handling. DRAWBAR LENGTH .See Converter Dolly. CRAWLER GEAR .A device which allows drive to be transmitted to each wheel on anaxle even when the wheels are turning at different speeds. A two trailer roadtrain.A brand of paper element airfilter which. DOG BOX .The load carrying platform DIFFERENTIAL .A box used for the transportingof goods in bulk.Combination of a prime mover. DOUBLE BOTTOM .An older type transmission in which the ratios were changed by sliding the various gears into and out of mesh with each other. DECK .A unit designed to convert a semi-trailer to a dog trailer.DOUBLECLUTCHING .See Sleeper Box. in different sizes. semi-trailer and trailer. is fitted to most Australian trucks. They were harder to shift properly than a constant meshbox andare no longer made fortrucks. On some unitsthe turntable can be locked to simplify reversing. DONALDSON . DRAWBAR TRAILER . DOG TRAILER . CONVERTER DOLLY .

FAN CLUTCH . HEATERS . unit GATES -Frames used at the front. Dynatard. The front gateis also known as a loading rack. DUNNAGE . piecesof timber.A fully enclosed dry container fitted with fan and mainly used transporting a for onions. clutch. diff(s) and axleb).A truck. FRIG PAN .DRIVE AXLE .differential and wheels that transmit torque the road. GLUTS -See Chocks. GLOW PLUGS. and FANTAINER . Weather protection is usually provided tarpaulins. DRIVELINE -The motor. FORWARD CONTROL VEHICLE . See turntable. DRY FREIGHT CONTAINER . trailer or semi-trailer that has a flat goods carrying area without sides. That allows a shorter overallvehicle length or leaves more of the length forcargo.A device which disconnects the drive to the fan when it is not needed for cooling which saves engine power reduces noise.A truck with the cab mounted over the engine.An electric auxiliary brake that works the drivetrain (also known as on a Telmar brake). DYNATARD -The Mack equivalent of a Jake brake.g. C-brake. Most buses and all cabover or COE trucks are forward control.The axle. Cummins brake) that uses the valves to increase engine retardation.A normal.See Tail Shaft. EXHAUST BRAKE .An auxiliary brake that works the drivetrain by restricting the on exhaust gases with a slide or butterfly valve.Packing material (e. with the body often now made of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) and usually having a diesel powered refrigerationat the front. FIFTH WHEEL -The term favoured in the US and Britain for what Australians generally a call turntable which is a device for coupling aprime mover and asemi uailer. to DRIVE SHAFT . FREIGHT CONTAINER -See Container. gearbox. drive shafts. ENGINE BRAKE OR MOTOR BRAKE .A matched pair of wheels attached to each end of an axle. DRIVETRAIN . It is also used to leave a gap between load and deck or different partsof the load so forklifts can get underto lift. fully enclosed container with doors at back and the occasionally on one side. mats) placed between the cargo and the truck platform or between of cargo to level the load and/or increase friction so load items is less likely to move during journey. Pyrometer. (A large steel pallet) FLAT TOP .A refrigerated pantechnicon or van. plywood. 125 . See Engine Brake. DUAL WHEELS .As for the driveline but usually doesn’t include the engine. bulkhead or head board and must be strong enough to resist load shifting in accidents or under severebraking. The traditional trailer type general use by for but losing favour because tarps take too long and aretoo much trouble. Forward control moves the driver forward of his traditional position behind the motor.A steel base for supporting loads fitted with receptacles for twist locks and provision for fork lift operation. sides and rear the load carrying platform to contain the of load. See ELECTRIC RmARDER . EGT GAUGE -Exhaust Gas Temperature gauge.Devices used on some diesel engines to assist starting in cold conditions.An auxiliary brake fitted an engine (also known as to Jake brake. FLAT RACK .

_.GREASY PLATE . Also known asa Cheat Board.An auxiliary gearbox located after the main gearbox to provide additional overdrive or reduction ratios.68. This allows for small two axlesand thedifferent distances they travel on turns. HYDRAULIC RETARDER . HIGH CUBE -Cargo of such low density that the amount that can be transported is limited by the vehicle’s volume rather than its mass. Intercoolers can be air to air or air to water types and aresometimes called aftercoolers.A hauling unit and trailer with a GCM over 13.g.The loaded weight of a rigid vehicle._. HEAVY TRAILER COMBINATION . GROSS ._.. ISOLATION SWITCH .A distance recording device usually mounted o n drive and trailer wheel hubs. GROSS COMBINATION MASS OR GCM . HUNGRY BOARD . May be mounted ona vehicle or trailer or may form an integral part of a trailer. INTERCOOLER . 126 .A board fitted around the top of a tip truck to increase capacity.Locks u p the inter-axle differential so drive is shared equally by both driven axles to reduce wheelspin and increase tractionin slippfry conditions..A hydraulicauxiliarybrakethatworks (sometimes called a Voith brake)..A system that uses hydraulic fluid for transmittingforce to the braking units in each wheel.5 tonnes.The three terms listed a b w e are often used to define the respective mass limits although this is not strictly correct unless the word LIMIT is also added (e. JINKER A trailer designed to transport long logs.A differential which operates between two driven axles to allow one axle to turn at a slightly different speed from the other.A short drive shaft especially one transmitting power from one drive axle to another. The cooling increases air density and engine power and reduces thermal stress to the engine.A type of turntable. or a vehicle especially designed for maximum cargo space. GROSS VEHICLE MASS OR GVM .The loaded w-eight of an articulated vehicle or combination vehicle.89 kPa = 1 psi.A device used for cooling turbocharged air before it enters the engine. HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM. consisting of two large plates lubricated with grease which functions like a ballrace turntable.A prime mover. HOIST BOX or TURRET . differences in tyre diameters on the INTER-AXLE LOCK . JAKE BRAKE-See Engine Brake. LIMIT . See a150 Pounds pcr square inch (psi). GROSS COMBINATION MASS LIMIT).A container designed for discharge of loose dry material through a gate valve a t the bottom of the container.A guard fitted around a hydraulic hoist ram on a tipper body to protect it from damage. HOPPER ..The loaded weight of a road train.A unit of pressure in the metric system. to JACK SHAFT . GROSS ROADTRAIN MASSOR GKTM. from the electrical system of the vehicle prevent any possibility of fire due to short circuit. ~ JOEY BOX. or a rigid motor vehicle being used to tow a trailer. HUBODOMETER .. May be mounted directly on the rear of the main gearbox or separately from it.. KILOPASCAL ( H a ) ..A device which completely disconnects the batter). HAULING UNIT . Usually used with semi-trailers having a trailer block behind the kingpin. on the drive train INTER-AXLE DIFFERENTIAL .

bulk liquids. but OVER-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE .Operating onfixed long distance routes. OPEN TOP . hanging meat.g. 127 . pneumatic tyred earthmoving machinery).g. Tag Axle.See Lugging. Seealso Pusher Axle.Caused by the combination of overloading the engine and insufficient engine speed.Apermanenttrailerturntablewhich can be locked in the straight-ahead position enabling a dog trailer to be more easily reversed.The maximum load which a vehicle israted to carry by the manufacturer.The heavy duty gate at the front of a flat top trailer. LOAD LIMIT .A vehicle that exceeds the maximum permitted height. LOG BOOK . of MAXI-BRAKE -See Spring Brake. Greasy plate and ballrace turntables canalso be locked for use with semi-trailersthat have no blocks behind the kingpin.Reduces the proportion of braking effort going to the rear axle(s)to compensate for forward weight transfer and light or load.A vehicle that exceeds the maximum permitted length.An unpowered axle which is part of an axle group which includes a drive axle. This load limit varies from State to State although the trend is to nationwide uniformity. Trailing Axle. for an overdrive ratio of 0. no Helps preventrear wheel lock-up under braking.A load which. LIFT-UP LAZY . LIVE LOAD .A retractable lazy axle that can lift the wheels clear of the ground when the truck is empty. The symptoms of lugging are shuddering or excessive vibration in the engine. LANDING GEAR or LANDING LEGS -Retractable legs that supportthe front of semi-trailer a when not coupled aprime mover. The remedyis to shift to a lower gear. each gets its proportional share of the load. LABOURING . an overdrive allows the engine to turn more slowly at cruising speed which reduces engine wear and consumption. LOAD SENSING or LOAD PROPORTIONING VALVE . LOADING RACK . LAZY AXLE . fuel OVER-HEIGHT VEHICLE. width.A bonnetted vehicle where the driver sits in the "normal" position behind the engine.A gear ratio in which the engine turns more slowly than the tailshaft (e. or on any motor vehicle upon the road. chains and strapsused to lash down loads.81 the engine turns only 8 times for every 10 turns of the tailshaft). If one axle is dual tyred and another single. LINEHAUL . rest LUGGING or LABOURING . MEXICAN OVERDRIVE . because it cannot be completely secured is able to move about within the load space (e.Driver's record of hours driven and periods taken. livestock. (See Over-height Vehicles) OVERDRIVE .Slang term for coasting downhill in neutral. weightor height. to LASHINGS -Ropes. LOCKINGTURNTABLE .The maximum loadwhich may be carried in. Also called Angel Gear.KINGPIN . Also the pin aroundwhich a steerable wheel rotates in thevertical axis.A pin on a semi-trailer skid plate which locks into a prime mover's turntable jaws.Usually raised andlowered with atwo speed crank. Used properly. LOADSHARING SUSPENSION . LOAD CAPACITY .A container with sides and doors no roof. vibrations in the driveline and black exhaust smoke due to excessive fuel (all which can result in engine and driveline damage). which is illegal and dangerous.A suspension which enables all wheels of an axle group to support an equal load. NORMAL CONTROL VEHICLE . The lazy is usually behind the drive axle. See Turntable.

Sce also kilopascal (kPa). PINTLE HOOK . Almost allheavy trucks use range change boxes. PANTECHNICON. The pivot or ’bending’ point of an articulated vehicle.OVER-REVVING . The required gear is first selected by operation of the gear shift control (gear lever or shift button) but actual engagement of the gear is achieved by operating the clutch pedal or releasing the accelerator. POINT OF ARTICULATION-The axis of rotation of a turntable. They control and air flow to the radiator and are particularly effective in very cold climates.A temperature gauge that measures the temperature of the engine exhaust gases. transmission. PRE-SELECTION (OF GEARS) . tailshaft and rearaxle. furniture van).A type of trailer coupling widely used in the US but usually only on light or military trailers in Australia. PRLME MOVER . POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (psi) .See Tailshaft.89 kl’a. Namely. PIG TRAILER . bulk liquid pump.See Inter-axle Lock. engine. mounted on the radiator resemble a Venetian blind. 128 .g.A set of transmission gears engaged by a lever or knob which is independent of the normal shift lever.A device attached to a vehicle’s transmission or flywheel cnabling engine power to be used to drive ancillary equipment (e. See also. POWERTRAIN -The group of components which drive the vehicle. PUSHER AXLE . PIN -What locks into thedrawbar eye on an automatic tow coupler. PANTECH OR PAN . POWER TAKE OFF or PTO .R e d and yellow plates which must befitted to the rear of heavy vehicles to make them more visible when they aremoving slowlyor parked. PYROMETER or EGT GAUGE . Splitter. garbage compactor.A trailer having one non-steerable axle group near the middleof the length of the load carrying platform. Can cause serious damage to the engine. semi-trailer or trailer (e. hydraulic hoist). Two speed axle ratios or transmission range changes maybe pre-selected and then shifted in this manner. a licence. Usually caused by descending hills too fast and in the wrong gear. Can also be a spring loaded bar or pole for cargo restraint with ends that fit into recesses in van sidewalls. The rev limit is usually markedon a rev counter by a redline.A drive axle when located at the rear of a tandemaxle group in which the other axle is unpowered.A unit of pressure in the imperial system. PERMIT . Harder to hitch up than Ringfeder typecouplings. 1psi = 6. RADIATORSHUTTER . clutch. tipper hoist.A system of gear shifting in which selection and engagement of the gears are two distinct operations. Used to allow the normal transmission ratios to be repeated in another higher(or lower) range thus doubling the number of gear ratios available.A device now rarelyfoundinAustralia. REAR MARKER or REFLECTOR PLATES .g.A trailer having a single non-steering axle near the middle of the length of the load-carrying platform.A spring mounted polebehind the cab for holding up trailer brake hoses and electrical connections.Theshuttersare thermostaticallycontrolled. See Trailer Hitch POGO STICK . PROPELLER SHAFI .A short wheel base truck used to towa semi-trailer.A completely enclosed van body on a rigid vehicle. Also see Kingpin.Occurs when the engine speed exceeds the maximum limit specified by the manufacturer. POWER DIVIDER . PUP TRAILER . concrete mixer.A written orderor certificate granting permission to do something. Mostly used on North American trucks. RANGE CHANGE .

. A full trailer has an axle group at both ends and support itself. etc) It has no on-board refrigeration equipment. Anotherword for tachometer RIG -Usually means anycombination of truck or prime mover and traileds). Energy stored in the suspension builds p as it repeatedly transfers from one side the other. RINGFEDER . RPM . Can also be the curtains on the sides of a Tautliner type truck or trailer body. SKID PLATE . twist locks for containers. also Resonance Roll. RETARDER -See Speed Retarder. chains. vegetables.A semi-trailer has oneaxle group atthe rear and designed so that the front is is supported bythe prime mover which is used to tow it. (Note: This is not a B-Double which consists of a prime mover and two semi-trailers. ROPE RAIL or TIE RAIL .The natural frequency at which a vehicle tends to roll from sideto side on its suspension. ROADTRAIN . SLEEPER BOX . SEMI-TRAILER . SEMI or SEMI-TRAILER . usually as a resultof steering back and forth from one side the other.A separate sleeping compartment fitted behind but with opening into the an truck cab.An insulated container that fitted with portholes so that thecontents can is be snap frozen using liquid nitrogen. The front of the plate is usually curved upwards to enable the prime mover to slide more easily under the trailer duringcoupling.A condition inwhich the vehicle is inducedto roll from sideto side at its to natural roll frequency.See Automatic Tow coupling.An axle which can be raised when not needed. (Used for meat.A trailer or semi-trailer that has no tray but has attachments fitted to the framefor the carryingof goods (e. SLIDING MESH TRANSMISSION A simple gearbox for engaging PTOs.The main brake system acting on all road wheels and controlled by a foot pedal.Also referred to as revsper minute or revs.Either a truck hauling two more trailers.g. u to roll increasing the each time until the vehicle may overturn. REV COUNTER . can SERVICE BRAKE . SIDE CURTAINS .) ROLL FREQUENCY. or bolstersfor logsor timber). SKELETAL OR SKEL TRAILER .common term for an articulated vehicle (prime mover and semi-trailer). RESONANCE ROLL .An instrument which tells how fast the motor is turning. Used for tying ropes.See also Roll Frequency. SNOW SHOOTER . RIGID MOTOR VEHICLE . or a prime mover andsemi-trailer or hauling one or more trailers. Bonnetted longhaul trucks most commonly have sleeper boxes but the trend is for integrated sleepers which cabover trucks have hadfor years.Revolutions per minute.REEFER -A dryfreight container which is insulated and fitted with a refrigeration unit. and tarpsto secure loads. SCOTCHES -See Chocks. 129 . Usually attachedto the gates. RETRACTABLE AXLE.Usually made of pipe and fitted under the coaming rail.A thick steel plate fixed to the underside of the front of a semi-trailer and incorporating the kingpin (and often a block to keep the skid plate from turning on the upper part of greasy plate andballrace turntables).A tarpaulin that encloses the side of a load.A driving cabin that isfitted with oneor two bunks. SLEEPER CAB.A vehicle without a trailer.

A device which limitsthe top speed of a truck without limiting engine revs or power in thelower gears.Truck with a flat bed or tray body. SPLITTER or SPLITTER BOX .2-High . Easier to shift but is not as quick as a constant mesh transmission and it is necessary to use thc clutch for every shift.A hydraulic or electric auxiliary brake fitted to the driveline which reduces the load on the service brakes.) Seealso Range Change. A splitter provides a low and high range in each gear thus doubling the number of gears available. This rccognises that it is often impossibleto find weighbridges where stock is loaded.A truck or trailer body built for carrying livestock. SUPER SINGLES . SUSPENSION SEAT .Used to restrict and adjust the opening of tipper tailgates to allow a regulated flow of the load (e.g.The cast spoke hub of a wheel upon which the rim is mounted. SPREADER BAR . 130 .A tandem axle group on a trailer having the two axles separated by a distance greater than2 metres. SPREAD TANDEM . Properly engineered super singleinstallations on trailers allow wider spring centres and wheelbases for greater stability which is especially important on naturally unstable vehicles like stock crates and tankers.A wide profile wheel and tyre used on a steer axle or in place of a dual wheel assembly on trailers. The bar is usually about 8 feet long so it can be carried crossways on the back of the prime mover. The necessary rotation between semi-trailer and prime mover is made between the upper and lower parts of the turntable. 1-Low . Some states also allow ”volume loading” of stock crates where a trailer is built to a certain size and then is not required to weigh in.6 metres high while other trailer types are limited to 4.connects sidegates at the top strengthening them and raising the cap tarp in the centre so that water runs off when the load height is lower than that of the gates. No longer built in Australia.g. Spring brakes are used for parking and emergency braking on air braked vehicles. STABILISED TURNTABLE .1-High -2-Low . Some States allow stock crates to be u p to 4. The upshift sequence for a 4-speed transmission with splitter would be.A two speed.3-Low .>High . ~ TABLE TOP . SPIDER .A brake which is mechanically applied by a spring and released by air pressure which compresses the spring. especiallywhen used with aluminiumwheels. STIFF BAR . Must be swung open and secured along the ground.4-Low 4-High.A greasy plate or ballrace turntable where its upper plate and the semi-trailer skid plate are prevented from turning by a block on the semi-trailer skid plate. STOCK CRATE . SPRING BRAKE . SWING GATE -The rear gate on a tipper when it has side hinges and swings open to the side for bulky objects that would hit a top hinged tailgate. Also called a Maxi-brake. (e. Because the brake automatically applies if air pressure is lost. i t is ’fail-safe’.a iigid bar with an eye at each end usedto couple roadtrains for pushing orpulling when one is bogged. side before tipping or it will strike the SYNCHROMESH TRANSMISSION A transmission in which the speeds of the gears are matched or ’synchronised by means of in-built synchronising clutches before they are meshed.An air or spring suspended and dampened seat designed to reduce vibration and road shock. The size is computed to offer the right weight. SPREADER CHAINS .SPEED LIMITER. gravel or sand) for spreading.3. close ratio gear set operated bya lever or knob which is independent of the normal shift lever. There are also considerable tare weight advantages with super singles. SPEED RETARDER .

Commonly used with flattops and trays but losing out to enclosed bodies because it takes too long and it’s too much work with most loads.A trip recorder incorporating aclock. TRACTOR American term for prime mover TRACTOR PROTECTION VALVE A valve which automatically closes off the air supplyto the trailer brakes when pressure drops to an unsafe level k g .See BogieDrive. TOW COUPLING OVERHANG -The horizontal distance from centre of the axle group at the the rearof the towingvehicle to the centreline of the towing pivot. TRAILER . when unloaded.The cab on a cabover or forward control truck which is hinged so it can be tilted forward for access to the engine andtransmission. with centres of axles not less than 1. The Americanscall it a dump truck. speedometer and often arev counter that inscribes a recordof a journey on a circular paper graph.The unpowered axle of a tandemaxle group in which only the frontaxle is driven. TORQUE .See Electric Retarder and Speed Retarder. Ringfeder and pintlehook. TIPPER -A truck or trailer which can discharge its loadby tilting the cargo body.A flat rack fitted with framework enclosing a tankused for the transport of liquid goodswhich usually has standard containerlocks. TELMAR BRAKE . Bartlett hitch.Also known as a tip-truck or tip-trailer.0 metres apart.A block fitted behind the pin on a semi-trailer skid plate which ensures rotation occurs in the greasy plate and ball race turntable and not between prime mover and semi-trailer. TILT CAB .A shaft which transmits the drive from the transmission to the rear axle.An unpowered vehicle built to be towed behind a motorvehicle.A combination of two axles which are related to each other through a loadsharing system.The turning force or turning effort of a shaft.) TANDEM AXLE GROUP . The graph itself has notchanged since 1933 but the machine was mechanical and is now electronic. TAILGATE -The opening back of tipper hucks and trailers.An instrument for measuring engine revolutions. TARE MASS -The mass of vehicle without itsload (Le. There are many to different types. TAILSHAFT . TARP or TARPAULIN . that protects loads of from rain and dust.A hydraulic hoist fitted to tippers THIRD DIFFERENTIAL . or be hingedat the side for tipping bulky loads such as metal or largerocks. TANK CONTAINER . See automatic tow coupling. TRAILER COUPLING -The device which attaches a trailer a towingvehicle. TAG AXLE . - 131 .See Inter-axle Differential. Can be pivoted at the top so it opens scrap at thebottom. traditionally made canvas. ctc).0 metre part and not more than 2. TACHOMETER . TANDEM DRIVE . This ensures that the tractor (prime mover) brakes remain operational but also means that the trailer springbrakes (if so equipped) will come on due to lack o f air.The first tachograph was put the on market in Germany in 1933 and their use is compulsory on heavy vehicles in Europe.TACHOGRAPH . TRAILER BLOCK . without a fuel.See curtain sider TELESCOPIC HOIST . when a trailer brake hose bursts or becomes disconnected).A covering. Some tailgates can be adjustedfor top and side pivoting. Engine torque is the turning force available at the crankshaft. a rev counter. TAUTLINER -The first and still most common type of curtain sider in Australia. (Also known as a Driveshaft or Propeller Shaft. The blockmust not be used with fixed turntables or they will break it off on first the turn.

A radiator usedto cooltransmission oil on many heavy duty vehicles.0 metre apart and not more than metres apart.A device forcoupling a prime mover to a semi-trailer. Also called triples. fixed cranes. especially one used for local work or as a yard shunter.000 rpm by the exhaust gases drivesan impeller to pump air into the cylinders under pressure thus increasing engine powerand efficiency. One twist lock isused oneach comer of the container. UNIVERSAL JOINTS AND SPLINES . less than 2. TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER . VACUUM SERVO BRAKE . The top of the greasy plate and ball race types move with the trailer and are located by the kingpin and the trailer block.A hoist used on tip-trucks or tip-trailers with the hydraulic ram mounted below thebody andbetween the chassis rails.See trailer coupling.Devices fitted to tail and jack shafts to allow for suspension movement.The mass of the motor vehicle without any load.g. The three basic types are greasy plate. semi-trailer and two trailers. a Stock Truck). TWIN-STEER AXLE GROUP .A combination of two single tyred axles. It often has a low range for better off-road power andgradeability.A vehicle whichis designed and registered to be loaded by volume rather than by mass. with centres ofaxies not less than 1.A rear axle. A fixed turntable requires thetrailer skid plate to slide around the kingpin while resting on top of the turntable. TWO-SPEED AXLE . VOITH BRAKE . TUG -Slang term for prime mover.2 metres apart. Load space limitation prevents overloading when loaded with specified cargo the (e. VOLUME LOADER . A three trailer roadtrain. oil and fuel in the tanks.A device welded to the frame of arigid truck or a trailer and used to secure a freight container to the vehicle. UNDERBODY HOIST . UNLADEN MASS .A device in which a turbine wheel driven at 60.A secondary gearbox driven off themain gearbox and having one output shaft to the frontto drive the front axle and oneto the rear to drive the rear axle(s). fitted to the front ofa truck or prime mover and connected to the same steeringmechanism. vehicle flexing and variations in alignment.See Hydraulic Retarder. TURBOCHARGER or TURBO . Not ascommon as dogs for TURNTABLE .A combination of a prime mover.TRAILER HITCH . TURNTABLE JAWS -The parts of the turntablethat lock around the kingpin of thesemi-trailer. TRAILING AXLE . 132 .A braking system inwhich the engine vacuum provides power assistance.000 to 90. The unladen mass of an articulated vehicle is the unladen mass of the primemover only.0 the steering wheel turned. TRANSFER BOX .) is TWIST LOCK . but including all tools. on trucks or trailers. TRI-AXLE GROUP .A group of 3 loadsharing axles with centres of the front and rear axles not more than 3.A dual ratio drive axle in which high or low ratios can be engaged by a switch on thegear lever. thus doublingthe total gear ratios available. TURNBUCKLE .A device used to tension a rod or wire linkage or chains used in securing loads securing loads because turnbuckles take longer.0 metres apart and not TRIPLE BOTTOM . ball race and fixed. reducing driver effort in applying thebrakes. (The wheels of both axles turn when 2.

WAXING . 133 . wet YARD SHUNTER -An old.Wax is part of all diesel fuels but can block filters or even fuel lines in cold conditions. Australian refiners have winter blends with low wax to minimise theproblem. levels WET TANK . Most condensation occurs as there and the tank shouldbe drained as often possible to protect the airsystem.The tank which receives air directfrom the compressor. often unregistered prime mover used shunting semi-trailers in a for terminal or yard.

ACCELERATION.c 5 - B PARKING AND REVERSING I 2 3 4 - B B A B OPERATING PROCEDURES 1 2 - D 8 3 - D COUPLING AND UNCOUPLING SEMI-TRAILERS 1 B 2 - D LOADING THE VEHICLE I A . 3 MAINTAINING THE VEHICLE 1 2 3 4 - B D c c 5 6 - D D 134 . GEAR CHANGING AND BRAKING - D c A 2 . I.. 5 .c 7 3 0 1 - from top to bottom 4.I 1 3 4 ANSWERS T KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS: O I STEERING.

c ROAD LAWS 1 8 2 - A 3 4 - D 8 5 .c 5 - D BREAKDOWNS AND ACCIDENTS 1 2 3 - B A 8 EMERGENCY PROCEDURE 1 D 2 - D 3 .c 6 D 135 .DRIVER HEALTH AND SAFETY 1 D 2 - D 3 - c DEFENSIVE DRIVING I 3 4 - c D A 2 .

5U3l Transport Tasmanm 1 Colllns Skeet HOBART.) 834 2273 QLD Dw~smn Accidcnt of I'Te"e"tio2. HKxl ACTAdministration Informahor. 3 8 1 Transport Tasmania 1 Collins Street HOBART. 6030 ACTAdminishation GPO Box 1 5 8 CANBERRA CITY. 2021 Roads and Traffic Authority GPO B o x 26 SYDNM. 2Wl Explosives Branch Department of Labour a n d Industry 1 Oxford Street DARLINGTON. 7w0 Police Department Licensing & Servicn 22 Mount S t r e t PERTH. 2001 VIC Roads Corpora tian Second Flmr North Building Lygon st (Cnr Princes Street) CARLTON.Appendix A VEHICLESAND LOADS NSW MASSES OF VEHICLES AND LOADS Roads and Traffic Authority GPO Box 26 SYDNEY. 2601 Department of Transport & W o r k Motor Vehlcle Regshy G y d c r Road GPO Box 530 DARWIN. 0801 ACT Administration GPOlW CANBERRA CITY. 7016 Mines Dcpartrnent WA hilneral House 66 Adelaide Tce I'EKTIL 6Mx) ACT GPOlW CANBERRA CITY. 2001 SAFE LOADING REGULATIONS DANGEROUS GOODS REGULATIONS Roads and Traffic Authority G P O Box 28 SYDNEY. 5021 Permits: Highways Deparhnent Permit sedion PO Box 1 WALKERVILLE 5081 TAS Transport Tasmania 1 Collins Sheet HOBART. MYM Departmcntof Labour Dangerous Substances BrXlCh GPO Box 365 ADELAIDE. 2010 Health Commission 01 NSW GPO Box 4235 SYDNEY. 7030 Police Department Limnsing k Servirrs 22 Mount Street PERTH. 5031 M h c s Departmcnt Gordon5 HIU Road KOSNY PARK.SWl Permits: Hlghghways Department Permit %tion PO B o x I WALKERVILLE. 4 w 0 (07) 227 5783 Main Roads Department Boundary Sheet Spring Hill BRISBANE. 0901 Information: Thesecretariat Road Safety Division GPO Box 1443 ADELAIDE. 26iil Work Health Authority 66 Esplanade GPO Ilox 2010 DARWIN. 0801 NT 136 . 2601 Department of Transport & Works Motor Vehlcle Registry Goyder Road GPO Box 530 DARWIN.: Thc Smctariat Roadsafety Diwsmn GPO Box 1443 ADELAIDE. 7wo Police Department licensing &Services 22MountSheet PERTH. 0 8 0 1 ACT Administration GPO 158 CANBERRA CITY. 3053 Roads Corporation Second Roor North Building Lygon St (Cnr Princes Street1 CARLTON.1 2631 (0. 2W1 Department of L o e l Government State Office Block Phillip Street SYDNEY. 4003 (07) 834 2273 Main Koads Depaitmcnt UoundaryStreet Spring liiU BRISBANE. 4030 SA Information: The Seaetariat Road Saiety Division GPO Box 1443 ADELAIDE. 5cO1 rents: IHighwaysDcpartment Permit Seaion PO Box 1 WALKERVILLE. 50 Ann Street URISBANE. 4coO ( 0 7 ) 83. 3053 MainRoads Departmcnt Boundary Sheet spring HlI1 BRISBANE. 26431 Department of Transport & Works Motor Vehicle Registry Goyder Road GPO Box 533 DARWIN.

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