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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. mathematician. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. In mathematics. natural philosopher. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. Margery Ayscough. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. the subjects he is mainly associated with. Born prematurely. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. he never married. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. alchemist. independently. and for the style of the work. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. he was a small child. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist.1 litres). and contributed to the study of power series. published in 1687."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. due.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. 25 December 1642. At the time of Newton's birth. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. He was an unorthodox Christian. When Newton was three. In this work. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. and theologian. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. Newton was also highly religious. astronomer. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton was born three months after the death of his father.[11][12][13] . The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function.

1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. and did not give a full account until 1704. and very young . now published among Newton's mathematical papers. for example. Famous Men of Science. In 1665. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Nevertheless. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. although with very different notations. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton..[17] In June 1661.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. NY: Thomas Y. ordaining normally could not be dodged. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. and after 1820 or so. Luckily for Newton. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. and by October 1659. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. Newton was educated at The King's School. master at the King's School. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. attempted to make a farmer of him.[23] A related subject was infinite series. a fellow of our College. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. For such a significant appointment. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers.[15] Henry Stokes. he was admitted to Trinity College.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome. where his mother.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. He hated farming. He was removed from school.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus..[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. Galileo. and Kepler. nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle.) Such a . (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method".[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests. were adopted by continental European mathematicians.. also by British mathematicians. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. in a manuscript of October 1666. In 1667. Crowell & Co. such as Descartes.[18] At that time. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). he became the top-ranked student. widowed by now for a second time. Sarah K.

[34] 4 .[32] Starting in 1699. In that day. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences. and Charles II. however. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. He discovered Newton's identities. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. but never finished it. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. valid for any exponent. However. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. Because of this. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. Newton's method.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables). and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. At the time. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form.Isaac Newton suggestion. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. accepted this argument. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". of 1684. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. In 1691.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. However. whose permission was needed.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem.

13). Newton lectured on optics. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles.and may .Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. Newton published Opticks.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration). photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. revived his interest in alchemy. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. when Hooke. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. he might not have developed his theory of gravity. it stayed the same colour. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. In 1671. today known as a Newtonian telescope. however. .) In 1704. Thus.[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves.. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. As a proof of the concept. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.II. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. John Maynard Keynes. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. across a vacuum. Today's quantum mechanics.. and the general phenomenon of diffraction.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal.[39] Building the design. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. the first known functional reflecting telescope. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. 12).) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance. which he later expanded into his Opticks. Props. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props.

[51] Later. as they did. In the same book he describes. the use of multiple-prism arrays. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness.. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. and defined the law of universal gravitation. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. was at rest). because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke. via diagrams. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley.[49] For Newton. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. prisms. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. and much more. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). Also. 8th Query). a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. i. In the same work.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. In an article entitled "Newton. but they did not so far indicate its cause. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. In this work. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. wherever it was. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 .e. using a glass globe (Optics.

including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. but Newton took them seriously. John (1733) – were published after his death. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. Towards the end of his life. after Sir Francis Bacon. These appointments were intended as sinecures. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. Catherine Barton Conduitt. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. With the Principia. 1st Earl of Halifax. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton .[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above).[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. In his position at the Royal Society. until his death in 1727.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726]. He took charge of England's great recoining. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. a position Newton held until his death. when it abruptly ended. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Newton became internationally recognised. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699. Cambridge. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu. the Astronomer Royal. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. His half-niece. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. which Newton had used in his studies. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

with time. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. Before Newton.Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. For example. Unlike Aristotle's. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil).[102] Apple incident . Another example is the recoil of a firearm. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. this is expressed as . Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. they may be at rest). Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. the first term vanishes. The SI unit of force is the newton. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. . The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. Mathematically. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. named in Newton's honour.

"why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. We went into the garden. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly.[107] In similar terms. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. as well as the earth draws the apple. and get good agreement. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head.[111] . in an inverse-square proportion. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. and hence named it "universal gravitation". the notion of gravitation came into his mind. if matter thus draws matter. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. it must be in proportion of its quantity. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. that the earth draws it. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. & myself. had the first thought of his system of gravitation. therefore the apple draws the earth. not in any side of the earth. only he. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727).[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. to the Moon. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. published in 1752. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. as when formerly. The King's School. he was just in the same situation. there must be a drawing power in matter.[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment."[106] John Conduitt.. the reason is. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. whose manuscript account. Cambridge. Grantham.. he told me. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. amidst other discourse. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. or toward the centre.

[18] Michael White. ac. Retrieved 28 March 2010. "Isaac Newton. [7] Burt. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. chlt. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. google. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. p. jstor. ISBN 9780521058179. 1998. 11. p. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. Unless otherwise noted. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. google. Isaac. .1258/jrsm. oxforddnb. flickr.4 [4] Gjersten. Graham's Home Page.36. php). ISBN 0195092244. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. Oxford University Press. (2001). Retrieved 28 March 2010. ISBN 1-573-56256-4. [10] Cohen. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. . Newton. pp. 74. com/ view/ article/ 1541). a. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books.43. html). 8. com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). [9] Christianson. Moreover. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ioan (January 2003). The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. p. com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). . newton. By the time he died.Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. 50. google. No.1. doi:10. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. isaac-newton. edu/ MATH/ Newton. online edn. (1999). The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. May 2007. (1983) [1980]. 22 [17] James. . Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. Vol. [14] http:/ / www. I. Leibniz. . berkeley. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. The Newton Handbook. uk/ newtlife. google. PMC 539373. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. doi:10. September 2004. Optical Lectures. explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www. 1993). Dictionary of Scientific Biography.B. edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period.M1) [19] ed. Oxford University Press. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. [5] Westfall.1017/S0007087499003751.. p. html). "Singular scientists". The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. n. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. pdf) (PDF). 2 (June. org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. Derek (1986). Retrieved 28 March 2010. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www.96. Isaac. At Newton's birth. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. PMID 12519805. (1970). (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. html). (1996). Barrow. org/ stable/ 236236)". i. google. Daniel S. p. Michael Hoskins (1997). Isis. bellevuecollege. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. ISBN 9780521274357. fictional. . 159. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). Stephen D. 530–1. 315. p. Retrieved 3 February 2009. Cambridge University Press . accessed 24 February 2009. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www. heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. Gale E. Vol. Richard S. [6] Snobelen. Bellevue College. [13] Newton. pp. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. Greenwood Publishing Group. c. org/ heretic. .e. 84. [2] Mordechai Feingold. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. James R.

Retrieved 23 September 2009. google. doi:10.11. 54 [52] Westfall 1980. ac. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter".). Google Books. [37] Ball 1908.317 [56] Gerard Michon. MacMillan St. vol. Isaac. [36] Newton. "Newton. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). [53] Westfall 1980. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. Henry C (2003). Retrieved 16 January 2010. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. pages 116–138. Bibcode 2000OptPN. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. Cambridge University Press 1974. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54). cam.2. Isaac. at p.).Isaac Newton [20] Newton. pdf). [54] White 1997.T. letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679. [51] Edelglass et al. at page 233 (http:/ / books. htm#newton). google. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.). google. John Maynard (1972). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. [23] D T Whiteside (ed. eds (1922–1958). Page 74 (http:/ / books. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. [31] Stewart 2009. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). com/ arms/ index. [47] R S Westfall. (December 1982). Optics. Robert (2007) Newton. Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25. 232 [55] White 1997. . at page 41 (http:/ / books..99. Chapter 11. A very short introduction. "A short account of the history of mathematics". lib. [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia.. . by Alfred Rupert Hall.. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). 151 [35] King. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). pp. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. Numericana. Volume. Retrieved 10 January 2012. document #235. 'Never at Rest'.com. Retrieved 16 January 2010. [30] D T Whiteside (1970).5.. J. p. 2A'. Cambridge University Digital Library. 1676–1687' ed. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. Cambridge University Press.1086/353114. p.24D. p. .000024. Alfred Rupert (1996). at page 319. Retrieved 16 January 2010. online-literature. cam. J. [60] Westfall 1980. especially at pages 119–120. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). 1967). Isaac (http:/ / venn. com/ F. 324 [38] Ball 1908. "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. . at page 297. p. google. vol. cam." Westfall 1994 p. 356ff [34] White 1997. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. H W Turnbull. (2000). at pages 391–2. com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). opticsjournal.1. "The Newton handbook". J. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". Isis 73 (4): 523. [45] Dobbs. J. www. Venn. [43] Iliffe. doi:10. 1729 English translation. 1968). p. Matter and Mind. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www. p. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). F. p170 [40] Hall. lib. p. at page 54 (http:/ / books. ISBN 9780521566698. . [59] Westfall 1980. [49] See Curtis Wilson. 44. [21] Venn. prisms.1364/OPN. at page 149. .. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte.11. numericana.2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. King. Retrieved 10 January 2012. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. (1898). (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). . [24] D Gjertsen (1986). lib. 1684–1691. A. vol. (Cambridge University Press. 1980. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". uk/ cgi-bin/ search. [27] Clifford Truesdell. google. google. 595 15 . at page 400. 363–4.107 [32] Westfall 1980. 1696). " Newton. [41] White 1997. but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2). ISBN 9780486432656. ac. Google Books. The Man".online-literature. Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes..com. "Hydrostatics. google. [26] Newton. p. [25] Newton. p. google. 325 [39] White 1997. ac.6. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). Cambridge University Digital Library. Charlotte M. at page 30. com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. Cambridge University Press 1960. 1729 English translation.245 [58] Yonge. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books. "Newton. nor for his service at the Mint. 'Principia'. J. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. Martin's Press. p. page 67 (http:/ / books. 'Principia'. DuarteOPN(2000). ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. Book 3 (1729 vol. [48] D T Whiteside (ed.

Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists. (1958). T. Alan. org/ web/ 20070813033620/ http:/ / www. p. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment.uk (http:/ / news. and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. Margaret C. [86] Principia.S. Manchester University Press. [63] Letter from Isaac Newton to Robert Hooke._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. [67] Memoirs of the Life. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. as transcribed in Jean-Pierre Maury (1992) Newton: Understanding the Cosmos. . G. Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. org/ News. . 14. ISBN 0521560608. [79] Opticks. Retrieved 30 August 2006. [82] Westfall. [81] Jacob. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Isaac Newton: Inventor. The Royal Society. [88] Webb. A Marginal Jew. [87] A Short Scheme of the True Religion. p. [83] Haakonssen. Cambridge: 1996. New York: King's Crown Press. (1997). le comte J. 5 February 1676. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. Lagrange. 1953. 29 November 1999. westminster-abbey. p. J. Edinburgh. The Sydney Morning Herald [69] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of Royal Society scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. [93] Cassels. [75] Pfizenmaier. 64. co. p. christianpost. firstthings. In Martin Fitzpatrick ed. p. xx. php?type=article& year=2008& month=08& title_link=the-deist-minimum--28). 65. NY. (1959–77). Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. Retrieved 13 November 2009. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. [92] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. cited in. . bbc. [76] Tiner. Westminster Abbey. [91] Marquard. 19 June 2007. [72] "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide" (http:/ / www. [85] Germain. htm). Book III. cited in. 28. [80] H. ISBN 0521477379. [90] Westfall. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Life of Isaac Newton. Richard S. politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons". 1850. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. provisionally judges 30 most likely. [84] Frankel." Oeuvres de Lagrange I. January 2005.: Mott Media. p. ibid. 1. 11. . p. Odo. Cornell University Press. p..co. v. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. Writings. Retrieved 27 August 2009. (1976). "The Enlightenment.. New Horizons [64] Wikipedia Standing on the shoulders of giants. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. 1867. 1998. Retrieved 1 August 2007. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England.H.K. p. [94] "Although it was just one of the many factors in the Enlightment. Meier. p 241 [95] White 1997. M." in Farewell to Matters of Principle. 1. "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. Thayer.C. ed. htm). Scientist and Teacher. 267 16 . in Turnbull et al. Knud. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster.bbc. 10 November 2003. (1994). Monday. p 164. html). by Robyn Arianrhod UQP. org/ our-history/ people/ sir-isaac-newton). “The emergence of Rational Dissent. [74] Westfall. co. ISBN 0915134950. Manchester University Press. (1975). p19. "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. christianpost. 27) [68] "Einstein's Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics". London: Oxford UP. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World.S. com/ print. News. L. Wallace trans. Associated Press. Newton runner-up: BBC news. reviewed by Jane Gleeson-White. [66] White 1997. [70] Opinion poll. G. ISBN 0791413195. uk/ banknotes/ denom_guide/ nonflash/ 1-SeriesD-Revised. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". 37. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology. Wilson. 259 [96] White 1997. bankofengland. [78] Newton to Richard Bentley 10 December 1692. 1958 p201. p187. p. ISBN 0855270667. [62] Fred L. 233. Query 31. . New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 1989. p2. [65] John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. 44. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. History of Science: Newton citing: Delambre. com/ biography/ Newton. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. [73] Avery Cardinal Dulles. 42. Ch._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. Charles (1948). U.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Richard S. [77] John P. 2nd Ed 1706. Milford. ed. the success of Newtonian physics in providing a mathematical description of an ordered world clearly played a big part in the flowering of this movement in the eighteenth century" John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings. 1998. Knud Haakonssen. p. htm) on 13 August 2007. stm) [71] "Famous People & the Abbey: Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0208008438. Robert M. p. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence.Isaac Newton [61] "Newton. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. pp. wolfram. Bank of England. archive. H. vol 3. 200. Hafner Library of Classics. Gilbert G. Paris. [89] H. Michigan. Cambridge University Press.

Never at Rest. Thomas (2010). Cengage Learning. Richard (2011). pierre-marteau. co. . • Craig. Fourth Estate Limited. Imperial College London. • Christianson. brogdale. ISBN 9780199213559. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 9780547336046. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. google. New York: Dover. Richard S. This well documented work provides. Newtonproject. Inc. " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. Mariner Books. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 20 December 2008. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). in particular. pp. brogdale. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 10 January 2009. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. newscientist. Michael (1997). New York: Free Press. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. Rouse (1908). pp. Brogdale. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. ISBN 9781447204152. 337 [103] White 1997.. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. Gale (1984). "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". p. newtonproject. Einstein's Wife. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). Bernard Cohen and George E. • Stewart. John. p.org. 4. • Levenson. • Westfall. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. Cambridge University Press. "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). Smith.182. google. [107] Conduitt. lib. ac. php?varietyid=1089). org/ ). indiana. Retrieved 30 August 2006. John (1963). 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. New Scientist. 18 January 2010. cam. "Keynes Ms. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches.. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. 1998). ISBN 0521477379.W. ac. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-02-905190-8.1963. Retrieved 10 January 2012. [98] Westfall 2007. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. . ISBN 0-521-27435-4. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. dlib. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. Richard S.73 [99] White 1997. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www.1098/rsnr. Isaac. uk/ image1. (1994). php). [108] I. .Isaac Newton [97] Newton. (1980. .1038/182149a0. doi:10. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. 130. and Other Myths. John (1958). . Richard S. eds. Cambridge University Digital Library. 265–266. 6 [109] Alberto A. doi:10. Retrieved 11 January 2007. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Cambridge University Press. • White. html 17 References • Ball. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". W. . James (2009). ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167).149C. Bibcode 1958Natur. . • Westfall. [113] http:/ / www. Retrieved 7 September 2011.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. The Life of Isaac Newton. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. p. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. The Art of Science. sussex. valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. (2007). Isaac Newton. edu/ newton/ index. ISBN 9780495557425. ISBN 0486206300. p. 2011).0017. • Westfall. org.

edited by I. Isaac Newton. A. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. (1959). Gale E. Norton & Co. .questia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and H. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Craig. New York: Henry Holt and Company.. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. • de Villamil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. I. Bernard Cohen. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. 354 pp. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. ISBN 019530070X. J. The Principia: a new Translation. • Keynes. "Discoveries" pp. ISBN 0486253465. Bernard. • Berlinski. Cambridge. Newton. J. 256 pp. (1980). JSTOR 531368. De C. On the Shoulders of Giants. • Hawking. Great Experiments in Physics. The Background to Newton's Principia. Wright. John Maynard (1963). I.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. Harper & Bros. Readings in the Literature of Science. (1959). N. New York: Harper & Row. • Koyré. Harlow.0006.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. W. 147–9. Bernard and Smith. eds.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. • Christianson. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. See this site (http://www. focuses on philosophical issues only. ed. and Cohen. (1687). (2000). London: G. • Newton. • Shapley. Jason Socrates. William C. B. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. (1996). The Newtonian Revolution. "Newtonia" pp. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. Derek (1986). John (1946). Rapport. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Gale (1984). • Christianson. ISBN 0792310543. Dampier. H. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. I. Alfred A. W. ISSN 0035–9149. Newtonian Studies. ISBN 0-393-00189-X.amazon. Morris H. Newton at the Mint. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. Inc. (1965). (1728).amazon. excerpt and text search (http://www. New York (1972).. Essays in Biography.amazon. (1988). Knopf.. P. Kepler. doi:10.1988. • Gjertsen.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. S. 500 pp. T. (1975). ISBN 0-674-46853-8. Leibniz. (1950). Stephen. the Man. Richard (1931). excerpt and text search (http://www. ed. The Newton Handbook. New York: Free Press. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. Isaac Newton. 2001. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon".. Oxford University Press. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. ISBN 0375422331. 2006. New York. E. • Cohen. James (2003).1978. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". excerpt and text search (http://www.. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. (1965). complete edition online (http://www. 150–4. • Halley. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. W.1098/rsnr. ISBN 0521229642. Palmer. M. Isaac (1642–1727). ISBN 0841430144. • Bardi. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald.amazon. "Review of Newton's Principia". E. (1946). B. The Calculus Wars: Newton. London: S. Harvard University Press. (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Guide by I. Knox. Isaac. Jed Z. • Dampier. 277 pp.com/dp/0521656966). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Springer. George E. Zev (1991). • Dobbs. MIT Press. 1958. England: Cambridge University Press. A Treasury of Science. New York: Chanticleer Press.D. excerpt and text search (http://www. David. • Newton. • Shamos. ISBN 0486428052. • Gleick. – Preface by Albert Einstein.amazon.

R." Osiris. 1670–1672.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). JSTOR 4027945. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?".google. (1996).google. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 2. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. or A Treatise of the Reflections. Vol. 7 vols. Isaac. rev. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0444196110. eds. 627 pp. (edited by A. Press. (1996) 214pp. Isaac. Vol. • Whiteside. • Brackenridge. Isaac. H. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.org/stable/4028372). A. (1952). (1967–82). xvii + 325. (1971). Newton and Religion: Context. originally published in 1752) • Westfall. 1: The Optical Lectures. Sydney: The Book Company. Ayval. 1996. • Pfizenmaier. J. • Newton. – 8 volumes • Newton. 1730) online edition (http://books. T. Archetypal Heresy.1017/S0007087499003751. Isaac. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. White. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. in JSTOR (http://www. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. Arianism through the Centuries. London: Macdonald. Popkin. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. Inflections & Colours of Light. Turnbull and others. (1999). (1991). • Stukeley. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". 19 Religion • Dobbs. Stephen "'God of Gods. links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. Stephen D. Opticks.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. Nature.Isaac Newton • Simmons. • Newton. tr. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. J. • Wiles. S. ed.. Pp. Florian Cajori. JSTOR 3653988. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. (1934). Cambridge U. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. and Influence. doi:10. University of California Press.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. (1999). I. Motte. London: Taylor and Francis. 974 pp.jstor. W. "Isaac Newton. Thomas C. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. (1936).microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. W. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. H. Bruce. Refractions. 342pp . ISBN 0521077400. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. D. (January 1997). • Newton. 1984. Primary sources • Newton. 2nd Series. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. Maurice. 16.google. James E.jstor. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. I. 299 pp. (1999). University of California Press. (1959–77) . The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. Opticks (4th ed. and Richard H. argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. Betty Jo Tetter. The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. (2001).

newtonproject.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www.org/NYC051308/index. Robertson. online edition (http:/ /www. ed (1911). A.uk/prism.. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H.com/modules/historic/newton/index.stanford.ac. and motion (http://plato. John W.fmalive.archive.).html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss. London: A.com/biography/Newton.htm) Kandaswamy.html). University of St Andrews. eds.questia.pierre-marteau. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. I. Edmund F. (1975). Cohen and R.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. Roger Cotes.uk/ Biographies/Newton.rutgers.a. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702).math.chlt.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www.skepticreport. John Deighton. E.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. B. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www. C.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports.galilean-library.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. (1953).com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton. (1962). Sir. I.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato.tqnyc. Schofield.pbs. in Four Books.stanford. com/predictions/newton.fullerton. Cambridge University Press. • Newton. 20 External links • Chisholm.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. Thayer.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ).phaser. I.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www.php) • The Newton Project (http://www.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor. R.50.google.. John J.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library.st-andrews.org/web/20080629021908/http://www.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. S.mcs. Parker. ed.dlib. London. (1958).edu/entries/newton-philosophy/).com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I). B. Nourse. • Newton. Hugh. Millar and J.wolfram. – Google Books • Maclaurin.ac. • Newton. time. Cambridge.isaacnewton. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. J Edleston. .org/snobelen. Anand M.edu/entries/newton/). Hall.stanford. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. Sir Isaac". by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page. Cambridge. Hall and M.stanford.adherents.htm) (via archive.edu/entries/newton-stm/). including letters of other eminent men (http://books. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.sussex.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web. (1748). MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton. London: Dawson. West Strand. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. "Newton. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space.indiana. I. 1850.

at the Newton Project (http://www. reception. full text on archive.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.cam.math.mcmaster.cmu.lib.newtonproject. Refractions.ul.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up).ca/newton/) Images. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.enlighteningscience.earlymoderntexts.uk/prism.mcs.ac.st-andrews. Space. or a Treatise of the Reflections. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.com/).sussex.edu/id.cs.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.org • Newton Papers.ltrc.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www. audio.uk/collections/newton) .ac.ndsu.ac.sussex. physics.ac. optics.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.nodak.archive.gutenberg.

Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. the elder. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. Lincolnshire. unlike her. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. at quite a critical time in his education. in April 1642. who buried her next to his father. and returned to his mother's household. When Rev. 1697 by her son. Hannah's brother William. Smith died in 1653. He died in October 1642. He spent a year away from school on the farm. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. As his father had been a farmer. James and Margery Ayscough. . Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. when he was three years old. She and Rev. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. when Isaac was 54. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. By this time Isaac was ten years old. Later in his life. and thus took him away from his school studies. at the age of nineteen.

Newton. However. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful. witty and clever.[5] . it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. and baptized at Brigstock. half-niece of Isaac Newton. Is. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. not before. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. Hannah Smith.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). the wife of John Conduitt.

& previous reference. Harl Soc vol 24. born in 1721. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). online-literature.ac. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton. however. Viscount Lymington. Retrieved 23 September 2009.online-literature."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. 1715. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. newton. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.[7] The couple had one daughter.php?id=15) .com. . succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth.5. affection and esteem. On 30 August.uk/prism.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. near Winchester. uk/ art/ portrait. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. his nephew George Montague. html). 1689. and their son. References [1] Robert Barton's will. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. PROB11/416. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. Montague. Journal to Stella. Westminster Record Office. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. Harliean Society. King's College Cambridge. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. not to make a dispute over her legacies. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. [3] Swift. [9] Yonge.newtonproject. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. Charlotte M.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. [5] Newton Correspondence. [8] St Martin in the fields register. entries in 1710 and 1711. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. Catherine. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. by then Earl of Halifax. Northampton Record Office. • The Newton Project (http://www. 1886. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. John Wallop. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. (1898). ac. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. 1543–1869. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. Parish register.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. PROB11/546. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.sussex. p349. www.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. Vol 4. [7] Hants Record Office. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. p195. I have long had for her person. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. towards the end of his life. National Archives. National Archives.

Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. 1968. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. and was baptized at St Paul's. while at Westminster. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. London: Dawsons. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. towards the end of his life. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. he quickly stopped. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. Covent Garden. In 1720. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. named after her mother. staying only two years. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. proposed by the president. a whig member for Whitchurch. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. The couple had one daughter. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. 1st ed (reprinted). London. isbn 0712903305. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. described herself as 32 years old. but after starting. Sir Isaac Newton. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. (PRO. but did not graduate. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. Newton: his friend.[1] By 1707. and his niece. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. 161 pp. Early life. on petition. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. and his uncle by marriage. Catherine. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. Cambridge with three others. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. Hampshire. then aged 38 years. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. near Winchester. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. In 1705.[3] . In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. on 8 March 1688. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. Covent Garden. defending the government on a number of issues.

ac.. aspx?compid=42018#s4). References [1] Venn. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Huntingdon Library. ac. His wife. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. british-history. who died in 1739. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. On his death. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). online-literature.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton.online-literature.). cam. Venn. ac. fo 169 [3] Yonge. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". ms 57.british-history. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. www.htm) . eds (1922–1958). William (1908). 1749) in 1740. Retrieved 23 September 2009. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. " Conduitt.com. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. J.cyberbeach. Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley.. uk/ report. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. J. Retrieved 27 September 2009. vol 4. John (http:/ / venn. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. Catherine. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. Viscount Lymington (d. www. underage. and their son. [4] Page. John Wallop. Cambridge University Press. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. . lib. A. (1898). California. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop.uk. . 1st Earl of Portsmouth. Charlotte M. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. was buried with him.net/~mkelly/iansarticle.

he was a small child. where his mother. When Newton was three. attempted to make a farmer of him. This he did at the age of eighteen. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him.[4] At that time. In June 1661. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role.[6] . In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. master at the King's School. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Born prematurely. 25 December 1642. widowed by now for a second time. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. author of the Principia. and by October 1659. achieving an admirable final report. Galileo. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. He was removed from school. At the time of Newton's birth. Margery Ayscough. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. In 1665. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. Newton was educated at The King's School.[3] Henry Stokes. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. optics and the law of gravitation. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. and Kepler.1 litre). Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). the English mathematician and scientist. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. He hated farming. he was admitted to Trinity College.

many years afterwards. It was elliptical. Cambridge. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". he was examined in Euclid by Dr. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. 1699. I saw two such Crowns about her. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). together with observations on refraction. John Slade of Catharine Hall. and of a yellow and red without. there are several articles on angular sections. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. and borrowed Wallis' works. to two and fifty figures by the same method. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. and introduced him to higher mathematics. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. he was unable. at night. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. near Cambridge. in the years 1663 and 1664. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. particularly those "in affected powers. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. its acceleration a. obs. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". February 19th." . Next about the moon was a Circle of white. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. dated January 1664. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. and in summer 1665. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. which was of a bluish green within next the white. and the applied force F is F = ma. several calculations about musical notes. In a small commonplace book. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. which appear in his Optics. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. and next about that the inner Crown. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. part iv. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. in Lincolnshire. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. and. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. I being then Senior Sophister. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. and red on the outside of it. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. verging below farthest from the moon. Isaac Barrow. book ii. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book.

29 . and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. probably in June 1669. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire.] a mathematician of no mean order. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. dated 7 August 1665. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. He wrote a paper. and also chemicals and a furnace. and who. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. and 22 June 1666. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. In March 1668 he took his M. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. [see also James Gregory. apparently for chemical experiments. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). degree. Newton must have left college before August 1665." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. Dr Pearson. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. "the name of the author is Newton. statics. arithmetic. which he put. who had a powerful genius for such matters. as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. astronomy. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. mathematician. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. geography. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. optics.A. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. and added. but kept the name of the author a secret. or some other mathematical subject. a fellow of our college. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. and a young man. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. and signed by the master of the college. There were nine vacancies. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. On each occasion it was agreed. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters.

" This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. bishop of Salisbury. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. The whole is printed in No. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. But these seemed very great difficulties. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. it could not collect those also into the same point. so that a much .Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. when I further considered. he proceeded: "When I understood this. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. and reflect as much light. than a circularly figured lens. on 6 February 1672. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. So that. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). if they continue them for any time. the secretary of the Royal Society. provided a reflecting substance could be found. as glass transmits." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. for I saw. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. as I found it. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. and I have almost thought them insuperable. I understood. which would polish as finely as glass. and finding them regular. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. were light uniform. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. I wondered. because. After he explained this to the Society. Nay. I left off my aforesaid glass works." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object.

And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. Further on. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. as I imagined. care must be taken. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. you will not only find. You may also see. but I shall conclude with this general one. proper for metal. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. with which 'tis illustrated. as you inform me. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. which. who. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. But it is requisite. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. the figure also would be corrected to the last. so I doubt not. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. or proportionally disagreeing in both. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. but yet most luminous in red. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. but yet most luminous in blue. if any thing seem to be defective. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. but not very distinctly. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. . if I have committed any." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. that the prism and lens be placed steady. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. which they had before they entered the composition. whereby. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. what might be effected in this kind. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. are taking care about it at London. And this analogy twist colours. for. And therefore. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. and vanish into whiteness. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. and that the paper. how the colours gradually convene. And there place a clear and colourless prism. I conceive. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. He concludes his communication with the words: This. but yet with this difference. that. than in figuring glasses for refraction. They have there no appropriate colour. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. or of acknowledging my errors. are again dissipated and severed. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. by such motion. or to thwart this relation. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). and refrangibility is very precise and strict. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. as I said. when I made the other. I began to try.

nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. and the inflexion of light. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. The public oratorship fell vacant. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. I do recommend them both to be nominated. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. or leave to come out after me. and. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). endeavored to effect a compromise which. but was not published. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. and entered in the Regent House. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. who was the chancellor of the university. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. however. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. and are now almost universally rejected. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. Others criticized the experiments. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. and many others. or to become a slave to defend it. or communicated to the Royal Society. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège)." The heads. and. he says. light polarization and binocular vision. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. when a description of it was found among his papers. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. till after Newton's death. George Villiers. . although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. and he wrote on double refraction. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant.

a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). if you have not done it already. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. yet since I see I shall neither profit them." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. by calculating from Kepler's laws. owing to decay." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. when. a fellow of the Royal Society. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit.) . In one version of the story.57 metres) in one minute. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. and one of Newton's intimate friends. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. till 1860. who married John Conduitt. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. as several others are. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. I thank you. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. Newton." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. he says. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. dated 23 June 1673. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. He therefore was led to inquire whether. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. I desire to withdraw. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. as he was not in holy orders. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. (4. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth." (See Newton's cannonball. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture.

Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. i. Newton replied promptly. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. "Why. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. After the latter had left Cambridge. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. I have calculated it. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. by the hand of Mr Paget. one of the secretaries of the Society. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. a copy of his demonstration. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. and started for Cambridge. Moreover. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. In January 1684. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. one of the fellows of his own college. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. Unless otherwise noted.e. and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. By the time he died. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. Oldenburg. or their views about the researches of others. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. Sir Christopher Wren. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. the secretary. but he promised to send it to Halley. yet this truth was not looked upon as established.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. . and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. made the two results. "an ellipse". prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752." He could not. in the month of August 1684. At Newton's birth. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. put his hand upon his calculation.Early life In November 1679. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. however. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". to consult Newton on the subject. On his return to London on 10 December 1684.

when Montagu. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. lib. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. p. The office is the most proper for you. Michael Hoskins (1997). [8] http:/ / www.. 1960). cam. Montagu. I. Later life During his residence in London. Cambridge. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage.435-440. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. [7] Newton. eds (1922–1958). and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. Isaac (http:/ / venn. and has not . 16–19 [4] Michael White. J. J. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. and the esteem the king has of your merits. Charles Montagu. lib. Isaac. sfu.) (1960).B. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". google. (Cambridge University Press. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. at pp.Early life [2] Cohen. Cambridge University Press. p. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right.43." Newton was now 55 years old. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Mr Overton. 35 References • Westfall. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. Cambridge University Press.297-314. ac. cam. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. Richard S. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692..). Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. Vol. ac. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. Venn. was false to him. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ).M1) [5] ed. the warden of the mint. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. cited above. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. In a letter to Newton announcing the news. However. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. 11. afterwards Earl of Halifax. (1994). Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. . upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out.) (1960). A. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. pp. The Life of Isaac Newton. ISBN 0521477379. 159. (1970). his hopes were spoiled by long delay. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". " Newton. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College.

[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. . a post worth between £1. however.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. the second. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. was still.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble. except to Newton and his friends.200 and £1. To this work were added two treatises.500 per annum. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. with an account of their properties. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). and of its application to the quadrature of curves. a secret. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. while exports were paid for in gold. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. Newton took it seriously. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. Of this. he did not exhibit it in the results. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. a process that was completed in about two years. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard.

but he received a letter from Leibniz. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. Leibniz. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. In that year the Academy was remodelled. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. (2) to determine a curve such that. making it public. Hartsoeker. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. secretary to the Royal Society. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. was published at London in 1712." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. P2. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. and having since met with some things copied out of it. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. which was also written many years ago. . thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. and he gave a method of determining it. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. although Newton's solution was anonymous. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. and eight foreign associates were created. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). who have solicited the. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. and a second edition of it. W. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. and. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. "tanquam. with improvements by the author. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. and made known to some friends. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. 's Gravesande published a tract. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. by Dr Machin. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. I have on this occasion made it public. and published by Dr Wallis. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. He also solved the second problem. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. prefixing to it an introduction. and E. obtained leave to make it public." says he. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1.

in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. He was warmly supported by the residents. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him. The prince had offered. have been completely investigated." About the middle of July Cotes went to London.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. when the queen. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. On 21 May 1709.. they paid a visit to Cambridge. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. he was opposed by the non-residents. after speaking to Newton. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. but being a Whig. the queen's husband. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. Roger Cotes. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. the lunar theory would. fellow of Trinity College. where a congregation of the senate was held. the master of Trinity. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. however.I forget from where . were heard from time to time. and a number of honorary degrees conferred. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself." (I have learnt . In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. Dr Bentley." Newton.. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. In April 1705. "will be glad to see you in June." he said.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). Dr Edleston. and of a new edition. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. Rumours. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. however. in the first few months of 1695. on Newton's recommendation. the master of Trinity College. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. and discharged the duties of the post. so far as he could do it. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. 2002). Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. of his work. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. He held the office for 25 years. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. and beaten by a large majority. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election.

and endeavoured to refute it. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. who called witnesses. I. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. and. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. who translated it. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. "28 Mar. lent his copy to M Fréret. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. On the 31st of March 1713. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. Caroline of Ansbach. At last. He mentioned four: 1. took every opportunity of conversing with him. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. I must not see it. wife of George II. to present her with a copy of the new edition. passed both Houses. vii. Newton waited on Queen Anne. on 27 July. true in theory but difficult to execute. facilior redditur et amplior. The abbé. however. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. The Princess of Wales. Newton criticized all the methods. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. 3. for I find that I shall be examined about it. In Libri secundi Sect. she requested him to give her a copy. "If you write any further preface. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . the following account of this new Edition. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. about midsummer 1713." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. In Libri primi Sect. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. N. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. pointing out their weak points. 2. 4. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. an antiquary at Paris. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. and received the royal assent. 1713.

in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. to have it translated into French and have it published there. a nephew of Bentley. which was published in 1728. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. In an earlier part of his life.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. Upon receiving a copy of this work. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. and though he was fatigued from work. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. Newton printed. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. This was done. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. translated into French by the observator. to suppress it". For example in 1716 Leibniz. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. . and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. he solved it later the same evening. This edition had many errors. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. and published at Paris. He therefore asked Locke. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. beginning his studies before 1690. who was on the way to the continent. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum.. after his death. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret. John which was published in London in 1733. in 1756.

uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. Retrieved 2008-05-22. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. Richard Kleer.[10] Towards the end of his life. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. (2005). [9] Ostad. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). urotoday.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. University of Regina. In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. ahds.2005. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. Athol L Murray. . Charlotte M.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. Sir Isaac Newton.January 1843 (http:/ / www. OCLC 276340857. litencyc. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 21 September 1717. www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). (1898).online-literature.1464-410X. PMID 15638889. [6] By The King. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. horse racing. 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). Newton and the Counterfeiter. pdf). ac. ahds. php?rec=true& UID=1304). pierre-marteau. html). Gilbert J. who. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage.com. Wise. Vol V. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. after six years of "cock[fight]ing. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. [10] Westfall 1980. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey.05242. In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. archive.. . com/ php/ stopics. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. He endured great suffering. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey.1111/j. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. 870 [11] Yonge. p. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. pdf) (PDF).and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. measuringworth. ISBN 9780151012787. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. ac. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. Edward. pdf). doi:10. April 1842 . . Retrieved 23 September 2009. Athol L Murray. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. online-literature.x.

alchemy. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. with a and historical introduction by I. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. Bernard Cohen (Dawson. Distinctions between science. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. the noted English scientist and mathematician. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). Santa Fe. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. These occult works explored chronology. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).ucsc. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime.edu/~michael/koll.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. he was the last of the magicians. superstition. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). economist John Maynard Keynes. In this sense. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. 1975). After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. for example. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason.". It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of .

[8] .Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. with its associated nomenclature. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. National Science Foundation. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. Newton is thought to have said." 43 In 1936. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. A perfectionist by nature. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. Newton's dog started the fire. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. and perhaps to a lesser extent. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. Diamond. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. "O Diamond. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. Arts and Humanities Research Board. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life.[2] It was for this reason.K. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. burning 20 years of research. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. several projects have begun to gather. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. and analytical chemistry. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. In recent years. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. catalogue. In the story.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). In addition. lead. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". who throughout his life. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. or some other substance). made penalties for alchemy very severe.S. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. The English Crown.

Nicolas Flamel. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". Published London. "Nicholas Flammel. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. In predicting this he said. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. early forms of tarot. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. "Ezechielem Explanationes". and the vegetable or the growing stone. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew.[12][13] . but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. "Artephius his secret Book". "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". Hieroglyphical Figures."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. This concept. Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. Artephius. 1728. in a search for their occult knowledge. Most notably are documents entitled. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. though mysterious figure. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. In its time. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. "Theatrum Chemicum". This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. and occultism. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom).[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon.[10] In addition to scripture. (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. and his "secret book".

the same was true of their architecture.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. is not only to be found in the volume of nature. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. Isaiah and others. Around 1692. To Newton. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. . such as golden sections. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. orthographic projection. Psalms. In the knowledge of this philosophy. when deciphered. was published posthumously in 1728. both speculative and active. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. . Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. 27 years after his death. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. but also in the sacred scriptures. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. which was popular in its day. This immense 13-foot-high (4. In 1628. Isaac Newton's treatise. there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". ” During Newton's lifetime. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. only adding to the public interest in the temple.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. [14] Job.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna .0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. scholars. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code.[17] In 1754. In addition. conic sections.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". due to the success of Villalpando's publications. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". spirals. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. and other harmonious constructions. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. as in Genesis.

The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including.[D. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot.C. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. It may end later. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. The first document. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. . an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. Canada's National Post. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. part of the Yahuda collection.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. the period of 1260 days.] 70. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. Nature. evidently written by Isaac Newton. 2060. Britain's Daily Telegraph. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. Both of these lay essential to his calculations.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents.[19] is a small letter slip. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. 7th. Furthermore. Christ comes as a thief in the night.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop.C. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. 800. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. in or after 1705. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. 1. will end A.

The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. It is done.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. .[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. As such. authors. and the Levant. Ogygia was home to Calypso. and available source material. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. In a separate manuscript. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. The marriage supper. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. Egypt. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. standards. or possibly the same island. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. Plutarch. and various other classical historians. Homer. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. Africa and Asia. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. In fact. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. an approximately 87. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. In Greek Mythology. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. Anatolia. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. but was sunk into the Sea. In this entry he mentions Mephres. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". but rather one in which he believed the world. as he saw it. However. Pliny. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. and poets. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis.

Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. a recognized Knight. lack of supportive publicized material. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. remains unclear. For its time.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. Considering his esteemed social status.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs.". the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. these are considered learned societies. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. Like Newton. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature. the level of their secrecy. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. and highly politicised.[24][25] however.C. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. anti-Catholic.[26] At the time of his death. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. not esoteric societies. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. however. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. Furthermore. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. However.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). which they claimed to have in their possession.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. Additionally. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. would seem to exclude Newton . and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. avowedly Christian. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. and the spiritual realm. the physical universe. In his library. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself.

. Temple Institute. jnul. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. Pope).Occult studies from their membership.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. July/August. uk/ prism. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. 2010 [5] Newman.[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. referring not to a medieval knight. . lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. dlib. newtonproject. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). huji. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. ISBN 019530070X. However. [10] Richman. Page 91. References [1] Keynes. . s-most-famous-alchemist)". Rabbi Chaim. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. 175. p. edu/ newton/ about. 19 June 2007. archive. (5 April 2007). (http:/ / www. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. Discover Magazine. christianpost. Retrieved 1 July 2008.M. 15–19 July 1946. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". htm) on 6 May 2008. . indiana.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. and he never publicly identified himself as one. . org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. pbs. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). htm). Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. [6] http:/ / webapp1. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. J. Retrieved 2010-07-19. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. Temple Institute (1991-2008). templeinstitute. Oxford University Press. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. ac. During his own life. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". "Newton. Oxford University Press US. Gale E. [11] Christianson.. 144. William R. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. "The Da Vinci Code". sacred geometry._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. dlib. USA: PBS. Retrieved 2007-08-12. The Man". The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. 1999. Jane Bosveld. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. do). Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. indiana. ac. christianpost. com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. p. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. as were many members of The Royal Society.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. (2005). Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). Associated Press. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. google. htm). Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. sussex. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. edu/ newton/ index. jsp [7] http:/ / www.

php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. Michael.fairfield. [26] White. Retrieved 2007-08-15.sussex.ac. [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies. (http://www. [19] Yahuda MS 7. newtonproject. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h.3o. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. 1997. Isaac (5 April 2007). ac. f. 496. W. com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). 146. Isaac. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books. org/ ).. org/ newton_2060. newtonproject. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized). Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. org). (1972).ac. [23] Bauer.math. php?id=74). [17] Newton. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando.newtonproject. 31r [22] Newton. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. . 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. sussex. 2005: Weiser. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL.sussex.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. p.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. Delta Trade Paperbacks. Holy Grail. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www.dlib. University of Sussex: The Newton Project.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. 50 • White.themathpage. Lincoln. London: Routledge. spalding-gentlemens-society. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. Retrieved 2007-08-15.ac. "Juan Bautista Villalpando.staff. newtonproject. ISBN 1578634040. sussex.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www.sussex.uk/prism. ca/ aqc/ leon. uk/ texts/ viewtext. . Alain (2007). 117.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode. htm). & A. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A. Frances A. ed.science.M.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. Michael. . htm). ac.uk)) . Holy Blood. ISBN 073820143X.indiana. html).J. pp. ac. html). .2a.com/pillar_solomon_temple. .edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.jnul." (http:/ / www.). fairfield.ac." (http:/ / www. sussex. S. Scott Mandelbrote. Retrieved 20 April 2010. .D. J.from Chapter 3. [28] Baigent. f. (http://www.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum.. 859" (http:/ / www. com/ book_bauer. Stephen D. The Newton Project. Chetwode.newtonproject. (http:/ / www.pbs.niu. Book Excerpt . Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley. faculty.freemasons-freemasonry. inul.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. Da Capo Press. Joseph.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. 2060. the Apocalypse and A. . The Rosicrucian Enlightenment.3g. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed.dcs. William (2010). Retrieved 2008-06-25. .st-and. sussex. Retrieved 2007-08-19.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www. [14] Gardner.uu. uk/ prism. AHRC Newton Papers Project.newtonproject. [18] Snobelen. bcy.com/aReal/unit-fraction. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. .F. The Newton Project. Michael (1999). isaac-newton. uk/ texts/ viewtext. newtonproject. Retrieved 1 July 2008.sussex. Retrieved 2008-06-26.gutenberg. google. Fairfield University. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory. . Originally published: London : HarperElement. p.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell. Laurence (2007). ac.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). Rob Iliffe. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life. Henry (2004). .org/library/drmath/view/55191.faculty. p. freemasons-freemasonry.huji.ac. William Stukeley 1752.newtonproject. written at USA. f.ac. ISBN 1-59477-172-3.html) • unit fractions. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No. google. .htm) • the math (http://www-groups.

as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. astronomer. In predicting this he said. natural philosopher. theologian and alchemist. I study the Bible daily. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. "so little understood"."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. had it been made public. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. written by those who were inspired. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy. mathematician. After 1690. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. and he said. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. causes. Alternatively. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. or. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. place and motion.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. 77–82. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. in general. in other words.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687).[1] Background These arguments. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. space. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion.[5][6] . these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".

The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. B: Outer ring rotates. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. p. but the neighboring train. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. Eventually. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. it is not your own train moving. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition. However. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force. but in opposite direction.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. C: Both rotate. despite proximity to the pail.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object. In other words. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. On the other hand. as the cord continues to unwind. the surface of the water remains flat. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. it begins to spin rapidly. but in opposite directions. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. accordingly. Thus. and that there is no absolute motion. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation.[9] When. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. A: Central object rotates. but also in relation to the water it contains. his real position was that motion is absolute.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . however. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. not only with respect to the experimenter.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". — Ernst Mach.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. who contended that all motion was relative. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. (This situation would correspond to diagram D.[7] However.

Bouquiaux in Leibniz... and effectually to distinguish. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it. then filled with water.Bucket argument If a vessel.. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. by the sudden action of another force.. Thus.are altogether destitute of any real effect. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. the surface of the water will at first be plain.. as before the vessel began to move. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction.... And therefore. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. forming itself into a concave figure. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. and may be measured by this endeavour. p. will make it begin sensibly to revolve. — Isaac Newton. but relative motions. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. the vessel continues for some time this motion. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. a stationary frame can be identified.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. a limitation that has not been established. hung by a long cord. .[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. 58 . . it is whirled about in the contrary way... In fact. is incomplete. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. after. . see Rotating spheres. and recede by little and little. Principia. and held at rest together with the water. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. discovers itself. as quoted by L. which is here directly contrary to the relative. However. — Ernst Mach. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. not relative. and while the cord is untwisting itself..

where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. because the element of water does not move. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface. However. For example. the water. But from the nature of a fluid. . see Knudsen and Hjorth.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density.. To sum to zero. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω. if at rest.[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. the co-rotating frame. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. the horizontal. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω... 127 Moreover. for if this were not so. the sum of all three forces must be zero. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. p. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. and the aim is to determine this function. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. one might question just how rotation brings about this change. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface.

were surface regions with lower energy available. That being so. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. The potential energy is useful. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. That is. because all positions are equivalent in energy. On the other hand. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. In words. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. . no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. equilibrium is attained. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius.) As r increases. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. for example. that is.

To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. pdf [3] René Descartes. . In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). 75. Thus. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. p. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. Bernard Cohen & George E. Requiring the energy to be constant. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43.M1). ISBN 1606201433. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. [2] http:/ / ia310114. google. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. this energy is constant independent of position r. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. p. Part ii. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). a concave surface represents the stable situation. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. Cambridge University Press. the more concave this surface. and the more rapid the rotation. Smith. Forgotten Books. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521358124. . before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. 191. 43. 170. . us. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). Cambridge University Press. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. however. ISBN 0521656966. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. editors) (2002). . Principia philosophiae. at a given angular rate of rotation. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation).M1).Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. §25. google. archive. google. John Cottingham translator (1988). p. See Figures 1 and 2. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. University of Chicago Press. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. ISBN 0226282198. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. As the height of water increases. . If rotation is arrested. google. google. and lowering it at smaller radius. The water surface is flat at first. 105. At some small angular rate of rotation. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. p. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. for example through friction. [5] René Descartes (1664). This change in shape would not be stable. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. Cambridge University Press. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. p. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape.

Wiley. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. 79-81 [13] L. p. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein. google. Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. ISBN 1402086679. 127. us. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. pp. Academic Press. . .). loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. . Arfken (2003). Springer. no. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. Springer. ISBN 0120598779.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. The Universe and the Bucket". pp. 325–348. vol. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. pdf) pp. In I. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. archive. p.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. 78. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. 79. time. ISBN 0375412883. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). Poul G. p. George Edwin Smith. . 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. article by Robert Rynasiewicz.google. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. . com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). 104. Zalta. ISBN 0521857902. stanford. Knudsen. cit. ISBN 0867204796. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). Phil. 119.iep. Leibniz (http:/ / books. The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. stanford. . 5 (1975) ed. "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521352541. • Ralph A.. google.edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. Hjorth (2000). p. New York: Courier Dover Publications. See: • R. google. p. google.google. Partridge (1995). editor) (2008). Jones & Bartlett. [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920).stanford. A A Knopf. google. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104.M1).google. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. "Chapter 2.). Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). John Wiley & Sons. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). op.M1). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521656966. ISBN 0691033234. Bernard Cohen. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. p. . . 143. google. . [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). 279–280. 45. and Motion (http://plato.Bucket argument p. External links • Newton's Views on Space. [11] Robert Disalle. Am. 78–79.M1) (in Proc. [19] Hans J. . 167.edu/l/leib-met.M1). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. p. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1.M1). ISBN 0521621135. p. pp. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. At the end of this article.com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. 386–387. Lerner (1997).com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. In Edward N. [15] Jens M.M1). 404. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). 19. google. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate.utm.htm) see section on Space. pp. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. Princeton University Press. • D. google. and the texture of reality. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. Lynden-Bell (1996). [16] Lawrence S. ISBN 354067652X. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127. Soc. ISBN 0486607690. Cambridge University Press. .). Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Time. Weber & George B. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). . B.M1). google.

lambda calculus. an integral test for convergence. and infinite series.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. Calculations of volumes and areas. It has two major branches. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. pi calculus. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. 1820 BC). Eudoxus (c. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. broadly called mathematical analysis.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. derivatives. one goal of integral calculus. or "infinitesimal calculus". Calculus has widespread applications in science. economics. infinite series approximations. differential calculus and integral calculus. with no indication as to method. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way.[4] In the 5th century AD. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. but the formulas are mere instructions. to calculate areas and volumes. Historically. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. integrals. Calculus is the study of change. calculus.[6] . and join calculus. functions. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus. variational calculus. early forms of differentiation. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. and some of them are wrong. More generally. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. term by term integration. which prefigures the concept of the limit. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. while Archimedes (c.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation.

" —John von Neumann In Europe. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). second and higher derivatives. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. Pierre de Fermat. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. Taylor series. Unlike Newton. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. By Newton's time. Isaac Barrow. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. and the system of mathematical analysis. which is its logical [7] development. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. In his publications. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. In other work. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. Newton derived his results first. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. He did not publish all these discoveries. in their differential and integral forms. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . and providing the product rule and chain rule. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. he developed series expansions for functions. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. the oblateness of the earth. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. introduced the concept of adequality. including fractional and irrational powers. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. but Leibniz published first. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. and James Gregory. The product rule and chain rule. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. the notion of higher derivatives.

Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. who gave the new discipline its name. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals.Calculus Society. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. . developed in the 1960s. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. Following the work of Weierstrass. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. however. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. to the detriment of English mathematics. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. In modern mathematics. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. It is Leibniz. In Cauchy's writing. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. Robinson's approach. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. including Maclaurin. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. but it would be 150 years later. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. Several mathematicians. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. Today. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today.

and motion. and for this reason they are the standard approach. but use the ordinary real number system. Greece. They capture small-scale behavior. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers.. volume. . arc length. in some sense. Iraq. which resolve the paradoxes. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. during the 17th century. In the 19th century. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. For centuries. but less than any number in the sequence 1.. time. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. especially the limit and the infinite series. . India. From this point of view. "infinitely small". China. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series.. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. and Japan. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. Calculus provides tools. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. 1/2. and pressure. 1/3. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. Historically. In this treatment. Persia. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. However. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. just like infinitesimals. i. and optimization.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. the modern use of calculus began in Europe.e. and less than any positive real number. work. the slope of a curve. center of mass. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes.

it is possible to produce a new function. and applications of the derivative of a function. To be concrete. f(a + h)). then the function can be written as y = mx + b. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . then it outputs six. where functions usually input a number and output another number. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. then a + h is a number close to a. the derivative of the function of f is f′. For example. The derivative. Given a function and a point in the domain. let f be a function." For instance.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. that is. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. and if the squaring function is given the input three. b is the y-intercept. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. outputs a second function. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. Therefore (a + h. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. For example. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. and fix a point a in the domain of f. then it outputs nine. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. it is the velocity of the ball. however.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. four is sent to sixteen. If the input of the function represents time. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. (a. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. can take the squaring function as an input. if the doubling function is given the input three. f(a)) and (a + h. f(a + h)) is close to (a. In mathematical jargon. y is the dependent variable. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. however. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. f(x)). which is impossible. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. three is sent to nine. If a function is linear (that is. If h is a number close to zero. f(a)). where x is the independent variable. pronounced "f prime. properties. Thus. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. the doubling function. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. if the graph of the function is a straight line).

Here is a particular example.9) is 6. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. that is to say. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. For this reason. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. . Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point.

Leibniz. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. called a Riemann sum. the indefinite integral and the definite integral. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. . a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. only multiplication is needed. integral calculus studies two related linear operators. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. then the speed will stay more or less the same. introduced by Leibniz.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. If the speed is constant. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. the derivative. For example: In this usage. properties. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. and applications of two related concepts. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. (This use of upper. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. as the output. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. In technical language. However. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. but if the speed changes. however. the inverse operation to the derivative. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals.

the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. between two points (here a and b)." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. where C is any constant.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. . the area between the axis and the curve. the area. we can choose one value of the function f(x). The indefinite integral. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. For each small segment. To approximate that area. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. f(x)=h. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. as an output. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. Call that value h. dx is not a number. or antiderivative. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. The symbol of integration is . is y′ = 2x. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. and is not being multiplied by f(x). The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment.

The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. the study of graphs of functions. b). The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. Physics makes particular use of calculus. then Furthermore. This realization. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. demography. b). Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. For example. medicine. computer science. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. concavity and inflection points. economics. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. engineering. statistics. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. the moment of inertia of objects. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. In analytic geometry. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. made by both Newton and Leibniz. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. for every x in the interval (a. In biology. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. actuarial science. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. slope. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. . Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. More precisely. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. we use calculus to derive its path. business.

Gottfried Wilhelm. Springer. html [7] von Neumann. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. 1984. Scott.Calculus Green's Theorem. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. For instance. ac. [9] Leibniz. p. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. pp. Kenelly. Cosimo. Elif (April 1995). calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. Sherry (2007). . Robert Sonné (1966). 1947.. Biggers. Copy (http:/ / books. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi.. 2008. pp.. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. World Scientific Publishing Co. . com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. MA. For example. Method. In economics. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. mcs.. google. Wright. Wright. In the realm of medicine. 618–626.. Chapter 1. Birkhauser Boston. Agnes Scott College. F. agnesscott. Cengage Learning. (2009)..see also the summed area table algorithm. eds. Fan. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). . p. 1995. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. T. Inc. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. The Neumann Compedium. [8] André Weil: Number theory. xxvii. 2. For example. 28. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. Jones & Bartlett Learning. From Hammurapi to Legendre. Pte. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. I [3] Archimedes.. ed. Vámos.. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. htm). Liu. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C.. R.. google.. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. p. Boston. it's used to derive dosing laws. . Vol. google. Iris B. "The Mathematician". Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations.. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. Chapter . p 2 (http:/ / books.). Cohen. Warren S. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. Inc. google. Page 228. Dainian. fixed point iteration.. Discrete Green's Theorem. Reed. Reprinted in Bródy. In nuclear medicine. Dennis G. p. ISBN 0817645659. 279 (http:/ / books. The Works of the Mind. Examples are methods such as Newton's method. 279. Donald R. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. and linear approximation. google. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. An approach through history. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC).. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. J. ISBN 9810222017. p. st-andrews. google. University of Chicago Press. in Heywood. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. . Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. 130. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object .. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. John W. B. Ltd. 180–196. google.

. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. George B. • Tom M. 2nd Ser. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. 1–46. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. • Florian Cajori. • Howard Anton. ED 300 252. "Calculus". (2003). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5.. "The History of Notations of the Calculus.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus.2002. Loftsgaarden. (1999). (September 1994). 9th ed." Annals of Mathematics.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. • Michael Spivak. 11th ed. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. • Cliff Pickover. • Leonid P. Eric W. Stony Brook. ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. • Tom M. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. Maurice D.html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. • Thomas/Finney. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. 6th ed. Princeton Univ. ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. Apostol. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. (1969). Publish or Perish publishing. Apostol. Weir. Anderson and Don O.John Willey and Sons Pte. • Robert A. Giordano (2008).. Volume 2. Ltd. Edwards (2010). 1 (Sep. American Mathematical Society. (1988). 1: The Tools of Calculus". Addison-Wesley. Vol. Dover edition 1959.. 7. • Silvanus P. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. No.. Donald A. Calculus for a New Century. 2004. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Mathematical Association of America No. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. • Weisstein. Carl Benjamin (1949). NY. • Mathematical Association of America. Ch. Wiley.Stephen Davis:"Calculus". The Association. 1998. (1996). ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. 25. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. Addison Wesley. Calculus: Early Transcendentals.Irl Bivens. Press. google." (http://mathworld.. • Albers. Wiley. "Calculus". Bruce H. Volume 1. Not a Filter. Hafner. (1998). ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. Adams.. University Science Books. pp. ed. (2003). Ron. Joel Hass.wolfram.ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . Donald J. A Pump. Frank R. (1967).. Lebedev and Michael J. • Edmund Landau. ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th. Thompson and Martin Gardner. James (2008).com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). 1923). Richard D.

edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.. Eric W. Fullerton.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus.pdf) • Faraz.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. J.temple. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. (2006).mit.ac.wolfram.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.org) at University of California.org/pre-9217/calculus. William V.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre . (2003). Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism. (2004). "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow.math.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business).htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.math.html) • Mauch.ericdigests.nd.html (http://www.com/calc/calc. soton.math.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext. External links • Weisstein.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson. G.org/index.htm) • Smith.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.math.understandingcalculus. K.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.nd.bbc.uiowa.calculus.caltech.uiowa. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.understandingcalculus.com/calc/calc. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Thompson (http://djm.edu/~sean/applied_math. lightandmatter. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www.wisc.co. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.pdf) • Sloughter.com/ (http://www.htm) (HTML only) • Strang.com/Calculus. S.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).pdf) • Garrett. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota.pdf (http://www.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan.edu/~keisler/calc. "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P. " Calculus (http://mathworld.lightandmatter. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.umn. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.edu/~sean/applied_math.D.bbc.cacr.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.wolfram. Michiel Hazewinkel ed. (1991).org: The Calculus page (http://www.pdf (http://www.umn.htm) from ERICDigests.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals.html)" from MathWorld. Dan (2000). (2001).edu/~keisler/calc. (2006).math. (2000).math.co. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. B. URL http:// www.math. H.economics. (2004).org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.pdf (http://www.math. H.wisc. ( listen now (http:// www.htm (http://www.caltech. mit. .Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus". "Calculus" Light and Matter.byu.htm (http://ocw.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses. P.cacr. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler.html) at PlanetMath. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology.encyclopediaofmath.mit.

html) by D. A. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. exams and interactive applets.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full).ucdavis.math. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus.Calculus Dame with activities. and others. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death. as in the 'Principia' of 1687.[1]. . Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711. minima. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus. Newton manipulated the quarrel. Newton.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials.solved-problems. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention.mit. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's. and centers of gravity.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman.com/) Raymond. Newton. 3. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. 1709–1716. as noted above. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith. 4. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687.[2]) Meanwhile. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. at the age of 23. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. this statement went unchallenged some years. Moreover. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. or. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions. 2. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1.

and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). but Fatio was not a person of consequence. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. It is. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. but some deny this. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704.[2] At first. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. whereas Newton began from derivatives. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. in particular power series. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. C. on the method of tangents. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. the manuscript. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. Shortly before his death. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. No attempt was made to rebut #4. and in fact worked together on some aspects. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. In 1696. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. However. Gerhardt. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. however. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. which was not known at the time.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. I. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. In 1849. one of which was new to him.

a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. as it appeared to Newton's friends. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. finding in favor of Newton. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e." he said.g. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. in most cases I did not keep a copy. as if by the authority of a great judge. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. The report of the committee. forty years ago. All this casts doubt on his testimony. I have enjoyed little leisure. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. the letter of June 7. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. When pressed for an explanation. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. which referenced all allegations. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. 1716. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. and doubts emerged. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. which I could sort through only with time and patience.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. "I have never. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. had endeavoured to wrest from me. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. and when I did. 77 . That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. Now that I am old. 1713. In accepting the denial. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. Moreover. in the Charta Volans." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. of which many are lost. Leibniz may have minimized. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. the debate persisted for many years. before publishing them. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). dates. but it appears that on more than one occasion. In any event. dont plusiers se sont perdus. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. No such summary (with facts. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. suspicious details. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. Several points should be noted. which the author of that epistle. Moreover.. in the Acta Eruditorum). the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. 30 years later. and that of April 8.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus.

(London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). explaining "the method of first and last ratios". It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm.. [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. at page 400. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. of equal certainty. . at p. maths. at page 149. not in the German-speaking world). com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). 1967).Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. the analytical method of fluxions. especially at p. 120. (Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400)... and the differential and integral calculus. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. 2003). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). google. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736".. [4] D Gjertsen (1986). google. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. so making the priority row a nonsense. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). points of resemblance. the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. [5] http:/ / www. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". at page 41 (http:/ / books. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. whose potentialities he fully understood. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . "The Newton handbook". ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. (Cambridge University Press. tcd. (Guicciardini 2003. They adopted two algorithms. [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. 1696). the differential and integral calculus. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. 1968). at page 250 (http:/ / books. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century.). T. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. D. google. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. which were translatable one into the other.99. (1970). for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside.

Before the emergence of quantum mechanics.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness.html). Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. going on without the Interposition of God. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being.rutgers. Dated. 1908.maths. Cambridge Uni. W. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. W W Norton. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. 4th ed. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. Rouse Ball. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. Anand. as a perfect machine. Edward B. a prominent supporter of the theory. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. or initiated by the Big Bang. • Stephen Hawking. R. A. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine.html). 1980. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. • Kandaswamy. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. A thorough scholarly discussion. and tends. Canberra. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. Press. • W. 1997.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. random behaviour."[1] .tcd. approaching a maximum value).) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. 1988.math. • Hall. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will..ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. including the law of universal gravitation. It continues ticking along. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate.

who created the perfect machine and let it run. Robert Lambourne. p.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). the Royal Society. 1. ibid. 2: 103-117. the machine of the world. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. 65.K. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. 1974). A Source Book in Medieval Science. Further reading • Dolnick. Richard S.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. p. . Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. Edward B. Harper Collins. 1991. Joy Manners. Cambridge University Press. space. Edinburgh. Edward. Cambridge: 1996. Webb.google. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. John Bolton. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. 3.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. Ed. Knud Haakonssen." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain.. In this widely popular medieval text.html) The Physical World. This steel artwork contains moving gears. ed. 1850. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. no. References [1] Davis. and beauty. Pr. On the Sphere. Alan Durrant. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. 19. 2. R. 465. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy. [2] John of Sacrbosco. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". 201. a working clock. Clarke quotation taken from article. Andrew Norton. (http://physicalworld. 2011.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. p. God was the Prime Mover. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. This view of God as the creator. God was the master-builder. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. regularity." Science and Christian Belief 3. quoted in Edward Grant. Westfall. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. and motion. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. p. cited in.

spatial locality. Albert Einstein. 72. bartleby. J. pp. Phys. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. edited by Thomas F. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). gutenberg. pp. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory.whitman. and the additional concept of force. html) . the material point and force (interaction between material points). translation. James Clerk Maxwell. Translation).edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier.com (http:/ / www. Particle. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. and all their 'inner' qualities. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . retaining only inertia. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. 1210-1219 (2004) . time.The Wave.29-32. Eugene. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. htm [2] bartleby. form.html) JJ Thorn et al. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. corpuscular theory of light. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. com/ 65/ li/ light.: Am. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. Torrance (1982).Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics.[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. 1931).

Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. Therefore. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. whether metaphysical or physical. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.e. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. F = ma. or based on occult qualities. . Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal. General Scholium.. combined with his law of universal gravitation. in Latin. and I do not feign hypotheses. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. opposite and collinear. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation. Newton's First and Second laws.[5] For example. Newton showed that these laws of motion. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. or mechanical. Third edition.. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. and afterwards rendered general by induction. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena. have no place in experimental philosophy.[2][3][3] 2. i. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. and hypotheses. 974 pages. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. in the third volume of the text. page 943 of I.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena. 3.e. i. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. first published in 1687. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star.

each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. Thus. then the velocity of the object is constant. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. momentum. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. In this sense.Laws of motion In their original form. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.e. from this point of view.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. however. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. acceleration. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies. independently of any particle structure. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. In the given interpretation mass. i. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. That is. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. Euler’s laws can. This is the most common. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia.

the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration.[22] . and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below). The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. i. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. Consistent with the first law. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. In other words. then there is a force on it. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest.e. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. even if there is no change in its magnitude. otherwise it would stop moving. Thus. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. acceleration. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. and a is the body's acceleration. however.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. Galileo. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. if a body is accelerating. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. such is the case with uniform circular motion.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. where F is the net force applied.. m is the mass of the body. the momentum of the body is constant. Thus. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan.

Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. Under some conventions. when they are oblique. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. M is the total mass of the system. a triple force triple the motion.[23] this is understood. a double force will generate double the motion. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. In case of a well-defined system of particles.[24] . in modern terms. or gradually and successively. particles by definition have constant mass. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. or obliquely joined. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. known as the thrust. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once.[18] In classical mechanics. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. by substituting the definition of acceleration. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. Then. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. reading: If a force generates a motion. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations.[17] The reasoning. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. Instead. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. if the body moved before. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur.

This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. but act in opposite directions. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. as will be proved in the next scholium. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Although the forces are equal.g. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. and by its force changes the motion of the other. and directed to contrary parts. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. This law takes place also in attractions. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. toward the contrary part. For. As shown in the diagram opposite. that is to say. as the motions are equally changed. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. The changes made by these actions are equal. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. If a body impinges upon another. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. as usual. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. if the road . motion is Newton's name for momentum. in its own motion. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. but act in opposite directions. the finger is also pressed by the stone. as it does the stone towards the horse.. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. If you press a stone with your finger.[25] In the above.

. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). and not on a single object. each exerting a force on the other. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. At speeds comparable to the speed of light. most notably at very small scales. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. momentum. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. So each and every force has two ends. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. Newton's laws of motion. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions.b are the forces from B acting on A. and in quantum mechanics. However. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. 87 where Fa. one might say. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance).Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires.a are the forces from A acting on B. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. which can be stated as follows. very high speeds (in special relativity. From a mathematical point of view. Therefore. including general relativity and quantum field theory. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. Fb. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. Given two objects A and B. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. optical properties of substances. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail.[28] however from a deeper perspective. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light.

energy.. . archive.]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. Newtonian Physics. pp. htm) [. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. "Momentum. McGraw-Hill Companies. google. Clifford A. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. "Newton's First Law: Text. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. • Section 242. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books. Dover Publications.1023/A:1022632600805. pdf). and to both classical and non-classical physics. Newtonian Physics. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). Michael E. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. tripod. Indeed. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). ISBN 097046701X. the laws of conservation of momentum. . This can be stated simply. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. quantum electrodynamics. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). etc. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. Becchi. Lubliner. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. ce. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series).g. html)." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. I. p.. M. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. ISBN 9780070084988. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. us. action at a distance has been completely eliminated. New York: Birkhäuser. doi:10. Halliday Browne. Edoardo (2003).Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively.. P G. (1867). the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. google. . except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. .. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books... springerlink. 207. google. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. google. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. volume 1. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms.Truesdell. 58. ISBN 0486462900. energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed.12. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance.). see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. . [9] Benjamin Crowell. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". quantum mechanics. lightandmatter. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. W (Lord Kelvin). Tseitlin. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. However. Antonio. and by a modern text of the early 21st century. and Tait. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. general relativity. Benvenuto. "4. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. In modern physics. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). ISBN 3764314761.. (2003). the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws. . Treatise on natural philosophy. Translations. Jacob (2008). since they apply to both light and matter. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73.45G. berkeley. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members..

p. Pitman Paperbacks. (2) Stuart Pierson. . "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter.60 (2006). . in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge.1007/BF00052611.). London/Berlin: Springer. 353. Millard F. 1 (1993). (http:/ / books. ." [19] Hannah. Berkeley 1999. ISBN 0534408966. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used.] Consequently. doi:10. p.. html#NewLawMot). Principia. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. cited below. Juan C. pages 143–185. ISBN 0471037109. 1967). [26] C Hellingman (1992). Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. Eds) (2002). ISBN 0521602890. pages 627–658. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. Brooks/Cole. [11] Isaac Newton. (1992).. Shapiro. Educ. Robert Kolenkow (1973). Cohen and A.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q).. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). google. it will lie still forever. Corollary III to the laws of motion . com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. 6." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. 12 ff. 161. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". Physics. is not so easily assented to. M J. Perspectives on Science. ISBN 0070350485. p221. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". 199. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". Jerry S. Applied Mechanics. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems"." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977).. pages 157–207. ISBN 052189266X. Angel R. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. Phys. google. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). Resnick. . Harman & Alan E. . Whiteside (http:/ / books. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. Hillier.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. s. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. University of California press. 24. p.. google. is a truth that no man doubts. Faughn (2006). The Principia. . [22] WJ Stronge (2004). com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). 1. McGraw-Hill. 133–134. [16] Plastino. "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. google.112H. pp. Daniel. . Bibcode 1992PhyEd. See Harman and Shapiro. 2007.53. Serway. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. also an online discussion by G E Smith. [14] Thornton. A new translation by I. Springer. An Introduction to Mechanics. consists." [28] Newton.. p. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. and (3) Bruce Pourciau. . [13] Beatty. ISSN 0923-2958. J." [17] Halliday. . [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion.M1). in 5. [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord.T.. (2006). 27 (2): 112–115. google. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). Whitman. 78–79. . "'Corpore cadente. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. John Wiley & Sons. 53. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. p. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). Muzzio. "Newton’s third law revisited". pp.227P. doi:10.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". unless somewhat else stir it. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false).27. vol... [. ISBN 0387237046. stanford. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.. but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. ISBN 0534997244. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. google. College Physics (http:/ / books. "Physics". Special relativity (http:/ / books. google. p..B. Marion (2004). 1971 [20] Raymond A. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M. producing the relativistic expression for momentum.

Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw. Elements of Engineering Mechanics. Peter W.mit.lightandmatter.Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell. P G. R. Isaac.2). McGraw-Hill Book Company. (2011).com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. Benjamin. M. R. Isaac. Stephen (1995). Light and Matter).. p. volume 2.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. (2005). ISBN 0070378525.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6.com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178).com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19).html#Section5. R.. G. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".3. • Newton. containing Book 1 (http://books. 1 (2nd ed.1.google. (2011. Saunders College Publishing. • Feynman. Cassiday.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw. Light and Matter (http://www.lightandmatter.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC). 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726)..google. 6.com/lm/). Thornton. • Fowles. Special relativity (http://books. Jerry.com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) . ISBN 0805390499.google.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ). • Newton. Newton's laws of motion (http://books.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations. • Likins. London/Berlin: Springer.html#Section4. and Section 5. Wolfram Demonstrations Project. (1999).com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny. Newton's Third Law (http://www.lightandmatter.google. Sands. B. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Section 4. W (Lord Kelvin). ISBN 0030973023. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". google. ISBN 0030223172. P. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books. • Marion. Harcourt College Publishers.M1). G.lightandmatter. volume 1. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003). especially at Section 242.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05.youtube.3). Leighton. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www.motionmountain. L. especially at Section 4. • Thomson. volume 1.2.1). Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books.wolfram. html#Section4.google.). Pearson/Addison-Wesley. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC). Newton's First Law (http://www. Newton's Second Law (http://www. ISBN 1-85233-426-6.lightandmatter. Vol.). (1867). and Tait. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726).com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www. (1973). Analytical Mechanics (6th ed.

F is measured in newtons (N). and the constant G is approximately equal to 6.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. G is the gravitational constant. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. r in meters (m). . m2 is the second mass. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society.) In modern language.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects. Assuming SI units. first published on 5 July 1687. Both are inverse-square laws.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. m1 is the first mass. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G.

. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent. On the latter two aspects. being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution.[7] It was later on. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society.. Plagiarism dispute In 1686. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known"." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". of 24 November 1679. that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions..e.[6] In this way arose the question what. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. that Hooke communicated his "supposition . Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified". in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's.". have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". if anything. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". however. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers". together with a principle of linear inertia. Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. "prosecuting this Inquiry"). and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity".[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration.Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. and on which some points still excite some controversy. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect.. but also. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive . that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton.

also without demonstration. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. according to Newton.[19] In addition. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage.[20] and associated sections of Book 3. but that did not mean. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. even close up.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. supported by mathematical demonstration. Among the reasons.[15] (who suggested.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. which inclined me to try it . Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death.[14] including Bullialdus. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. Thus Newton gave a justification. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. without evidence in favor of the supposition.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". otherwise lacking. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. Hooke. in all editions of the 'Principia'. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. Newton did accept and acknowledge. According to Newton.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke.. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law.. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea. which Newton was making in the 1660s. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations. although significant. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles."[14] . but without demonstration. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements.

In the limit.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). cancel each other out. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. it becomes understandable how. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. for example. That is. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). as the component point masses become "infinitely small".) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. Nevertheless. . gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system.. even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. As described above.[26][27] In the light of the background described above.. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. this entails integrating the force (in vector form.[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. taken together. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". that "One must not think that this idea .[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. Alexis Clairaut. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. As a consequence. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies. on the point at r0.

the increase due to the additional mass is 1.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. further outward the gravity increases again. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. and if the sphere is large enough. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. Thus. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. quantities in bold represent vectors. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. In this formula. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2. G is the gravitational constant. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines .

and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space. Also. it can be seen that F12 = −F21. per unit mass.g. It is a generalization of the vector form. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. object 1 the Earth). object 2 is a rocket. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. For 2 objects (e. Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. except that F is now a vector quantity.

In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. i. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model)..Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits.[31] For example. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. this is m/s2. and c is the speed of light. where φ is the gravitational potential. The field has units of acceleration. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation.e. that is. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. in SI. Gravitational fields are also conservative. . the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity.

and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. and assume a point mass for each. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717).. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. decades before Newton. Yet. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. "assigned the cause of this power". regardless of their different inertial masses. you get an orbit with no precession. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. though hypotheses abound. In 1692. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally." He never. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. However. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. See the Equivalence Principle. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation.. which was detected long after the life of Newton. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. In point of fact. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. but in the case of gravity."[33] . The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. In all other cases. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. Moreover. However. independent of the quantities of matter involved. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. and the observed precession. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. the definitive answer has yet to be found. in his third letter to Bentley. especially of planet Mercury. in his words. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. I believe. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. F = ma. is to me so great an absurdity that. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses.

for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.). (Cambridge University Press. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [18] Page 436. 1960). at page 66 (http:/ / books. Vol 2 (1676-1687). University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. already cited.80. Direct link to value (http:/ / www.431-448.633. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity.. General Scholium. (Cambridge University Press. "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". google. Florence.633M. Theorem 35: p.). start at page 177 (http:/ / books. Mod. [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. [22] See J. [16] Borelli. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata.. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. nist. Correspondence. document #239. (2009). [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. google.. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Phys. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. 1645. p. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. google. (Cambridge University Press. 1995). Journal for the History of Astronomy. [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. document #235.. Taylor. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. especially at page 13. Vol. [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. 27 May 1686. Vol 2 (1676-1687). document #288. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false).Bernard Cohen. 1960). [21] D T Whiteside. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. "Astronomia philolaica". [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. start at page 263 (http:/ / books. 80: 633–730. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). [2] . Correspondence of Isaac Newton. David B. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. 1664-1684". com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false).Proposition 75. i (1970). at p. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. (Cambridge University Press..2. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. Robert D. In Einstein's theory. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.I. 20 June 1686. Peter J. [8] Purrington. iastate. 1960). public. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. mpiwg-berlin. Journal for the History of Astronomy. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. 1960). de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). . [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".956 .. Paris. document #286. Bruce Brackenridge. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. Vol 2 (1676-1687). [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. (Cambridge University Press. google. (University of California Press. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.1103/RevModPhys. 1664-1684". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. Springer. (2008).80. pages 5-19. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.). Ofer Gal. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. ch.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. In general relativity. A. . Barry N. see particularly page 431. htm). google. 168.). Bibcode 2008RvMP. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). 24 November 1679. [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). Book 3. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). i (1970). nist. pages 11-61. CUP 1989.. especially at 13-20. doi:10. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. pages 5-19. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. .). 1666. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. google. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. physics. Newell.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". by I. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false).. mpg. because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime.392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729. translators: Isaac Newton. 45 (1991). Vol 2 (1676-1687). Rev. 1960). pdf). [17] D T Whiteside. G. google. Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books.

If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon.. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M.The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. (C) 3. in Early Science and Medicine. Cambridge University Press. 511-517. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. 518-528..com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. Newton". "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". [32] . 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. at Introduction (section IX). 10 (2005). New York: W. If the speed is low. in Early Science and Medicine.youtube. Ofer Gal.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. by Richard S. it will simply fall back on Earth. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". [27] See also G E Smith. Gravitation. it will indeed leave Earth. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde.pythia.Freeman and Company. John Archibald (1973).com. H. 1893). Newton" (1759). de Hook diminue la gloire de M. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. (D) 4. 529-534. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. (A and B) 2. cited above. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury.. 1. at page 69. in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. 10 (2005). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. Westfall. Thorne. Charles W.) [33] . edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. Kip S. If the speed is very high. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity.Max Born (1924). M Nauenberg. in Early Science and Medicine. html) [31] Misner.. (E) . Rouse Ball. utexas. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). and the Earth.W. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". and it was the key force for planetary motion. ph. 10 (2005). stanford. Venus. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. Wheeler. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World.

In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow. Carl et al. A combination of red. php?p=2_23 .de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein.virginia.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111).edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record. Notes [1] Sagan.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books. net23.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless.physics. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell. net/ index. When the disc is rotated. the colors fade to white. New York: Random House. google. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light. eg.bucknell.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon.

b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. Suppose ƒ : [a. Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. That is Here. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. and the method can be iterated. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. Then by simple algebra we can derive . Suppose we have some current approximation xn. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. for converging on the root can be easily derived. and its derivative ƒ '. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). (x1. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. succeeded by Halley's method. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. f (x0)). The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis.

particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero.) The method will usually converge. in 1740. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. the better. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. though the connection with calculus was missing. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. In the same publication. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. Finally. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. (The closer to the zero. Furthermore. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. essentially giving the description above. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. . while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). But. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. However. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. He does not compute the successive approximations . More details can be found in the analysis section below. Finally. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. However. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. for a zero of multiplicity 1. In 1690. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem.

When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. and diverge from that root. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. if the multiplicity of the root is known. However. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. Specifically. In these situations. the method may overshoot. there are some difficulties with the method. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. Furthermore. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. For situations where the method fails to converge. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. However.

ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. then the convergence is usually only linear. In practice these results are local. x in a neighborhood U of α. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0.6). If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. α being a zero of multiplicity r. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable.. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . the sequence of iterates converges linearly.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if .e. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x). ƒ(α) = 0. i. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. Specifically. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. then. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. However. in U+. Exercise 1.

3. 2. 2.35284172 converges to –3.[1] for the function .Newton's method 106 That is. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1.352836327 converges to –3.352836323 converges to 1.35287527 converges to 4. 2. For example. . (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms. 2. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied. (b) (c) Finally. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2. 2. where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small.35283735 converges to 4.

the method will converge. In fact.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. Let and take 0 as the starting point. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. any iteration point is stationary. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). for example. x1 will be undefined. preventing convergence. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). unless the solution is guessed on the first try. This can happen. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. In general. In such cases a different method. such as bisection. since the tangent at (0. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. . The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. For the following subsections. instead of the starting point. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if.

and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. So convergence is not quadratic. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. the derivative at the root is nonzero. where its derivative is undefined (this. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. where . farther away than it initially was. Indeed. For example. In fact. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. does not affect the algorithm. except for x = 0. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. let . this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). then convergence will not be quadratic.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. In the limiting case of (square root). so they do not converge in this case either. Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. let then and consequently . however. Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0.

041224176.127507934. then convergence may fail to be quadratic. For many complex functions. Given . all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root. darker means more iterations to converge. meaning the iterates do not converge. 0.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . 0. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. 0.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has.1 = 0. 0. since both roots are non-real. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root.032741218. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. the derivative is not zero at the root. .031642362. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior.251062828.500250376. 0. Indeed. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. 0. 0. Basins of attraction for x5 . For example.067671976.

so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. . one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. If the nonlinear system has no solution. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. k variables. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . In the formulation given above.

this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1.5. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. which may be found via Newton's method.) . There are many methods of computing square roots. if one wishes to find the square root of 612. With an initial guess of 10. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. and Newton's method is one. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x). For example. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. with derivative.

Gilbert. John H. 2004. • Press. illustrating the quadratic convergence. "Chapter 9. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. Autar. New York: Cambridge University Press.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. 2000. 2003. 1995. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. • C.7 [7]. Vol. xiv+490. • Bonnans. Charles. WT. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. doi:10. Sagastizábal. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. 35. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Matlab. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. Universitext (Second revised ed. Lemaréchal. Teukolsky.). ISBN 0-89871-461-3. MR2265882. SIAM..Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . Cambridge University Press. W. J. 2003. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics.6 [6]. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. See especially Sections 9. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. Newton's method [9] -. and 9. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]. Springer.). Claude. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. • P. Ypma. WH. SIAM. 9. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. 531–551. Berlin. 112 References • Tjalling J. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. BP (2007). Classics in Applied Mathematics.4 [5]. Deuflhard.. Eric W. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. In particular. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. SA. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. C. ISBN 0-521-00794-1. Claudia A. Flannery. • Kaw. Kelley. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. Maple. T. Vetterling. (2006). Frédéric.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. PPT. M. of translation of 1997 French ed. • J. pp. Kalu.1137/1037125. Ortega. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. Mathcad. doi:10.). Egwu (2008). J. SIAM Review 37 (4).Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. Rheinboldt. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein.

January 1991. usf. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. chaos and Newton's method". com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. 3-12 (esp. com/ NewtonsMethod. usf. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. November 1997. com/ empanel/ index. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. [2] Strang. torkian. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. maths. html#Section4. com/ empanel/ index. edu [16] http:/ / math. com/ empanel/ index. however. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. html [12] http:/ / animation. lightandmatter. php [11] http:/ / math. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. wolfram. html [17] http:/ / plus. nrbook. maccery. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. 403-408. or dot notation. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. nrbook. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. amcgowan. "Cubics. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). Mathematical Gazette 81. In physics. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. springer. It is defined as: and so on. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. eng. Gilbert. macroeconomics and other fields. fullerton. "A chaotic search for i". nrbook. html [21] http:/ / www. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. [3] http:/ / www. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. eng. pp. heroku. 1 [10] http:/ / www. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. . com/ empanel/ index. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. Thomas. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. p. html [9] http:/ / www. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. nrbook. yihui. r-project. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. mathworks. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. fullerton. 6). the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited.

being the first known successful reflecting telescope.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. an early composition of speculum metal. than by Refraction in the Glass. mount. made with a concave Eye-glass. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. or a little less. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. and fittings. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. and not the spherical aberration. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. cam.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. lib. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. covering the limb of the Metal round about. but be an opake Circle. He also made all the tube. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. For this Circle being placed here. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. . and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration).[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. ac. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope.

[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. Wilson Published by Springer. . The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. google. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope. p. com/ image.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. stsci. Page 74 (http:/ / books.A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life .University of Florida (http:/ / www.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece.6 References • Smith.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE .. 1966.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). Modern Optical Engineering. ufl. uk/ lens.. Telescopes in History. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics. clas. 9783540401063. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1. google. 2004 ISBN 3540401067. McGraw-Hill Inc. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space. Retrieved 22 November 2008. 1785" (http:/ / www. google. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4.Work . php?imgref=10408672). page 67 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. King.Publication.[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. by Alfred Rupert Hall. Hatch . google. Warren J. Heath's) in Strand. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.". when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. craig-telescope. html . They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. ssplprints. Dr Robert A. [10] http:/ / www.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. Science & Society Picture Library. co.

He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror. such as Niccolò Zucchi.[9][10] If this was true. then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build). breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with.[3] and others.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.media. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope.mit. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] .edu/~picard/personal/Newton.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).stsci. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope. and there were many theories as to what caused it.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616.[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors.

This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. . He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. Like Gregory before him. the primary mirror (2). Because of these difficulties in construction. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. He also made the tube. cassegrains. leading to wider field of view. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. reducing cost and adding to portability. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. mount. overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. it would still correct chromatic aberration. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. and fittings. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. The surface also tarnished rapidly. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671.

[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. low-power imagery. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up.[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. . A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. For visual observing. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter). where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. For research telescopes. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. Visually. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. This flare is zero on-axis. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. suffer from coma.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. and can still yield beautiful wide-field.

google. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. google.Mark T. org/ basics.M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. google. page 67 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& . by Alfred Rupert Hall. google. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . Page 74 (http:/ / books. Inc NetLibrary.By Fred Watson.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. King. The Newton handbook. google.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. rice. Page 108 (http:/ / books. page 562 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. html) [3] Stargazer . 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. VandeWettering. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi.

stsci. "8. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index.edu . google. google. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. baader-planetarium. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. telescope-optics. telescope-optics. 9783540401063. [12] telescope-optics.. . Retrieved 2009-10-03. two. page 14 (http:/ / books. [20] Alexius J. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. Wilson Published by Springer. google. .stsci. harvard. 116. cloudynights.John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical . . "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life". McGraw-Hill Inc. htm) [13] amazing-space. Hebra. Rolin J. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . David (2004). net/ reflecting. Retrieved 2009-09-29.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7. htm). com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. com/ documents/ paracorr. 77R [16] Sacek. pdf). Modern Optical Engineering. & David Shafer. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. page 258-259 (http:/ / books.1.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. p. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. Retrieved 29 November 2010. google."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. Vladimir (2006-07-14).Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. .and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. espacenet. .1. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. pdf) (pdf). Warren J. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. . edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. 1966.. p. Gebelein. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations.

[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. 319-330" (http:/ / links. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is.2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). Mass. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. Cambridge. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). Also. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. Ronald S. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . CO. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. pp. Journal of the History of Ideas. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. Calinger.[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. floating in space. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. jstor. David Hume. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". with no other clues to assess the situation. he says. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. Retrieved 2008-03-26.Sep. are connected by a cord. Such determination. for one.: Harvard University Press. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation. causes. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. 1969). Alternatively. Vol. 1974. 30. in general. (This experiment involves observation of a force. 3 (Jul. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. Yehuda Elkana. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. if two globes. No. measuring the amount of tension in the cord. the tension). in addition to influencing philosophy. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. political thought and theology. . As an example where causes can be observed.. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. 0.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. .

even in an immense vacuum. Alternatively. .. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. partly from the forces. absolute space or fixed stars). the string tying the spheres together is under tension. then. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. — Isaac Newton. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example.[2][6] For me. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. no centrifugal forces are produced. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. For instance. they are not rotating.[8] (Of course. as an example from Newton's time. according to the preceding methods. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation. the fixed stars.Rotating spheres force). .) Below. pp. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. and if. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. which are the differences of the true motions. from the tension of the cord. but standing on the Earth's surface. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. Scholium To summarize this proposal. according to Newton. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. Book 1. the matter is more subtle. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. Principia. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. for example. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. — Ernst Mach. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. centrifugal forces are produced. p. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. were revolved about their common center of gravity. Because of the rotation. we might. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe.. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. instead. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. by means of a cord that connects them.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. partly from the apparent motions. and therefore.

they would say no force acts on the balls. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. In this zero-tension case. they clearly see the string is under tension. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. The other ball has the same requirement. the Coriolis force is:[11] . Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. the tying string.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. Because the balls are not moving. and acts on everything they observe. so the string should be relaxed. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. along the direction of the string. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. These two forces are provided by the string. putting the string under tension. but being on the opposite end of the string. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. the Coriolis force.)[9] To account for this tension. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. observers say they are at rest. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. not just these spheres. To travel in a circular path. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. requires a centripetal force of the same size. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. pulling them apart. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. but opposite in direction. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. locating one or the other of the spheres). accounting for their observation. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. (See reactive centrifugal force. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. |xB| = R. See Figure 2. the string is placed under tension. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. which would stretch. and should require an inward force to do that. m is the mass of the ball. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. According to the rotating observer. (For example. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). also shown in Figure 2. However. Because of the rotation. This force is directed inward. the string is under tension. and is called a centripetal force. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. but circular motion at constant speed. According to the article fictitious force.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero.

Full notational details are in Fictitious force. while for a more rapidly moving frame. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. |vB| = ωR. Therefore. However. ωS < 0. this force is not the tension in the string. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). In the geometry of this example. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. say ωI (I = inertial). The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. In either case. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. When ωI < ωS. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. . That is. hence. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example.

43. Courier Dover Publications. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). Hjorth (2000). 79. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). The Principia. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). ωS is the greater.M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. htm). [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). 233. 324. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Princeton University Press. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. google. [4] Max Born (1962). google. ISBN 0521621135. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. and I. pp. . ISBN 0521575729. p. ISBN 0773523065. tripod. Freeman (1986). com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. Janet D. google. google. Knudsen & Poul G. Cambridge University Press. Courier Dover Publications. Smith. ISBN 0486652270. [10] Jens M. . Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. Cambridge University Press. Moreover. . [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). com/ definitions. editors) (2002).[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. 167. google. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. Hand. Bernard Cohen. 161. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. p. . Retrieved 2010-05-13. google. Sausalito CA: University Science . p. 175. Bernard Cohen & George E. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. . p. Courier Dover Publications. . 43. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. p.M1). google. ISBN 0521656966. Springer. p. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. [9] Barry Dainton (2001).[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. . Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. . Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. [7] Max Born (1962). google. ISBN 0691033234. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. George Edwin Smith (2002). The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82.M1). google.M1). 386–387. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. google. p.M1). the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. editors) (1996). ISBN 0486607690. p. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175.M1). .). . [2] Robert Disalle (I. Cambridge University Press. Figure 43. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 354067652X. p. google. Time and Space (http:/ / books. Draza Marković. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). ISBN 0521656966. 80. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. . [5] Max Born (1962). so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). p. Finch (1998). John Archibald Wheeler (1995). Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI.Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . New York: Courier Dover Publications. google. [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. 82. p.M1). ISBN 0486607690. . ISBN 0486607690. [8] D. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. McGill-Queen's Press.

. google. pp. ISBN 0738206105. . [16] R. Dennis W. D. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers.M1).M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. google. Partridge (1995).. ISBN 189138922X. (3.Rotating spheres Books. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. p. google. Lynden-Bell (1996). 55. 167.M1) (in Proc. google. Henning Genz (2001). google. Cambridge University Press. p. .4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. Mechanics (http:/ / books. 275. See Henry Stommel.M1). 99ff. ISBN 0521621135. (3. and Ralph A. 279–280. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. 43. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. fixed in space (the center). p. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.M1). the theorem has been . [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. Phil. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0521352541. Mechanics (http:/ / books. In Proposition 43. 5 (1975) ed.3) in Stommel and Moore.). com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). Draza Marković (Editors) ed. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. pp. he derived a formula for the force. vol. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. Columbia University Press. google. their Eq. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. .M1). com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. . google. Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. p. 119. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. . pp. .. but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. 348–349. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. Moore (1989). Soc.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). p. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. . An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. Am. Nothingness (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324.[1] Since 1997. ISBN 0231066368. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. In this example. 325–348. he showed that the added force must be a central force. ISBN 0074603159. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). In Proposition 44. B. no. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. first published in 1687.

most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers".[5] Roughly 350 years later. To explain the epicycles. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. to first approximation. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time.Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem).[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. 262 BC – ca. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. By analogy. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars. exhibiting retrograde motion. However. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. In particular. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). and so on. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. According to these laws. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. for planets orbiting the Sun. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. Arguing from his laws of motion. Apollonius of Perga (ca. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). However. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles.

According to this theorem. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. afterwards. The radial and angular motions. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration.[13] However. r(t) and θ1(t). to first approximation. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. in particular. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747.[11] Brown. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant.[12] and Delaunay. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. However.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. To find this approximation. However. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. However.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r). whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . that is. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit.

where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. such as r(t) and θ1(t). If k2 is greater than one. thus. F2 − F1 is a negative number. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1).Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. For example. θ1). which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. the path of the second particle is given by . change with time t as the particle moves. In other words. it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). Both of these coordinates. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. F2−F1 is a positive number. A GIF version of this animation is found here. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. Formally. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. rather. if k2 is less than one. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. then. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. the added inverse-cube force is attractive. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. the angle of the second particle. For this purpose. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). r(t) and θ1(t). rather. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. By contrast. If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). since θ2 = k θ1. For example. where k is any constant. the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times.

The minimum distance b is the impact parameter.e. but revolves gradually about the center of force. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum.Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. F1(r) = 0. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). in other words. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. but not equal. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). to one.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. respectively. However. this is true only for circular orbits. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. i. both of which are constant.. where k is a constant.. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω.e. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. i. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. According to the conservation of angular momentum. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line.. the orbit does not change as it precesses. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). Hence. If k is greater than one. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. in that case. shown in red). at a constant angular speed. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. .e. if k is less than one. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. when the orbit is a circle. In this case. Hence. when the distance reaches a minimum. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. However. the second orbit resembles the first. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. i.

which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. the range of allowed angles increases.0 (green). If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. Thus.0 (cyan) and 6.0 (blue). The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity. 3. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). Thus.0 (blue). as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m). as illustrated in Figure 7. when k is greater than one. 3. Thus. Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. when k is less than one. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . On the other hand.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). the inverse-cube force is repulsive. 1. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). When k is less than one. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). corresponding to an attractive force (green. the force is attractive.0 (cyan) and 6.0 (black). L12/m. 1. whereas when k is greater than one.5 (green). and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces.

2 (magenta) and 3 (green). i. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue).e. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. no matter what its initial position or velocity. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. i. F = Cr. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer.. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. this property is not true for other types of forces. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. green orbit in Figure 10). those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. general relativistic effects. However.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. F = C/r2. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity.. For illustration. Conversely. and other effects. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. such as Hooke's law. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually. in general. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. the line connecting the two apses. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. In other words. such as . Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. and inverse-square forces. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. provided that k equals a rational number. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. For example..e. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). oblateness in the attracting body. Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. i.) In such cases. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. However.e. green orbit in Figure 9).Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. For example. Over time. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). where m and n are integers. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. An govern the motions of planets.

Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°. in general. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. As a final illustration. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. this implies that. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). α equals 180°. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. one of the first appearances of such a series. In the first two. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. the central force is a power law. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. hence.e. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. Therefore. As noted above. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor .C(r) is proportional to rn. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. i. using the general law θ2 = k θ1. in the same time.[16] According to their argument. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). Thus. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation.. the apsidal angle α is 180°. F(r) = rn−3 and. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. Wilson and Harper. For the inverse-square force.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. where n equals 1. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3).

again on the monthly time-scale.e.[28] Ironically.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude. 18.6 years.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. However. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes).[25] First. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force . i.0165)[26] In 1894. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2.[24] for comparison.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets. and is noticeably more complex than that. the so-called Saros cycle. In 1673. Hipparchus and Ptolemy.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun.[23] in Newton's time.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes.85 years. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force. of the planets.. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale.

so Newton reasoned. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. however. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. r1 = r2.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. In this case.525°). but the inverse-square term is not.5°. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle. The second term. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. In contrast to Newton.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. and estimates of A and B. the inverse-cube force is added. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1).[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits.[4] As Newton did. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same. Rather. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). For comparison. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). . where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth. since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. Also.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. However. roughly half of the observed 3. so that r1 = r2. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. For every revolution. θ2 = k θ1. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. and its argument is unchanged. the long axis would rotate 1. consistent with the formula given above. the original force is not scaled.

the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. by Newton's Proposition 2. therefore. Therefore. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. Proposition 44 . the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. All three planets (red. and also its angle θ1(t). which equals (k−1) θ1.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. derived earlier in the Principia. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest. Expressed another way. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. Proposition 43. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. At the apapsis and periapsis. In an infinitesimal time dt. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. which equals θ2 = k θ1. by Proposition 2. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. specifically Propositions 43–45. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C.

h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. the other in the same orbit revolving. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. r(t). the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. In Proposition 44 of his Principia.Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. by which two bodies may be made to move equally. The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. one in a fixed. which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r). to offset this. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits.[36] In this Proposition. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . specifically by the formula given above. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws.[33] By assumption.

"On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". J. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. doi:10. Proposition 45. Monthly Notices Roy.. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. pp. Delaunay C (1867). doi:10. 267 (Chapter 6.. JSTOR 2369812. [36] Chandrasekhar. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. 83. p. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". 192.1098/rsnr. "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. Vawda F (2000).0016. [22] Wilson C (1987). p. Mechanics (3rd ed.: 237. Book I. problem 7). Book III. editor. 135–147.x..1365-2966.. Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. [6] Whittaker. 52: 71. [19] Cook A (2000).13018. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia". p.18. ISBN 978-1888009088. p. 183–192. Harper W (1997). Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. Bibcode 1894AJ. [10] Clairaut. pp. [32] Chandrasekhar. [18] Chandrasekhar. "Unknown title". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198.49H.. "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". section IX of Book I. Imp. Math. pp. 2708v1). Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25.. 91–108.1111/j.2307/2369812. pp.1007/BF02422379. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". London: G Godbit for J Martyn. doi:10. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure".. . doi:10. 252. [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). 184. [31] Symon KR (1971).245L. [11] Hill GW (1895). [7] Sundman KF (1912). fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). Lynden-Bell RM (1997). Proposition 2. [16] Valluri SR. 193–194.1023/A:1008317327402. Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315.. p. Green Lion Press. Propositions 43–45. 187. Am. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. Bibcode 2008MNRAS.Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. org/ abs/ 0807. [2] Lynden-Bell. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. doi:10. Mémoires Acad. Berkeley. Reading.1997. [5] Sugon QM. doi:10.. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. doi:10. Bibcode 1987JHA. p. 339–385. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". In Norman Thrower. [21] Horrocks J (1673). Am. 98–106. Simon Newcomb. pp. [17] Cohen IB (1990). "Unknown title". Mémoires Acad. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". Principia. [34] Chandrasekhar. [14] Newton. pp. Jin S (2008). [29] Brown EW (1903).. Bragais S. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). Math. Soc. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv. [3] Lynden-Bell D. [33] Chandrasekhar. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. Principia.2307/2369997. [12] Brown EW (1891). "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. AC (1745). "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury".. 141–147. 254. CA: University of California Press. bnf. Sc.: 451.1086/102055.2008. [27] Hall A (1894). [9] Cohen. [37] Whittaker. Wilson C. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). Section IX. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. MA: Addison–Wesley. [4] Mahomed FM. "Unknown title".).14. ISBN 978-0520065895. 147. Oxford. 67–70. esp. "Unknown title". p.386. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". Brown EW (1891). p. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. [20] Smith. Astron.. Sc. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". p. 183. . 406. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. [26] Chandrasekhar. [35] Chandrasekhar. p. D. [15] Newton. pp. 9: 31. JSTOR 2369997. [25] Newton. American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. [30] Roseveare N (1982). 198. Principia. [13] Delaunay C (1862).77W. [24] Smith. Imp. "Unknown title". pp.

• Spivak. ISBN 978-0520009288. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. ISBN 978-0520088160. 147–148. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355.com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). • Newton I (1966).75. ISBN 0-85274-348-3. • Chandrasekhar S (1995).). "Planetary Motion". pp. 183–200. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). Berkeley. 246–252. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. assisted by Julia Budenz ed. 56. Cambridge University Press. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). • Whittaker ET (1937). pp. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713). Berkeley. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. ISBN 978-0520088160. Bristol: Adam Hilger. Calculus (3rd ed. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". pp. ISBN 978-0520088160. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). CA: University of California Press. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". "Motion of the Lunar Apsis".).). Berkeley. translated by I. New York: Dover Publications. Michael (1994). LCCN 64-24556. • Rouse Ball WW (1893). CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0914098896.). Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.).google. Macmillan and Co. Publish or Perish. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. 84–85. 246–264. p. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. pp. • Smith GE (1999). pp. ISBN 978-0520088160. doi:10. Berkeley. 147–148. Merchant Books). 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). Berkeley. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). • Cook A (1988). pp.352D. MM (2007).org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . 230–233 (sections §356–359). The Motion of the Moon. 257–264. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics.. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Oxford University Press. • Guicciardini. pp. Niccolò (1999). 252–257. pp. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. CA: University of California Press. External links • Three-body problem (http://www. Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books.scholarpedia. "The first-order orbital equation". 83. Bibcode 2007AmJPh.google.2432126. pp. • Smith GE (1999). New York: Dover Publications. CA: University of California Press. translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed.. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. • Routh EJ (1960). (reprint. John Wiley and Sons. CA: University of California Press. Principia Vol. ISBN 9780521544030. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader.com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84).1119/1. 534–545. • Pars LA (1965). • D’Eliseo.

who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. pdf . In fact. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. when Whiston's edition was published. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. the relationship between geometry and algebra. cfm [2] http:/ / www. and so refused to have his name appear. published in 1865). without proof. it was edited and published by William Whiston. centre. Written in Latin. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. arithmetic. and the solution of equations. He also offered. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. babson. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. Title page of the Arithmetica. None of these editions credits Newton as author. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. Babson Collection. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton.

It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. (Before Newton's work. (in the absence of external force. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. Law 3 in the Principia. both copies are without title. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect. Law 1 in the Principia. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). the distance is proportional to the square of the time. It contains 11 propositions. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force. these had not been generally regarded as laws. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws". when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion.[4] as well as in Latin.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar).[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short. resistance is assumed nil. After further encouragement from Halley.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. then for the remaining (2) propositions.) This . (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. Only the draft has the title now used.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. some with corollaries. Before reaching this core subject-matter. and its (Latin) text is available online.

2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2.) . A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. labeled as theorems. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. as Proposition 1. of the 'Principia'.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. Theorem 4 in the Principia. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. problems. drawn from the body to the attracting center. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. putting this in another way. and inversely proportional to the radius. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. and the corollaries here reappear also. using another geometrical limit argument. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. it would then depart along the tangent.) This theorem appears again. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. and shows that for any given time-segment. Corollary 2 shows that. it follows that a radius vector. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. while their number increases without limit. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. Theorem 1. with expanded explanation. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4.

if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. square] of the distance . in the Principia. where the center of attraction is at its center. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. Lastly. (This material becomes Proposition 10. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit. therefore.. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line. Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP².) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets.. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. Problem 5 in the Principia. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below.e. that if the speed is high enough. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. that is.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature).') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. Problem 6. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. . (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. speed and direction of the orbiting body. Problem 4 then explores. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. . in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others. Newton points out here.

Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. in 1686. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. are self-evident and obvious or not. In 'De Motu'. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. or their views about the researches of others. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. using a falling body. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. and other items. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. or that they were not stated by Newton. and a short correspondence developed.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body".. Halley asked Newton.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. and both of them produced from very old memories.[15] . Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. and then gave a whole list. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse". to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. i. that in any given setup. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. and as if to whet Newton's interest.e. as in the first edition of the Principia. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. ". Later.. According to one of these reminiscences. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. and the associated uniqueness statements.

19(1) (1992). com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. google. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. Vol 2 (1676-1687). especially at p.[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed.1 (1970). at pages 56 (http:/ / books. so-called. vol. and Borelli. vol. at p. gutenberg. (Cambridge University Press. Vol 2 (1676-1687). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). in Early Science and Medicine.193-200. pp. as far as Book 1.6.101. 511-517. rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. org/ etext/ 28233). who called it a 'petitio principii'. "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged. Westfall's Never at Rest. Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.).). 1960). one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. Papers vol. at p.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke.120. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton.).g. M Nauenberg. vol. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. also D T Whiteside. google. and the 1686 correspondence at pp. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize.196. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition.195-6. pp. 1960). but note that the title was added by Rigaud.6 (1684-1691).89-170. Chapter 10. 10 (2005). and printed by I Bernard Cohen. pp. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. [15] H W Turnbull (ed. in Early Science and Medicine. . "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. f. "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined".[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses.193-200. at p.). who heard of this from Halley. see e. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). in "Newton's Orbit Problem. [14] 'Correspondence' vol. 10 (2005). "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica".56-83. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. and Bruce Pourciau. Page 403. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli. 116-138. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. 1971. Alexis Clairaut.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3).60-70.431-448.2 already cited. Math. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. (Cambridge University Press. google. 6 (1970). 518-528.293. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. 1974). A Historian's Response". whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. google. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. both in Newton's lifetime and later. to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. Weinstock. [13] H W Turnbull (ed. Ofer Gal. pp. pp. about the Principia. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". p. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument.3968. including Bullialdus. but the point was disagreed by R. 10 (2005). but not Hooke. footnote 73. 6 (1684-1691). 38 (2007). (Cambridge University Press. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics".[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. and the first English translation. of 1729. in Early Science and Medicine. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". Journal for the History of Astronomy.297. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). See also D T Whiteside (1970). [11] Quoted in Richard S.297-314. A Historian's Response". is available here (http:/ / books. and the original copy had no title: online. Historia Math.431-448. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. 529-534. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. at pp. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized.57.

Rouse Ball. Whiteside. Vol. Cambridge University Press. at page 69.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. S. ed. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. T. 30–91. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . by D. 1893). Westfall. pp.W. by R. 6.

000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. beginning with Sesostris. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. but since republished in mass paperback format. followed by a short advertisement. however. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. Of the Empire of Egypt. King of Egypt. VI. Of the Empire of the Persians. III. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. Chap. followed by others. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. Chap. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. II. therefore. IV.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. . and that his Temple the first ever built. Chap. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. V. with all others being copies. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. Chap. The majority of the treatise. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. Chap. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. Of the Assyrian Empire. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. Newton's results. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. I. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death.

27 years after his death. sussex. Egypt.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. gutenberg. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds". Syria. sussex. Arabic. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. Grotius. Ethiopia. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. would not dissemble their knowledge". and later into the text itself. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. or retain it as only a marginal reading. newtonproject. ac. and the argument full and strong. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. first as a marginal note. as Luther. newtonproject." in support of the Trinity doctrine. and what steps it has been changed.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". ac. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. Bullinger. the Word. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". Mesopotamia. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. Syriac.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. . 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. First published in 1754. Armenia. the Father. still in use in the several Eastern nations.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. and some others. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. Finally.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. htm#chron http:/ / www. the Word. Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. and some others. the Father. and Slavonic versions. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. Erasmus."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. are strangers to this reading". He noted that "the Æthiopic. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. Muscovy. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton. Armenian.

[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. by a small alteration in the Greek text. justified in the Spirit. Cp." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. biblegateway. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. pp. preached unto the Gentiles. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. biblegateway. Scotland. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. [2] http:/ / www. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. aramaicpeshitta.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. biblegateway. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". htm) . Aramaic version (http:/ / www. 1 [4] An Historical Account. I understand not. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. References [1] http:/ / www. likely due to the political climate. p. biblegateway. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. p. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. p." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. p. Cp. [3] An Historical Account. received up into glory. Newton argued that. seen of angels.).& version=31. further legal ramifications on the second occasion. p. knew nothing of these two texts.& version=31. believed on in the world.& version=31. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead. was hanged at Edinburgh. but some place it in a footnote.& version=31. 2 [5] An Historical Account. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. Aramaic version (http:/ / www.). 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. aramaicpeshitta. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16. p. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England.

Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667. fifty years before Newton. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. The book was completed in 1671.co. and published in 1736. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. archive.ac. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt .uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions.newtonproject. and published it in 1684.sussex.google. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years).

That is. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. refractions. The first. It is about optics and the refraction of light. on dispersion. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. 1704. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. such as water or glass. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. such as air. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. Multiple-prism arrays. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. first reported in 1672[1] . different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. into another. as beam expanders.[2] . Rather. reflection.

as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. The first set of Queries were brief. it is written in English rather than Latin. as rhetorical questions. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. Clearly." In the first edition. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. but that it may go on for many pages. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). these were sixteen such Queries." Rather. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. there were 31 Queries. That is. electrical phenomena. but the later ones became short essays. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. filling many pages. unlike the Principia. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. Second. published in 1717/18. First of all. These Queries. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. In the fourth edition of 1730. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena." In many ways." the proper way to do science. therefore. by the use of fluxions. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. that number was increased in the Latin edition. published in 1706. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. the nature of chemical action." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. Rather. In this sense. especially the later ones. They are almost all posed in the negative. and then in the revised English edition." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. over the next two hundred years. or the tools of mathematics. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer. the possible cause of gravity. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations.

cam.lib. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Calif. Papers on Hydrostatics. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. 153 References [1] Newton. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ).Opticks the Principia. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin. Commun.: Octavo. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. "Hydrostatics. lib. Piper.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. a treatise of the reflexions. [2] F.google. J. • Newton.html) • Gallica. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. refractions. Sound and Heat (http://cudl. Palo Alto. Opticks or. Duarte and J. . Isaac (1998).org/Control/nwtopt/index.ac. 303–307 (1982). Isaac. 43. Optics. ac. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . Retrieved 10 January 2012.bnf. First edition (http://gallica.). Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl.rarebookroom. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed. First edition (http://www. and James Black.cam. Fourth edition (http://books.com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. Opt. A. Optics.

in 1713 and 1726."[7] In formulating his physical theories..] . spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally.. at least in certain respects. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).. Newton wrote[10] [. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3]. Newton also published two further editions. often referred to as simply the Principia. first published 5 July 1687. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [... The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science".. and of the forces required to produce any motions.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'.] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever.. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. also Newton's law of universal gravitation. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton. by the end of a century after publication in 1687. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton . Newton used his expression that became famous. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]).[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion.] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy. accurately proposed and demonstrated [.. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature.[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium).

which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. by observations. thus offering criteria to decide. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning.. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters. De motu corporum Book 1. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). . But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. in revised and extended form. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. near-parabolic orbits. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium.' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'.. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28).[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis.

especially the variation. while some contend that the Earth. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). It builds upon the propositions of the previous books.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. which "is acknowledg'd by all. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. Book 3. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity.[41] For Newton.[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. Proposition 11. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. and motion in arbitrary force laws. others. and accounts for the tides [37]. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. attempts to derive the speed of sound. and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. corollary [42]). 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. especially its consequences for astronomy. Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. but only a little. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre".[45] . and that this centre "either is at rest. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. modified in a somewhat modern way. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. Corollary 2 [44]). and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. De mundi systemate Book 3. since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums.Newton). starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34]. and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30].

. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. and was assured about their correctness. as far as possible. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". this was a faulty theory. till such time as other phenomena occur. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum).] instead of absolute places and motions. Instead.. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. for today's readers. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. or liable to exceptions. assign the same causes. . we ought to step back from our senses. In the four rules. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. From a Cartesian point of view. In his notes. Curiously. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. he retracted this sentence in the published version. we use relative ones. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. but in philosophical discussions. However. for example. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. [. However. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. and consider things themselves. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. therefore. mathematical and common. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. by which they may either be made more accurate. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". true and apparent. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter.

[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. of Descartes. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition.) Newton's gravitational attraction. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. concerning the qualities of bodies. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. From the system of the world. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements. and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. "I frame no hypotheses".[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. 1726). The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. . 1713 (and amended in the third edition. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). as they did. he inferred the existence of a Lord God. fires in the home and in the Sun.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". From this textual evolution. With these rules. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". Newton also gave theological argument. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. scientists use it today. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'.

how he sometimes forgot his food. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. resolved to ask Newton. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. Hooke and Wren. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. The contents of 'De motu. and Halley. Newton's tract 'De motu. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. that he immediately went to visit Newton again. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler.'. although the (lost) original may have been without title..) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results. but that he could not find the papers. and did very little else for well over a year and a half.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. but also all the laws of planetary motion. or the state of his clothes. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. Halley. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down. or his sleep. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. and to his project during this time. Humphrey Newton. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. and he normally kept dated notes of them. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies... which he sent to Halley in late 1684.. .[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. in November 1684. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London. assuming an inverse square law of force. Wren was unconvinced. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. and generalized the result to conic sections.

under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. and the other two books somewhat later. with handwritten corrections for the second edition. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63].. because in the meantime. tighter. making it look . with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". (Newton had also communicated 'De motu. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. corporum. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. that it might be read by many". What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon. The complete work. the moon. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. After Newton's death in 1727. not authorised by Newton's heirs).[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets.. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. and less accessible mathematical style. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. amended to update cross-references. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. but he largely started afresh in a new.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". Liber secundus' still survives. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. Liber primus'. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. Liber secundus' of 1685. and its completion has been London. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. the solar system. in more than one manuscript. it survived complete.' to Flamsteed. the tides. published by Halley at his own financial risk. also in 1728.[59] appeared in July 1687. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia.

rather than before. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. or. causing some delay. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. among them himself.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. At this time. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. in some cases. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. Samuel Pepys. Rather. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. To these two laws he added a third a decade later. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. showing considerable diplomatic skills. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. 1686. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). including two to Leibniz. as President. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. but Halley. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. .[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. Cambridge. a second edition (1731). Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. licensing the book for publication. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). secondary sources based on them. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. In addition. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. who hated disputes.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

google. published in 1996. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). google. vol. 55.120. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234).[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. Herivel. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. often incorporating revisions. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. stanford. both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. lib. No. 227-245. at p. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). [3] Newton. from 1729. 1729 translation. W. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. E N Zalta (ed. and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. MA. google.[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. 2 (May. by Andrew Motte.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. assembled and ed. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". The background to Newton's "Principia".2. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. into modern English. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. pp. [11] http:/ / books. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. 1972. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument.329 (according to a note on p. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. about the 'Principia'. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". google. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books.[105] William H. "Du systeme du monde. [14] http:/ / books. 116-138. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. and see also J. Journal for the History of Astronomy. cap. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman.). and well written". 2001). Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience." Author(s): Judith P. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. Vol. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. Isaac. google. [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). [7] G E Smith. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". cam. in the 1729 English version).[2] was described by Newton scholar I. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. Oxford University Press.1 (1970). tripod. ac. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. . [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut. which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). 1965. The first. University of Toronto. htm). especially at p. p. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP. archive. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 .392. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). at page 19 of vol.329. google. 1999). (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. See also D T Whiteside (1970).[104] The second full English translation.

Book 3 (http:/ / books. google. 1980. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. 2A'. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. at pp. at pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books.2. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. [29] http:/ / books. Steffen. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. by D. pdf). google. at p. 151. 45 (1991) 11-61. htm). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. 1971). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books.. speed and radial force. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. google. 1980': R S Westfall. pp. 33. at p. eds. [61] http:/ / books. Oxford University Press 1998. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. Edmond Halley. 1980. also pp. Cambridge University Press. google. [17] http:/ / books. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. google. Cook. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. 431-448. google. google. google. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. ugent. n° 2. pp. [57] Westfall. google. 153-156. R Taton & C Wilson. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". Whiteside. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature.2.207-221. The Cartesian vortex theory. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). google. (Cambridge. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics.404. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). .15. google. n. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. vol. [54] Cook. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). google. google. google.g. [52] 'Cook. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. [49] Snobelen. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books.2. google. Books 2 & 3.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. cited above. at p. 1998. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. google. google. at pp." (http:/ / logica. Books 2 & 3. [55] 'Westfall. [50] Ducheyne. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. Turnbull (ed. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. be/ steffen/ GS. google. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books.2. [59] Westfall. [58] Westfall. 406. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. google. 191-2. at page 233 (http:/ / books. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.406.147 and 152. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . google. p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200).). W. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books.47-142. Matter and Mind. 1998': A. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". [53] As dated e. vol. [42] http:/ / books. org/ scholium. google. google. google. . [47] Edelglass et al. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. google. Stephen. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. google. Volume. at p. at p. now often known as Huygens' formula. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press 1980. Retrieved 2008-11-19. T. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. google. in H. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. 1980. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. Vol. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. 223-274. 1998.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books.) 167 . com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. [56] Cook. 54. Retrieved 2008-05-31. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. google. 147. ISBN 0-940262-45-2.

and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. 45 (1991). cam. 'Correspondence' vol. org. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.297. Ofer Gal. and extract of his letter. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . Correspondence of Isaac Newton. but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". fondationbodmer. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66).. Bruce Brackenridge. html [89] http:/ / www. though elongated. 1893). especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. document #286. see D Gjertsen. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). mpiwg-berlin. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. (Cambridge University Press. [80] R S Westfall. [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. at Introduction (section IX). [74] 'Correspondence' vol. google. or even a 'blunder'. google. uu. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul..2 cited above. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. Tycho Brahe to Newton". (http:/ / www. a resisting medium).). asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. se/ press/ pm. 1995). London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). ac. and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. roe. [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. Part A. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". at pages 391-2. [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). [83] http:/ / www. CUP 1989.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. cam.e. see Newton to Hooke. google. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. at document #239. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. vol... [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www. [65] http:/ / books. at page 259). [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244.2. at pages 304-306. umich. at p. Rouse Ball. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. (Cambridge UP 1989). google. Vol 2 (1676-1687). "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". (University of California Press. at page 66 (http:/ / books.2 cited above. lib. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). Never at Rest. 1980. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". Bernard Cohen. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. would terminate in the center C". [73] H W Turnbull (ed. document #236 at page 301. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. google. 'Never at Rest'. stanford. html [86] http:/ / lion. lib. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp. Newton". com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). google. has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and .2 already cited. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée".. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan.W. Newton" (1759). html [88] http:/ / www. mpg. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. 453. 1960). and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". museumoflondon. i (1970). "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. pages 11-61. Vol 2 cited above.. with accompanying figure). cited above. google. p. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. at page 69.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. 28 November 1679. 1664-1684". ac. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. ac.431-448. pages 5-19. closed curve and spiral. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Journal for the History of Astronomy.297-314. jstor. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . edu 168 . The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. document #237. wm. at page 433. ch. especially at 13-20. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". see 'Correspondence'. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol.

edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. 2008). University of California Press. • Andrew Janiak. 1999.751–760. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. Curtis Wilson (Princeton.5. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. Elsevier: 59-87.4. Cambridge U. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press 1967. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia.42. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. The background to Newton’s Principia. • Brian Ellis. 1971). Westfall. Cambridge 1971. Bernard Cohen (1999). wpi. p.518-20. pp.750. p. Cambridge University press 1967. 1971).7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr.4. vol. 29-68. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. Westfall.. • S.. at pp. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier.699. Chandrasekhar. • François De Gandt. Colodny. "Philosophia Naturalis.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. NY: Doubleday and Company. Force in Newton’s physics.519. NJ: Princeton University Press. ed. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968)." in Grattan-Guinness.712–716. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. vol. [99] Westfall. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. Notes. Burtt. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. at pp. • John Herivel. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. Donahue. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you.4. 1999.2. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. [101] Westfall. [100] Westfall. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". 1965). [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. N. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. cgi?v1=8& ti=1.. vol. R. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation. 2005. • E. I. pp." [98] Westfall. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. google. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. 1965). Dawsons of Pall Mall). Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. vol. Press. 1954). Cambridge University press 1967.A. • I. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. and obligations to you. • Guicciardini. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. 1965). University of California Press. n. G. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. 1995). at p. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. Cambridge University press 1975. pp. Clarendon Press. to whom he owes more than that. [95] Richard S. ed. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition.. c1995).. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0. [94] I Bernard Cohen.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. at p. xv-xvi. • Richard S. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Bernard Cohen. Introduction to the Principia. .

Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687.archive.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).1).tripod.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200). • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3. ed.archive. • Wikisource • Archive.org #1 (http://www. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version. regarding online editions .htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.cam.archive.google.ac.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition. in Latin) (http://www.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above). interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections.org (http://www.babson.org (http://www. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.org #2 (http://www. annotated) (http://books. vol.html). Partial • Google books.. • Google books. 1726).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1).200 (http://books.google. first edition (1687.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource. first edition (1687.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte.com/toc.google. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy. largely the Motte translation of 1729. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive. 1713.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol. vol. W.gutenberg.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books.net/~bjn/principia/). (Book 3 starts at p.google. in Latin) (http://books.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur.ntnu. • Principia (in Latin.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage). Chittenden.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2). • Project Gutenberg (http://www.lib.1 with Book 1 (http://books. 1729.google.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.archive.

assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. 1687 and began changing the world. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. to make a report thereof to the council. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. on May 19. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation." At the next meeting of the Society. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. that its truth is past dispute. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. if certain." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. At the next meeting of the Society. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. which he had enlarged and completed. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. 1686. For the influences for the second edition.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. 1686. 1686. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . on April 28." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. he says. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia.

I shall content myself to give you. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. but it being a frivolous business. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. At the next meeting of the council. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. but I thought it my duty to let you know it." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully." but. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. on June 2. I am almost confident by circumstances. and printing it at his own charge. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. volume. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto." "How much of this. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. for 'tis long since they were writ. that Sir Chr. "is so. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. cuts and so forth. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. though Newton had the notion from him. viz. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society." Halley adds. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. the heads of it in short. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". and I do not know that I have seen them since. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. so that you might act accordingly. which 172 . 1686. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. you know best. On June 20. and the absence of the vice-president's. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. Halley in his letter of May 22. and to desire his opinion as to the print. which he engaged to do. Indeed. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. so far as I could remember. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix." acknowledging at the same time that.

if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. can know no more. and earth from the sun. Oscill. and understood it. which I can as well let alone. Some new propositions I have since thought on. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. And so. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. expected to hear no further from him. in print. 173 . and drawing the cuts fairly. the second was finished last summer being short. and only wants transcribing. sent him. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. so that a while after. though not accurately enough. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. in stating this business. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. I designed the whole to consist of three books. a copy being presented to me. sun and planets. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. thought no further of philosophical matters than. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. so Mr Hooke. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke.. namely. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. told him I had laid philosophy aside. But. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. is expressed. as to the other from Kepler.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. The third wants the theory of comets. in print. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. And so. was upon other things. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. his letters put me upon it. I could not but have found it now. "The proof you sent me I like very well. and guessed it to be elliptical. in compliment to sweeten my answer. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. and only guessed it to be so accurately. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. and that's above fifteen years ago). that without my demonstrations. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. accused me of that ignorance. did not answer his third. and so upon mistaken grounds. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles.

I retain the former title. Sir. I know not. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. though it be not material. The second book. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. and adding. which. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. 1686. and therefore I had altered it to this. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. 1686. 1687. The third book was presented to the Society. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. On July 14. If it please you to have it so. with her. Sir. which are much the greater number. nor on the books of the Society. NEWTON. and humble servant. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. In the first page. De Motu Corporum libri duo. which made me afterwards return to the first book. and not much more charge. and then. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. "Is. E. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. from your affectionate friend. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. "But. I will push on the edition vigorously. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. What application he has made in private. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. as might have been expected. It will be more convenient. "If you please you may change the word to sections. on April 6. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. as have to do. which is all at present. found out last winter. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method." On June 30. without the third. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". I found it so formerly. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. It will help the sale of the book. Now you approve of the character and paper. I will try how well it can be done. The third I now design to suppress. Hooke and Halley. 174 . And if in truth he knew it before you. but she gives me warning. upon second thoughts. which he puts so much value on. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. HALLEY. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. The two first books. you ought to be considered as the inventor. July 5. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. ought to compose it. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. not to let your resentments run so high. in the honour you do them. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. as to deprive us of your third book. I must now again beg you. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. your most affectionate humble servant. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. as I guess by what you write. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. The work. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society." On June 20. and now I am no sooner come near her again. I am. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress.

a very great part of which is extant. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. or at 5 sh. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. to be [OCR error] shillings here. so much to your own and the nation's credit. dated London. and hope it will please you. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. that starts from town tomorrow. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. and lettered. and ordered them out of court. the chancellor. but rather. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. or else at some short time. which I entreat you to accept. the master of Magdalene College. nor suggested a compromise. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. July 5. The deputies. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. but the university showed no sign of compliance. 1687. as well as of profound and public speculation. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. On May 7 it was discussed. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. with their case carefully prepared. On April 21 the deputation. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. I intend the price of them. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. appeared before the court. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. Mr Paget. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. announcing the completion of the Principia. Mr Flamsteed." . Mr Boyle. and was dismissed. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. a Benedictine monk. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. bound in calves' leather. before starting for London. The following letter from Halley. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. who was vice-chancellor. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. for ready. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. On April 27 they gave their plea. to take my money as they are sold." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis.

I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. In a letter dated the September 13. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. namely. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. added. or both. which this summer has been epidemical. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. nor have my former consistency of mind. but what I said of your book I remember not. Pepys must have heard such rumours. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. and dated the 15th of October 1693. by sleeping too often by my fire. and keeping him shut up. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way. if I may but have them quietly. at which he was much concerned. and I hope never will. and since. to let me know the very truth of the matter. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. addressed to Samuel Pepys. as in a letter to his friend Millington. or. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. so that when I wrote to you. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. Let me. winter. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. and before I had time to ask him any question.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. I will give you an account of it if I can. or mind. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. before I considered what I did. according to a report which was believed at the time. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. put me farther out of order. "I have not seen him. whose mind was never at rest. I remember I wrote to you. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. 1693. wrote to Leibniz. and a distemper. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. Sir." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. I was averse. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. and beg your pardon. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. which lasted eighteen months. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. replied. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour." To which Leibniz. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. therefore. 1693. which doubtless must have been very alarming. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. from the concern I have for him. 1694. Christiaan Huygens. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. as to be put into great disorder by it. I got an ill habit of sleeping. dated September 26. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. but that "he was out of town." . in a letter dated June 8. 1693. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. where. that it had actually done so. nor by icing James's favour. and for five days together not a wink." On September 20." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. I never designed to get any thing by your interest." he says. beg you. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. He is now very well. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. upon his own accord. Newton wrote: "The last. but upon his pressing consented. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in.

E. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. On February 12. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style).G. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690.1998. Westfall. see Isaac Newton's later life. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time.. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. . ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. ed. published as #537 in Vol. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor. now archaic. Forbes et al.) [3] Richard S. as it were.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. 1997. Newton retained his seat only about a year. the vice-chancellor of the university. On April 30. and gives original spellings. Never at Rest.. 1689. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes.

rarity. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. But following this he drew a line across the page. vision. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. whereby every question is put to experimental test. Thomas Hobbes. He entered notes from both ends. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. at the other. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. The initial notes. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. Additional information This octavo notebook. colour. and others. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". Galileo's Dialogue. which had . "Of ye Creation". below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". Kenelm Digby. for example. It is also definitely before December 9. They began with the nature of matter. place. These were followed by questions on violent motion. At the other end of the book. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. currently in the Cambridge University Library. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. fluidity. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. 1661. light. Some headings were followed by vast entries. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. hardness etc. Following this. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. and other sensations. but my best friend is truth). he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. 1664. Robert Boyle. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. Aristotle is my friend. in Greek.

not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure.. others were blank. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. Elsewhere. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. . or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. such as when a heavy body falls. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. including his idea that it is a wave. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. Gassendi. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. on the contrary.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour.. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. would look coloured. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark.

1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] . Cambridge University Press. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. References • "Portsmouth Papers". additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. • J. A. by Richard S. Westfall. Lohne.

looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. Newton was deemed the more influential. mathematician. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. Newton became a scientific icon. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. located in the chapel of Trinity College. Many books. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. In mathematics. alone. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. In this work. Because of the resounding impact of his work. published in 1687." Newton was the runner-up. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. Newton or Albert Einstein. plays. in 1795. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. natural philosopher.[1] In 1999. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. Cambridge .[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus.

" said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt." said Richard. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr. you see. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. pp. Oxford University Press. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002). there was that as well. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. Greenwood Press. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. set during the Great Recoinage.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies. 27–43. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3. • A. I suppose..." . a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. perspicuity and invention. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. a . ah. was merely a discovery.... It is a door within a door.. But the catflap . Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent." "Gravity. there is a very different matter. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science.) Sir Isaac Newton. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. pure creative invention." . • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter. "there was also the small matter of gravity. "(. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics. Science in Popular Culture [9]. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. of course. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. Though that. "They even keep it on at weekends. It is a door within a door. Invention. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. It was there to be discovered. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007)." "Yes. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. including the famous apple. Routledge. you see.. "yes.

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Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

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References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. Science is the Tree of Death. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. tate.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805.[3]. who regularly experienced spiritual visions. [4] Burwick. Foster (1988). ISBN 0-87451-436-3. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. pp.[5] References [1] Townsend.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. Christopher B. page 328. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. 1997. org. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. . He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. 243. S. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. apparently at the bottom of the sea.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. Walter de Gruyter. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. retrieved 10 September 2009. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. Hanover.

London: Tate Publishing. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . 2003. William Blake: The Painter at Work. ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Joyce (ed.).Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend.

he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury. He died in 1706. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. with many distinct farms and cottages.[1] During the Commonwealth era. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". when he let it to Dr John Young. when it required the interference of Mr. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. who married her daughter in 1665. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. Sir Thomas Clarke.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. and generally to conclude with a merry-making.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. which stunk and had worms swimming in it. The house and park are not generally open to the public."[2] Following the death of Coram. dean of Winchester. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. Mr. So. when Young was expelled from the deanery.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. and rode at each other through the wheat. although open days are occasionally held. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church. upon the lands of the lord of the manor. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. England.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. near Winchester. Shoveller. or hay-making.[1] Sir Charles. Pye.[5] . Sir Thomas Clarke's steward.[2] ". The reapers refused to work without better provisions. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley.. Mr. no doubt. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. although his wife survived him until 1720.. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights".[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. reaping. and Coram drew their daggers.

the points alternately plain and embossed. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house.[9] The Castle.. is below. and after his death. Thomas. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. then the months divided into days. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge.C.. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer. which he also owned. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W).[5][6] On Newton's death. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. the outermost divided into minutes. as granted to him in 1717. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task. he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. Nearer the centre are degrees. In 1770. then a circle marked "Watch slow. Cranbury Park. leaving a daughter. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. Catherine. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras". There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass. retaining that position for four years. Conduitt. Harriet.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. next the hours. the base of a pillar. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774).[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . Newton became resident at Cranbury. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. Hampshire. all round the world. but his election was declared invalid. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781).[5] In May 1721. a diagram of the compass. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. In 1747. and the arms of Mr. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. the estate was left to his son. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. and within. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. On his death. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" ."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. etc. and a scaled-down gateway tower. Shortly after his marriage. In 1734. Towards the end of his life. Watch fast".a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. John Rowley. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. Bt). built in 1780. remaining there until his death in 1727. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. the owner.

[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer. built round a court. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. In fact. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. which has a circular domed ceiling. William Chamberlayne. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch. set in arch-headed reserves. flat as it fronts to the south. MP for Southampton. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. Whilst serving the town. on that . who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)). but in the rear descending rapidly. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. intersected by various springs. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England. but his wife survived him until 1825.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif.[22] Writing in 1898. is on the level ground at the top.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. The house. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet. to the designs of George Dance the Younger.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. Tankerville Chamberlayne.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811. Arrow. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape.[11] on her death. especially in the saloon on the south front. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style.[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. a large red brick one. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald".[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. In 1822. During the Second World War. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights.

"Chapter VII: Cylindrical. online-literature. org."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. www. . www. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. [6] Ford.uk. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. Eden. htm#i46495). Winchester" (http:/ / www.com. . 1998. [14] Yonge. html).online-literature. (1900). html). Hamilton (1953). ISBN 0-86146-041-3. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. built from material plundered from Netley Abbey. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. library. www. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. (1898). uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. [2] Yonge. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. . 22. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). [4] Yonge. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Lloyd. www. . htm). Charlotte M.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". p. ac.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth.K F. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. 68. thepeerage.com. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 23 September 2009. pp. Retrieved 23 September 2009.com.online-literature. [8] "The Buttercross. Stories of Southampton Streets. Retrieved 20 September 2009.K. pdf). co. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ).[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. 9 October 2006. Retrieved 24 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009.britannia. www. . .[26] References [1] Page. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. publications. (1898). com/ p4650.com. Hansard. . . Retrieved 23 September 2009. aspx?compid=42018#s4). a rose garden.ac. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). upenn. close to The Castle. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8.com.com. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www. H.thepeerage. Retrieved 20 September 2009. Charlotte M.uk. [9] Yonge. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. p. Victoria County History of Leicestershire." a word signifying a country dance. Hampshire" (http:/ / www. com/ p4650. thepeerage. "Later changes" (http:/ / www. 15 May 2005. Retrieved 23 September 2009. specimen trees and pinetum. british-history. online-literature. . Michael (1999). Retrieved 20 September 2009. Charlotte M. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. cityofwinchester. htm#i46497). parliament. www. www. horninghold. www. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.thepeerage. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. "History of Cranbury Park. online-literature. . Charlotte M. The Book of Sun-dials. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. before joining Monks Brook. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Eleanor. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3.online-literature. [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 23 September 2009.com. and include fountains. City of Winchester.online-literature. html). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. [12] Leonard. 72 & 74.british-history. www. uk/ report.online-literature. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. A. Facet-Headed. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3. is situated in the southern corner of the park. . Margaret Scott. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102. (1898). Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. online-literature. [10] Thompson. Charlotte M. www. Paul Cave Publications. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. [5] Yonge. (1898).com. online-literature. [11] "Horninghold. (1984). Netley Abbey.parliament. [7] Gatty. Retrieved 23 September 2009. William (1908). uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. 5 May 2004.Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. . com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. . Her Majesty's Stationery Office. (1898). Retrieved 24 September 2009. A.G. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. The English Country House. . britannia. and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides.

. The New York Times: 10. chandlersfordscouts. Matthew (2009).700) in late 2001's terms. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. "Chandler’s Ford. Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-07-12. Retrieved 2009-07-12. .co. [20] Dorothy Stroud. The lost country houses of England. plates 23-2. html). see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. . References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. [19] "Cranbury Park. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. 3rd ed. matthewbeckett. [25] Currie. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. [23] Yonge. uk/ Campsite/ index. 1600-1840. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. "Stratton Park. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. . . www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. Retrieved 26 September 2009.oldmaps.[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. [22] Dorothy Stroud. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3.000 (us$35.com. com/ gst/ abstract. online-literature.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. Retrieved 26 September 2009. April 2004. alresford. . Architect. fieldclub.online-literature. "Papworth. org. s.v. George Dance. 8 and 15 November 1956. [21] Watkin. 16 January 1881. htm). uk/ m35. Christopher (Spring 2005). Retrieved 26 September 2009. hants. Retrieved 24 September 2009. John Buonarotti". nytimes. amazon. htm).[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). 1995. (1898). com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). Charlotte M. Retrieved 24 September 2009. Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. . com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. . oldmaps. Retrieved 26 September 2009. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. which would value approximately £25. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects.uk. www. htm). in Country Life. Retrieved 26 September 2009. html). . co. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). David (April 2004). 1971:93-95. org. . 1741—1825. . 15 November 1956. noted in Howard Colvin. Micheldever. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester.

"Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. edu.Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20). He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". University of Western Australia. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved.. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. Retrieved 22 july 2010. the question can be solved by experiment. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. au/ people/ mike. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. amongst others. philosophynow. bbc. either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). Retrieved 22 july 2010. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well".pdf). . as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword.[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. BBC news.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. . Alder admits however. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. co. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. uwa. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). According to Alder. au/ ~mike/ ). edu. uwa. to the scientist. which he describes as pure reason. . alder). uwa. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. [3] Mike Adler.[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. Also available as Mike Alder (2004). The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. maths. [4] Mike Alder (2004). or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. . edu. or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. stm). That is. University of Western Australia. .] undoubtedly cuts out the crap.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now.. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. maths. Mike Alder's Home Page. .

England. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. most notably his work on light and optics. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . and the old walled kitchen garden. Woolsthorpe Manor. Lincolnshire. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). were opened up to the public in 2003. being restored. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. to the rear of the house. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. New areas of the house. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. taking into account modern living. near Grantham. once private. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments.

nationaltrust.Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. org. uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ .

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