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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. Margery Ayscough. His half-niece was Catherine Barton.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. astronomer. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.1 litres). In mathematics. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. alchemist. he was a small child. and theologian.[11][12][13] . published in 1687. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. and for the style of the work. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. He was an unorthodox Christian. 25 December 1642. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. mathematician. he never married. Born prematurely. independently. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. natural philosopher. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. When Newton was three. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. and contributed to the study of power series. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. In this work. due. the subjects he is mainly associated with. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. At the time of Newton's birth. Newton was also highly religious.

In 1665. he was admitted to Trinity College.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. now published among Newton's mathematical papers.[15] Henry Stokes. and Kepler. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. and did not give a full account until 1704. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". Nevertheless. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. and of astronomers such as Copernicus.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things"...Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. a fellow of our College. and very young . Newton was educated at The King's School. Crowell & Co. Luckily for Newton. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. He hated farming. also by British mathematicians. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. for example.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). where his mother. NY: Thomas Y.) Such a . although with very different notations. ordaining normally could not be dodged.[18] At that time. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. attempted to make a farmer of him. such as Descartes. Famous Men of Science. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton. Sarah K. nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations..[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. and after 1820 or so. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests. widowed by now for a second time. Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. He was removed from school. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below).[23] A related subject was infinite series. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method". in a manuscript of October 1666. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. master at the King's School. For such a significant appointment. Galileo.[17] In June 1661. were adopted by continental European mathematicians. and by October 1659. he became the top-ranked student. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. In 1667.

fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684".[32] Starting in 1699. He discovered Newton's identities. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables).[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. At the time. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it. However. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. However. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time.[34] 4 . of 1684. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. however. accepted this argument. but never finished it. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. valid for any exponent. and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. Because of this. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula).Isaac Newton suggestion. Newton's method. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. and Charles II. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form. whose permission was needed. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. In that day.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. In 1691.

John Maynard Keynes.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance.[39] Building the design.) In 1704. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal.II. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. . and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. he might not have developed his theory of gravity. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration). revived his interest in alchemy."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. As a proof of the concept. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. however. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. 12).[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. which he later expanded into his Opticks. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. the first known functional reflecting telescope. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. across a vacuum.and may . Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80. Thus. and the general phenomenon of diffraction. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. Today's quantum mechanics.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work. Newton published Opticks. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. Props.13). In 1671. today known as a Newtonian telescope. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. Newton lectured on optics. when Hooke.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. it stayed the same colour. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles... He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.

[49] For Newton. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. 8th Query). who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. using a glass globe (Optics. but they did not so far indicate its cause. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. and defined the law of universal gravitation. via diagrams. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. wherever it was. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. In an article entitled "Newton.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. and much more.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). prisms. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. was at rest).[47] After the exchanges with Hooke.. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. as they did. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. In the same book he describes. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke.[51] Later. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. In the same work. In this work. i. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity.e. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". the use of multiple-prism arrays. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. Also.

Catherine Barton Conduitt. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699. but Newton took them seriously. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). after Sir Francis Bacon. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. the Astronomer Royal. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). Towards the end of his life. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. His half-niece. when it abruptly ended. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. In his position at the Royal Society. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Cambridge. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. John (1733) – were published after his death. including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. 1st Earl of Halifax. With the Principia. then Chancellor of the Exchequer.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. until his death in 1727.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. a position Newton held until his death.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726].[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. These appointments were intended as sinecures. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. which Newton had used in his studies.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. Newton became internationally recognised. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. He took charge of England's great recoining. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

Another example is the recoil of a firearm. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone.[102] Apple incident . the first term vanishes. For example. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. this is expressed as . Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. Before Newton. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. with time. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. named in Newton's honour. and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. Mathematically. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. The SI unit of force is the newton. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. . They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion.Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. they may be at rest). the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). Unlike Aristotle's. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass.

or toward the centre. which appears identical to Flower of Kent.[107] In similar terms. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. that the earth draws it. and get good agreement. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. he told me. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety.[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. and hence named it "universal gravitation". but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. & myself. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. amidst other discourse. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. Cambridge. whose manuscript account.[111] . that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. The King's School." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. We went into the garden. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. he was just in the same situation. as well as the earth draws the apple. the reason is. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought.. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. to the Moon. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. had the first thought of his system of gravitation. only he. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727).[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment. it must be in proportion of its quantity.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. there must be a drawing power in matter. published in 1752. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. in an inverse-square proportion. not in any side of the earth. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree."[106] John Conduitt. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. Grantham. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. therefore the apple draws the earth. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. if matter thus draws matter. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees.. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. as when formerly.

. Retrieved 28 March 2010.1017/S0007087499003751. ISBN 1-573-56256-4. . Derek (1986). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. Barrow.e. (2001). 1993). [18] Michael White. Gale E. google. I. Oxford University Press. Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). html). org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. doi:10. i. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Cambridge University Press . berkeley. Vol. (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. google. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. org/ heretic. Retrieved 28 March 2010. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. Stephen D. pp. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. a. Leibniz. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. online edn. 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www. flickr. jstor. Vol. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. Retrieved 3 February 2009. James R. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. 315. May 2007. [6] Snobelen. 50. Michael Hoskins (1997). September 2004. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. php). com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). ac.1. The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. google. Newton. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'.96. Retrieved 28 March 2010. [10] Cohen. 74. Moreover. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. p. p. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. Optical Lectures. Oxford University Press. n. . (1983) [1980]. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. The Newton Handbook.1258/jrsm. [9] Christianson. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. p. (1999). "Isaac Newton. (1996). Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books. html). Isaac. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. By the time he died. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www. Greenwood Publishing Group. 159. newton. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). [13] Newton. [7] Burt. edu/ MATH/ Newton. 11. No. Isis. (1970). . pp. com/ view/ article/ 1541). html). and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www.M1) [19] ed. PMID 12519805. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1998.Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. At Newton's birth. google. uk/ newtlife. 8. Bellevue College. [2] Mordechai Feingold. Dictionary of Scientific Biography.43. isaac-newton. 2 (June. pdf) (PDF). p. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar.4 [4] Gjersten. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. . accessed 24 February 2009. Graham's Home Page. . bellevuecollege. Richard S. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. chlt. google. ISBN 9780521058179. explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. org/ stable/ 236236)". edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. "Singular scientists". 84. heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. doi:10. 530–1. ISBN 9780521274357. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). 22 [17] James. Isaac. Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. Unless otherwise noted. Daniel S. p. . ISBN 0195092244. p. [14] http:/ / www. c. fictional. . Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences.36. [5] Westfall. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ioan (January 2003). oxforddnb.B. PMC 539373. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style').

. [24] D Gjertsen (1986). vol.. Chapter 11. lib. ISBN 9780521566698. [48] D T Whiteside (ed.2. www. J. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). 151 [35] King. "Newton.5. [21] Venn. '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. doi:10. "Newton. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). [60] Westfall 1980.11. at p. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. (Cambridge University Press. at page 54 (http:/ / books. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". 'Principia'. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. google. cam. document #235. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. Cambridge University Press 1974. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". Book 3 (1729 vol. [27] Clifford Truesdell.com. [51] Edelglass et al.6. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 16 January 2010. opticsjournal. cam. google. " Newton. com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). 325 [39] White 1997. J. [53] Westfall 1980. A. but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. [43] Iliffe.T. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). [31] Stewart 2009.. numericana. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). at page 30.11. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. lib.99.245 [58] Yonge. [36] Newton. p. google. letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679. p. p.. Cambridge University Digital Library. google. at page 319. nor for his service at the Mint. Robert (2007) Newton. 44. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. . The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54). Google Books. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. J. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 1729 English translation. ac. 'Principia'. Cambridge University Press 1960.317 [56] Gerard Michon. 'Never at Rest'. google. . [49] See Curtis Wilson. at page 233 (http:/ / books. 356ff [34] White 1997.). google. at page 149. see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books. [54] White 1997. doi:10. Isaac (http:/ / venn. Alfred Rupert (1996). com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). Isis 73 (4): 523. "The Newton handbook". 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. at page 400. 54 [52] Westfall 1980. p. Retrieved 16 January 2010. page 67 (http:/ / books. ac. com/ arms/ index. 1729 English translation.1. p. . Martin's Press. Retrieved 10 January 2012. (1898). Isaac. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. [26] Newton. [23] D T Whiteside (ed. 324 [38] Ball 1908. "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. 1696).2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. "Hydrostatics. (2000). A very short introduction. The Man". John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. at pages 391–2. [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. Cambridge University Press. pdf). Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25.. online-literature. Volume. J. eds (1922–1958).online-literature. p. p170 [40] Hall. Numericana. p." Westfall 1994 p. [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia. John Maynard (1972). prisms. lib. (December 1982). Venn. Cambridge University Digital Library.000024. Page 74 (http:/ / books. Isaac. Charlotte M. 1967). 1968). cam. 232 [55] White 1997. Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes.com. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). [59] Westfall 1980.24D. King. p. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). DuarteOPN(2000).. an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science. p. especially at pages 119–120. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). 363–4. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. Optics. at page 297.. 2A'. at page 41 (http:/ / books. vol. pp. Henry C (2003). ISBN 0-940262-45-2. google. Retrieved 16 January 2010.). ac. by Alfred Rupert Hall. 1684–1691. . Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.Isaac Newton [20] Newton. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908.1086/353114. [47] R S Westfall. [41] White 1997. ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2). [45] Dobbs. vol. H W Turnbull. Retrieved 10 January 2012. F. p.107 [32] Westfall 1980. Bibcode 2000OptPN. com/ F. 595 15 . com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). pages 116–138. Google Books. "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. htm#newton). [37] Ball 1908. J.). google. "A short account of the history of mathematics". [30] D T Whiteside (1970). MacMillan St. . 1676–1687' ed.1364/OPN. . [25] Newton. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". ISBN 9780486432656. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. 1980. Matter and Mind.

bbc. H. le comte J. Hafner Library of Classics." Oeuvres de Lagrange I. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0855270667. [66] White 1997. p. 1867. New York: King's Crown Press. Isaac Newton: Inventor. ed. 259 [96] White 1997. Bank of England. Book III. [70] Opinion poll. Wallace trans. Retrieved 27 August 2009. htm). "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability. Margaret C. p. Richard S. [85] Germain. Meier. Charles (1948). [84] Frankel. [83] Haakonssen. Writings. R. 42. History of Science: Newton citing: Delambre. html). Robert M. (1958). htm) on 13 August 2007. p. 267 16 . Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. p.C. Retrieved 13 November 2009. christianpost. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. "The Enlightenment. “The emergence of Rational Dissent. p. [81] Jacob. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. New Haven: Yale University Press. p2. com/ print.Isaac Newton [61] "Newton. p. 1989. G. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. (1994). T._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. 1998. ISBN 0208008438. 29 November 1999. the success of Newtonian physics in providing a mathematical description of an ordered world clearly played a big part in the flowering of this movement in the eighteenth century" John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. v. Cambridge: 1996. ed. News. J. Knud Haakonssen. Michigan. [88] Webb. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). January 2005. 233. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. [65] John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". In Martin Fitzpatrick ed. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. [79] Opticks. . 1. A Marginal Jew. Milford. 11. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33. The Royal Society. christianpost. . p187. Paris. [67] Memoirs of the Life. 10 November 2003. archive.S. Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists. Associated Press. 44. ISBN 0521477379. The Sydney Morning Herald [69] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of Royal Society scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. Query 31. L. org/ our-history/ people/ sir-isaac-newton). bbc. [80] H. 64. [63] Letter from Isaac Newton to Robert Hooke. (1976).S." in Farewell to Matters of Principle.. westminster-abbey. ISBN 0915134950. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence.H. M. p19. as transcribed in Jean-Pierre Maury (1992) Newton: Understanding the Cosmos. p. politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons". [74] Westfall. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence.K. [82] Westfall. 2nd Ed 1706. p. Manchester University Press. Edinburgh. htm). vol 3. . 37. The Life of Isaac Newton. Newton runner-up: BBC news. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. pp. ISBN 0791413195. org/ web/ 20070813033620/ http:/ / www. NY. 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337 [103] White 1997.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. Cambridge University Digital Library. php?varietyid=1089). (1994). ISBN 0521477379. "Keynes Ms. co.W. • Levenson. Thomas (2010). • Westfall. edu/ newton/ index. Imperial College London. Retrieved 10 January 2012.182. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. • White. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Cambridge University Press. New Scientist. Cambridge University Press.1038/182149a0. Richard S. . James (2009). lib. ISBN 9780495557425. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. indiana. Brogdale. . . com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). [113] http:/ / www. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. php). uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)".. ISBN 0486206300. 6 [109] Alberto A. (2007). p. New York: Dover. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). • Stewart. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. 1998). uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). 130. brogdale. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Pan Macmillan. 265–266. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. O'Reilly Media. google. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. Retrieved 10 January 2009.1963. Michael (1997). Mariner Books. ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. John (1963). Einstein's Wife. Isaac. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. newtonproject. org. eds. • Craig. The Art of Science. brogdale. Cambridge University Press. Rouse (1908). Retrieved 30 August 2006. uk/ image1.. ac. The Life of Isaac Newton. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books.73 [99] White 1997. Newtonproject. Richard S. • Christianson. [108] I. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. Inc. newscientist. . • Westfall. ISBN 9781447204152. p. Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. Richard (2011). Never at Rest. Richard S. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. Bibcode 1958Natur. pp. ISBN 9780547336046. and Other Myths. John (1958). 2011). Retrieved 11 January 2007. ac. Cengage Learning. Smith. .0017. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. 4. 18 January 2010. in particular. google. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. John. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. . New York: Free Press. pierre-marteau. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. Fourth Estate Limited. [98] Westfall 2007. doi:10. Retrieved 20 December 2008. valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. doi:10.1098/rsnr. pp. dlib. p. (1980. . sussex. "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". This well documented work provides. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. p. Retrieved 7 September 2011. Isaac Newton.149C. cam. • Westfall. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. W. org/ ). ISBN 9780199213559. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. Gale (1984).org. [107] Conduitt. Bernard Cohen and George E. html 17 References • Ball. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010).

• Koyré. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. "Newtonia" pp. The Newtonian Revolution.amazon. • Bardi. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. ISBN 0486428052. • Shamos. T. The Principia: a new Translation. (1959). • Newton. Jed Z. excerpt and text search (http://www.. excerpt and text search (http://www. Palmer.0006. (2000). New York: Henry Holt and Company. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. E. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. Newton. W. I. Norton & Co. ed. – Preface by Albert Einstein. "Review of Newton's Principia". Zev (1991).com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald. Oxford University Press.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini. • Christianson. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. 354 pp. 256 pp.. New York (1972). Isaac Newton. 147–9. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Newtonian Studies. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. Wright. (1975). ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. Knox. Guide by I. London: S. ISBN 0-02-905190-8.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search.amazon. ISBN 0-393-00189-X. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. 2001. W. • Keynes. (1959). Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. "Discoveries" pp. doi:10. P. edited by I. ISBN 019530070X. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. • de Villamil. Harlow. Rapport. B. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". H. New York: Chanticleer Press. Springer.1098/rsnr. (1996). A. Gale E.amazon. ISBN 0521229642.questia. Dampier. John Maynard (1963). (1687). Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World.amazon. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. Isaac. I. (1946). focuses on philosophical issues only. James (2003). The Calculus Wars: Newton.com/dp/0521656966). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. J. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution.. 277 pp. the Man. E. A Treasury of Science. Jason Socrates. and H. Gale (1984). Great Experiments in Physics. England: Cambridge University Press. Stephen. complete edition online (http://www.. • Gjertsen. • Dampier. excerpt and text search (http://www. The Background to Newton's Principia. W. • Hawking. (1728). 150–4.. New York.D. Essays in Biography. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. On the Shoulders of Giants. Leibniz. New York: Free Press. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. New York: Harper & Row. George E. (2002). The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". S. • Cohen. Kepler. 500 pp. B.1978. 1958. William C. • Christianson. eds. excerpt and text search (http://www. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0792310543. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. N. De C. Cambridge. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. ISBN 0375422331. London: G. ISSN 0035–9149. (1965). Morris H. 2006. Readings in the Literature of Science. Richard (1931). ISBN 0486253465. (1965).com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. (1988). The Newton Handbook.amazon. Harper & Bros. M. David. • Shapley. • Craig. See this site (http://www. • Halley. John (1946). Bernard. • Gleick. . Derek (1986).com/read/105054986) • Cohen.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. (1950). Newton at the Mint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Knopf. Inc. • Berlinski. Bernard Cohen. Bernard and Smith. Isaac (1642–1727). and Cohen.1988. • Dobbs. JSTOR 531368. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. • Newton. I. Alfred A. ISBN 0841430144. Isaac Newton. (1980). J. MIT Press.

J.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. (1967–82). University of California Press. ISBN 0444196110. • Newton. (1999). • Newton. Bruce. James E.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. "Isaac Newton. or A Treatise of the Reflections. London: Taylor and Francis. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. (1936). The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1." Osiris. H. Isaac. Primary sources • Newton. • Newton.google. W. Popkin. Thomas C. 627 pp. (1959–77) . links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. (1934). rev. and Influence. Sydney: The Book Company. (2001). The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. Stephen "'God of Gods.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. 1670–1672. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Pp. Florian Cajori.google. ISBN 0521077400. 16. Ayval. D. Inflections & Colours of Light. 1984. Opticks (4th ed. pp. eds. (1996) 214pp. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. Motte. and Richard H. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. (1996). London: Macdonald. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". Stephen D. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. (1991). (1999).1017/S0007087499003751. R. argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. • Stukeley. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". I. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. xvii + 325. New York: Dover Publications. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. University of California Press. Press. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. – 8 volumes • Newton. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1: The Optical Lectures. T. 2nd Series. Isaac. 1996.Isaac Newton • Simmons. 299 pp. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. White. (edited by A. Vol.. in JSTOR (http://www. W. Vol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. I.jstor. 2. Newton and Religion: Context. tr.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). (1971).google. • Pfizenmaier. A. Isaac. H. ed. 974 pp. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. Maurice. (1952). Turnbull and others. • Wiles. Betty Jo Tetter. • Brackenridge. Nature. Opticks. 1730) online edition (http://books. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World.jstor. Cambridge U. 342pp . 7 vols. doi:10. Refractions. • Whiteside.org/stable/4028372). JSTOR 3653988. S. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. Archetypal Heresy. J. (January 1997). JSTOR 4027945. (1999). originally published in 1752) • Westfall. Isaac. Arianism through the Centuries. 19 Religion • Dobbs.

pbs.com/modules/historic/newton/index. Nourse. (1953).dlib.). West Strand.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports.php) • The Newton Project (http://www. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.wolfram. "Newton. I. including letters of other eminent men (http://books. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. eds.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web.indiana. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history. Anand M.fullerton.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.fmalive.mcs.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www.a.tqnyc. London..stanford. I. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. ed (1911).adherents.org/NYC051308/index.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page.htm) (via archive. Cambridge. Cambridge. Roger Cotes.stanford. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.chlt. Robertson. in Four Books.newtonproject.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www.edu/entries/newton-stm/). A.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss. Sir Isaac". E.isaacnewton. Parker. I. University of St Andrews.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton.uk/ Biographies/Newton.org/snobelen. online edition (http:/ /www.stanford. Sir. London: Dawson.. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes. – Google Books • Maclaurin. 1850.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www. • Newton.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato. Schofield. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www. I.edu/entries/newton/). (1958). John Deighton. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. John W.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www.html). ed. Hall. 20 External links • Chisholm. S.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ). by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato.archive. com/predictions/newton.st-andrews. • Newton. B. John J. time.google. Cambridge University Press. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato.skepticreport. • Newton. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702).edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www. Hall and M.org/web/20080629021908/http://www. Hugh.math. J Edleston.pierre-marteau.ac. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I).htm) Kandaswamy. Millar and J. .rutgers. (1975).uk/prism.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton. and motion (http://plato.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library. Edmund F.ac. Thayer. R. B.phaser. London: A. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.stanford.galilean-library.questia.com/biography/Newton.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/).html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries. Cohen and R. C.50.sussex.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www. (1962). (1748).

cs.earlymoderntexts.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.lib. audio. reception.ac.uk/collections/newton) .gutenberg. Refractions.newtonproject. or a Treatise of the Reflections.mcs.ac. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton.ac.uk/prism.archive.sussex.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up). modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www. optics.ndsu.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.edu/id.nodak.com/).edu/is/newton/) • Descartes. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.sussex.cam. physics.mcmaster.enlighteningscience.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.ul.ac.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts. full text on archive. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. Space.ca/newton/) Images.cmu. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history.org • Newton Papers.math. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www.ltrc. at the Newton Project (http://www.st-andrews.

He died in October 1642. who buried her next to his father. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. He spent a year away from school on the farm. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. unlike her. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. and returned to his mother's household. As his father had been a farmer. at quite a critical time in his education. at the age of nineteen. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. When Rev. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). 1697 by her son. Later in his life. Smith died in 1653. By this time Isaac was ten years old. the elder. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. in April 1642.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). and thus took him away from his school studies. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. . 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. when he was three years old. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. Lincolnshire. She and Rev. James and Margery Ayscough. Hannah's brother William. when Isaac was 54. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young.

Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece.[5] . Newton.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. However.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. witty and clever. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later. although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. Is. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him. the wife of John Conduitt. not before."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. Hannah Smith.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist. and baptized at Brigstock. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). half-niece of Isaac Newton. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going.

Charlotte M. & previous reference. www. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. National Archives. Vol 4. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. entries in 1710 and 1711. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. [9] Yonge.com. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey.php?id=15) . affection and esteem. 1886. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. towards the end of his life. and their son."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. Journal to Stella. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. online-literature. 1543–1869. Northampton Record Office. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. his nephew George Montague. ac. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. not to make a dispute over her legacies. newton. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. [3] Swift. (1898). by then Earl of Halifax. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. References [1] Robert Barton's will. Parish register. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. . Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton.uk/prism. PROB11/546.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. Retrieved 23 September 2009. p195. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. King's College Cambridge. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. Catherine. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706.ac.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. • The Newton Project (http://www. 1689. html). the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. Harl Soc vol 24. uk/ art/ portrait. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. 1715.online-literature. p349. however. [5] Newton Correspondence. PROB11/416.newtonproject. Harliean Society. John Wallop. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation.[7] The couple had one daughter.5. born in 1721. Westminster Record Office. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. National Archives.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. [8] St Martin in the fields register. [7] Hants Record Office. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. near Winchester.sussex. Montague.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. Viscount Lymington. On 30 August. I have long had for her person. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress.

and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. staying only two years. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. but after starting. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. Hampshire.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. he quickly stopped. London: Dawsons. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. but did not graduate. near Winchester. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. Catherine. Early life. In 1720. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. proposed by the president. and was baptized at St Paul's. described herself as 32 years old. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. 1st ed (reprinted). a whig member for Whitchurch. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. 161 pp. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. London.[1] By 1707. defending the government on a number of issues. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. on 8 March 1688. on petition. and his niece. isbn 0712903305. Newton: his friend. towards the end of his life. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. then aged 38 years. Sir Isaac Newton. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. named after her mother. Cambridge with three others.[3] . In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. 1968. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. (PRO. The couple had one daughter. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. In 1705. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. and his uncle by marriage. while at Westminster. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. Covent Garden. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. Covent Garden.

and their son. www. 1st Earl of Portsmouth. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. Venn. Charlotte M.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton.cyberbeach.htm) .uk. J.. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. cam. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. A.. Huntingdon Library.ac. John Wallop. . References [1] Venn. eds (1922–1958). Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. uk/ report. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. was buried with him.online-literature. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". " Conduitt. Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. Cambridge University Press. vol 4. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ).british-history. J. Retrieved 27 September 2009. fo 169 [3] Yonge. William (1908). Catherine.com. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. [4] Page. . lib. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www.).net/~mkelly/iansarticle. John (http:/ / venn. aspx?compid=42018#s4). California. online-literature. underage. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. www. ac. Retrieved 23 September 2009. On his death. british-history. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. ac. ms 57. Viscount Lymington (d. 1749) in 1740. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. (1898). His wife. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. who died in 1739.

master at the King's School. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. Newton was educated at The King's School. he was a small child. author of the Principia. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. achieving an admirable final report.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. This he did at the age of eighteen. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. and Kepler.1 litre). and by October 1659. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. At the time of Newton's birth.[6] . but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. In June 1661. Galileo. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. attempted to make a farmer of him. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. widowed by now for a second time. he was admitted to Trinity College. Born prematurely. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. He was removed from school.[3] Henry Stokes. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. optics and the law of gravitation. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. the English mathematician and scientist. 25 December 1642. In 1665."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. Margery Ayscough. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. When Newton was three.[4] At that time. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. where his mother. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. He hated farming.

several calculations about musical notes. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. It was elliptical. obs. which was of a bluish green within next the white. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. dated January 1664. February 19th. and introduced him to higher mathematics. together with observations on refraction. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. in Lincolnshire. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject." . John Slade of Catharine Hall. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. I saw two such Crowns about her. which appear in his Optics. and of a yellow and red without. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. and next about that the inner Crown. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. to two and fifty figures by the same method. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. 1699. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. and in summer 1665. particularly those "in affected powers. many years afterwards. In a small commonplace book. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. part iv. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. and borrowed Wallis' works. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". Isaac Barrow. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. at night. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. and red on the outside of it. and the applied force F is F = ma. near Cambridge. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. there are several articles on angular sections. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. and. book ii. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. I being then Senior Sophister. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. its acceleration a. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". in the years 1663 and 1664. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". Cambridge. he was unable. verging below farthest from the moon.

or some other mathematical subject. probably in June 1669. On each occasion it was agreed. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. optics. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. and signed by the master of the college. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics).A. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. and added.] a mathematician of no mean order. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. dated 7 August 1665. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. mathematician. which he put. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. In March 1668 he took his M. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. astronomy. [see also James Gregory. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. statics. Dr Pearson. and a young man. Newton must have left college before August 1665. who had a powerful genius for such matters. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. "the name of the author is Newton. There were nine vacancies. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. 29 . and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. but kept the name of the author a secret. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. degree. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. a fellow of our college. and 22 June 1666. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. arithmetic. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). He wrote a paper. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. and also chemicals and a furnace. and who. geography. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. apparently for chemical experiments. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge.

At the meeting at which Newton was elected. for I saw. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. so that a much . which would polish as finely as glass. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. and finding them regular." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. bishop of Salisbury. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. than a circularly figured lens. I left off my aforesaid glass works. as glass transmits. So that. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. But these seemed very great difficulties. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. were light uniform. it could not collect those also into the same point. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. and reflect as much light. because. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. on 6 February 1672. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. The whole is printed in No. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. as I found it. when I further considered. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. and I have almost thought them insuperable. I understood. if they continue them for any time. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. Nay. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. After he explained this to the Society. the secretary of the Royal Society. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. provided a reflecting substance could be found. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. he proceeded: "When I understood this.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. I wondered. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object.

where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. who. are taking care about it at London. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. And therefore. which. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. and that the paper. or to thwart this relation. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. He concludes his communication with the words: This. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. And there place a clear and colourless prism. so I doubt not." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. but yet with this difference. as I said. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). but yet most luminous in red. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. But it is requisite. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. whereby. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. proper for metal. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. if any thing seem to be defective. that the prism and lens be placed steady. are again dissipated and severed. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. I began to try. care must be taken. or of acknowledging my errors. but yet most luminous in blue. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. which they had before they entered the composition. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. but not very distinctly. but I shall conclude with this general one. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. by such motion. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. They have there no appropriate colour. what might be effected in this kind. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. the figure also would be corrected to the last. Further on. if I have committed any. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. that. or proportionally disagreeing in both. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. you will not only find. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. than in figuring glasses for refraction. and vanish into whiteness. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. as I imagined. And this analogy twist colours. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. when I made the other. You may also see. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. . the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. with which 'tis illustrated. for. as you inform me. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. I conceive. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. how the colours gradually convene.

I do recommend them both to be nominated." The heads. and. when a description of it was found among his papers. light polarization and binocular vision. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. he says. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. Others criticized the experiments.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. . the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. and the inflexion of light. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. but was not published. and entered in the Regent House. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). and many others. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. and are now almost universally rejected. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. however. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. and. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. or leave to come out after me. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. or to become a slave to defend it. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. endeavored to effect a compromise which. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. The public oratorship fell vacant. till after Newton's death. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. or communicated to the Royal Society." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. who was the chancellor of the university. George Villiers. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. and he wrote on double refraction.

had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. who married John Conduitt. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. dated 23 June 1673. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.57 metres) in one minute. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. a fellow of the Royal Society." (See Newton's cannonball. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. when. and one of Newton's intimate friends. as several others are. Newton. by calculating from Kepler's laws." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8])." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. owing to decay. I thank you." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. I desire to withdraw. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. as he was not in holy orders. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. he says. (4. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. if you have not done it already. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. till 1860.) . Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. In one version of the story. He therefore was led to inquire whether. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675.

At Newton's birth. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. Sir Christopher Wren. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. . made the two results. In January 1684. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge.Early life In November 1679.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. in the month of August 1684. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. by the hand of Mr Paget. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. one of the fellows of his own college. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. Oldenburg. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. "Why.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. or their views about the researches of others. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. but he promised to send it to Halley. After the latter had left Cambridge. one of the secretaries of the Society. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. put his hand upon his calculation. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. and started for Cambridge. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. to consult Newton on the subject. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. "an ellipse". i. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. I have calculated it. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. Unless otherwise noted. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. however. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. a copy of his demonstration. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe.e. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. Newton replied promptly. By the time he died. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. the secretary. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia." He could not. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). Moreover.

ISBN 0521477379. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs.) (1960).43. [7] Newton. Charles Montagu. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. sfu. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ).M1) [5] ed. The Life of Isaac Newton. afterwards Earl of Halifax. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. The office is the most proper for you. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. Michael Hoskins (1997). eds (1922–1958). cited above. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. and the esteem the king has of your merits. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. In a letter to Newton announcing the news. Isaac. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu.435-440. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. 159. ac. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. Richard S. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. Cambridge. 16–19 [4] Michael White. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. 35 References • Westfall.. Vol. . Isaac (http:/ / venn. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. Venn. and has not . when Montagu. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. (1994). 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. cam. (1970). the warden of the mint. " Newton. lib.B. [8] http:/ / www. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. 11. p. However. Later life During his residence in London. pp. google. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)".. A.297-314. 1960). p. Mr Overton.). Dictionary of Scientific Biography. J. I. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. at pp. Cambridge University Press. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal.) (1960). J. Montagu. Vol 2 (1676-1687). lib. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46." Newton was now 55 years old. (Cambridge University Press. ac. cam.Early life [2] Cohen. was false to him.

he did not exhibit it in the results. a secret. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. was still. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. Newton took it seriously.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. a process that was completed in about two years. Of this. except to Newton and his friends.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. a post worth between £1. . however. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. the second. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. while exports were paid for in gold. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704).[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715.500 per annum. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. To this work were added two treatises. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum.200 and £1. with an account of their properties. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings.

and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. and having since met with some things copied out of it. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid." says he. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. Hartsoeker. by Dr Machin. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. He also solved the second problem. Leibniz. and a second edition of it. P2. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. and. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. and made known to some friends. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. . (2) to determine a curve such that. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. with improvements by the author. and E. 's Gravesande published a tract. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. secretary to the Royal Society. W. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. was published at London in 1712. although Newton's solution was anonymous. obtained leave to make it public. and published by Dr Wallis. I have on this occasion made it public. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. and eight foreign associates were created. making it public. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. In that year the Academy was remodelled. but he received a letter from Leibniz. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. prefixing to it an introduction. "tanquam. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. which was also written many years ago." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. and he gave a method of determining it. who have solicited the. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion.

It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise." he said. he was opposed by the non-residents. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. where a congregation of the senate was held. The prince had offered. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. Dr Edleston. of his work. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton.. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. He held the office for 25 years. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes." (I have learnt . In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. Rumours. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature.I forget from where . had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. the queen's husband. but being a Whig. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. have been completely investigated. In April 1705. they paid a visit to Cambridge. and beaten by a large majority.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). Dr Bentley. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him.. so far as he could do it. the lunar theory would. Roger Cotes. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . On 21 May 1709. when the queen. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. however. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. the master of Trinity. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. on Newton's recommendation. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. and discharged the duties of the post. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. however. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. the master of Trinity College. "will be glad to see you in June. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. 2002)." Newton. in the first few months of 1695. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton. after speaking to Newton. fellow of Trinity College. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. were heard from time to time. He was warmly supported by the residents. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. and of a new edition. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. and a number of honorary degrees conferred. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July.

He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . she requested him to give her a copy. 4. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. took every opportunity of conversing with him." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. who called witnesses. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. an antiquary at Paris." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. I. Caroline of Ansbach. In Libri secundi Sect. He mentioned four: 1. about midsummer 1713. vii. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. 2. however. "28 Mar. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. pointing out their weak points. Newton criticized all the methods. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. On the 31st of March 1713. to present her with a copy of the new edition. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. for I find that I shall be examined about it. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. and. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. passed both Houses. At last. The abbé. N. on 27 July. "If you write any further preface. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. facilior redditur et amplior. the following account of this new Edition. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. The Princess of Wales. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. and endeavoured to refute it. true in theory but difficult to execute. In Libri primi Sect. 3. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. 1713. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. I must not see it. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. lent his copy to M Fréret. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. and received the royal assent. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. wife of George II. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. Newton waited on Queen Anne. who translated it.

to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. Upon receiving a copy of this work. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. In an earlier part of his life. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. a nephew of Bentley.Later life M le Chevallier Newton.. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. translated into French by the observator. and though he was fatigued from work. Newton printed. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. to have it translated into French and have it published there. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. This was done. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. and published at Paris. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. in 1756. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. who was on the way to the continent. . after his death. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. which was published in 1728. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. beginning his studies before 1690. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. He therefore asked Locke. This edition had many errors. to suppress it". Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. John which was published in London in 1733. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. he solved it later the same evening. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. For example in 1716 Leibniz. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures.

1707-10 (http:/ / ads. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. [10] Westfall 1980. . 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. ac. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. ahds. com/ php/ stopics. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. Athol L Murray. 21 September 1717. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone.online-literature. Vol V. [9] Ostad. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. urotoday.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. (2005). Sir Isaac Newton. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt).[10] Towards the end of his life. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward.January 1843 (http:/ / www. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). Richard Kleer. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. who.2005. online-literature. In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25. php?rec=true& UID=1304). Gilbert J. after six years of "cock[fight]ing. PMID 15638889. [6] By The King.and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. html). (1898). measuringworth. www. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. ac. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. pdf). pdf). p. Retrieved 2008-05-22. doi:10.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www.com. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Edward. Retrieved 23 September 2009. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. 870 [11] Yonge. He endured great suffering. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. archive.x. ahds. pierre-marteau. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage..1111/j. Charlotte M. ISBN 9780151012787.1464-410X. OCLC 276340857. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. pdf) (PDF). University of Regina. litencyc. . . "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). Athol L Murray. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ).05242. Wise. April 1842 . His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey. Newton and the Counterfeiter. horse racing. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.

Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). These occult works explored chronology.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime. Santa Fe. for example. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture.". Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. superstition. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. In this sense. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). Bernard Cohen (Dawson. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). he was the last of the magicians.edu/~michael/koll. economist John Maynard Keynes. alchemy. It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . 1975). After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. the noted English scientist and mathematician. with a and historical introduction by I.ucsc. Distinctions between science. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. and pseudoscience were still being formulated.

Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. In recent years. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. lead.[2] It was for this reason. Newton's dog started the fire.[8] . The English Crown. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. catalogue.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. made penalties for alchemy very severe. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers".[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. In addition. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. and perhaps to a lesser extent. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. Arts and Humanities Research Board. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. Diamond. Newton is thought to have said. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop.S. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. In the story. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. several projects have begun to gather. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. "O Diamond. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke.K. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. and analytical chemistry. burning 20 years of research. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. with its associated nomenclature. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. National Science Foundation. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. or some other substance). who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. 9th Earl of Portsmouth.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. who throughout his life. A perfectionist by nature. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents." 43 In 1936. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access.

This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. In its time.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. 1728. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. early forms of tarot. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. "Ezechielem Explanationes". Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. "Theatrum Chemicum". His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. Hieroglyphical Figures. and the vegetable or the growing stone. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. This concept. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. In predicting this he said. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. "Nicholas Flammel. Nicolas Flamel. Most notably are documents entitled. Artephius. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. "Artephius his secret Book". but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. Published London. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. though mysterious figure. and his "secret book"."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. in a search for their occult knowledge.[10] In addition to scripture. "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled.[12][13] .Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. and occultism. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime.

but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. spirals. In addition. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. In the knowledge of this philosophy. scholars. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". This immense 13-foot-high (4. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. only adding to the public interest in the temple. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. Isaiah and others. To Newton. both speculative and active. ” During Newton's lifetime. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible.[17] In 1754. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. orthographic projection. [14] Job. but also in the sacred scriptures. as in Genesis. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. . Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. due to the success of Villalpando's publications. Psalms. . and other harmonious constructions. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. Around 1692. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. the same was true of their architecture.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. is not only to be found in the volume of nature.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . such as golden sections. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. which was popular in its day. conic sections. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. 27 years after his death. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. In 1628. when deciphered. Isaac Newton's treatise. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". was published posthumously in 1728. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that.

on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. Both of these lay essential to his calculations. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents.C. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. 7th. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. in or after 1705. . but I see no reason for its ending sooner. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. will end A. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. The first document. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. It may end later. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. Christ comes as a thief in the night. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. Furthermore.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. the period of 1260 days. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. 800. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. 1. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. Canada's National Post. part of the Yahuda collection.[D. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. evidently written by Isaac Newton. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks. Britain's Daily Telegraph.[19] is a small letter slip. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. 2060. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. Nature. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture.] 70. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370.C.

000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. and available source material. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". In fact. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. Ogygia was home to Calypso. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms".[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. but was sunk into the Sea. an approximately 87. Africa and Asia. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. In this entry he mentions Mephres. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. In Greek Mythology. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. Homer. Pliny. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. but rather one in which he believed the world. as he saw it. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. and poets. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. In a separate manuscript. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. As such. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). The publication date of this work occurred after his death. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. authors. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. standards.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. .[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. and various other classical historians. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. and the Levant. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. or possibly the same island. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. Anatolia. It is done. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. Plutarch. Egypt. The marriage supper. However.

remains unclear. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. Furthermore. anti-Catholic.[24][25] however. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar.C.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. the physical universe. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism.". it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. these are considered learned societies. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. and the spiritual realm. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. Additionally. would seem to exclude Newton . In his library. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. and highly politicised. not esoteric societies. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. Like Newton. avowedly Christian. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. a recognized Knight. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. For its time. which they claimed to have in their possession. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. however. the level of their secrecy. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized. The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. However. Considering his esteemed social status. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library.[26] At the time of his death. lack of supportive publicized material.

from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. 144. ISBN 019530070X. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. However. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. USA: PBS. . Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. archive. ac. dlib. p. as were many members of The Royal Society. William R. newtonproject. 2010 [5] Newman. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. Rabbi Chaim. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. 175. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. Oxford University Press. sacred geometry._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. . google. and he never publicly identified himself as one. jsp [7] http:/ / www. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ).[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. "Newton. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. Discover Magazine. Temple Institute (1991-2008). s-most-famous-alchemist)". References [1] Keynes. htm). com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). ac. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. pbs. Retrieved 2010-07-19.. referring not to a medieval knight. Retrieved 2007-08-12. July/August. . Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. Page 91. During his own life. dlib. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. htm) on 6 May 2008. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. sussex. Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. "The Da Vinci Code". com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. [6] http:/ / webapp1. Jane Bosveld. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. (http:/ / www.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. Pope). php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. .Occult studies from their membership. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. Temple Institute. (5 April 2007). a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. . christianpost. The Man". 1999. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. 15–19 July 1946. Retrieved 1 July 2008._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. edu/ newton/ index.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. huji. [10] Richman. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. uk/ prism. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. [11] Christianson. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. Oxford University Press US.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. 19 June 2007. indiana. indiana. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). p. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. templeinstitute. christianpost. edu/ newton/ about. Associated Press. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context.M. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. do). jnul. J. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. (2005). Gale E.

.D. . Scott Mandelbrote. [19] Yahuda MS 7. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books. [17] Newton." (http:/ / www. The Newton Project. [26] White.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode.fairfield. [23] Bauer.sussex.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando. org/ ). Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www.newtonproject. Fairfield University. Holy Blood.ac.3g.3o. p. newtonproject. isaac-newton. .math. (1972). f. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. Stephen D. Retrieved 2007-08-15.M. . The Newton Project.ac.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. html).faculty. Isaac. 496. . p.uu.ac. University of Sussex: The Newton Project. . Originally published: London : HarperElement. ac.com/aReal/unit-fraction. the Apocalypse and A.jnul. written at USA. ca/ aqc/ leon. [28] Baigent. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7.science. newtonproject. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon). Retrieved 2008-06-26.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.F. 859" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley.. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. ISBN 1-59477-172-3. (http:/ / www. 146. freemasons-freemasonry. uk/ prism. (http://www. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A.pbs. 50 • White. f.ac. [14] Gardner. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. google. William Stukeley 1752. & A. Michael (1999). htm). google. Laurence (2007). Chetwode.htm) • the math (http://www-groups.J. 2060. newtonproject. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. sussex. newtonproject. [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h. sussex. W. (http://www.freemasons-freemasonry.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum.huji. ISBN 1578634040. Henry (2004). faculty. Retrieved 2007-08-19. Alain (2007). Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. Rob Iliffe.from Chapter 3. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). Retrieved 20 April 2010. Lincoln. spalding-gentlemens-society. Retrieved 2007-08-15. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed.newtonproject. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books.edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.dlib.ac. 5 April 2007. pp. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley. . Joseph.htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C).. S. "Juan Bautista Villalpando. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. 31r [22] Newton." (http:/ / www. bcy. uk/ texts/ viewtext.org/library/drmath/view/55191. 2005: Weiser.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www.indiana.sussex.sussex. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www.php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. ac. 1997. Michael.st-and. php?id=74). org). ed. [18] Snobelen. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell. Retrieved 1 July 2008. J.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory. sussex.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. uk/ texts/ viewtext. . Da Capo Press.uk/prism. 117. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. fairfield.newtonproject. p. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized).themathpage. AHRC Newton Papers Project. inul. William (2010). . f.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www.ac. Delta Trade Paperbacks.uk)) . . "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton.dcs. html). Retrieved 2008-06-25.sussex.com/pillar_solomon_temple. Holy Grail. Michael. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No. Frances A.). • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life. sussex.newtonproject. ac. org/ newton_2060. . ISBN 073820143X. htm).uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www. London: Routledge. Book Excerpt . ac.staff. Retrieved 2007-08-15.gutenberg.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies.niu. com/ book_bauer.2a. .html) • unit fractions. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. Isaac (5 April 2007).

[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. natural philosopher. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. astronomer. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. written by those who were inspired. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. "so little understood".[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. I study the Bible daily. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . mathematician. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. In predicting this he said. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. had it been made public. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. and he said. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy. theologian and alchemist. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist. After 1690. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter.[5][6] .[1] Background These arguments. causes. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). space. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. in other words. appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. Alternatively. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. place and motion. and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. or.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. 77–82. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. in general. The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".

In other words. — Ernst Mach. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. However.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. but in opposite directions. B: Outer ring rotates.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. not only with respect to the experimenter. as the cord continues to unwind. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. the surface of the water remains flat. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. accordingly. his real position was that motion is absolute. p. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object.[9] When. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. it is not your own train moving. however. and that there is no absolute motion. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring.[7] However. On the other hand. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. who contended that all motion was relative. Eventually. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. it begins to spin rapidly. despite proximity to the pail. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. but also in relation to the water it contains. but the neighboring train. C: Both rotate. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. Thus. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. but in opposite direction. A: Central object rotates.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water".

the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. see Rotating spheres. a limitation that has not been established. However. forming itself into a concave figure. p. will make it begin sensibly to revolve. a stationary frame can be identified.[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. by the sudden action of another force. and while the cord is untwisting itself. and recede by little and little. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it. . — Isaac Newton. but relative motions... Principia. In fact.. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. and held at rest together with the water. .Bucket argument If a vessel. 58 .. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. and may be measured by this endeavour. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. it is whirled about in the contrary way. . which is here directly contrary to the relative. hung by a long cord. after. the surface of the water will at first be plain. as before the vessel began to move. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer.are altogether destitute of any real effect. as quoted by L. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. Bouquiaux in Leibniz.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. And therefore. the vessel continues for some time this motion.... discovers itself. not relative.. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water.. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. is incomplete.. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. — Ernst Mach. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. Thus. then filled with water.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion.. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. and effectually to distinguish.

127 Moreover. and the aim is to determine this function. for if this were not so. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. To sum to zero. the sum of all three forces must be zero. the horizontal. because the element of water does not move. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. the co-rotating frame. one might question just how rotation brings about this change. the water. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω. if at rest. . Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force.. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. However. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. For example.[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. p. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. see Knudsen and Hjorth. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. But from the nature of a fluid.. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components..

integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0.) As r increases. In words. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. were surface regions with lower energy available. that is. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. equilibrium is attained. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. because all positions are equivalent in energy. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. On the other hand. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. The potential energy is useful. That being so. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. . Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. for example. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. That is. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other.

p. [5] René Descartes (1664). which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. At some small angular rate of rotation.M1). Smith. and lowering it at smaller radius. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. .M1). archive. The water surface is flat at first. Cambridge University Press. p. 191. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. . . either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. As the height of water increases. University of Chicago Press. p. ISBN 0521358124. This change in shape would not be stable. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. at a given angular rate of rotation. Requiring the energy to be constant. before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). and the more rapid the rotation. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. §25. p. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521656966. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). If rotation is arrested. google. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. Principia philosophiae. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. . To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. a concave surface represents the stable situation. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. [2] http:/ / ia310114. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. See Figures 1 and 2. ISBN 1606201433. the more concave this surface. Bernard Cohen & George E. 75. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). p. however. pdf [3] René Descartes. . 105. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. google. this energy is constant independent of position r. Thus. Cambridge University Press. google. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). References [1] Robert Disalle (I.Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. ISBN 0226282198. editors) (2002). because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). Forgotten Books. google. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. google. 43. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. us. for example through friction. John Cottingham translator (1988). 170. Part ii. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43.

325–348. time. In Edward N. Phil. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books.). Soc. op. pp. 5 (1975) ed. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). ISBN 0120598779. google. Bernard Cohen. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521656966. Springer. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein. google. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. New York: Courier Dover Publications. • Ralph A. "Chapter 2.M1). p. A A Knopf. [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920).M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. ISBN 0691033234. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. 127. 386–387. See: • R. pdf) pp. p. no. Partridge (1995). Academic Press. Jones & Bartlett. John Wiley & Sons. External links • Newton's Views on Space.. us. google.. . 404. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini.). • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. Hjorth (2000). • D. 78. B. article by Robert Rynasiewicz. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127. . Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. 279–280. p. 119. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. [15] Jens M. pp. editor) (2008). Knudsen. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. ISBN 354067652X.google. . At the end of this article. Zalta. ISBN 1402086679. [16] Lawrence S. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. . The Universe and the Bucket". stanford. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. google. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45).htm) see section on Space.google. Leibniz (http:/ / books.iep.M1) (in Proc.M1).). 78–79. 167.Bucket argument p. cit. archive. stanford. . [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. 19.M1). Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884).edu/l/leib-met. p. google. p. p. In I. Wiley. [11] Robert Disalle. Princeton University Press. Time. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. ISBN 0375412883.M1).com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. 143. and the texture of reality. p. com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). google. ISBN 0521352541.google. Springer. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. p. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. .com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324.stanford. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. and Motion (http://plato. ISBN 0521857902.M1). google. pp. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). ISBN 0486607690. [19] Hans J. Arfken (2003). . [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. 79. Lynden-Bell (1996). Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. ISBN 0867204796. google. Am.M1). .edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. google. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). pp. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. Weber & George B. . Lerner (1997). Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. 79-81 [13] L. vol. . . Poul G. ISBN 0521621135.utm. George Edwin Smith. The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. 104. . com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. 45.

and infinite series.[6] . and join calculus. or "infinitesimal calculus". Calculus is the study of change. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. More generally. Eudoxus (c. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. one goal of integral calculus.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation. derivatives. integrals. lambda calculus.[4] In the 5th century AD. Historically. It has two major branches. infinite series approximations. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. with no indication as to method. an integral test for convergence. variational calculus. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. differential calculus and integral calculus. functions. early forms of differentiation. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. but the formulas are mere instructions. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. economics. Calculus has widespread applications in science. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. broadly called mathematical analysis. term by term integration. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. calculus. 1820 BC). and some of them are wrong. more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. pi calculus. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. to calculate areas and volumes. Calculations of volumes and areas. while Archimedes (c. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. which prefigures the concept of the limit. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations.

Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. Taylor series. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. and the system of mathematical analysis. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. he developed series expansions for functions. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. Unlike Newton. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. the notion of higher derivatives. The product rule and chain rule. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term." —John von Neumann In Europe. but Leibniz published first. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. introduced the concept of adequality. which is its logical [7] development. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. He did not publish all these discoveries. and providing the product rule and chain rule. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. Isaac Barrow. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. Newton derived his results first. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. second and higher derivatives. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal .Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. By Newton's time. and James Gregory. In other work. the oblateness of the earth. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Pierre de Fermat. In his publications. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. including fractional and irrational powers. in their differential and integral forms. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century.

many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. Following the work of Weierstrass.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. but it would be 150 years later. Today. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. . the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. who gave the new discipline its name. In Cauchy's writing. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734.Calculus Society. Several mathematicians. It is Leibniz. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. In modern mathematics. Robinson's approach. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". however. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. to the detriment of English mathematics. developed in the 1960s. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. including Maclaurin. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass.

the modern use of calculus began in Europe. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. during the 17th century. For centuries. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. Iraq. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. Persia. "infinitely small". Historically. time. the slope of a curve. which resolve the paradoxes. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. and Japan. volume. especially the limit and the infinite series. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. . work.. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. and optimization. In this treatment. 1/3. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. However. 1/2. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. and motion. i. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. arc length..e. in some sense. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. In the 19th century. They capture small-scale behavior. Calculus provides tools. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. and less than any positive real number. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. just like infinitesimals. and pressure. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. but use the ordinary real number system. . Greece. China. and for this reason they are the standard approach. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. India. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series.. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. center of mass. From this point of view. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. but less than any number in the sequence 1. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration.

Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. and applications of the derivative of a function. (a. the derivative of the function of f is f′. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. three is sent to nine. f(a + h)). and if the squaring function is given the input three. f(x)). In mathematical jargon. four is sent to sixteen. that is. then it outputs six. it is the velocity of the ball. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. f(a)) and (a + h. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. pronounced "f prime. the doubling function. For example. let f be a function. however. If h is a number close to zero. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. and fix a point a in the domain of f. if the graph of the function is a straight line). (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function." For instance. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. To be concrete. then a + h is a number close to a. properties. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. however. Thus. outputs a second function. Therefore (a + h. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. If a function is linear (that is. If the input of the function represents time. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. can take the squaring function as an input. f(a)). if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. if the doubling function is given the input three. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. where x is the independent variable. For example. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. f(a + h)) is close to (a. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. where functions usually input a number and output another number. y is the dependent variable. b is the y-intercept. it is possible to produce a new function. Given a function and a point in the domain. The derivative. then it outputs nine. which is impossible.

The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. that is to say. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. For this reason. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right.9) is 6. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. . A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. Here is a particular example.

dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. integral calculus studies two related linear operators. introduced by Leibniz. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. For example: In this usage. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". however. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. and applications of two related concepts. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. If the speed is constant. . Leibniz. properties. called a Riemann sum.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. the indefinite integral and the definite integral. In technical language. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. the derivative. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. the inverse operation to the derivative. as the output. (This use of upper. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. but if the speed changes. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. then the speed will stay more or less the same. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. only multiplication is needed. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. However.

but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. as an output. is y′ = 2x." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). the area. dx is not a number. The symbol of integration is . The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. where C is any constant. f(x)=h. or antiderivative. the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. Call that value h. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. For each small segment. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. To approximate that area. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. we can choose one value of the function f(x). and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. the area between the axis and the curve. . In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. between two points (here a and b). The indefinite integral. and is not being multiplied by f(x).

Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. In analytic geometry. then Furthermore. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). More precisely. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. slope. In biology. computer science. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. statistics. b). and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. concavity and inflection points. the moment of inertia of objects. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. for every x in the interval (a. demography. b). . it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. we use calculus to derive its path. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. economics. the study of graphs of functions. business. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. made by both Newton and Leibniz. medicine. Physics makes particular use of calculus. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. engineering. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. For example. actuarial science. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. This realization. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes.

p.. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. Elif (April 1995). Vol. pp.. Cohen.. and linear approximation. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. Pte. Dennis G. [8] André Weil: Number theory. p. ISBN 0817645659. 1995. For example. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. . ISBN 0-792-33463-9. htm). google. google. Wright. google. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. Warren S. [9] Leibniz. The Works of the Mind. Chapter 1. Birkhauser Boston. fixed point iteration. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. pp. Sherry (2007). Gottfried Wilhelm. google. p 2 (http:/ / books. . Page 228. An approach through history. p. The Neumann Compedium. Fan. University of Chicago Press. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object .. 130. For instance. Liu. Discrete Green's Theorem.see also the summed area table algorithm. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. ac. mcs. 2.. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. Vámos. 180–196. 1984. In the realm of medicine. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. For example. agnesscott. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www.. Reed. 279. I [3] Archimedes. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). p.. MA. xxvii. Chapter . . html [7] von Neumann. Inc. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. google. 279 (http:/ / books.. B.). F.. Agnes Scott College. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. 618–626. .. J. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. Reprinted in Bródy. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. 2008. Dainian. Wright. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. eds. In nuclear medicine. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. google. From Hammurapi to Legendre. Robert Sonné (1966). Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. Examples are methods such as Newton's method. .Calculus Green's Theorem.. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. Scott. Biggers. Kenelly.. 28. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. Cengage Learning. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. ed. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. John W. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). Donald R. google. st-andrews. Ltd. World Scientific Publishing Co. in Heywood. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. (2009). Copy (http:/ / books. it's used to derive dosing laws. In economics. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. Inc. Method. ISBN 0-763-75995-3.. T. Boston. p. "The Mathematician". A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz.. ISBN 9810222017. Springer.. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. Cosimo. R. 1947. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. Iris B.

Mathematical Association of America No.. University Science Books. (1969). ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas.. (1967). pp. Donald J. ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. 1: The Tools of Calculus". American Mathematical Society. ED 300 252. "Calculus". Stony Brook." Annals of Mathematics. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. Joel Hass. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. 1998. Press.Stephen Davis:"Calculus". Maurice D. Richard D. Publish or Perish publishing. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Ch. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. (2003). • Mathematical Association of America. Hafner. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. • Florian Cajori. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. Loftsgaarden. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications..John Willey and Sons Pte. Wiley. George B. (1998). Addison-Wesley. "Calculus". ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. Dover edition 1959. • Albers. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. google.ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . 2nd Ser. James (2008). A Pump. Princeton Univ. • Michael Spivak. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. Eric W.2002. Giordano (2008)..html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. (2003). (September 1994). Calculus for a New Century. Ron. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. 2004.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Donald A.. • Weisstein. (1999). Vol. • Silvanus P. Apostol. ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. 1–46. 1 (Sep. Not a Filter. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. Calculus: Early Transcendentals. 11th ed. 25. NY. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). Ltd. Volume 1. No. Carl Benjamin (1949). Bruce H. Frank R. • Edmund Landau. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. Anderson and Don O. ed.Calculus 73 Books • Larson..Irl Bivens. 1923). Thompson and Martin Gardner. "The History of Notations of the Calculus. 9th ed. Cambridge University Press. • Tom M. 6th ed. 7. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. Adams. Wiley. • Tom M. Addison Wesley. The Association. (1988).. Lebedev and Michael J. Volume 2. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer.wolfram. • Howard Anton. • Leonid P. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. (1996). ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. Apostol. • Cliff Pickover. Weir. • Robert A." (http://mathworld.. • Thomas/Finney. Edwards (2010). Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics.

html) • Mauch. (1991).ac. Fullerton.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www.org/index.economics. (2006).mit.understandingcalculus. S.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell. G. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. (2006).edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.com/Calculus. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow. J.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.edu/~sean/applied_math.co.html) at PlanetMath. ( listen now (http:// www.edu/~sean/applied_math. (2000).org: The Calculus page (http://www.caltech.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development. mit. Thompson (http://djm. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses.pdf (http://www.D.cacr.math. P. External links • Weisstein.wolfram.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler. soton.mit.bbc.nd. "Calculus" Light and Matter.wisc.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business). OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre .math. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism.umn.pdf (http://www.math. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus".ericdigests. H.wolfram. (2004).wisc.math.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC.com/ (http://www.math.co.htm (http://www.understandingcalculus.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.encyclopediaofmath. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.pdf) • Faraz.math. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.pdf (http://www. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. .com/calc/calc.org) at University of California.bbc.htm) (HTML only) • Strang. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. (2004).pdf) • Sloughter. " Calculus (http://mathworld.org/pre-9217/calculus.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology. K.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www.math.byu.html (http://www.umn. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.math.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.calculus.htm (http://ocw.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index.htm) from ERICDigests.temple. B. Eric W. lightandmatter.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw. "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www. URL http:// www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. (2001). "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.uiowa.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus..edu/~keisler/calc.htm) • Smith. William V.com/calc/calc. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.cacr. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota.uiowa. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw. Dan (2000).caltech.nd. H.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.lightandmatter. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. (2003).html)" from MathWorld. Michiel Hazewinkel ed.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson.edu/~keisler/calc.pdf) • Garrett.

and centers of gravity.Calculus Dame with activities. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith.solved-problems. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus. Newton. 3." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. this statement went unchallenged some years. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention. and others. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word.ucdavis. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www.[2]) Meanwhile. minima. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. Newton manipulated the quarrel. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". . Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666. Newton. or. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. exams and interactive applets. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. 2. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711.html) by D.mit. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. at the age of 23.math. as noted above. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima.[1]. 4. A. as in the 'Principia' of 1687.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death. Moreover. 1709–1716. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton.com/) Raymond. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math.

especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. C. No attempt was made to rebut #4. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. however. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. but some deny this. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. In 1696. In 1849. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. in particular power series. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability.[2] At first. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. However. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. and in fact worked together on some aspects. which was not known at the time. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . and to the letter of 10 December 1672. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. Shortly before his death. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. Gerhardt. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). one of which was new to him. the manuscript. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. It is. I. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. on the method of tangents. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. whereas Newton began from derivatives. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675.

was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. 1716. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. which the author of that epistle. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. which I could sort through only with time and patience. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. forty years ago. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. as it appeared to Newton's friends. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. in the Charta Volans. I have enjoyed little leisure. Leibniz may have minimized. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. and when I did. the debate persisted for many years. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. as if by the authority of a great judge. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e. 77 . Moreover. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. in most cases I did not keep a copy.. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. 30 years later." he said. but it appears that on more than one occasion. finding in favor of Newton. Now that I am old. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. before publishing them. No such summary (with facts. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. dates." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. dont plusiers se sont perdus. had endeavoured to wrest from me. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. in the Acta Eruditorum). When pressed for an explanation. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). Moreover.g. In accepting the denial. and doubts emerged. Several points should be noted. of which many are lost. suspicious details. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. All this casts doubt on his testimony. the letter of June 7. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. "I have never. which referenced all allegations. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. In any event. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. 1713. The report of the committee.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. and that of April 8. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz.

. at p. ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. whose potentialities he fully understood. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. and the differential and integral calculus. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. not in the German-speaking world). the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. explaining "the method of first and last ratios". (Guicciardini 2003. [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions".. D. so making the priority row a nonsense. the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. They adopted two algorithms. . google. for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. 1968). (1970). "The Newton handbook". especially at p. at page 400. [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. at page 250 (http:/ / books. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). points of resemblance. [4] D Gjertsen (1986). (Cambridge University Press. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. the analytical method of fluxions. the differential and integral calculus. tcd.. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). google. T. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729.. 1967). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. 1696). which were translatable one into the other. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell.).99. other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). 2003). [5] http:/ / www. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. (Cambridge University Press. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. at page 149. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. at page 41 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. 120. google. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). maths. of equal certainty.

rutgers. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. Press. A thorough scholarly discussion. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. 1980. Cambridge Uni.. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. could explain the behaviour of the solar system.maths. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. including the law of universal gravitation. • Stephen Hawking. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. W. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. Dated. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. W W Norton. It continues ticking along. a prominent supporter of the theory. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. with its gears governed by the laws of physics.html).tcd."[1] . when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. approaching a maximum value).html). random behaviour. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. as a perfect machine. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. • W. The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. 1997. R. 1908. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Edward B. Canberra. going on without the Interposition of God. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. • Hall. • Kandaswamy. Rouse Ball. A. 1988. or initiated by the Big Bang. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. Anand. and tends. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence.math.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. 4th ed. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory.

[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. and motion. Ed. God was the master-builder. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. This steel artwork contains moving gears. p. who created the perfect machine and let it run.html) The Physical World. Edinburgh. Clarke quotation taken from article. p. . John Bolton. Knud Haakonssen. This view of God as the creator. regularity. (http://physicalworld.. Pr. 3. a working clock. R. Edward. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. Further reading • Dolnick. 201. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent." Science and Christian Belief 3. Cambridge University Press. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion".K. Andrew Norton. no. Westfall. 2. Alan Durrant. 65. 1. Robert Lambourne. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. 1991. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. Richard S. A Source Book in Medieval Science. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. ed. p. ibid.google. and beauty. In this widely popular medieval text. who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. 1974). p. Joy Manners.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). quoted in Edward Grant. the machine of the world. cited in. the Royal Society. On the Sphere." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 465. 19. References [1] Davis. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. Harper Collins. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. God was the Prime Mover. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. 1850. Edward B. [2] John of Sacrbosco. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. Cambridge: 1996. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. Webb. 2: 103-117. 2011. space.

66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. retaining only inertia. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. pp. pp. translation. 1931).[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. Eugene. and all their 'inner' qualities. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction.edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. form. the material point and force (interaction between material points).: Am.html) JJ Thorn et al. Phys.The Wave. Translation). spatial locality. James Clerk Maxwell. J.whitman.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics.29-32. 1210-1219 (2004) . bartleby. 72. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. Particle. time. html) . The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). htm [2] bartleby. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. and the additional concept of force. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. partly because of Newton’s great prestige.com (http:/ / www. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . gutenberg. edited by Thomas F. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. corpuscular theory of light. com/ 65/ li/ light. interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory. Torrance (1982). Albert Einstein.

Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). F = ma. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. or based on occult qualities. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. i. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force.[5] For example. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. and I do not feign hypotheses.[2][3][3] 2. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. page 943 of I. Third edition. Therefore.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. Newton showed that these laws of motion. Newton's First and Second laws. . Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. opposite and collinear.. 974 pages. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses.. and afterwards rendered general by induction. combined with his law of universal gravitation. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. and hypotheses. first published in 1687. whether metaphysical or physical. 3. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. i. General Scholium.e.e. have no place in experimental philosophy. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. in Latin. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. or mechanical. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. in the third volume of the text.

Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it.Laws of motion In their original form. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. This is the most common. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. Thus. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. acceleration. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. i.e.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. In the given interpretation mass. independently of any particle structure. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. however. In this sense. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity. momentum. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe. That is. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. then the velocity of the object is constant. from this point of view. Euler’s laws can. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames.

m is the mass of the body.e. Thus. the momentum of the body is constant. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. even if there is no change in its magnitude. and a is the body's acceleration. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. however. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. Thus. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. if a body is accelerating.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. acceleration.. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. In other words.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. then there is a force on it. where F is the net force applied. otherwise it would stop moving. Galileo. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below). such is the case with uniform circular motion. Consistent with the first law. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. i. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity.[22] .

[17] The reasoning. if the body moved before.[23] this is understood. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion.[18] In classical mechanics. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. Instead. a triple force triple the motion. particles by definition have constant mass.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. reading: If a force generates a motion. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. Under some conventions. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. a double force will generate double the motion. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. In case of a well-defined system of particles. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology.[24] . the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). have been extensively discussed by historians of science. Then. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. known as the thrust. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. M is the total mass of the system. or obliquely joined. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. by substituting the definition of acceleration. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. or gradually and successively. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. in modern terms. when they are oblique. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law.

by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself.. If you press a stone with your finger. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. but act in opposite directions. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. If a body impinges upon another. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. This law takes place also in attractions. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. As shown in the diagram opposite. as it does the stone towards the horse. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. Although the forces are equal.[25] In the above. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. if the road . F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. toward the contrary part. and by its force changes the motion of the other.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. the finger is also pressed by the stone. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. in its own motion. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. will draw the horse as much towards the stone.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. as usual. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. and directed to contrary parts. as will be proved in the next scholium. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. The changes made by these actions are equal. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies.g. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. as the motions are equally changed. For. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". motion is Newton's name for momentum. that is to say. but act in opposite directions. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments.

Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories.[28] however from a deeper perspective. Given two objects A and B. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. At speeds comparable to the speed of light. 87 where Fa. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. each exerting a force on the other. most notably at very small scales. From a mathematical point of view. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. one might say. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. . conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt.a are the forces from A acting on B.b are the forces from B acting on A. including general relativity and quantum field theory. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. However. and not on a single object. and in quantum mechanics. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. So each and every force has two ends. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. Therefore. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. momentum. Fb. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. Newton's laws of motion. which can be stated as follows. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. optical properties of substances. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. very high speeds (in special relativity.

ISBN 3764314761.. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. pp.1023/A:1022632600805. the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. general relativity.. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. action at a distance has been completely eliminated. see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. and Tait. McGraw-Hill Companies. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. "Newton's First Law: Text. ISBN 097046701X. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. . (1867). Becchi. Halliday Browne. us. ISBN 9780070084988. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. "4. "Momentum. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. energy. Lubliner. Antonio. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. . quantum mechanics. ce. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. . [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. volume 1.]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings.. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. p. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. doi:10. . tripod. Benvenuto. This can be stated simply. ISBN 0486462900. and to both classical and non-classical physics. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. the laws of conservation of momentum. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. [9] Benjamin Crowell. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. (2003). etc. google. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". and by a modern text of the early 21st century. However. Newtonian Physics. google.g. • Section 242. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. Dover Publications. Jacob (2008). berkeley. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich.. springerlink. google. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). com/ ~gravitee/ axioms.Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. 58. archive. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia".. . html). lightandmatter. pdf). quantum electrodynamics. I. New York: Birkhäuser. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. Treatise on natural philosophy. Clifford A. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. since they apply to both light and matter. W (Lord Kelvin). Translations. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). 207.Truesdell. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114.. Newtonian Physics.. google. . htm) [. Indeed. Tseitlin. Edoardo (2003).. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. In modern physics. M. P G. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other.). Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73.12. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ).45G. Michael E. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion).

Springer. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. . 199. "'Corpore cadente.. Brooks/Cole. 53. [26] C Hellingman (1992). . consists. . com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Juan C.T.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems".. google. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[. 161. is a truth that no man doubts.. [11] Isaac Newton. (http:/ / books." [19] Hannah. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. pages 143–185. 353.. Pitman Paperbacks. doi:10. pp. ISBN 052189266X.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. ISSN 0923-2958. McGraw-Hill..M1). University of California press. in 5. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. [13] Beatty. 1967). it will lie still forever. Eds) (2002). 1. "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. p221.60 (2006).. p.] Consequently." [28] Newton. ISBN 0534997244. College Physics (http:/ / books. 2007. 78–79. p. p. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". ISBN 1-85233-426-6. google. ISBN 0534408966. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Principia. Resnick. Whitman.). but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia".': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". p. 1 (1993).. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. Faughn (2006). Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. Jerry S.53. London/Berlin: Springer. google. Millard F. unless somewhat else stir it. A new translation by I.. 27 (2): 112–115. Angel R. Corollary III to the laws of motion . (1992). Special relativity (http:/ / books. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. . Robert Kolenkow (1973). [22] WJ Stronge (2004). com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). Hillier. pp. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M. pages 157–207. html#NewLawMot). John Wiley & Sons. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. ISBN 0471037109. 1971 [20] Raymond A. cited below." [17] Halliday. s.1007/BF00052611. The Principia. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0387237046. google. stanford. Muzzio. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. pp. (2006). Perspectives on Science..B. Bibcode 1992PhyEd. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. also an online discussion by G E Smith. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. p. . "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. google. 24. 12 ff. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. Daniel. p. . "Physics". When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. "Newton’s third law revisited". is not so easily assented to. Archive for History of Exact Sciences.. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. [16] Plastino. Whiteside (http:/ / books. . [. [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord.27. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). Marion (2004). Physics.112H. producing the relativistic expression for momentum. 6. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. An Introduction to Mechanics. vol. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). Applied Mechanics. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only. 133–134. and (3) Bruce Pourciau. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books.. ISBN 0070350485. in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. doi:10. See Harman and Shapiro. [14] Thornton. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. .227P. Cohen and A. Educ." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). Berkeley 1999. M J. Shapiro. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. google. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. ISBN 0521602890. (2) Stuart Pierson. . google. Phys. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). . J. pages 627–658. Serway. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. Harman & Alan E.

W (Lord Kelvin).com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny. Newton's Third Law (http://www. containing Book 1 (http://books.2). London/Berlin: Springer. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations.wolfram.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy.com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178). Pearson/Addison-Wesley. volume 1.2.com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05. Thornton. ISBN 0805390499. Leighton. Harcourt College Publishers. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw.google.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6.Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell. (2005).com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) . • Marion. • Fowles. M. Light and Matter). 1 (2nd ed.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC). B.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ). (1973).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC). ISBN 0070378525. G.3).lightandmatter. Vol. Elements of Engineering Mechanics. Wolfram Demonstrations Project. ISBN 0030223172.com/lm/). containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books.. Sands. (2011. 6. P G.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04.lightandmatter. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".M1). volume 2. Saunders College Publishing. Light and Matter (http://www.google.. P.1). 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). Newton's First Law (http://www. L. volume 1.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. ISBN 0030973023. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003).html#Section4. Benjamin.com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). R. • Newton. R.). Peter W. Special relativity (http://books. and Tait. especially at Section 4. html#Section4. Isaac. Newton's Second Law (http://www.lightandmatter. • Newton.youtube.google. G. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and Section 5.mit.lightandmatter. Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books.3. Jerry. • Feynman.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. (1999).google.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw. Stephen (1995).). R. Newton's laws of motion (http://books. • Likins. (1867). Section 4.google.. Isaac. • Thomson. Cassiday. especially at Section 242.1. The Feynman Lectures on Physics.motionmountain. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www. p. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".lightandmatter. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). (2011). Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books.html#Section5. google.

) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). Both are inverse-square laws. instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. m1 is the first mass. . so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. and the constant G is approximately equal to 6.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . m2 is the second mass.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. Assuming SI units. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses.) In modern language. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G. r in meters (m). first published on 5 July 1687.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. G is the gravitational constant. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers. F is measured in newtons (N). and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant.

being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". however. On the latter two aspects. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance..[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers". that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674.. Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". of 24 November 1679.e. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known". Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified". as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". Plagiarism dispute In 1686. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society..Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton. and on which some points still excite some controversy. that Hooke communicated his "supposition .. when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity". "prosecuting this Inquiry"). but also.[6] In this way arose the question what.[7] It was later on. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect.[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". in Hooke's opening letter to Newton.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive . Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it. together with a principle of linear inertia.". if anything. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat. and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent.

but that did not mean.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. but without demonstration. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. even close up. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. in all editions of the 'Principia'. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces..[20] and associated sections of Book 3. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. which inclined me to try it . that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. which Newton was making in the 1660s. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. without evidence in favor of the supposition.[15] (who suggested. According to Newton. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. Hooke.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage. supported by mathematical demonstration. Newton did accept and acknowledge. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. otherwise lacking.."[14] . Thus Newton gave a justification. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles.[14] including Bullialdus. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations. Newton acknowledged Wren. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. although significant. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. Among the reasons.[19] In addition.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. according to Newton. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. also without demonstration."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way.

for example. Alexis Clairaut. gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. it becomes understandable how.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. as the component point masses become "infinitely small". and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". .. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies.[26][27] In the light of the background described above. That is. cancel each other out..[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). As described above. In the limit. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. taken together. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above).[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. that "One must not think that this idea . within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations. this entails integrating the force (in vector form.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses).[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). Nevertheless. As a consequence.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. on the point at r0. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial.

|r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. In this formula. the increase due to the additional mass is 1. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. further outward the gravity increases again. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. and if the sphere is large enough. G is the gravitational constant. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. Thus. quantities in bold represent vectors.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines . m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2.

which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). For 2 objects (e. Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. per unit mass.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. object 1 the Earth). It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. except that F is now a vector quantity. object 2 is a rocket. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. It is a generalization of the vector form.g. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. Also. it can be seen that F12 = −F21. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth .

although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model). the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic.e. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. i. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities..[31] For example. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). in SI. this is m/s2. . Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. Gravitational fields are also conservative. The field has units of acceleration. and c is the speed of light. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. where φ is the gravitational potential. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. that is.

no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. In point of fact. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. decades before Newton. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". is to me so great an absurdity that. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. In 1692. I believe. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). F = ma. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. the definitive answer has yet to be found. and the observed precession. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. In all other cases. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally. in his third letter to Bentley." He never. but in the case of gravity. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. in his words.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. "assigned the cause of this power". The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. However. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations.. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. regardless of their different inertial masses. independent of the quantities of matter involved. especially of planet Mercury. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. Yet."[33] .. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. which was detected long after the life of Newton. you get an orbit with no precession. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. Moreover. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. However. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. See the Equivalence Principle. though hypotheses abound. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. and assume a point mass for each.

Springer. "Astronomia philolaica". University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. 24 November 1679. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. 1960). because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime. "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. (Cambridge University Press.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. mpiwg-berlin. htm). General Scholium. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. A. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Barry N. for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. (Cambridge University Press. . David B. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. pdf). [8] Purrington. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false).Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [17] D T Whiteside. (2008). by I. at page 66 (http:/ / books. pages 11-61. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. already cited. (University of California Press.). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google. [18] Page 436. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy.1103/RevModPhys. the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. Vol 2 (1676-1687).13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". google. Rev. 1664-1684". pages 5-19. p. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books.). [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside.2. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'".). google.I. especially at page 13. [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). google. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". Peter J. doi:10. ch. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Vol 2 (1676-1687).. Correspondence. (Cambridge University Press. [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. [2] . (Cambridge University Press.431-448. 45 (1991). This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. document #239. see particularly page 431. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). document #286. 168. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. . Vol 2 (1676-1687). mpg... Florence. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. 1960). [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. Paris. physics. 80: 633–730. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". 20 June 1686. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata. start at page 263 (http:/ / books. Taylor. G. 1664-1684". Bruce Brackenridge.). 1666. 1960). 1960). Vol. (2009). Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. In general relativity. i (1970). (Cambridge University Press. [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. 1995). 1645.80. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg).Proposition 75. [16] Borelli. [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). Robert D. at p.). Newell. Bibcode 2008RvMP. Theorem 35: p. google. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. document #288. Direct link to value (http:/ / www. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. start at page 177 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [21] D T Whiteside. Ofer Gal. CUP 1989. document #235. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. . pages 5-19. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia".80. Vol 2 (1676-1687). [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google. Phys. [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed.633M. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). nist.956 .633... com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). In Einstein's theory. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. Journal for the History of Astronomy.Bernard Cohen. 27 May 1686. Book 3. [22] See J. nist. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. Mod. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg).392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729.. 1960).. iastate. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. public. i (1970). especially at 13-20. translators: Isaac Newton..

Max Born (1924). [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. 10 (2005).. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury.pythia. utexas.com. Gravitation. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside.The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. 1. If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon. ph.. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". Ofer Gal. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. at Introduction (section IX).) [33] . (E) . If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. cited above. Venus. 511-517. 518-528. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. If the speed is low. by Richard S. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". Thorne. stanford.Freeman and Company. 529-534. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth. (C) 3. (A and B) 2. [27] See also G E Smith. [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. 1893). Charles W. in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . Cambridge University Press. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. If the speed is very high.youtube. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. de Hook diminue la gloire de M.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. M Nauenberg. 10 (2005). If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. at page 69. in Early Science and Medicine. in Early Science and Medicine. Kip S. Wheeler.W. Newton". but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. in Early Science and Medicine. [32] .Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. Westfall. Newton" (1759). and the Earth.. and it was the key force for planetary motion. Rouse Ball. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. it will simply fall back on Earth. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049.. edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. (D) 4. New York: W. 10 (2005). html) [31] Misner. it will indeed leave Earth. H. John Archibald (1973). It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée".

In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. eg. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours.physics.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111).virginia. A combination of red. php?p=2_23 . ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell. the colors fade to white.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless. net23. net/ index. google. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. Carl et al. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein. Notes [1] Sagan. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record. When the disc is rotated. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light. New York: Random House.bucknell.

(x1. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. for converging on the root can be easily derived. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. Then by simple algebra we can derive . b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. f (x0)). Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. That is Here. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. and its derivative ƒ '. Suppose ƒ : [a. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. and the method can be iterated. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. succeeded by Halley's method. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point.

The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. the better. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. though the connection with calculus was missing. Finally. (The closer to the zero. In the same publication. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. Finally. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. More details can be found in the analysis section below. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. Furthermore. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. However. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). .) The method will usually converge. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). In 1690. essentially giving the description above. in 1740. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. for a zero of multiplicity 1. But.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. He does not compute the successive approximations . Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. However.

the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. there are some difficulties with the method. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. Specifically. In these situations. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. the method may overshoot. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. However. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. and diverge from that root. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. Furthermore. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . For situations where the method fails to converge. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. However. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. if the multiplicity of the root is known. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root.

If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. In practice these results are local. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x). If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood.6). the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then.. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. However. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. then the convergence is usually only linear. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. ƒ(α) = 0.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. i. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α.e. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . in U+. Specifically. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. Exercise 1. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. x in a neighborhood U of α. α being a zero of multiplicity r.

where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small.35283735 converges to 4.35284172 converges to –3.[1] for the function . (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms. . (b) (c) Finally.352836323 converges to 1. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2. 2. 2. For example. 3. 2.352836327 converges to –3. 2. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied.35287527 converges to 4.Newton's method 106 That is. 2.

this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). In general. any iteration point is stationary. such as bisection. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. In fact. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. since the tangent at (0. preventing convergence. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. . In such cases a different method. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. for example. For the following subsections. x1 will be undefined. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . This can happen. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. Let and take 0 as the starting point. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). the method will converge. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. instead of the starting point. The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation.

then convergence will not be quadratic. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. In the limiting case of (square root). Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. does not affect the algorithm. however. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. so they do not converge in this case either. where its derivative is undefined (this. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. let . So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. the derivative at the root is nonzero. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. except for x = 0. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. farther away than it initially was. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. For example.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. where . let then and consequently . f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. Indeed. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. So convergence is not quadratic. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. In fact. Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root.

In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. 0. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root. 0. 0.032741218. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. . the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. For many complex functions. 0.067671976. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. meaning the iterates do not converge. then convergence may fail to be quadratic.031642362. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic.500250376.041224176. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions. Given . all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root. darker means more iterations to converge. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane.1 = 0. 0. and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. Basins of attraction for x5 . This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. since both roots are non-real.127507934. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . 0. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. For example. Indeed. 0. the derivative is not zero at the root.251062828.

convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. If the nonlinear system has no solution. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. k variables. One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. .Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. In the formulation given above.

the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. if one wishes to find the square root of 612.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. With an initial guess of 10. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result.5. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. which may be found via Newton's method. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. There are many methods of computing square roots. and Newton's method is one. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x).) . We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. with derivative. For example. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero.

1137/1037125. pp.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. SIAM. SIAM Review 37 (4). J.4 [5]. Eric W. Springer. SA. Ortega. 35. 531–551. 2004. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. Matlab. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. J. Claude. Vetterling. Ypma. 1995. T. • Press.6 [6]. Sagastizábal. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. PPT. • P. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8.Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. Cambridge University Press. MR2265882. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. SIAM.. W. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. • J. Teukolsky. Autar. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. Kelley.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. of translation of 1997 French ed. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4].Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . 2003. doi:10.). Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. 112 References • Tjalling J. Rheinboldt. Lemaréchal. Deuflhard. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. xiv+490. Vol. Flannery. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. (2006). ISBN 0-89871-461-3. Kalu. C. ISBN 0-521-00794-1. and 9.). M. See especially Sections 9. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. • Bonnans. Gilbert. New York: Cambridge University Press. Frédéric. 2003.7 [7]. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. John H. illustrating the quadratic convergence.. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. WT. WH. doi:10. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. Claudia A. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. ISBN 3-540-21099-7.). Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . 2000. Classics in Applied Mathematics. Newton's method [9] -. Universitext (Second revised ed. • Kaw. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. 9. Berlin. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Egwu (2008). Maple. In particular. Charles. BP (2007). External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein. "Chapter 9. Mathcad. • C.

nrbook. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. 6). Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. lightandmatter. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. com/ empanel/ index. [3] http:/ / www. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. macroeconomics and other fields. springer. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. chaos and Newton's method". html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. In physics. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. "A chaotic search for i". edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. p. html [17] http:/ / plus. eng. . or dot notation. html [9] http:/ / www. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. amcgowan. yihui.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. usf. pp. 403-408. nrbook. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. html#Section4. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. November 1997. wolfram. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. heroku. January 1991. nrbook. nrbook. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. eng. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. It is defined as: and so on. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. Gilbert. r-project. fullerton. Mathematical Gazette 81. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. mathworks. [2] Strang. fullerton. usf. html [12] http:/ / animation. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. torkian. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. maths. com/ NewtonsMethod. com/ empanel/ index. 3-12 (esp. Thomas. html [21] http:/ / www. 1 [10] http:/ / www. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. however. com/ empanel/ index. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. com/ empanel/ index. php [11] http:/ / math. maccery. "Cubics. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). edu [16] http:/ / math.

[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). lib. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. mount. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. or a little less. and fittings. but be an opake Circle. ac. and not the spherical aberration. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. made with a concave Eye-glass. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. than by Refraction in the Glass. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. He also made all the tube. . The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. being the first known successful reflecting telescope. For this Circle being placed here. cam. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. an early composition of speculum metal. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. covering the limb of the Metal round about.

[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671.. google. co.". php?imgref=10408672). They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. Wilson Published by Springer. Modern Optical Engineering. google. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. Hatch . com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space.Publication. com/ image. 1785" (http:/ / www. Dr Robert A. Science & Society Picture Library. p. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m. . com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. html . com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. craig-telescope. ufl.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N.A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life .Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1. 9783540401063. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4. when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). clas. htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index..3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). by Alfred Rupert Hall. McGraw-Hill Inc. ssplprints. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. 1966. uk/ lens.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books.6 References • Smith.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE . but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown. Warren J.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. Heath's) in Strand.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. stsci. King. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. 2004 ISBN 3540401067. Telescopes in History. [10] http:/ / www. google. page 67 (http:/ / books. google. Page 74 (http:/ / books. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics. google.Work . Retrieved 22 November 2008.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23.University of Florida (http:/ / www.

Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space.[9][10] If this was true. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror. and there were many theories as to what caused it.[3] and others. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with.media.edu/~picard/personal/Newton.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects.stsci. then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] .[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors.mit.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build).[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers. such as Niccolò Zucchi.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one.

even though it would introduce spherical aberration. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. mount.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. Like Gregory before him. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. and fittings. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. it would still correct chromatic aberration. Because of these difficulties in construction. reducing cost and adding to portability. cassegrains. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. leading to wider field of view. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. the primary mirror (2).[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. He also made the tube. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. . The surface also tarnished rapidly. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained.

This flare is zero on-axis. low-power imagery. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter).Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. For visual observing. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. For research telescopes. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider.[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation.[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. . with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. suffer from coma.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. Visually. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view.

Inc NetLibrary. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& . google. rice.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. VandeWettering. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo.M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. page 562 (http:/ / books. Page 108 (http:/ / books.Mark T. google. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.By Fred Watson. The Newton handbook. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. org/ basics. google. by Alfred Rupert Hall. google. King. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. html) [3] Stargazer . com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . page 67 (http:/ / books. Page 74 (http:/ / books. google.

John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey.. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life". so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. harvard. telescope-optics. "8. Gebelein. htm).Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. & David Shafer. 116. google. Retrieved 2009-09-29. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. espacenet. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. 77R [16] Sacek. page 258-259 (http:/ / books.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. [12] telescope-optics. pdf). "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. telescope-optics. Hebra. . . . baader-planetarium. . php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer .stsci. page 14 (http:/ / books. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley. google. p.1. . Rolin J. Warren J."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object.. pdf) (pdf). two. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. Retrieved 29 November 2010. "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". htm) [13] amazing-space. cloudynights. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. .edu . com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. Modern Optical Engineering. McGraw-Hill Inc. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith.and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. 1966. David (2004). edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. Retrieved 2009-10-03. [20] Alexius J. 9783540401063. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian. google. google.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. Vladimir (2006-07-14).1.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. Wilson Published by Springer. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). p. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. stsci. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. net/ reflecting. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical . com/ documents/ paracorr.

Sep. 30. pp. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. No. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. 1969). Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. if two globes. David Hume.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton.. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. Ronald S. 319-330" (http:/ / links.[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. Journal of the History of Ideas. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. (This experiment involves observation of a force. in general. Retrieved 2008-03-26. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. Alternatively. . 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. CO. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". Also. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). jstor. he says. As an example where causes can be observed. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. floating in space. Such determination. 3 (Jul. Cambridge.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. . are connected by a cord. was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). measuring the amount of tension in the cord. the tension).: Harvard University Press. political thought and theology. with no other clues to assess the situation. 1974. causes. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation.2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). Mass. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). 0. Yehuda Elkana. Vol. in addition to influencing philosophy. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . for one. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. Calinger. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation.

only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. the fixed stars. partly from the apparent motions. from the tension of the cord.. partly from the forces.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. according to Newton. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. Principia. Alternatively. then. Book 1. and if. which are the differences of the true motions. and therefore. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. pp. Because of the rotation. p. . the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. .[8] (Of course. the matter is more subtle.. — Ernst Mach. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. — Isaac Newton. we might.Rotating spheres force). as an example from Newton's time.) Below. were revolved about their common center of gravity. For instance. by means of a cord that connects them. instead. they are not rotating. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. absolute space or fixed stars). discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. no centrifugal forces are produced. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that.[2][6] For me. according to the preceding methods. even in an immense vacuum. Scholium To summarize this proposal. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. but standing on the Earth's surface. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. for example. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation. centrifugal forces are produced. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero.

According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. the tying string. so the string should be relaxed. and should require an inward force to do that. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. the Coriolis force. they clearly see the string is under tension. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. (For example. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. |xB| = R. The other ball has the same requirement. m is the mass of the ball. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. and acts on everything they observe. According to the rotating observer. and is called a centripetal force.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. According to the article fictitious force. These two forces are provided by the string.)[9] To account for this tension.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. pulling them apart. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. the Coriolis force is:[11] . accounting for their observation. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. not just these spheres. To travel in a circular path. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. Because of the rotation. However. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. but circular motion at constant speed. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. See Figure 2. In this zero-tension case. the string is under tension. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. which would stretch. also shown in Figure 2. they would say no force acts on the balls. (See reactive centrifugal force. requires a centripetal force of the same size. but being on the opposite end of the string. This force is directed inward. Because the balls are not moving.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. but opposite in direction. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. the string is placed under tension. locating one or the other of the spheres). along the direction of the string. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. observers say they are at rest. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. putting the string under tension. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls.

In the geometry of this example. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. In either case. When ωI < ωS. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. . ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. while for a more rapidly moving frame. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. That is. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). |vB| = ωR. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. ωS < 0. hence. However. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. Full notational details are in Fictitious force. say ωI (I = inertial). it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. this force is not the tension in the string. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). Therefore. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion.

[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. Draza Marković. [4] Max Born (1962). ωS is the greater. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). 79. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). Knudsen & Poul G. ISBN 0521656966. p. 175. 80. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. 43. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). . 161. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. Courier Dover Publications. p. google. Cambridge University Press. 324. p. Bernard Cohen & George E.M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed.[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. ISBN 0486652270. . p. p. . John Archibald Wheeler (1995). The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. google. Smith. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. 233. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. google. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). [9] Barry Dainton (2001). ISBN 0486607690. p. . Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. [2] Robert Disalle (I. Moreover. .M1). . google. Hand. tripod. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. p. Princeton University Press. [7] Max Born (1962). editors) (1996). ISBN 0486607690. Springer. google. ISBN 0691033234. New York: Courier Dover Publications. . google. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. . com/ definitions. The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. and I. . . google. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. Courier Dover Publications. Figure 43. google. Retrieved 2010-05-13. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. Hjorth (2000). The Principia. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. ISBN 0486607690.M1). p. [10] Jens M. htm). ISBN 0521656966. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA).). google. Sausalito CA: University Science . [8] D. McGill-Queen's Press. Finch (1998).Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. Bernard Cohen. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . Janet D. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. [5] Max Born (1962). The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. p. google. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. 167. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). editors) (2002). p.M1). Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. ISBN 0521621135. Time and Space (http:/ / books. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. Freeman (1986). [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. google. . com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books.M1). Courier Dover Publications. p.M1). 43. Cambridge University Press. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). ISBN 0773523065. Cambridge University Press. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. George Edwin Smith (2002). google. . ISBN 354067652X. 82.M1). Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. 386–387. ISBN 0521575729. pp. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward.

See Henry Stommel. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55.). com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. their Eq. ISBN 189138922X. and Ralph A. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. [16] R. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. google. Nothingness (http:/ / books. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. Dennis W. pp. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. p. . p. Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. 55.. pp. Columbia University Press. Lynden-Bell (1996). first published in 1687. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. pp. google. p. . (3. ISBN 0231066368. 348–349. (3. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. In this example. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. B.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. 43. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. no. 5 (1975) ed. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. 325–348.. . As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. Partridge (1995). Mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. Cambridge University Press.3) in Stommel and Moore. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. vol. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. In Proposition 43.M1). Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. Am. .M1). google.M1). p. Phil. fixed in space (the center). . Draza Marković (Editors) ed.Rotating spheres Books. he showed that the added force must be a central force. Henning Genz (2001). google. 275. . 99ff.M1) (in Proc. An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. 279–280. p. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. ISBN 0521352541. google. ISBN 0521621135. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.[1] Since 1997. In Proposition 44.). ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). .M1). google. 119. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). google. ISBN 0738206105. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). Moore (1989). D. 167.4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. he derived a formula for the force. ISBN 0074603159. Da Capo Press. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. . Soc. Mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. the theorem has been .

Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. always maintaining the same relative positions to one another.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. In particular. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. Arguing from his laws of motion. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. to first approximation. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. According to these laws. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. However. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. However. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). exhibiting retrograde motion. for planets orbiting the Sun. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). By analogy. 262 BC – ca.[5] Roughly 350 years later. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws.Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. To explain the epicycles.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. Apollonius of Perga (ca. and so on. the presence of the other planets can be ignored.

Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. According to this theorem. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit.[13] However.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex. However. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System.[12] and Delaunay. To find this approximation.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. r(t) and θ1(t). and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . afterwards. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. However. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. However. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant. that is. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. The radial and angular motions.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. in particular.[11] Brown. to first approximation. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r).

The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. A GIF version of this animation is found here. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. rather. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. For this purpose. Formally. its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. For example. such as r(t) and θ1(t). then. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t).Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. the added inverse-cube force is attractive. if k2 is less than one. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. the path of the second particle is given by . rather. the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. r(t) and θ1(t). since θ2 = k θ1. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. In other words. thus. Both of these coordinates. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. change with time t as the particle moves. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). For example. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. If k2 is greater than one. the angle of the second particle. where k is any constant. θ1). it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. By contrast. F2 − F1 is a negative number. where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. F2−F1 is a positive number. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t).

[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. at a constant angular speed.. According to the conservation of angular momentum. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly.e. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. when the distance reaches a minimum. this is true only for circular orbits. Hence. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. the second orbit resembles the first. i. respectively. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω. shown in red). the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. both of which are constant. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. If k is greater than one. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. where k is a constant. . The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. However. if k is less than one. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. but revolves gradually about the center of force.e. but not equal. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). However. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). in other words. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. the orbit does not change as it precesses. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line.. In this case. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. when the orbit is a circle..Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. in that case. to one. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. i. i. Hence.e. F1(r) = 0. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3).

when k is less than one. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants.0 (green). the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral.0 (cyan) and 6. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. the inverse-cube force is repulsive. L12/m. Thus. Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces. 3. the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . as illustrated in Figure 7. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. when k is greater than one. Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. 3. whereas when k is greater than one.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). When k is less than one. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). Thus. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. On the other hand. 1.0 (blue). the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1.5 (green). corresponding to an attractive force (green. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity. Thus. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. the range of allowed angles increases. which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m.0 (black). the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7).0 (blue).0 (cyan) and 6. 1. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m). the force is attractive. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red).

Over time. Conversely. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. However.e. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). green orbit in Figure 10). provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity.e. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. F = C/r2. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle.. this property is not true for other types of forces. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. oblateness in the attracting body. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. F = Cr. i. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. in general. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. where m and n are integers. For example. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually. This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. the line connecting the two apses.. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. and other effects. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. and inverse-square forces. For illustration.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. such as . 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). i.e. green orbit in Figure 9). Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. general relativistic effects. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. provided that k equals a rational number. For example. such as Hooke's law.. In other words. However.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits.) In such cases. no matter what its initial position or velocity. An govern the motions of planets. Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. i.

in general. Thus. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession.e. For the inverse-square force. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%.C(r) is proportional to rn. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. If an elliptical orbit is stationary.. i. α equals 180°. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. this implies that.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. using the general law θ2 = k θ1. In the first two.[16] According to their argument. where n equals 1. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). As noted above. the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°. the apsidal angle α is 180°. the central force is a power law. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. Therefore. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. hence. one of the first appearances of such a series. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). Wilson and Harper. in the same time. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%).[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. As a final illustration. F(r) = rn−3 and. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples.

while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance. the so-called Saros cycle.[28] Ironically.[24] for comparison. In 1673.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force . which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force.85 years.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. i.[25] First.0165)[26] In 1894.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic. of the planets.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity. However. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude. and is noticeably more complex than that. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude. again on the monthly time-scale. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes). Hipparchus and Ptolemy.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes.e. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon.6 years. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2.. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon. 18. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun.[23] in Newton's time.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets.

the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. θ2 = k θ1. but the inverse-square term is not. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. so Newton reasoned. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system.[4] As Newton did.5°. The second term. the long axis would rotate 1. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. However. For every revolution. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. and its argument is unchanged. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). For comparison. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1). Rather. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. roughly half of the observed 3. In this case.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. r1 = r2. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. the inverse-cube force is added. Also. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. and estimates of A and B. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. however. so that r1 = r2. In contrast to Newton.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. . the original force is not scaled.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. consistent with the formula given above.525°).0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same.

the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest. Therefore. At the apapsis and periapsis. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. therefore. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. derived earlier in the Principia. and also its angle θ1(t). Proposition 43. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. by Newton's Proposition 2. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. Proposition 44 . In an infinitesimal time dt.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. specifically Propositions 43–45. by Proposition 2.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. Expressed another way. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. which equals θ2 = k θ1. which equals (k−1) θ1.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. All three planets (red.

varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. specifically by the formula given above. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. to offset this. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. In Proposition 44 of his Principia. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. by which two bodies may be made to move equally. r(t). the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force.[33] By assumption.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r). the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. one in a fixed. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws.[36] In this Proposition. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45.Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. the other in the same orbit revolving.

. [26] Chandrasekhar. Propositions 43–45. Sc. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv. 83. [36] Chandrasekhar. doi:10. Principia. Principia. Proposition 2. Reading. [17] Cohen IB (1990).. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". bnf. [20] Smith. 193–194. . [11] Hill GW (1895). Bibcode 1894AJ. MA: Addison–Wesley. [24] Smith. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859).1997. Delaunay C (1867). London: G Godbit for J Martyn. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. JSTOR 2369812.2008. [22] Wilson C (1987). [7] Sundman KF (1912). 135–147.13018. 2708v1). Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. [13] Delaunay C (1862). Mémoires Acad.. [5] Sugon QM. [21] Horrocks J (1673). Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. "Unknown title".Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. 192. Berkeley. Mémoires Acad. Jin S (2008). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. [25] Newton. 406. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). "Unknown title".1365-2966. 9: 31. doi:10. Book III.1111/j. [29] Brown EW (1903). [15] Newton.2307/2369812. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". [16] Valluri SR. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". p. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. Am. section IX of Book I.. [6] Whittaker. ISBN 978-0520065895. p. In Norman Thrower.: 451. fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). Bibcode 1987JHA. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. pp. pp. doi:10.. p. AC (1745). "Unknown title". 52: 71. [9] Cohen. p. doi:10.386. JSTOR 2369997..245L. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260.2307/2369997. Imp. [2] Lynden-Bell. "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. [32] Chandrasekhar.. [33] Chandrasekhar. Am. Principia. 147. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. [4] Mahomed FM. Section IX.1023/A:1008317327402. Bragais S. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. "Unknown title". Mechanics (3rd ed. CA: University of California Press. org/ abs/ 0807.. 267 (Chapter 6. ISBN 978-1888009088. Sc.1086/102055. pp. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. Book I. D.. 198.14. Wilson C. 184. "Unknown title". 339–385.77W. 183–192. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. editor. . The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. Vawda F (2000). Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". [27] Hall A (1894).1007/BF02422379.1098/rsnr.: 237. Oxford. 187. [14] Newton. American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". Proposition 45. [35] Chandrasekhar. Astron. [37] Whittaker. J. p. doi:10.0016. [12] Brown EW (1891). 141–147. "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". 183. p. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". Harper W (1997). pp. Math. Soc. 254. pp. [3] Lynden-Bell D. "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". [18] Chandrasekhar. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia". Simon Newcomb.. [30] Roseveare N (1982). Green Lion Press.. p. doi:10. doi:10. Brown EW (1891). 91–108. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". [10] Clairaut. problem 7). esp. p. pp. pp.49H. [34] Chandrasekhar. 252.x. Imp. [19] Cook A (2000).. Lynden-Bell RM (1997). [31] Symon KR (1971). Math.). 67–70. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. pp. p. Monthly Notices Roy. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma.18. 98–106. p.

1119/1. John Wiley and Sons. pp. ISBN 978-0520088160. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics.). Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. CA: University of California Press. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion".scholarpedia. 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). pp. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. • Guicciardini. Berkeley. • Rouse Ball WW (1893). pp. 147–148. assisted by Julia Budenz ed. Calculus (3rd ed.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). p.google. 252–257. pp. New York: Dover Publications. pp. External links • Three-body problem (http://www. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press. 147–148.). 56. Publish or Perish. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). Principia Vol. "The first-order orbital equation". • Smith GE (1999).). ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. pp. 257–264.com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84).google. • Pars LA (1965). Berkeley. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. Michael (1994). New York: Dover Publications. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Macmillan and Co. ISBN 0-85274-348-3. CA: University of California Press. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". ISBN 0914098896. 246–264. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713). 183–200.com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). CA: University of California Press. (reprint. Bristol: Adam Hilger. pp. LCCN 64-24556. pp. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". translated by I.75. ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). "Planetary Motion". ISBN 978-0520088160. pp. ISBN 9780521544030. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. Bibcode 2007AmJPh. doi:10. ISBN 978-0520088160. • Smith GE (1999). A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. 84–85. with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. 230–233 (sections §356–359). • Chandrasekhar S (1995). Niccolò (1999).2432126.. • Newton I (1966). Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. ISBN 978-0520088160.). Berkeley. • D’Eliseo. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". Oxford University Press. Cambridge University Press. CA: University of California Press. • Routh EJ (1960).352D.). An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. 246–252. 83. Merchant Books). • Cook A (1988). MM (2007). ISBN 978-0520009288. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). The Motion of the Moon. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. • Spivak. Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. 534–545. • Whittaker ET (1937). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Berkeley.. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726).org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia .

arithmetic. the relationship between geometry and algebra. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. Written in Latin. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. it was edited and published by William Whiston. and so refused to have his name appear. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. Babson Collection. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. and the solution of equations. pdf . published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. None of these editions credits Newton as author. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Title page of the Arithmetica. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. when Whiston's edition was published. He also offered. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. without proof. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. cfm [2] http:/ / www. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. In fact. babson. centre. published in 1865).

Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. the distance is proportional to the square of the time. (in the absence of external force. but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws". when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. (Before Newton's work. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia. After further encouragement from Halley.) This . and its (Latin) text is available online. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. It contains 11 propositions. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. then for the remaining (2) propositions. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. Only the draft has the title now used. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. some with corollaries.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. Before reaching this core subject-matter. Law 1 in the Principia. these had not been generally regarded as laws. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. Law 3 in the Principia. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. resistance is assumed nil. both copies are without title.[4] as well as in Latin.

putting this in another way. with expanded explanation. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. and the corollaries here reappear also. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. Theorem 1. of the 'Principia'. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. and shows that for any given time-segment. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. drawn from the body to the attracting center. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. labeled as theorems.) . assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. Theorem 4 in the Principia. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle.) This theorem appears again. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. while their number increases without limit. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. and inversely proportional to the radius. it would then depart along the tangent. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. using another geometrical limit argument. problems. it follows that a radius vector. as Proposition 1. Corollary 2 shows that. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R.

Newton points out here.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP². how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements.. Problem 5 in the Principia. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. . (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. Problem 4 then explores. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. therefore. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. speed and direction of the orbiting body. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. square] of the distance . in the Principia.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. Lastly. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun. that is. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse..e. where the center of attraction is at its center.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. Problem 6. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit. . (This material becomes Proposition 10. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. that if the speed is high enough.

the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. in 1686. are self-evident and obvious or not. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. or their views about the researches of others. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. In 'De Motu'. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. i. using a falling body.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it.. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. and the associated uniqueness statements. and both of them produced from very old memories. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse.e.. that in any given setup. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length).De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. or that they were not stated by Newton. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. and then gave a whole list. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse"."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton.[15] . Later. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. as in the first edition of the Principia. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13. and a short correspondence developed. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time. ". only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. and other items. According to one of these reminiscences. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. and as if to whet Newton's interest. Halley asked Newton.

acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest. in "Newton's Orbit Problem. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). 116-138. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. [15] H W Turnbull (ed.). Alexis Clairaut.297. Historia Math.3968. including Bullialdus. pp. pp. also D T Whiteside.56-83.[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. A Historian's Response". and Bruce Pourciau.89-170.1 (1970). in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". at p. footnote 73. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. 10 (2005). Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton.g. but not Hooke. Westfall's Never at Rest. google. rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. vol. 529-534.297-314. so-called. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. Ofer Gal. M Nauenberg.). Vol 2 (1676-1687). pp. f.101. in Early Science and Medicine. Chapter 10. google. vol. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. Papers vol.195-6. 6 (1684-1691). at pp. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". 518-528. but the point was disagreed by R. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics".431-448. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. at pages 56 (http:/ / books. pp. [11] Quoted in Richard S. Weinstock. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics".293.6 (1684-1691). and printed by I Bernard Cohen.120. Math. at p. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli. 10 (2005). and the 1686 correspondence at pp. Journal for the History of Astronomy.6. 38 (2007). [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www.2 already cited. is available here (http:/ / books. vol. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". [14] 'Correspondence' vol. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91.196. and the original copy had no title: online.). to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". (Cambridge University Press. at p. who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. 1960). who called it a 'petitio principii'.[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. of 1729. who heard of this from Halley. but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). Page 403.). about the Principia. org/ etext/ 28233). 511-517. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. google.60-70. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). in Early Science and Medicine. . See also D T Whiteside (1970). Correspondence of Isaac Newton.193-200. 10 (2005). google. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 19(1) (1992). whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. as far as Book 1. both in Newton's lifetime and later. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. 1971. p. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. see e. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton. [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. (Cambridge University Press. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). pp. gutenberg. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. in Early Science and Medicine. A Historian's Response". and the first English translation. especially at p. 1960).57. and Borelli. (Cambridge University Press. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. [13] H W Turnbull (ed. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.193-200.431-448. 6 (1970). giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". 1974). "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). but note that the title was added by Rigaud. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies.

Cambridge University Press. Vol. by R. S. at page 69. Rouse Ball. by D. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. T. 30–91. ed. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1893). "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . Whiteside. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.W. 6. Westfall.

Of the Empire of Egypt. III. Of the Assyrian Empire. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. IV. V. however. with all others being copies. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. therefore. The majority of the treatise. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. Chap. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. followed by others. I. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. and that his Temple the first ever built. followed by a short advertisement. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. King of Egypt. but since republished in mass paperback format. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. beginning with Sesostris. II. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. Chap.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. VI. Chap. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. Chap. Of the Empire of the Persians. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. Newton's results. . The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. Chap. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace.

Armenian. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. Finally. still in use in the several Eastern nations. first as a marginal note. the Word. He noted that "the Æthiopic. the Father. as Luther. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. or retain it as only a marginal reading. 27 years after his death. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. htm#chron http:/ / www. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. Ethiopia. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". and what steps it has been changed. and some others. and Slavonic versions. Syriac.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture".The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. the Word. Grotius. newtonproject. and the argument full and strong. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. First published in 1754. sussex. Mesopotamia. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton. Syria. and some others."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. gutenberg. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. and later into the text itself.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men." in support of the Trinity doctrine.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. the Father. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. Armenia. ac. Arabic. are strangers to this reading". Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. newtonproject. would not dissemble their knowledge". Bullinger. ac.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. Muscovy. . Egypt. sussex. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. Erasmus. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds".

p. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. preached unto the Gentiles. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www.& version=31. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. 1 [4] An Historical Account. p. Aramaic version (http:/ / www.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. pp.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. knew nothing of these two texts. aramaicpeshitta. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5.& version=31. was hanged at Edinburgh. received up into glory. seen of angels. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. p. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. References [1] http:/ / www. [2] http:/ / www. I understand not. biblegateway.). but some place it in a footnote. p. believed on in the world. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. aramaicpeshitta. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. justified in the Spirit. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. 2 [5] An Historical Account.& version=31. htm) . and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. biblegateway. by a small alteration in the Greek text. Cp. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead. p.). Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. biblegateway. Newton argued that.& version=31. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account. biblegateway. further legal ramifications on the second occasion. [3] An Historical Account. Aramaic version (http:/ / www.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16. p. likely due to the political climate. Cp. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. Scotland.

co. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics.newtonproject.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. fifty years before Newton. but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). The book was completed in 1671. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz.ac.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years). and published it in 1684.sussex. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). and published in 1736. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt . Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. archive.google. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667.

and is considered one of the great works of science in history. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. Rather. refractions. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. into another. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. The first. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. Multiple-prism arrays. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. reflection. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. on dispersion. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. as beam expanders. such as air. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. That is. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption.[2] . Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. first reported in 1672[1] . 1704. It is about optics and the refraction of light. such as water or glass. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light.

this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . unlike the Principia. Rather. electrical phenomena. In this sense. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. published in 1706. In the fourth edition of 1730." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. Clearly. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. but that it may go on for many pages." In many ways. there were 31 Queries. or the tools of mathematics." the proper way to do science. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. the nature of chemical action. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. therefore. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments." In the first edition. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. filling many pages. and then in the revised English edition. over the next two hundred years. published in 1717/18. as rhetorical questions. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena. but the later ones became short essays. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. The first set of Queries were brief. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. especially the later ones. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia." Rather. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. that number was increased in the Latin edition. it is written in English rather than Latin. That is. These Queries. by the use of fluxions. the possible cause of gravity. these were sixteen such Queries. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. Second. They are almost all posed in the negative. First of all. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning.

Optics. Piper.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. Duarte and J. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. Palo Alto.cam.Opticks the Principia. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. a treatise of the reflexions. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin.rarebookroom. Isaac. • Newton. Isaac (1998). "Hydrostatics.bnf.lib. 43. .com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. and James Black. Fourth edition (http://books. Calif. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed.: Octavo. cam. First edition (http://gallica. Optics. First edition (http://www.). Sound and Heat (http://cudl. [2] F.html) • Gallica. A. Opticks or. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). refractions. 153 References [1] Newton. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures.org/Control/nwtopt/index. Commun. Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. lib. 303–307 (1982). Retrieved 10 January 2012.google. Opt. J. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . ISBN 1-891788-04-3. Papers on Hydrostatics. ac.ac.

first published 5 July 1687.[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3]. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton also published two further editions... Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus.] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy. Newton used his expression that became famous.. Newton wrote[10] [. at least in certain respects. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton . based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia.[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. often referred to as simply the Principia. by the end of a century after publication in 1687. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that. accurately proposed and demonstrated [."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally. in 1713 and 1726."[7] In formulating his physical theories.. and of the forces required to produce any motions. spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses.. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [.] .. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. also Newton's law of universal gravitation.[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium)..[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics.. Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science".] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever.

Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis.. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. near-parabolic orbits. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. . initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. in revised and extended form. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces.. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). thus offering criteria to decide. and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. De motu corporum Book 1.' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. by observations. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium.

and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. which "is acknowledg'd by all. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34]. but only a little. corollary [42]). Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30].[45] . Proposition 11. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. modified in a somewhat modern way. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. and motion in arbitrary force laws. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. Corollary 2 [44]). and that this centre "either is at rest. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies.Newton). and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape.[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums.[41] For Newton. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". especially its consequences for astronomy. He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). De mundi systemate Book 3.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". while some contend that the Earth. others. especially the variation. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). attempts to derive the speed of sound. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. and accounts for the tides [37]. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. Book 3. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]).

mathematical and common. true and apparent. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. In the four rules. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. we use relative ones. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. In his notes. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. and consider things themselves.. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. . since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. for today's readers. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. as far as possible. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". and was assured about their correctness. or liable to exceptions. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. From a Cartesian point of view.. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. by which they may either be made more accurate. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum). Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". he retracted this sentence in the published version. but in philosophical discussions. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. therefore. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. [. Curiously. However.] instead of absolute places and motions. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. for example. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. assign the same causes. we ought to step back from our senses. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. this was a faulty theory. till such time as other phenomena occur. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. Instead. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. However.

which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. Newton also gave theological argument. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. From the system of the world. and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". In the third (1726) edition of the Principia.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. . It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". of Descartes. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. as they did. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. scientists use it today. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance.[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'. fires in the home and in the Sun. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. With these rules. he inferred the existence of a Lord God.) Newton's gravitational attraction. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. From this textual evolution. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. 1726). The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. concerning the qualities of bodies. The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. "I frame no hypotheses". Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686.'. which he sent to Halley in late 1684. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided.[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. Humphrey Newton. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work. in November 1684. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. and he normally kept dated notes of them. and did very little else for well over a year and a half.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. . and generalized the result to conic sections. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work.. Hooke and Wren. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. that he immediately went to visit Newton again.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. and Halley. but that he could not find the papers. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it.. Newton's tract 'De motu. or his sleep.. The contents of 'De motu. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. but also all the laws of planetary motion.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results. and to his project during this time. Halley.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley. or the state of his clothes. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. how he sometimes forgot his food. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. Wren was unconvinced. resolved to ask Newton. although the (lost) original may have been without title. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk).[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. assuming an inverse square law of force..

This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon. amended to update cross-references. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. making it look . (Newton had also communicated 'De motu. Liber secundus' of 1685. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. Liber primus'.' to Flamsteed. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. but he largely started afresh in a new.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686.[59] appeared in July 1687. that it might be read by many". After Newton's death in 1727. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. and less accessible mathematical style. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. published by Halley at his own financial risk. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. not authorised by Newton's heirs). in more than one manuscript. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. it survived complete. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. the moon. the solar system. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]... tighter. Liber secundus' still survives. The complete work. under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. and its completion has been London. corporum. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. and the other two books somewhat later.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. with handwritten corrections for the second edition. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". the tides. because in the meantime. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. also in 1728. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read.

setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. In addition. showing considerable diplomatic skills. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). secondary sources based on them. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. Rather. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. but Halley. 1686. causing some delay. rather than before. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world).[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. Samuel Pepys. a second edition (1731).[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. Cambridge. or. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. among them himself. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. To these two laws he added a third a decade later. . as President. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740).[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. who hated disputes. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. including two to Leibniz. licensing the book for publication. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. At this time. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. in some cases. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

google. University of Toronto. Oxford University Press. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. pp. 227-245. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. [11] http:/ / books.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. google. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers.120. cam. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. tripod. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. 1999). assembled and ed. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books.[105] William H. edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). [7] G E Smith. and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. [14] http:/ / books.[104] The second full English translation. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). W. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich).[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications.329. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary.[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. Vol. 2001). published in 1996. cap. E N Zalta (ed. and see also J. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". Isaac. ac. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). "Du systeme du monde. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). The first. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. 55. google. p. The background to Newton's "Principia". ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital.). about the 'Principia'. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms.2. google. and well written". [3] Newton. 1972. . 116-138. in the 1729 English version). at p. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science".[2] was described by Newton scholar I. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato.1 (1970). stanford. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. 2 (May.329 (according to a note on p. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. often incorporating revisions. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. No. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. 1729 translation. into modern English. lib. Herivel. by Andrew Motte. MA. from 1729. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. See also D T Whiteside (1970). whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. google. Journal for the History of Astronomy. google." Author(s): Judith P. at page 19 of vol. vol. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). archive. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. especially at p.392. 1965. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). htm). in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749).

pp. speed and radial force. n. [61] http:/ / books." (http:/ / logica. [59] Westfall.147 and 152. 153-156. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books.15. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. eds. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. Vol. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books. [29] http:/ / books. pdf). [47] Edelglass et al. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books.. org/ scholium. google. 1998': A. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. [57] Westfall. at pp.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. [55] 'Westfall. [52] 'Cook. The Cartesian vortex theory. [58] Westfall. Whiteside. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. google. 33. 45 (1991) 11-61. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation.2. 191-2. google.2. pp. 1980. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. google. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . Books 2 & 3. google. google. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 223-274. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. 1980. Stephen. Edmond Halley. at p. google. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press 1980. google.406. google. google. google.2. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. at p. at page 233 (http:/ / books. google. Turnbull (ed. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. google. google. google. 406.207-221. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. . at p. 151. ugent. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". 431-448. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. google. T. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). 2A'. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. Cook. google. [49] Snobelen. Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. vol. google. google. . google. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. 1998. 1980': R S Westfall. google. 1971). 1980. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200).47-142. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. at pp. W. cited above. pp. at pp. (Cambridge. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. 54. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. [50] Ducheyne. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. Book 3 (http:/ / books. [42] http:/ / books. also pp. google. [53] As dated e. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. n° 2. htm). at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. at p. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. 1998.2. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. be/ steffen/ GS. google. Matter and Mind. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'.). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. by D. google.404. Books 2 & 3. Retrieved 2008-05-31. google. google. 147. [56] Cook. R Taton & C Wilson. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). Oxford University Press 1998. google. [54] Cook. Steffen.g. google.) 167 . vol.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. in H. Volume. now often known as Huygens' formula. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. [17] http:/ / books. google.

.431-448. CUP 1989. p. ac. Vol 2 (1676-1687). google. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". stanford. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. se/ press/ pm. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. uu. closed curve and spiral. Bruce Brackenridge. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www.2 already cited. cam. [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". html [86] http:/ / lion.. fondationbodmer.2. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). org. 1664-1684". [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". lib. Part A. google. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. mpg. Rouse Ball. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. [80] R S Westfall. ch. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. document #236 at page 301. vol. google. would terminate in the center C". [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. roe. Newton" (1759). asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl.2 cited above. or even a 'blunder'. umich. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). ac. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. at pages 304-306. [65] http:/ / books. html [89] http:/ / www. pages 11-61. (University of California Press. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. jstor. Bernard Cohen.2 cited above. (Cambridge University Press. at pages 391-2. a resisting medium). Tycho Brahe to Newton". "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. at Introduction (section IX). and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". de Hook diminue la gloire de M. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. 28 November 1679. [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. Never at Rest. 1893). Vol 2 cited above. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". Newton". 453. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). museumoflondon. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".297-314.. has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books.W. Ofer Gal. google. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. 1980. ac. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. html [88] http:/ / www. London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969.). [73] H W Turnbull (ed. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . edu 168 . wm. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). google. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp. especially at 13-20. 45 (1991). at page 69. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . see D Gjertsen. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. [83] http:/ / www. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. i (1970).297. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. cited above.e. Journal for the History of Astronomy. document #237. at page 66 (http:/ / books. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). [74] 'Correspondence' vol. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'".. at p. document #286. mpiwg-berlin. google. though elongated. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. 1995). cam. (http:/ / www. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. see Newton to Hooke. at document #239. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. with accompanying figure). pages 5-19.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. at page 433. lib. 1960). 'Never at Rest'.. and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false).. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". see 'Correspondence'. 'Correspondence' vol. at page 259). but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. (Cambridge UP 1989). uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. and extract of his letter. google.

4. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. p. 1965). and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. Bernard Cohen. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford.. Westfall. Cambridge University press 1975. Bernard Cohen (1999). 1954).. • Andrew Janiak. at p. . N. 1965). Clarendon Press. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. c1995)." [98] Westfall. to whom he owes more than that. • Guicciardini. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. Cambridge U. Curtis Wilson (Princeton. [99] Westfall. [100] Westfall.. vol. G. "Philosophia Naturalis. 1995).5.. • John Herivel. 1965). I.712–716. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall." in Grattan-Guinness. pp. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. pp. ed.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. • I. NY: Doubleday and Company. • E. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.4. 1999. Elsevier: 59-87. vol. • S. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. The background to Newton’s Principia. Westfall. 1971).750. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.699. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders.A. Press. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. [101] Westfall. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. R. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7.751–760. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. p. Force in Newton’s physics.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. • François De Gandt.. Cambridge University Press 1967. Introduction to the Principia. Chandrasekhar. University of California Press. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0. Donahue. 1999.42. 3rd edition. ed. NJ: Princeton University Press. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). [95] Richard S. vol. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. [94] I Bernard Cohen. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. 2005. Dawsons of Pall Mall). xv-xvi.519. and obligations to you. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. University of California Press. Cambridge 1971. n. at p.518-20. Cambridge University press 1967. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). • Brian Ellis. Notes. 1971). Cambridge University press 1967. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation.4. at pp. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. vol. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. wpi. 2008). Colodny. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. cgi?v1=8& ti=1. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr.2. Burtt. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you. • Richard S. google. pp. 29-68. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". at pp.

tripod. in Latin) (http://www. W. first edition (1687.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource. 1713. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654.google. ed.200 (http://books.ntnu.com/toc. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. in Latin) (http://books.google.org #2 (http://www. Chittenden. annotated) (http://books.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition. regarding online editions . (Book 3 starts at p.net/~bjn/principia/).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1).org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur. vol. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.archive.org (http://www.gutenberg.archive. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above).google.lib.google. largely the Motte translation of 1729. interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687. 1726).org #1 (http://www.archive.google. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2). 1729.1).2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books. • Project Gutenberg (http://www.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).org (http://www.. • Wikisource • Archive.ac.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol.htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.babson. • Principia (in Latin.archive. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version.1 with Book 1 (http://books. vol.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University.cam. Partial • Google books.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage). High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy. first edition (1687.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive. • Google books.html).

1686." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. to make a report thereof to the council. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. which he had enlarged and completed. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. he says. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. 1686. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . 1686. on May 19. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes).[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. 1687 and began changing the world. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. if certain. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. At the next meeting of the Society. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. that its truth is past dispute. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. For the influences for the second edition. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council." At the next meeting of the Society. on April 28. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia.

for 'tis long since they were writ. which he engaged to do. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully." Halley adds." but. Indeed. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. I am almost confident by circumstances. so far as I could remember. and I do not know that I have seen them since. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. and the absence of the vice-president's. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. On June 20. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. that Sir Chr. but it being a frivolous business. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. Halley in his letter of May 22." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. viz. which 172 . Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. you know best. and to desire his opinion as to the print. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society." acknowledging at the same time that. At the next meeting of the council. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. on June 2. cuts and so forth. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. so that you might act accordingly." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. I shall content myself to give you. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton." "How much of this. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. and printing it at his own charge. the heads of it in short. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". though Newton had the notion from him. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. volume. 1686. "is so. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it.

in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. namely. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. did not answer his third. and guessed it to be elliptical. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. But. though not accurately enough. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. is expressed. and that's above fifteen years ago). Oscill. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. expected to hear no further from him. can know no more. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. "The proof you sent me I like very well. I designed the whole to consist of three books. so that a while after. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. a copy being presented to me. And so. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. and understood it. in print. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). sun and planets. 173 . grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. and so upon mistaken grounds. in print. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. in stating this business. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. was upon other things. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. and only wants transcribing. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. so Mr Hooke. told him I had laid philosophy aside. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. his letters put me upon it. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. and only guessed it to be so accurately. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. I could not but have found it now. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. That when Hugenius put out his Horol.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. which I can as well let alone. and earth from the sun. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. And so. thought no further of philosophical matters than. that without my demonstrations. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. and drawing the cuts fairly. the second was finished last summer being short. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. as to the other from Kepler. Some new propositions I have since thought on.. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. The third wants the theory of comets. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. in compliment to sweeten my answer. accused me of that ignorance. sent him. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men.

and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. I must now again beg you. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. NEWTON. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. from your affectionate friend. The third I now design to suppress. which he puts so much value on. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. which made me afterwards return to the first book. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. found out last winter. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. If it please you to have it so. It will be more convenient. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. in the honour you do them. The work. you ought to be considered as the inventor. And if in truth he knew it before you. I retain the former title. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. I found it so formerly. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". which. On July 14. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. as to deprive us of your third book. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. The two first books. without the third. Sir. Hooke and Halley. I know not. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. 174 . your most affectionate humble servant. I will push on the edition vigorously. What application he has made in private. I am. as might have been expected. and then. not to let your resentments run so high. E. and now I am no sooner come near her again. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. 1686. Now you approve of the character and paper. De Motu Corporum libri duo. which is all at present. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. but she gives me warning." On June 20. I will try how well it can be done. In the first page. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. HALLEY. with her. "But." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. 1687. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. ought to compose it. though it be not material. Sir. and adding. 1686. and therefore I had altered it to this. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. and humble servant. as I guess by what you write. The second book. "If you please you may change the word to sections. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. upon second thoughts. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and not much more charge. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. on April 6. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. It will help the sale of the book. The third book was presented to the Society. nor on the books of the Society. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. "Is. as have to do. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. July 5." On June 30. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. which are much the greater number. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady.

and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. with their case carefully prepared. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. July 5. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. the chancellor. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. 1687. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. dated London. On April 27 they gave their plea. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. so much to your own and the nation's credit. Mr Boyle. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. or else at some short time. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. that starts from town tomorrow. and lettered. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory." . Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. or at 5 sh. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. appeared before the court. to be [OCR error] shillings here. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. as well as of profound and public speculation. On May 7 it was discussed. and ordered them out of court. Mr Paget. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. The following letter from Halley. but the university showed no sign of compliance. the master of Magdalene College. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. which I entreat you to accept. and hope it will please you. for ready. announcing the completion of the Principia. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. before starting for London. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. The deputies. a very great part of which is extant. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. nor suggested a compromise. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. I intend the price of them. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. to take my money as they are sold. who was vice-chancellor. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. Mr Flamsteed. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. a Benedictine monk. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. but rather. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. and was dismissed. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. On April 21 the deputation. bound in calves' leather.

and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. which doubtless must have been very alarming. Sir. and since. addressed to Samuel Pepys. 1693. which lasted eighteen months. as in a letter to his friend Millington. if I may but have them quietly. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. nor by icing James's favour. 1694. Christiaan Huygens. or both. added. or mind. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. and I hope never will. from the concern I have for him." . where. 1693. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. replied. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. He is now very well. and keeping him shut up. Pepys must have heard such rumours. winter. "I have not seen him. and for five days together not a wink. nor have my former consistency of mind. according to a report which was believed at the time. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. and dated the 15th of October 1693.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. or. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. upon his own accord. therefore. in a letter dated June 8. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. and beg your pardon. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. but upon his pressing consented. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. Newton wrote: "The last. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. before I considered what I did. I was averse. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. as far at least as comes within your knowledge." he says. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. 1693. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. which this summer has been epidemical. In a letter dated the September 13. I will give you an account of it if I can. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. so that when I wrote to you. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. Let me. dated September 26. as to be put into great disorder by it. but that "he was out of town. put me farther out of order." To which Leibniz. to let me know the very truth of the matter. by sleeping too often by my fire. and before I had time to ask him any question. that it had actually done so. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. beg you. at which he was much concerned. whose mind was never at rest. I remember I wrote to you. namely. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers." On September 20. wrote to Leibniz. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. but what I said of your book I remember not. and a distemper. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. I got an ill habit of sleeping. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon.

1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. as it were. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time. E. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. now archaic. . Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor.G. 1997. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. On April 30. Forbes et al.. Westfall. On February 12. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes.1998. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article.. Never at Rest. and gives original spellings. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university.) [3] Richard S." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. the vice-chancellor of the university. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members. 1689. ed. published as #537 in Vol. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. Newton retained his seat only about a year. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. see Isaac Newton's later life.

Some headings were followed by vast entries. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. colour. whereby every question is put to experimental test. fluidity. for example. But following this he drew a line across the page. Additional information This octavo notebook. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". He entered notes from both ends. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. hardness etc. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. Robert Boyle. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. Aristotle is my friend. Following this. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. vision. in Greek. These were followed by questions on violent motion. place. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. It is also definitely before December 9. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. and others. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. at the other. which had . light. At the other end of the book. "Of ye Creation". He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". They began with the nature of matter. rarity. Galileo's Dialogue. currently in the Cambridge University Library. and other sensations. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. Thomas Hobbes. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. Kenelm Digby. but my best friend is truth). below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. 1661. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. 1664. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. The initial notes.

in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. would look coloured. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. others were blank. Elsewhere. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. such as when a heavy body falls. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up.. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. including his idea that it is a wave. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct.. on the contrary. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. . Gassendi. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways.

vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. References • "Portsmouth Papers". His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. by Richard S. Cambridge University Press. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] . 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. A. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. • J. Lohne. Westfall.

I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. located in the chapel of Trinity College. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. published in 1687. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. Cambridge ." Newton was the runner-up. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. Because of the resounding impact of his work. in 1795. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. alone. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. plays. In mathematics.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. mathematician. Newton was deemed the more influential. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. natural philosopher.[1] In 1999. Many books.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. Newton or Albert Einstein. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. In this work. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. Newton became a scientific icon.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science.

." . • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). • A. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason.. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion.) Sir Isaac Newton. I suppose. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. Invention. there was that as well. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. ah. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10].Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies. of course. "there was also the small matter of gravity. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. a . Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. you see. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. It is a door within a door. set during the Great Recoinage. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter.. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology." said Richard. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics.. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. Greenwood Press. "They even keep it on at weekends.. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson." "Yes.. But the catflap . perspicuity and invention. you see. pp. It is a door within a door. It was there to be discovered. 27–43. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt." "Gravity. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. was merely a discovery." . pure creative invention. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002). Oxford University Press.. "(. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent. including the famous apple. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. there is a very different matter. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. Routledge. "yes. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr. Though that. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. Science in Popular Culture [9].

Newton in popular culture

183

Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

[3]. . who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). Christopher B. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. Science is the Tree of Death. retrieved 10 September 2009. org. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. apparently at the bottom of the sea. Foster (1988). Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. 243. Walter de Gruyter.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. Hanover. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. tate. who regularly experienced spiritual visions. S. 1997. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. [4] Burwick. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted.[5] References [1] Townsend. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. pp.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. page 328. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae.

ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . London: Tate Publishing.). ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson. 2003. Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press. William Blake: The Painter at Work. Joyce (ed.Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault.

with many distinct farms and cottages. when he let it to Dr John Young. Pye. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland. which stunk and had worms swimming in it. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". reaping.. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward.. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. and rode at each other through the wheat. Sir Thomas Clarke. Mr. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire.[5] . At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. when Young was expelled from the deanery.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580. dean of Winchester.[2] ". Mr."[2] Following the death of Coram. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church. near Winchester.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon. when it required the interference of Mr. although his wife survived him until 1720. who married her daughter in 1665.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. So. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park. The house and park are not generally open to the public. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. and Coram drew their daggers. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights".[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. no doubt. or hay-making.[1] During the Commonwealth era.[1] Sir Charles. Shoveller. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. He died in 1706. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. although open days are occasionally held. England.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. upon the lands of the lord of the manor.

The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. Towards the end of his life. In 1770. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. leaving a daughter. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. Hampshire. and after his death. then the months divided into days. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. Nearer the centre are degrees. a diagram of the compass. Conduitt. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. In 1734.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. and within. John Rowley. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task.[9] The Castle. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" . Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. Catherine. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. the base of a pillar.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras".[5][6] On Newton's death. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. Newton became resident at Cranbury. all round the world. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester..[5] In May 1721. and the arms of Mr. the points alternately plain and embossed. is below. next the hours. retaining that position for four years. Bt).[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. but his election was declared invalid. remaining there until his death in 1727. Thomas. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). Shortly after his marriage.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. the estate was left to his son. the owner. the outermost divided into minutes. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey. which he also owned. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . On his death. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday.."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. and a scaled-down gateway tower. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow.C. then a circle marked "Watch slow.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. etc. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. as granted to him in 1717. Harriet. built in 1780.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774). Cranbury Park. Watch fast". intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781). In 1747. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate.

a large red brick one. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. The house. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. is on the level ground at the top. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. intersected by various springs. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre.[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. flat as it fronts to the south. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. Whilst serving the town. but in the rear descending rapidly. which has a circular domed ceiling. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. set in arch-headed reserves. on that . Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet. especially in the saloon on the south front.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. Tankerville Chamberlayne. MP for Southampton.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. Arrow. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch. built round a court. In fact.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. In 1822. During the Second World War. William Chamberlayne. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)).[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829.[22] Writing in 1898. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings. but his wife survived him until 1825.[11] on her death. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald".

online-literature. William (1908). Retrieved 20 September 2009.Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. 5 May 2004. [6] Ford. Retrieved 24 September 2009. [5] Yonge. . www. cityofwinchester. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ).com.com. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. . htm#i46497).[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. . Winchester" (http:/ / www. .com. [4] Yonge. . 68. (1900).parliament. Netley Abbey. Charlotte M. . Retrieved 23 September 2009. and include fountains.ac. Hansard. upenn.K F. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). british-history. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. thepeerage. Victoria County History of Leicestershire. library. htm#i46495). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. (1898). and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. ac. Lloyd. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. www. html). Retrieved 23 September 2009. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. Charlotte M.uk. A.online-literature.online-literature. co. close to The Castle. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. htm). "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.K. uk/ report. p.[26] References [1] Page.com. . www. aspx?compid=42018#s4). "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. [8] "The Buttercross. www. Charlotte M. .online-literature.thepeerage. . britannia. www. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. Eleanor. specimen trees and pinetum. pp. www. Hampshire" (http:/ / www.com.online-literature. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ).[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. a rose garden. "Later changes" (http:/ / www.uk. html). [10] Thompson. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). the lakeside walk and the fern walk. Eden. Retrieved 20 September 2009.britannia. (1898). before joining Monks Brook.british-history. Michael (1999). Hamilton (1953).thepeerage. The Book of Sun-dials. Facet-Headed.com. Globe Cross and Star-Shaped."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. "History of Cranbury Park.com. (1898). [2] Yonge. thepeerage. and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. 1998. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 15 May 2005. [11] "Horninghold. com/ p4650. [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. Margaret Scott. p.com." a word signifying a country dance. Charlotte M. The English Country House. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. 72 & 74. [12] Leonard. ISBN 0-86146-041-3. Retrieved 23 September 2009. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. www. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. parliament. . ISBN 0-116700-20-3. Retrieved 24 September 2009. www. . . html). Retrieved 23 September 2009. 22. Retrieved 23 September 2009. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". A. Retrieved 23 September 2009. and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame.G. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. pdf). is situated in the southern corner of the park. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. Charlotte M. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. online-literature. (1984). publications. 9 October 2006. City of Winchester.online-literature. horninghold. online-literature. H. Retrieved 23 September 2009. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. www. com/ p4650. [9] Yonge. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102. online-literature. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. built from material plundered from Netley Abbey. online-literature. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. (1898). Paul Cave Publications. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. org. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. www. . . Stories of Southampton Streets. Retrieved 20 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. [14] Yonge. (1898). [7] Gatty.

chandlersfordscouts. nytimes. Retrieved 2009-07-12. George Dance. 3rd ed. html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). [19] "Cranbury Park. (1898). .online-literature. [21] Watkin. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. The lost country houses of England. online-literature. Charlotte M. hants. Micheldever. 15 November 1956. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ).Cranbury Park [18] Beckett.v. 1741—1825. "Stratton Park. uk/ m35. Retrieved 26 September 2009. April 2004. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. . Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. 16 January 1881.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. [22] Dorothy Stroud. org. amazon.[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. David (April 2004). . . Retrieved 24 September 2009. org. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-07-12. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. [20] Dorothy Stroud. in Country Life. [23] Yonge. alresford. htm). [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. co. htm). s. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3. Architect.. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. uk/ Campsite/ index. fieldclub. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. [25] Currie. . . Matthew (2009). matthewbeckett. "Chandler’s Ford. Retrieved 24 September 2009. www. which would value approximately £25. noted in Howard Colvin.com. htm).oldmaps. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. Retrieved 26 September 2009. The New York Times: 10. com/ gst/ abstract. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. .000 (us$35. Christopher (Spring 2005). 8 and 15 November 1956. Retrieved 26 September 2009. oldmaps. www.700) in late 2001's terms. Retrieved 26 September 2009. . References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. html).uk. . John Buonarotti".co. . Retrieved 26 September 2009. 1600-1840. "Papworth. 1971:93-95. Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. plates 23-2. 1995. html).[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth.

maths. stm). as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. BBC news. He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. edu. . uwa. alder). . amongst others. University of Western Australia. which he describes as pure reason.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. co. philosophynow. edu. or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible. . Alder admits however. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword. University of Western Australia.pdf). . He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. maths. uwa. According to Alder. to the scientist. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. Also available as Mike Alder (2004).[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. the question can be solved by experiment. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword).. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. Retrieved 22 july 2010. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. [4] Mike Alder (2004). "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults.Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. . [2] Clive James (2007-07-20). The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. . au/ people/ mike. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. That is. So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. Retrieved 22 july 2010. au/ ~mike/ )..[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe.] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. bbc. Mike Alder's Home Page. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. [3] Mike Adler. uwa.[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). edu.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". Either the object would move or it wouldn't.

was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). England.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. near Grantham. New areas of the house. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. Lincolnshire. to the rear of the house. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). being restored. Woolsthorpe Manor. most notably his work on light and optics. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. taking into account modern living. once private. and the old walled kitchen garden. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. were opened up to the public in 2003. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] .

nationaltrust.Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. org. uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ .

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