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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. He was an unorthodox Christian. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. When Newton was three. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. 25 December 1642.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In mathematics. astronomer. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. and contributed to the study of power series. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. Margery Ayscough. natural philosopher. alchemist. published in 1687. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. the subjects he is mainly associated with. Born prematurely.[11][12][13] . His half-niece was Catherine Barton. and for the style of the work.1 litres). which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. In this work. he never married. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. he was a small child. Newton was also highly religious."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. and theologian. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. mathematician. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. independently. At the time of Newton's birth. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. due.

such as Descartes. and did not give a full account until 1704.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen.[23] A related subject was infinite series. Famous Men of Science.[18] At that time.[17] In June 1661. widowed by now for a second time.) Such a . attempted to make a farmer of him.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests. and Kepler. although with very different notations. a fellow of our College.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. Luckily for Newton. also by British mathematicians. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). were adopted by continental European mathematicians. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully.[15] Henry Stokes. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. In 1665. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method". Crowell & Co.. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. He hated farming. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. and after 1820 or so. ordaining normally could not be dodged. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. In 1667. for example. He was removed from school. he was admitted to Trinity College. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Newton was educated at The King's School. and by October 1659. he became the top-ranked student.. in a manuscript of October 1666. Sarah K.[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. Galileo. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. master at the King's School. NY: Thomas Y. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". Nevertheless. For such a significant appointment. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. where his mother.. and very young . Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14].[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton.

whose permission was needed. However. In that day. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. of 1684. Because of this. He discovered Newton's identities. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. but never finished it. accepted this argument. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). Newton's method.[32] Starting in 1699. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables). The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. However. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. and Charles II. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia. Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement.[34] 4 . and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences.Isaac Newton suggestion. valid for any exponent. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. however.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". At the time. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). In 1691. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory.

. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another.) In 1704.[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work. when Hooke. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles.. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. John Maynard Keynes. which he later expanded into his Opticks. .[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). however.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. Props. As a proof of the concept. Thus. Newton lectured on optics.II.[39] Building the design. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration). Today's quantum mechanics. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. In 1671. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. the first known functional reflecting telescope.13). Newton published Opticks.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles. across a vacuum. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns.and may .) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance. he might not have developed his theory of gravity.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. and the general phenomenon of diffraction. today known as a Newtonian telescope. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. 12)."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80. revived his interest in alchemy. it stayed the same colour. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props.

e.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia.[49] For Newton. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. using a glass globe (Optics. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness. but they did not so far indicate its cause. the use of multiple-prism arrays. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. was at rest). and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . in the second edition of the Principia (1713). a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. as they did. prisms. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World".[51] Later. i. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. and defined the law of universal gravitation. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. and much more. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679. In an article entitled "Newton. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. Also. In the same work.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. 8th Query). This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke. wherever it was. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. In this work. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory.. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'. In the same book he describes. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. via diagrams. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley.

rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. but Newton took them seriously. Towards the end of his life. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). the Astronomer Royal. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699. including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. He took charge of England's great recoining.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. after Sir Francis Bacon. His half-niece. John (1733) – were published after his death. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. until his death in 1727. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. Cambridge. a position Newton held until his death. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. In his position at the Royal Society. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). which Newton had used in his studies. 1st Earl of Halifax. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Catherine Barton Conduitt. when it abruptly ended.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. near Winchester with his niece and her husband.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726]. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. Newton became internationally recognised. These appointments were intended as sinecures. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. With the Principia.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil).Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. this is expressed as . The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. Before Newton. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. with time. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. For example. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. the first term vanishes. named in Newton's honour. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. Unlike Aristotle's. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. . the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The SI unit of force is the newton. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter.[102] Apple incident . and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. Mathematically. they may be at rest).

or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory.[111] . not in any side of the earth. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. We went into the garden. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. or toward the centre. published in 1752. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. in an inverse-square proportion. Grantham. amidst other discourse. the reason is. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). The King's School. it must be in proportion of its quantity.[107] In similar terms. that the earth draws it. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. therefore the apple draws the earth. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. and get good agreement. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . there must be a drawing power in matter. he told me. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. & myself. only he.. he was just in the same situation. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. Cambridge. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. claims that the tree was purchased by the school.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. whose manuscript account. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head.[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment.. if matter thus draws matter. and hence named it "universal gravitation". The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. as when formerly." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. as well as the earth draws the apple. to the Moon. had the first thought of his system of gravitation. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance.[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground."[106] John Conduitt. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree.

. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. . org/ heretic. Moreover. 84. Gale E. The Newton Handbook. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Newton. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. Retrieved 28 March 2010. ISBN 9780521058179. (1996). At Newton's birth. The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. Stephen D. online edn. Cambridge University Press . com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). September 2004. Barrow. ac. Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). 1993). google. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. [2] Mordechai Feingold. pp. . James R. Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. accessed 24 February 2009. Richard S. [6] Snobelen. No. "Singular scientists". Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. i. (2001). . google. PMID 12519805. p. com/ view/ article/ 1541). fictional. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. html). [13] Newton. pdf) (PDF). . doi:10. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. bellevuecollege. p. Unless otherwise noted.M1) [19] ed. 159.Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. Michael Hoskins (1997). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. berkeley. 22 [17] James. ISBN 9780521274357.36. [5] Westfall. html). 530–1.96. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www.. Derek (1986). PMC 539373. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. google. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. . Optical Lectures. ISBN 1-573-56256-4. [14] http:/ / www. p. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. c.e. Retrieved 3 February 2009. com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Bellevue College. Retrieved 28 March 2010. org/ stable/ 236236)". Isis. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. Daniel S. Isaac. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www. newton. (1983) [1980]. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books.4 [4] Gjersten. 11. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. May 2007. html). a. 8. Oxford University Press. Leibniz. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. 1998. (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. n. google. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. google. By the time he died. edu/ MATH/ Newton. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. [10] Cohen. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www.1. Vol. p. ISBN 0195092244. Ioan (January 2003). 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. uk/ newtlife. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.1258/jrsm. Isaac. 315. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. [7] Burt. (1999). 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. jstor.43. pp. com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). Vol. Greenwood Publishing Group. [9] Christianson. I. php). flickr.B. . (1970). the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. "Isaac Newton. heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. doi:10. oxforddnb. [18] Michael White. p. 74. p. edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period. Graham's Home Page. 2 (June. 50.1017/S0007087499003751. Oxford University Press. chlt.

"The Newton handbook". com/ arms/ index.000024. "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. Henry C (2003). part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". Retrieved 16 January 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2010. pdf). p. ..24D. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. vol. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. 1676–1687' ed.245 [58] Yonge. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. at page 297. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). 325 [39] White 1997. "Newton. Charlotte M.. DuarteOPN(2000). 1729 English translation. J. Volume. at page 54 (http:/ / books. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). lib. at page 400. at page 149. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte. ac. J. doi:10. eds (1922–1958).107 [32] Westfall 1980. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books. p. com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). Isaac (http:/ / venn. p. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). J. . cam. Book 3 (1729 vol.. p.11. John Maynard (1972). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). 356ff [34] White 1997. Page 74 (http:/ / books. " Newton. by Alfred Rupert Hall. 1729 English translation. 'Never at Rest'. google. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. vol. Isaac. [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia.T. "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. [27] Clifford Truesdell. p. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. page 67 (http:/ / books. 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. ac. Retrieved 10 January 2012. '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679. Bibcode 2000OptPN. . google. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. [37] Ball 1908. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy".2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). (December 1982).com. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. [21] Venn. cam. A very short introduction. Robert (2007) Newton. [25] Newton. [41] White 1997. Google Books. Isaac. Cambridge University Digital Library. com/ F. p. (Cambridge University Press.). google.317 [56] Gerard Michon. cam. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. Isis 73 (4): 523. google. [24] D Gjertsen (1986).2. J. especially at pages 119–120. Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25. an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science. Martin's Press. Chapter 11. vol. www. Cambridge University Press. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. H W Turnbull.Isaac Newton [20] Newton. 'Principia'. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2).online-literature. (1898). [23] D T Whiteside (ed. [43] Iliffe. Cambridge University Digital Library. opticsjournal. 1696). Cambridge University Press 1960. [47] R S Westfall. ac. [49] See Curtis Wilson. htm#newton).). 44. (2000). lib. p. The Man".1364/OPN.5. prisms. [31] Stewart 2009. at pages 391–2. at page 30. [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. A. . pages 116–138. google. "Newton. . 1968). 1967). at page 41 (http:/ / books. Venn. [30] D T Whiteside (1970). (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). doi:10. 151 [35] King. Retrieved 23 September 2009. google.). . pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". nor for his service at the Mint. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. lib. F. [53] Westfall 1980. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). 2A'. MacMillan St. Alfred Rupert (1996). at page 319.com..1086/353114. 1980.11. Cambridge University Press 1974. [60] Westfall 1980. [54] White 1997. 'Principia'. King. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54). p170 [40] Hall. . Optics. [51] Edelglass et al. document #235. Retrieved 10 January 2012. [48] D T Whiteside (ed. Retrieved 16 January 2010. at p. numericana. 1684–1691. J. but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. at page 233 (http:/ / books. [26] Newton. google. [36] Newton. 54 [52] Westfall 1980. Numericana. pp.. Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes.6. Google Books. p. [59] Westfall 1980. 232 [55] White 1997. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www. 363–4. Matter and Mind. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908.99. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. p.1. "Hydrostatics. com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). p. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.. ISBN 9780521566698. online-literature. "A short account of the history of mathematics". The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1)." Westfall 1994 p. [45] Dobbs. 595 15 . 324 [38] Ball 1908. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. ISBN 9780486432656.

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[87] A Short Scheme of the True Religion. p 241 [95] White 1997. Charles (1948). manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. Isaac Newton: Inventor. cited in. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence." Oeuvres de Lagrange I. politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33. Book III. ed. ISBN 0791413195. p.

uk/ image1. Isaac Newton. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). doi:10. google. Cambridge University Digital Library. Brogdale. brogdale. John. ISBN 0486206300. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. sussex. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters".73 [99] White 1997. • Craig. Retrieved 20 December 2008. indiana. p. lib. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. Richard (2011). Retrieved 11 January 2007. brogdale. Imperial College London. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994.1038/182149a0. Bibcode 1958Natur. Gale (1984). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. ISBN 0521477379. org/ ). "Keynes Ms. John (1963). newtonproject. pierre-marteau.182. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. 6 [109] Alberto A. James (2009). and Other Myths. 1998). Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). org. 130. New Scientist.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. Richard S. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. • Levenson. Isaac. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www. edu/ newton/ index.1963. php). Richard S. co. Smith. ISBN 9780199213559. • Christianson. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. • Stewart. Cengage Learning. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Retrieved 7 September 2011. p. ISBN 9780547336046. This well documented work provides. ISBN 9781447204152. ISBN 1-85702-416-8.org. Mariner Books. cam. php?varietyid=1089). p. [107] Conduitt. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics.149C. pp. google. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. Thomas (2010). in particular. New York: Dover. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. . ac. John (1958).. " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. Retrieved 10 January 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2012. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. [108] I. (1994). eds. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). Fourth Estate Limited. doi:10. • White. ISBN 9780495557425. W. • Westfall. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. 337 [103] White 1997. . . . ISBN 0-521-27435-4. [98] Westfall 2007. Cambridge University Press.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. Richard S. The Art of Science. New York: Free Press. Pan Macmillan. 18 January 2010. ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. dlib.1098/rsnr. Never at Rest. O'Reilly Media. 265–266. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. Michael (1997). The Life of Isaac Newton. • Westfall. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). p. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. html 17 References • Ball. Cambridge University Press. newscientist. valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. . 4. (2007). (1980. Rouse (1908). .0017.. Einstein's Wife. Retrieved 30 August 2006. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". 2011). uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". Newtonproject. [113] http:/ / www. • Westfall. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. Bernard Cohen and George E.W. Cambridge University Press. Inc. ac. pp. .

Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. the Man. Leibniz. (1687). W.amazon. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. Isaac Newton. The Newtonian Revolution. JSTOR 531368. • Halley. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Harlow. "Newtonia" pp. John Maynard (1963). and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. Cambridge. • Bardi. See this site (http://www. (1950). 2001. The Calculus Wars: Newton. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. ISBN 0486253465. The Background to Newton's Principia. On the Shoulders of Giants.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini. "Review of Newton's Principia". Jason Socrates. ISBN 0841430144. John (1946). Springer. Inc. Great Experiments in Physics. and Cohen. ISBN 019530070X. edited by I. Bernard and Smith. (2000).1978. E. – Preface by Albert Einstein. New York: Henry Holt and Company. M.1988. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. • Dobbs.D. New York: Harper & Row. David. Norton & Co. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. and H.0006.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. London: S. complete edition online (http://www. New York (1972). (2002). P. Essays in Biography. Isaac.amazon. ISBN 0792310543. Richard (1931). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. (1975). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. New York: Chanticleer Press. • Hawking. • Cohen.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. J. . J.com/dp/0521656966). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. Newton. New York: Free Press. ed. Guide by I. Morris H.amazon. • Dampier. • Gjertsen. A Treasury of Science. Dampier. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. 2006. A. H. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Bernard. James (2003). • Christianson. Knox.amazon. Oxford University Press. I. excerpt and text search (http://www. • Craig. Bernard Cohen. S. Alfred A.. (1946). ISSN 0035–9149. • de Villamil.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald. • Shamos. 147–9. 354 pp. Harvard University Press. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. Palmer. ISBN 0-393-00189-X... The Principia: a new Translation. Isaac Newton. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. England: Cambridge University Press. • Christianson.1098/rsnr. 150–4.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler.. Harper & Bros. ISBN 0486428052. Zev (1991). B. William C. New York. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.questia. Derek (1986). • Newton. Knopf. (1959).com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. I. Rapport. Gale E. W. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Berlinski. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. ISBN 0521229642. excerpt and text search (http://www. (1996). Gale (1984). Newton at the Mint. (1980). eds. 500 pp. • Koyré. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". 277 pp. 256 pp. London: G. I. doi:10. W. E. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. • Shapley. Kepler. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. Newtonian Studies. excerpt and text search (http://www. B. focuses on philosophical issues only. • Keynes. T. "Discoveries" pp. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. (1728). (1965).amazon. Readings in the Literature of Science. (1988). ed. The Newton Handbook. Oxford: Clarendon Press. excerpt and text search (http://www. • Newton. (1959). MIT Press. Wright. (1965). Stephen. 1958. N. De C. George E. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. Isaac (1642–1727). ISBN 0375422331. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". Jed Z. • Gleick.

Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. Nature. and Richard H. 1984. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. Stephen "'God of Gods. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. • Newton. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. W. Isaac. A. Vol. (1996) 214pp. Press. (1936). J.Isaac Newton • Simmons.google.1017/S0007087499003751. xvii + 325. University of California Press. Turnbull and others. • Stukeley. I. doi:10. (1999). JSTOR 3653988. Primary sources • Newton. London: Macdonald. W. Florian Cajori. 299 pp. 19 Religion • Dobbs. 2. Popkin. Pp. (1952). Sydney: The Book Company. 16. Bruce. T. Inflections & Colours of Light. H. Cambridge U. Ayval. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). Arianism through the Centuries. London: Taylor and Francis. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. (2001). originally published in 1752) • Westfall.google. Isaac. • Newton. Motte. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1934).google.jstor. and Influence. pp. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. Opticks (4th ed. (edited by A.jstor. Betty Jo Tetter.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. Newton and Religion: Context. 627 pp. ISBN 0444196110. Isaac. (1991). University of California Press. • Wiles. (1999). pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. S. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. White. D. tr.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. rev. eds. ISBN 0521077400. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. (January 1997). Vol. 1670–1672. • Pfizenmaier.org/stable/4028372). Stephen D. JSTOR 4027945. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. (1996). 1: The Optical Lectures. – 8 volumes • Newton.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. New York: Dover Publications. • Brackenridge. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. (1967–82). 974 pp. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. (1971). J. H. 2nd Series. or A Treatise of the Reflections. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. 1996. R. 1730) online edition (http://books. Thomas C. I. Refractions. Isaac. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. • Whiteside. ed. in JSTOR (http://www.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. • Newton. Maurice. links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. 342pp . James E." Osiris. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". (1959–77) . The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time.. 7 vols. "Isaac Newton. Opticks. (1999). Archetypal Heresy.

html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www.a.newtonproject. John W. com/predictions/newton.fmalive.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page. 1850. Cambridge. C. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato.uk/ Biographies/Newton. University of St Andrews. (1958).html) Newton's First ODE (http://www. J Edleston. Sir. Cambridge.ac. John Deighton. John J.com/modules/historic/newton/index.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton.com/biography/Newton. including letters of other eminent men (http://books.phaser.uk/prism.skepticreport. Parker. (1975).chlt.dlib.galilean-library. ed.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton. • Newton.mcs.math.sussex. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.isaacnewton. London.pbs. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702).archive. Robertson. 20 External links • Chisholm. London: Dawson.stanford.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato.fullerton. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. I.org/web/20080629021908/http://www.edu/entries/newton-stm/).php) • The Newton Project (http://www.stanford.htm) Kandaswamy.. in Four Books. I. Hall. • Newton. time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.htm) (via archive. – Google Books • Maclaurin. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes. West Strand.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. (1748).com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports.st-andrews. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. Hall and M. London: A.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www. "Newton.rutgers.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/).edu/entries/newton-principia/ )..org/snobelen. Hugh. Cohen and R. Millar and J.stanford.adherents.questia.ac. eds.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H.edu/entries/newton/). Edmund F. Roger Cotes.tqnyc. I. Cambridge University Press. (1962).wolfram. Nourse.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www.html). I. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www. Schofield. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library. Sir Isaac".edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. E. R. (1953). The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www.org/NYC051308/index. A. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.indiana. and motion (http://plato. Anand M. B.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor. ed (1911). • Newton.google.stanford. Thayer. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato.50. online edition (http:/ /www. .pierre-marteau. S.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.).com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I). An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries. B.

newtonproject.lib. full text on archive.sussex.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton. audio. at the Newton Project (http://www.cam.mcmaster.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts.ltrc. reception.uk/prism.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes.ul.ndsu.org • Newton Papers. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.ac. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.edu/id.archive.st-andrews.gutenberg. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.uk/collections/newton) .sussex.enlighteningscience. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www.ac.cs. Space. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1. or a Treatise of the Reflections. optics.ca/newton/) Images.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up).com/). Refractions.mcs.nodak. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www. physics. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.ac.cmu.ac.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www.math.earlymoderntexts.

22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. She and Rev. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. and thus took him away from his school studies. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. and returned to his mother's household. He spent a year away from school on the farm. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. who buried her next to his father. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. By this time Isaac was ten years old. in April 1642. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. 1697 by her son. . Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. Smith died in 1653. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. when Isaac was 54. Lincolnshire. When Rev. the elder. unlike her. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. at quite a critical time in his education. James and Margery Ayscough. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. Later in his life. when he was three years old. He died in October 1642. As his father had been a farmer. at the age of nineteen. Hannah's brother William.

[5] . Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him. Hannah Smith. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. and baptized at Brigstock. However. Newton. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). Is.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. not before. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. witty and clever. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful. the wife of John Conduitt.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. half-niece of Isaac Newton. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist.

the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. www. King's College Cambridge. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. Journal to Stella. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ )."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. p349. . [8] St Martin in the fields register. near Winchester. Vol 4. 1886. 1689. Catherine. towards the end of his life. PROB11/546. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130.online-literature. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. [9] Yonge. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. On 30 August. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. online-literature. National Archives. References [1] Robert Barton's will. html). entries in 1710 and 1711. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. 1543–1869. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. born in 1721. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. and their son.5. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. I have long had for her person. National Archives. by then Earl of Halifax. • The Newton Project (http://www. Northampton Record Office. Westminster Record Office. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. & previous reference. 1715. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. Montague.php?id=15) . Parish register. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. affection and esteem. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. not to make a dispute over her legacies. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. [7] Hants Record Office.com. PROB11/416. (1898). Retrieved 23 September 2009. [5] Newton Correspondence.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. his nephew George Montague. ac. Harl Soc vol 24. Charlotte M. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. Harliean Society.[7] The couple had one daughter.sussex.ac. however. [3] Swift. uk/ art/ portrait.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. John Wallop. [10] Westminster Abbey registers.newtonproject.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. p195. Viscount Lymington. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress.uk/prism. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. newton.

John Conduitt John Conduitt (c.[1] By 1707. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. on 8 March 1688. 161 pp. on petition. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. Catherine. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. and his niece. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. isbn 0712903305.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. The couple had one daughter. Newton: his friend. Covent Garden. Covent Garden. staying only two years. but after starting. Sir Isaac Newton. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. proposed by the president. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. and was baptized at St Paul's. he quickly stopped. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). London: Dawsons. In 1720. defending the government on a number of issues. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. a whig member for Whitchurch. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. then aged 38 years. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. described herself as 32 years old.[3] . In 1705. Early life. towards the end of his life. Hampshire. 1968. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. 1st ed (reprinted). In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. while at Westminster. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. but did not graduate. (PRO. and his uncle by marriage. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. named after her mother. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. near Winchester. Cambridge with three others. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. London. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton.

John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton. A. . ac. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www.cyberbeach. [4] Page. eds (1922–1958).british-history. uk/ report. fo 169 [3] Yonge. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. J. cam. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. lib. online-literature. His wife.). William (1908). ac. California. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. References [1] Venn. Huntingdon Library. vol 4. " Conduitt. was buried with him. (1898). ms 57. On his death. Cambridge University Press.com. Catherine. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. 1st Earl of Portsmouth. 1749) in 1740. Charlotte M. and their son. www. J. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. www. John (http:/ / venn.htm) . Venn.online-literature. british-history. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. John Wallop.uk.. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". Retrieved 23 September 2009. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). .ac.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. Retrieved 27 September 2009.. aspx?compid=42018#s4). "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. underage. who died in 1739. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. Viscount Lymington (d. Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley.

[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. He hated farming. At the time of Newton's birth. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). the English mathematician and scientist. achieving an admirable final report. When Newton was three. and Kepler. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. optics and the law of gravitation. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. 25 December 1642. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. and by October 1659. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. Newton was educated at The King's School. He was removed from school. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. Margery Ayscough.[6] . widowed by now for a second time. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. he was a small child. author of the Principia. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus.[4] At that time.1 litre). Galileo. where his mother. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. attempted to make a farmer of him. This he did at the age of eighteen. Born prematurely. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. he was admitted to Trinity College. master at the King's School.[3] Henry Stokes. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. In 1665. In June 1661.

verging below farthest from the moon. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". part iv. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. Isaac Barrow. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. he was unable. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. several calculations about musical notes. I saw two such Crowns about her. 1699. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. being forced from Cambridge by the plague." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). and borrowed Wallis' works. there are several articles on angular sections. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. particularly those "in affected powers. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. together with observations on refraction. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. near Cambridge. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". in Lincolnshire. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. in the years 1663 and 1664. at night. In a small commonplace book. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. which appear in his Optics. dated January 1664. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. I being then Senior Sophister. and of a yellow and red without. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. and in summer 1665. Cambridge. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. and red on the outside of it. It was elliptical. many years afterwards. and the applied force F is F = ma. February 19th. and introduced him to higher mathematics." . The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. to two and fifty figures by the same method. book ii. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. its acceleration a. and next about that the inner Crown. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. which was of a bluish green within next the white. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). obs. and. John Slade of Catharine Hall. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon.

optics. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. [see also James Gregory. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. who had a powerful genius for such matters. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. probably in June 1669. arithmetic. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. apparently for chemical experiments. "the name of the author is Newton. and also chemicals and a furnace. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. statics.A. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. degree. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. There were nine vacancies. In March 1668 he took his M. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). mathematician.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. but kept the name of the author a secret. a fellow of our college. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). 29 . which he put. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. and who. astronomy. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. Newton must have left college before August 1665. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. On each occasion it was agreed. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. and added. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. and 22 June 1666. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. and a young man. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. Dr Pearson. geography.] a mathematician of no mean order. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. He wrote a paper. dated 7 August 1665. and signed by the master of the college. or some other mathematical subject.

as glass transmits. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. so that a much . that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). the secretary of the Royal Society. he proceeded: "When I understood this. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. for I saw. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. and finding them regular. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. Nay. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. bishop of Salisbury. I understood." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. But these seemed very great difficulties. which would polish as finely as glass. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. it could not collect those also into the same point. were light uniform. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. if they continue them for any time. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. I left off my aforesaid glass works. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. The whole is printed in No. After he explained this to the Society. I wondered. and reflect as much light. provided a reflecting substance could be found. when I further considered. and I have almost thought them insuperable." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. as I found it. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. than a circularly figured lens.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. So that. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. on 6 February 1672. because. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space.

that the prism and lens be placed steady. by such motion. than in figuring glasses for refraction. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. I conceive. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. as I said. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. . that. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. but I shall conclude with this general one. for. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. but not very distinctly. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. proper for metal. but yet with this difference. you will not only find. whereby. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. what might be effected in this kind. care must be taken. He concludes his communication with the words: This. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. how the colours gradually convene. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. And there place a clear and colourless prism. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. but yet most luminous in red. and vanish into whiteness. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. which. but yet most luminous in blue. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. or proportionally disagreeing in both. Further on. But it is requisite. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. who. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). are taking care about it at London. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. and that the paper. so I doubt not. if any thing seem to be defective. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. when I made the other. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. are again dissipated and severed. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. the figure also would be corrected to the last. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. or to thwart this relation. or of acknowledging my errors. as I imagined. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. if I have committed any. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. as you inform me. which they had before they entered the composition. I began to try. And therefore. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). And this analogy twist colours.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. They have there no appropriate colour. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. with which 'tis illustrated. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. You may also see.

" The heads. light polarization and binocular vision. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". however. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. and. but was not published. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. and are now almost universally rejected. and. and entered in the Regent House. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. when a description of it was found among his papers. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. or to become a slave to defend it. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. and the inflexion of light. The public oratorship fell vacant. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. George Villiers. or communicated to the Royal Society. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. and he wrote on double refraction. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. endeavored to effect a compromise which. till after Newton's death. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. Others criticized the experiments. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. I do recommend them both to be nominated. and many others. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. he says. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. . Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. or leave to come out after me." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. who was the chancellor of the university. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke.

This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. and one of Newton's intimate friends. who married John Conduitt." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. owing to decay." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. as several others are. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College.57 metres) in one minute. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. till 1860. a fellow of the Royal Society. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. dated 23 June 1673. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. I desire to withdraw. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. In one version of the story. he says. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir." (See Newton's cannonball. as he was not in holy orders. He therefore was led to inquire whether. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. I thank you. if you have not done it already. (4. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. when. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft.) . and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. Newton. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. by calculating from Kepler's laws. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies.

Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. one of the fellows of his own college. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. i.e. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. or their views about the researches of others. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). I have calculated it." He could not. made the two results. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". "Why. a copy of his demonstration. put his hand upon his calculation. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. Oldenburg. by the hand of Mr Paget. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. the secretary. Newton replied promptly. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. "an ellipse". some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. At Newton's birth. After the latter had left Cambridge. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. and started for Cambridge. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. but he promised to send it to Halley.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. . Sir Christopher Wren. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. In January 1684. and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. however. By the time he died. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. Moreover. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. one of the secretaries of the Society. in the month of August 1684.Early life In November 1679. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it"." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. to consult Newton on the subject. Unless otherwise noted. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime.

Later life During his residence in London. cam. Vol. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. . However. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. J.M1) [5] ed.43. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. Cambridge. The office is the most proper for you. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. ac. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. cited above. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude." Newton was now 55 years old. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Charles Montagu. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu.. In a letter to Newton announcing the news. ac. google. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. Venn. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. pp.435-440. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. eds (1922–1958).) (1960). Cambridge University Press.. (1970). lib. The Life of Isaac Newton.) (1960). He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. Montagu. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. lib. Cambridge University Press. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn.297-314. was false to him. and the esteem the king has of your merits. " Newton. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. the warden of the mint. and has not . 11. J. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. Mr Overton. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. 35 References • Westfall. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed.). cam. sfu. Michael Hoskins (1997). [8] http:/ / www. [7] Newton. ISBN 0521477379. 1960). A. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)".Early life [2] Cohen. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. afterwards Earl of Halifax. p. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". (1994). was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. Vol 2 (1676-1687). I. Richard S. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. p. 159. Isaac. 16–19 [4] Michael White. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. at pp.B. (Cambridge University Press. Isaac (http:/ / venn. when Montagu.

and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. a post worth between £1." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins.200 and £1. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. he did not exhibit it in the results. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. the second. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). . Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. however. To this work were added two treatises. Of this. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. with an account of their properties. except to Newton and his friends. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. Newton took it seriously. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement.500 per annum. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. was still. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. a secret. while exports were paid for in gold. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]).[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. a process that was completed in about two years.

making it public. and a second edition of it. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. P2. 's Gravesande published a tract. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. . On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. "tanquam. secretary to the Royal Society. He also solved the second problem. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. prefixing to it an introduction. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. although Newton's solution was anonymous. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. and having since met with some things copied out of it. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. who have solicited the. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. which was also written many years ago. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. and E. and he gave a method of determining it. I have on this occasion made it public. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. (2) to determine a curve such that. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. obtained leave to make it public. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author." says he. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. In that year the Academy was remodelled. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. Hartsoeker. and made known to some friends. W. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. but he received a letter from Leibniz. Leibniz. and published by Dr Wallis." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. and eight foreign associates were created. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. with improvements by the author." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. was published at London in 1712. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. by Dr Machin. and. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted.

and beaten by a large majority. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. the master of Trinity. He was warmly supported by the residents. where a congregation of the senate was held. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July." Newton.I forget from where . Roger Cotes. were heard from time to time. He held the office for 25 years. the master of Trinity College. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. the lunar theory would. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. and discharged the duties of the post. Dr Bentley. however." he said. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. on Newton's recommendation. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. of his work. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. so far as he could do it. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. but being a Whig. have been completely investigated. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. the queen's husband. in the first few months of 1695. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). he was opposed by the non-residents. if its creator did not overrate his own powers.. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. after speaking to Newton. On 21 May 1709. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. In April 1705. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. they paid a visit to Cambridge. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. Rumours. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. fellow of Trinity College.. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . Dr Edleston. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life." (I have learnt . and a number of honorary degrees conferred. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. and of a new edition. 2002). when the queen." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. The prince had offered. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. "will be glad to see you in June. however.

was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . 4. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. facilior redditur et amplior. to present her with a copy of the new edition. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. on 27 July. who translated it. the following account of this new Edition. passed both Houses. an antiquary at Paris. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. On the 31st of March 1713. The Princess of Wales. Newton criticized all the methods. 1713. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. took every opportunity of conversing with him. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. 3. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. wife of George II. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. 2. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. He mentioned four: 1. and. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. for I find that I shall be examined about it. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. "If you write any further preface. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. pointing out their weak points. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. In Libri secundi Sect.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. who called witnesses. N. Caroline of Ansbach. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. and endeavoured to refute it. In Libri primi Sect. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. I. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. she requested him to give her a copy. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. true in theory but difficult to execute. however. vii. Newton waited on Queen Anne. The abbé. and received the royal assent. about midsummer 1713. At last. lent his copy to M Fréret. I must not see it. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. "28 Mar." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. when the edition was nearly ready for publication.

Upon receiving a copy of this work. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". In an earlier part of his life. and published at Paris. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. a nephew of Bentley. . to suppress it". fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. For example in 1716 Leibniz. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. John which was published in London in 1733. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. in 1756.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. which was published in 1728. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. he solved it later the same evening. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. He therefore asked Locke. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. translated into French by the observator. who was on the way to the continent.. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. This edition had many errors. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. to have it translated into French and have it published there. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. beginning his studies before 1690. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. Newton printed. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. after his death. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. This was done. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. and though he was fatigued from work. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret.

Edward.January 1843 (http:/ / www. php?rec=true& UID=1304). Richard Kleer. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25. ac. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage.1111/j. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt).and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. Retrieved 2008-05-22.1464-410X. He endured great suffering. com/ php/ stopics. [10] Westfall 1980. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. (1898). . Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. online-literature. html).[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law.com. Athol L Murray. Newton and the Counterfeiter. doi:10. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar).Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. urotoday. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning.online-literature. pierre-marteau. Sir Isaac Newton. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. Charlotte M. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. Wise.. Athol L Murray. pdf).2005. OCLC 276340857. ac. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. April 1842 . com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). after six years of "cock[fight]ing. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. . Retrieved 23 September 2009. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. (2005). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. 21 September 1717. measuringworth. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. p. [6] By The King. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. pdf) (PDF). Gilbert J. litencyc. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. [9] Ostad.x.[10] Towards the end of his life. PMID 15638889.05242. ISBN 9780151012787. In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). horse racing. . In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. www. pdf). 870 [11] Yonge. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. ahds. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. who. Vol V. archive. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. ahds. University of Regina.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www.

". superstition. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. Distinctions between science. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients.ucsc. he was the last of the magicians. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. Santa Fe. In this sense. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. 1975).Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. the noted English scientist and mathematician.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime. alchemy. for example. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. economist John Maynard Keynes. with a and historical introduction by I. Bernard Cohen (Dawson. It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of .edu/~michael/koll. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. These occult works explored chronology.

[2] It was for this reason. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. Newton is thought to have said. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. with its associated nomenclature. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. Newton's dog started the fire. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community. burning 20 years of research. Arts and Humanities Research Board. "O Diamond. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. In recent years. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). and analytical chemistry. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. A perfectionist by nature. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold.K."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. catalogue. In the story.[8] . and perhaps to a lesser extent. who throughout his life.S. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. Diamond. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U." 43 In 1936. which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy. lead. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. National Science Foundation. In addition. The English Crown. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. or some other substance). a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". several projects have begun to gather.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. made penalties for alchemy very severe. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece.

Published London. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. and the vegetable or the growing stone. though mysterious figure. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. 1728. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. Artephius. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. "Ezechielem Explanationes". "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. and his "secret book". This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). This concept. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. and occultism. early forms of tarot. Hieroglyphical Figures. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. "Artephius his secret Book". "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. "Nicholas Flammel. In predicting this he said. "Theatrum Chemicum". He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew.[12][13] .[10] In addition to scripture. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. Most notably are documents entitled. in a search for their occult knowledge. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". In its time. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple. Nicolas Flamel.

Isaiah and others.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. orthographic projection. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. is not only to be found in the volume of nature.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. when deciphered. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". which was popular in its day. Isaac Newton's treatise. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. Around 1692. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. Psalms. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. . the same was true of their architecture. as in Genesis. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". In 1628. . but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. both speculative and active. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. spirals. 27 years after his death. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. but also in the sacred scriptures. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. and other harmonious constructions. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. scholars. ” During Newton's lifetime. such as golden sections. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. was published posthumously in 1728. due to the success of Villalpando's publications. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . [14] Job. This immense 13-foot-high (4. In addition. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible.[17] In 1754. In the knowledge of this philosophy. conic sections. To Newton. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. only adding to the public interest in the temple. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing.

[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. 1. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. Britain's Daily Telegraph. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. Both of these lay essential to his calculations. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks. will end A. Nature.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. Canada's National Post. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. the period of 1260 days. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. 2060.[19] is a small letter slip. Christ comes as a thief in the night. part of the Yahuda collection. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. It may end later. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. 800. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. in or after 1705. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. . if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year.C.[D. evidently written by Isaac Newton. 7th. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them.C. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents.] 70. The first document. Furthermore. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end.

Ogygia was home to Calypso. However. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. and various other classical historians.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. Pliny.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. The marriage supper. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". and poets. or possibly the same island. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. an approximately 87. Homer.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. In fact. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. Africa and Asia. As such. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. In a separate manuscript. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. and available source material. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. In Greek Mythology. . It is done. Plutarch. authors.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. and the Levant. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). as he saw it. but was sunk into the Sea. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. In this entry he mentions Mephres. Anatolia. Egypt. but rather one in which he believed the world. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. standards. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time.

a recognized Knight. and the spiritual realm. The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations.[24][25] however. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed).Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. However. however. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. Additionally. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. remains unclear. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone. lack of supportive publicized material. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint. avowedly Christian. the level of their secrecy. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. the physical universe. would seem to exclude Newton . it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727).C. and highly politicised. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. not esoteric societies. For its time. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. Considering his esteemed social status.[26] At the time of his death. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. Furthermore. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. Like Newton. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism.". these are considered learned societies. In his library. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. which they claimed to have in their possession. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. anti-Catholic.

google. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. 19 June 2007. 15–19 July 1946. pbs. ac.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. htm). Temple Institute. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. 2010 [5] Newman. templeinstitute. . References [1] Keynes.[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. huji. J. s-most-famous-alchemist)". Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. sussex. "Newton. p. Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). newtonproject. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. jsp [7] http:/ / www. from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs.. dlib. .Occult studies from their membership. 1999. [11] Christianson. Pope). christianpost. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. 144. Page 91. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. July/August. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. archive. USA: PBS. p. as were many members of The Royal Society. 175. edu/ newton/ index. Oxford University Press. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. christianpost. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". referring not to a medieval knight. however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). Oxford University Press US. htm) on 6 May 2008. (5 April 2007). Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. and he never publicly identified himself as one. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. indiana. com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. William R. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Discover Magazine.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. . Retrieved 2010-07-19. The Man". Rabbi Chaim. ISBN 019530070X._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. During his own life. htm). Temple Institute (1991-2008). [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. indiana. sacred geometry. do)._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. Jane Bosveld. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. jnul. Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. ac. uk/ prism. [6] http:/ / webapp1. However. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 1 July 2008. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. . Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. (http:/ / www. [10] Richman. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Gale E. Retrieved 2007-08-12. (2005). Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web.M. "The Da Vinci Code". edu/ newton/ about. Associated Press. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). dlib. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason.

Laurence (2007). Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www.math. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www.com/aReal/unit-fraction.3o. (http://www. ac.com/pillar_solomon_temple. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7.htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.ac. newtonproject.jnul. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode. uk/ texts/ viewtext.D. .themathpage. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley.newtonproject.). 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7. (1972).htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. com/ book_bauer. Retrieved 20 April 2010.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. [14] Gardner. (http://www.sussex. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).st-and. Originally published: London : HarperElement.newtonproject." (http:/ / www. 1997. sussex.niu. inul.htm) • the math (http://www-groups. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. Retrieved 2008-06-25.huji. Retrieved 1 July 2008. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books.edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. 146. Da Capo Press. bcy. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. ac. [28] Baigent.ac. the Apocalypse and A.newtonproject. f. Book Excerpt . Retrieved 2007-08-15.fairfield.faculty. 2005: Weiser.sussex. . p. Joseph. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. php?id=74). Retrieved 2007-08-15. J.uu. Holy Grail.J. Michael (1999). Fairfield University. google. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando.staff. uk/ texts/ viewtext.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell. written at USA. (http:/ / www. .pbs. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. The Newton Project.ac.2a. sussex. Rob Iliffe.freemasons-freemasonry.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. . & A.dlib. Michael.3g.ac. ISBN 073820143X.dcs. University of Sussex: The Newton Project.newtonproject. [26] White.html) • unit fractions. sussex. 31r [22] Newton." (http:/ / www.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www. htm). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www.uk)) . f. Alain (2007). php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized). ISBN 1578634040. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed. Scott Mandelbrote. htm). ed. . Holy Blood. Henry (2004).indiana. isaac-newton. 117. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). [17] Newton. html). newtonproject. The Newton Project. sussex. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory.gutenberg.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies.science. [19] Yahuda MS 7.. ac.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando. 859" (http:/ / www. google. [18] Snobelen.php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. org/ ). html). Stephen D. W. Lincoln. . The Rosicrucian Enlightenment.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-19.sussex. uk/ prism. faculty.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h. London: Routledge. . Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. "Juan Bautista Villalpando.. . org). ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. Isaac.ac. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. Michael. f. fairfield.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. .F. . p. freemasons-freemasonry. [23] Bauer. . ca/ aqc/ leon. com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). Retrieved 2007-08-15.M.from Chapter 3.org/library/drmath/view/55191.ac. spalding-gentlemens-society. Delta Trade Paperbacks. Frances A. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www. Isaac (5 April 2007). [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www. pp. Chetwode. 496. org/ newton_2060.sussex. S. p. William Stukeley 1752. ISBN 1-59477-172-3.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www.uk/prism. 2060. newtonproject. AHRC Newton Papers Project. ac. William (2010). "Isaac Newton University Lodge No. Retrieved 2008-06-26. newtonproject. . Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books. 50 • White. 5 April 2007.

In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. written by those who were inspired. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. natural philosopher. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. mathematician. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist. had it been made public. astronomer. and he said. theologian and alchemist. "so little understood". Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. After 1690. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. I study the Bible daily. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be. In predicting this he said. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). It is one of five arguments from the "properties.[1] Background These arguments. space. in other words. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. in general. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. place and motion. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. Alternatively. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct).[5][6] . 77–82. The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. causes. or. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation.

despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. however. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. but the neighboring train. B: Outer ring rotates. However.[7] However. it is not your own train moving. the surface of the water remains flat.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] .[9] When. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. despite proximity to the pail. C: Both rotate. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. his real position was that motion is absolute. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. Eventually. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. A: Central object rotates. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. who contended that all motion was relative. p.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". (This situation would correspond to diagram D. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition. On the other hand. and that there is no absolute motion. not only with respect to the experimenter. it begins to spin rapidly. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object. but in opposite directions.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. — Ernst Mach. accordingly. but in opposite direction. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force. as the cord continues to unwind. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. but also in relation to the water it contains. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. In other words.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. Thus. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating.

as quoted by L. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. hung by a long cord. However. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. forming itself into a concave figure. not relative. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. — Ernst Mach. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. Principia. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. a limitation that has not been established. 58 . and may be measured by this endeavour. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. then filled with water. will make it begin sensibly to revolve. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water. see Rotating spheres. and recede by little and little.. p. is incomplete. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. — Isaac Newton. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. and effectually to distinguish.[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string.. with no need for an additional centrifugal force.. And therefore. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. which is here directly contrary to the relative.Bucket argument If a vessel. a stationary frame can be identified.. discovers itself. as before the vessel began to move. the surface of the water will at first be plain. .It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. and while the cord is untwisting itself. the vessel continues for some time this motion. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it. In fact. it is whirled about in the contrary way. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted.. but relative motions.... nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. Thus. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent.are altogether destitute of any real effect. . and held at rest together with the water... the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. by the sudden action of another force. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. . after..

127 Moreover. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force.. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. But from the nature of a fluid. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface.. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. the co-rotating frame. . the sum of all three forces must be zero. However. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. To sum to zero. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. p. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. because the element of water does not move. see Knudsen and Hjorth. for if this were not so. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. For example. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. and the aim is to determine this function.. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components. one might question just how rotation brings about this change. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course.[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. the horizontal. the water. if at rest.

in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. for example. . That is. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. That being so. were surface regions with lower energy available. equilibrium is attained. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. The potential energy is useful. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. On the other hand. because all positions are equivalent in energy. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water.) As r increases. that is. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. In words. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position.

. [5] René Descartes (1664). This change in shape would not be stable. ISBN 0226282198. As the height of water increases. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). editors) (2002). In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). google. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). p. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. for example through friction. [2] http:/ / ia310114. . Cambridge University Press. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. At some small angular rate of rotation.M1). Smith. If rotation is arrested. and the more rapid the rotation. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. p.Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. Cambridge University Press. the more concave this surface. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). us. Requiring the energy to be constant. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). Part ii. 43. §25. p. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. google. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. google. Thus. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. ISBN 1606201433. p. google. this energy is constant independent of position r. 105. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r.M1). Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. at a given angular rate of rotation. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. Bernard Cohen & George E. archive. Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. and lowering it at smaller radius. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. . p. John Cottingham translator (1988). . The water surface is flat at first. before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521358124. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. google. ISBN 0521656966. Forgotten Books. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. 191. See Figures 1 and 2. 75. 170. University of Chicago Press. a concave surface represents the stable situation. pdf [3] René Descartes. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. however. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. Principia philosophiae. . The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy.

Lerner (1997). 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). [15] Jens M. . google. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. ISBN 354067652X. Lynden-Bell (1996). 79-81 [13] L. . ISBN 0691033234. p. "Chapter 2.M1). John Wiley & Sons. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. See: • R.M1). Springer. Bernard Cohen.iep. 78–79. 104. 404. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. google. Time. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). Cambridge University Press. Academic Press. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. Jones & Bartlett. The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Arfken (2003). "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. [11] Robert Disalle. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. 5 (1975) ed. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. . edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1. . 79. .com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. 78.Bucket argument p. p. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. . Wiley. no. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). vol. Soc. 279–280. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried.. com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle").). Weber & George B. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. Hjorth (2000). editor) (2008).com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. pp. ISBN 0521656966. Phil. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. cit.google. • D. 19.utm. Am. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISBN 0120598779. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). p. 45. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. p. time. us.htm) see section on Space. google. Knudsen. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. Poul G. In I. B. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. 167. . 325–348. [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). At the end of this article. archive. p.M1). Partridge (1995). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. pdf) pp.). google. op. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). stanford.M1) (in Proc. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78.M1).M1). and Motion (http://plato. . ISBN 0521352541. ISBN 0375412883.edu/l/leib-met. article by Robert Rynasiewicz.google.. pp. . [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002).). 386–387. New York: Courier Dover Publications. Zalta. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. google. ISBN 0486607690. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. • Ralph A. 127. google. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein. Leibniz (http:/ / books. . Draza Marković (Editors) ed.google. [19] Hans J. The Universe and the Bucket". Princeton University Press. 143.stanford. pp. ISBN 0521857902. ISBN 1402086679. A A Knopf. p. p. Springer. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. In Edward N. [16] Lawrence S. Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. google. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. George Edwin Smith. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed.M1). pp.edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 119. stanford. . . google. p. google. ISBN 0521621135. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. ISBN 0867204796. External links • Newton's Views on Space. and the texture of reality.

an integral test for convergence. Historically. to calculate areas and volumes. more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. integrals.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics. but the formulas are mere instructions. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. Calculus is the study of change.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. differential calculus and integral calculus. infinite series approximations. calculus.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. and join calculus. functions. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". or "infinitesimal calculus". derivatives. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. Calculus has widespread applications in science. and infinite series. Eudoxus (c. term by term integration. pi calculus. broadly called mathematical analysis. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. one goal of integral calculus. early forms of differentiation. with no indication as to method. 1820 BC). and some of them are wrong. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. More generally. lambda calculus. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. Calculations of volumes and areas. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation.[6] . Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. variational calculus. economics. while Archimedes (c.[4] In the 5th century AD. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. which prefigures the concept of the limit. It has two major branches. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations.

The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. Newton derived his results first. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. and providing the product rule and chain rule. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. In other work. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. the oblateness of the earth.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. Pierre de Fermat. He did not publish all these discoveries. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit." —John von Neumann In Europe. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . By Newton's time. but Leibniz published first. he developed series expansions for functions. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. the notion of higher derivatives. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. which is its logical [7] development. and the system of mathematical analysis.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. and James Gregory. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. In his publications. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. Isaac Barrow. introduced the concept of adequality. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. second and higher derivatives. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. Taylor series. The product rule and chain rule. Unlike Newton. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. in their differential and integral forms. including fractional and irrational powers. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes.

and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. In modern mathematics. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. Several mathematicians. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. including Maclaurin. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. however. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. who gave the new discipline its name. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis.Calculus Society. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. In Cauchy's writing. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. Following the work of Weierstrass. Today. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. to the detriment of English mathematics. It is Leibniz. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. but it would be 150 years later. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. . An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. Robinson's approach. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. developed in the 1960s. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus.

"infinitely small". In this treatment. From this point of view. time. These questions arise in the study of motion and area.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. volume.e. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. and less than any positive real number. In the 19th century. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. China.. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. center of mass. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. Calculus provides tools. which resolve the paradoxes. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. However. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. 1/3. during the 17th century. India. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. 1/2. but less than any number in the sequence 1. For centuries. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. especially the limit and the infinite series. and Japan. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. the slope of a curve. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers. . infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. Iraq. just like infinitesimals. arc length. and motion. i. Greece. and optimization. work.. Historically. and for this reason they are the standard approach. in some sense. Persia.. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. but use the ordinary real number system. They capture small-scale behavior. and pressure. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. .

(The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. where functions usually input a number and output another number. y is the dependent variable. four is sent to sixteen. For example. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. that is. b is the y-intercept. In mathematical jargon. and applications of the derivative of a function. f(a)) and (a + h. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . The derivative. f(x)). (a. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. however. then a + h is a number close to a. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. which is impossible. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. however. then the function can be written as y = mx + b.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. then the derivative represents change with respect to time." For instance. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. it is possible to produce a new function. it is the velocity of the ball. For example. f(a)). outputs a second function. properties. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. and if the squaring function is given the input three. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. the derivative of the function of f is f′. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. f(a + h)). the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. the doubling function. let f be a function. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. can take the squaring function as an input. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. Thus. if the graph of the function is a straight line).) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. and fix a point a in the domain of f. pronounced "f prime. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. If the input of the function represents time. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. if the doubling function is given the input three. f(a + h)) is close to (a. then it outputs nine. then it outputs six. where x is the independent variable. To be concrete. Therefore (a + h. If a function is linear (that is. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. three is sent to nine. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. Given a function and a point in the domain. If h is a number close to zero.

This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. Here is a particular example. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. For this reason.9) is 6. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. . The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. that is to say.

it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. properties. the indefinite integral and the definite integral. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative. For example: In this usage. then the speed will stay more or less the same.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. however. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. . then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. and applications of two related concepts. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. Leibniz.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. However.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. the inverse operation to the derivative. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. only multiplication is needed. (This use of upper. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". integral calculus studies two related linear operators. the derivative. called a Riemann sum. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. In technical language. If the speed is constant. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. introduced by Leibniz. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. as the output. but if the speed changes.

but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. or antiderivative. the area between the axis and the curve. The symbol of integration is . A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. . as an output. we can choose one value of the function f(x). the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. and is not being multiplied by f(x). For each small segment. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. where C is any constant. between two points (here a and b). f(x)=h. The indefinite integral. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. the area. To approximate that area. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. Call that value h. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. dx is not a number. is y′ = 2x. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative.

Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. then Furthermore. actuarial science. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. computer science. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. for every x in the interval (a. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. the study of graphs of functions. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. In biology. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. b). It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. we use calculus to derive its path. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. For example. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. made by both Newton and Leibniz. economics. slope. engineering. the moment of inertia of objects. medicine. More precisely. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. In analytic geometry. b). and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. concavity and inflection points. This realization. Physics makes particular use of calculus. statistics. demography. . classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. business.

fixed point iteration. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. . 1984. st-andrews. The Works of the Mind.. Scott..see also the summed area table algorithm. Vol. B.. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. 2008. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). ac. Robert Sonné (1966). Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. 180–196.. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. I [3] Archimedes. Dainian.. 618–626. 1995. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. John W. Birkhauser Boston. T. eds. "The Mathematician".. The Neumann Compedium. Method.). spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. In the realm of medicine. Dennis G. In economics. Ltd. google. University of Chicago Press. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. 28.. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. MA. Liu. . Wright. and linear approximation. 279 (http:/ / books. htm). Chapter 1. Inc.. pp. 2. Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books.Calculus Green's Theorem.. p 2 (http:/ / books. google. Discrete Green's Theorem. From Hammurapi to Legendre. google.. For example. mcs. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. Fan.. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . Warren S. For example. F. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. Inc. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. [8] André Weil: Number theory.. agnesscott. google. Copy (http:/ / books. google. in Heywood. p. google. 1947. ed. Iris B. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. 130. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. In nuclear medicine. Examples are methods such as Newton's method. p. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. p. . The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. p. Cohen. Boston. J. Agnes Scott College. ISBN 9810222017.. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. p. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. . An approach through history. html [7] von Neumann. World Scientific Publishing Co. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Pte.. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). google. Springer. For instance. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. Sherry (2007). R. Kenelly. Gottfried Wilhelm. Vámos. 279. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. Reed.. xxvii. Chapter . ISBN 0817645659. pp. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. Reprinted in Bródy. (2009). Cosimo. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. [9] Leibniz. Cengage Learning. . it's used to derive dosing laws. Wright. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. Page 228. Donald R. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. Biggers. Elif (April 1995).

ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1..ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. • Mathematical Association of America. Donald J. pp. 1–46. (1998). Hafner. Anderson and Don O. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. Apostol. Frank R. 2004. (1988). Publish or Perish publishing.. (1999). (2003). Apostol.. Calculus for a New Century. Adams. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. Donald A. "Calculus". Carl Benjamin (1949). ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. (1969). American Mathematical Society. University Science Books. Richard D. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind.. ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th. 1923). Not a Filter. (1996). "The History of Notations of the Calculus. 1 (Sep. 1998. Stony Brook. (September 1994). "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Volume 2. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Princeton Univ. Eric W. Bruce H. Cambridge University Press. 9th ed. Addison Wesley. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. (1967). 11th ed. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. • Cliff Pickover. Ltd. Calculus: Early Transcendentals.2002. • Tom M. Vol.Irl Bivens. Addison-Wesley. • Silvanus P. ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. Wiley. • Leonid P. 6th ed. Giordano (2008). Edwards (2010). • Thomas/Finney. Ron. 1: The Tools of Calculus". Loftsgaarden. ed.. A Pump. • Edmund Landau. Wiley. Maurice D. • Weisstein. NY. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. Thompson and Martin Gardner. (2003). Ch. The Association. • Albers." (http://mathworld. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. Dover edition 1959.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. Joel Hass. 2nd Ser." Annals of Mathematics. James (2008).html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. No. google.John Willey and Sons Pte. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). "Calculus".Stephen Davis:"Calculus". • Tom M. Press. • Howard Anton.. ED 300 252. Weir. Mathematical Association of America No.. Volume 1. • Robert A. George B.. Lebedev and Michael J.wolfram. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. 7. • Florian Cajori. • Michael Spivak. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. 25.

umn.html) at PlanetMath.pdf) • Sloughter.. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.html) • Mauch.wolfram.math. Michiel Hazewinkel ed. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.pdf (http://www.html)" from MathWorld. lightandmatter.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.lightandmatter. H.mit. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. B. ( listen now (http:// www. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P. Dan (2000). OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre . External links • Weisstein.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell. URL http:// www.understandingcalculus.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism.htm (http://ocw.byu. Fullerton. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.wolfram.bbc.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals. S.pdf) • Faraz.com/calc/calc.math. K. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath. soton.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.co.math.mit.caltech.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson.temple.htm) • Smith.org: The Calculus page (http://www.math.co.math.math.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.nd. (1991). (2006).edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business). J.htm (http://www. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa.htm) from ERICDigests. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.cacr.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.understandingcalculus.math.nd.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses.caltech. (2004).org/index.org) at University of California. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus".ericdigests.wisc. (2001). " Calculus (http://mathworld. (2003).pdf (http://www.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. "Calculus" Light and Matter. (2006). pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www.umn. G.com/calc/calc. . Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.wisc.edu/~sean/applied_math. William V. (2000).edu/~keisler/calc.htm) (HTML only) • Strang. mit.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.economics.ac. P. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow. "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www.edu/~keisler/calc.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler.edu/~sean/applied_math. Eric W.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC.uiowa.html (http://www. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology.org/pre-9217/calculus.pdf (http://www.com/Calculus.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics.D. Thompson (http://djm.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).encyclopediaofmath. H.math. (2004).cacr.com/ (http://www.uiowa.bbc.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www.calculus.pdf) • Garrett.

Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. Moreover. exams and interactive applets. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www. Newton manipulated the quarrel. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. as noted above. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. or. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials.mit. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. at the age of 23. A. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death.ucdavis. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's. 1709–1716.[2]) Meanwhile. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus.com/) Raymond. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. 4. this statement went unchallenged some years. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711.math. Newton.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. and centers of gravity. Newton.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus. . It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith. and others. 3. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later.html) by D. 2.[1]. as in the 'Principia' of 1687.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674.solved-problems. minima.Calculus Dame with activities.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList.

to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. In 1849. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. C. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677.[2] At first. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. It is. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). I. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. and in fact worked together on some aspects. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. on the method of tangents. Shortly before his death. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. Gerhardt. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. in particular power series. the manuscript. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. however. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. which was not known at the time. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. one of which was new to him.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. No attempt was made to rebut #4. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. However. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. but some deny this. whereas Newton began from derivatives. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. In 1696. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series.

When pressed for an explanation. which referenced all allegations. which I could sort through only with time and patience. but it appears that on more than one occasion. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. suspicious details. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). in the Charta Volans. Leibniz may have minimized. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. dont plusiers se sont perdus. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. "I have never.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. before publishing them. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. as it appeared to Newton's friends. which the author of that epistle. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. Several points should be noted. had endeavoured to wrest from me." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. No such summary (with facts. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. Moreover.." he said. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. The report of the committee. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. 1716. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. and doubts emerged. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. 30 years later. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. forty years ago. dates. 77 . the letter of June 7. and that of April 8. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. finding in favor of Newton. In any event. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. in the Acta Eruditorum). All this casts doubt on his testimony. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. the debate persisted for many years. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. and when I did. in most cases I did not keep a copy.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. Moreover. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. 1713. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. Now that I am old. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. of which many are lost. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. I have enjoyed little leisure. In accepting the denial. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz.g. as if by the authority of a great judge. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713.

in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books.. especially at p. at page 149. T. which were translatable one into the other. [4] D Gjertsen (1986). Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). [5] http:/ / www. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. (Guicciardini 2003. not in the German-speaking world). google. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729.. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. 1696). com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). google. the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". at page 250 (http:/ / books. the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. 1967). maths. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). whose potentialities he fully understood. points of resemblance. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. 2003). other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . "The Newton handbook". com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). explaining "the method of first and last ratios". . was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. 120. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). so making the priority row a nonsense. tcd. at page 400. (Cambridge University Press. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. the analytical method of fluxions. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. 1968)... at page 41 (http:/ / books. and the differential and integral calculus. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). (1970).99. They adopted two algorithms. the differential and integral calculus. D. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". google. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. of equal certainty.). (Cambridge University Press. at p. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736".

• Kandaswamy. Press.html). as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. Anand."[1] . in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion.maths. Edward B. 1997. or initiated by the Big Bang. A.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. 4th ed. a prominent supporter of the theory. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. Cambridge Uni. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. W. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. W W Norton. 1980. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time.rutgers.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. Rouse Ball. and tends. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. including the law of universal gravitation. random behaviour. • Stephen Hawking. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. 1908.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. approaching a maximum value). • W. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. going on without the Interposition of God. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. Canberra. R.html). the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. 1988. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. A thorough scholarly discussion.math. as a perfect machine.. • Hall. Dated. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. It continues ticking along.tcd. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable.

p. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion"." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. and motion. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. 201. God was the Prime Mover. Cambridge University Press. 2011. On the Sphere. no. ibid. Webb. Pr. 19. Clarke quotation taken from article. a working clock. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine.html) The Physical World. Edinburgh. Knud Haakonssen.. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. 1. This steel artwork contains moving gears. Further reading • Dolnick. Andrew Norton. [2] John of Sacrbosco. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. Edward B. cited in." Science and Christian Belief 3.K. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. p. ed. 65. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. God was the master-builder. . References [1] Davis. p. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton.google. 1991. 3. Richard S. the Royal Society. Harper Collins. Robert Lambourne. Edward. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. R. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. This view of God as the creator. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Westfall. A Source Book in Medieval Science. and beauty. the machine of the world. John Bolton. 1850. Joy Manners. (http://physicalworld. 2. 465. Ed. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. In this widely popular medieval text.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). Alan Durrant. regularity.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. 1974). space. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. p. quoted in Edward Grant. 2: 103-117. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. who created the perfect machine and let it run. Cambridge: 1996. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books.

edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. edited by Thomas F. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . Albert Einstein. translation. retaining only inertia.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics. time. Translation). Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. form.The Wave. and all their 'inner' qualities. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. pp.com (http:/ / www. J. 1931). htm [2] bartleby. 72.[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. Particle. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. bartleby. Phys. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. pp. Eugene. the material point and force (interaction between material points). com/ 65/ li/ light. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). gutenberg.html) JJ Thorn et al. html) . spatial locality.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. James Clerk Maxwell.: Am. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. Torrance (1982). one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. corpuscular theory of light. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers.29-32. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. 1210-1219 (2004) . and the additional concept of force. partly because of Newton’s great prestige.whitman. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory.

e. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. i. in the third volume of the text. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force..[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. and afterwards rendered general by induction. or mechanical. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton's First and Second laws.e. Third edition. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. first published in 1687. or based on occult qualities. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star.. whether metaphysical or physical.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. i. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. Therefore. have no place in experimental philosophy. 974 pages.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. Newton showed that these laws of motion. combined with his law of universal gravitation. page 943 of I. and I do not feign hypotheses.[5] For example. . University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. General Scholium. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. in Latin. 3. and hypotheses. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena.[2][3][3] 2. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m. opposite and collinear. F = ma.

momentum. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. i. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. This is the most common. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. then the velocity of the object is constant. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. In the given interpretation mass.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia.Laws of motion In their original form. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. Thus. from this point of view. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. Euler’s laws can.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. independently of any particle structure.e. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. That is. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies. however. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. In this sense. acceleration. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero.

[22] . 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. such is the case with uniform circular motion. however. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. where F is the net force applied. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest. m is the mass of the body.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. if a body is accelerating.e. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration..[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. Consistent with the first law. Thus. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below). acceleration. then there is a force on it. otherwise it would stop moving. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. Thus. and a is the body's acceleration. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. Galileo. even if there is no change in its magnitude. i. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. the momentum of the body is constant. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it. In other words.

[23] this is understood. by substituting the definition of acceleration. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). if the body moved before. M is the total mass of the system. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. known as the thrust. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. Then. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. reading: If a force generates a motion. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. In case of a well-defined system of particles. in modern terms. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. when they are oblique. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts.[17] The reasoning. Instead. or gradually and successively. a triple force triple the motion. a double force will generate double the motion. or obliquely joined. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. particles by definition have constant mass. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law.[18] In classical mechanics. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood.[24] . is added to or subtracted from the former motion. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. Under some conventions. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations.

in its own motion.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". the finger is also pressed by the stone. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. The changes made by these actions are equal. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. but act in opposite directions. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.g. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. This law takes place also in attractions. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. and by its force changes the motion of the other. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. motion is Newton's name for momentum. If you press a stone with your finger. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. if the road . As shown in the diagram opposite. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. For.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. Although the forces are equal. toward the contrary part. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. and directed to contrary parts. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. as the motions are equally changed. as it does the stone towards the horse. as usual. as will be proved in the next scholium.. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope.[25] In the above. but act in opposite directions. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. that is to say. If a body impinges upon another. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law.

Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. including general relativity and quantum field theory. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. very high speeds (in special relativity. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. and in quantum mechanics. Given two objects A and B. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. However.b are the forces from B acting on A. Newton's laws of motion. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. most notably at very small scales. which can be stated as follows. Therefore.a are the forces from A acting on B. each exerting a force on the other. one might say.[28] however from a deeper perspective. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. From a mathematical point of view. . Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. So each and every force has two ends. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. momentum. optical properties of substances. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. and not on a single object. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. Fb. At speeds comparable to the speed of light. 87 where Fa.

Clifford A. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). archive. springerlink. .Truesdell. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. [9] Benjamin Crowell. "Momentum. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". (2003). "4. pp. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. Benvenuto. google. except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime.1023/A:1022632600805. . 58. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). etc. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. . since they apply to both light and matter. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. Treatise on natural philosophy.. I. energy. volume 1. Dover Publications. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century.12.. Translations. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. google.. and by a modern text of the early 21st century.. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. ce. 207.).g. . Force and Motion" (http:/ / www.. ISBN 9780070084988. This can be stated simply. quantum electrodynamics.. Newtonian Physics. Edoardo (2003). Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. tripod. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". New York: Birkhäuser. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. ISBN 0486462900. action at a distance has been completely eliminated. Becchi. . which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. "Newton's First Law: Text. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum.. Halliday Browne. berkeley.Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. (1867). ISBN 3764314761. ISBN 097046701X. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books. McGraw-Hill Companies. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books. google. and to both classical and non-classical physics. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. quantum mechanics. lightandmatter. Indeed.45G. Michael E. W (Lord Kelvin). (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). the laws of conservation of momentum. Newtonian Physics. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws. M. doi:10. the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. google. and Tait. us. However. . Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. Antonio. Jacob (2008). Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation.]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. htm) [. html). p. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. general relativity. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. In modern physics.. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. P G. energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. pdf). • Section 242. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. Lubliner. Tseitlin. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04.

m would be treated as the relativistic mass. Physics. ISBN 0521602890. 1971 [20] Raymond A. 12 ff.. Shapiro. Bibcode 1992CeMDA.. html#NewLawMot). Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". 133–134.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. Angel R.M1).B. Berkeley 1999. pp. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. Applied Mechanics. doi:10. is a truth that no man doubts.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. [26] C Hellingman (1992). p. College Physics (http:/ / books. google. Jerry S.227P. . ISBN 0534997244.112H. The Principia. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. Muzzio. Principia.). google.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.T. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. google. Perspectives on Science. pp. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. and (3) Bruce Pourciau.. ISBN 0471037109. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. p. 27 (2): 112–115. .1007/BF00052611. pages 157–207. See Harman and Shapiro. Faughn (2006). And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. "Newton’s third law revisited". though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). Serway. p. but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. Eds) (2002). [13] Beatty. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. Whiteside (http:/ / books.. pp. ISBN 0070350485.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. (http:/ / books. in 5. 6. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). p. Pitman Paperbacks. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. "'Corpore cadente." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[. cited below. consists. Harman & Alan E. ISSN 0923-2958. pages 143–185. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. [11] Isaac Newton. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. Corollary III to the laws of motion . Millard F. vol. Brooks/Cole. . (2) Stuart Pierson. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". [22] WJ Stronge (2004).. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used.. London/Berlin: Springer. 2007. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation.. . in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia"." [28] Newton. it will lie still forever. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. 1. 199. .. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only. Cohen and A. 24.53. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. A new translation by I. also an online discussion by G E Smith." [19] Hannah. "Physics". McGraw-Hill. com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). p221. google. Educ.. Springer. 161. 1967). Robert Kolenkow (1973). Resnick. M J. . [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. ISBN 052189266X. "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". pages 627–658. . ISBN 0534408966. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. [. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. (1992). producing the relativistic expression for momentum. J. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. unless somewhat else stir it. John Wiley & Sons. Daniel. . s. . University of California press.27. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M.." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. stanford. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [16] Plastino. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole." [17] Halliday. 78–79. [14] Thornton. (2006). Juan C. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6.] Consequently. google. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). is not so easily assented to. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. An Introduction to Mechanics. p..60 (2006). "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. Bibcode 1992PhyEd. 1 (1993). . ISBN 0387237046. google. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. Phys. Whitman. p. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. doi:10. 353. Special relativity (http:/ / books. Marion (2004). Hillier. Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 53.

The Feynman Lectures on Physics. google. • Newton.. Isaac.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04.1).html#Section4. M. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw. ISBN 0030973023. Special relativity (http://books.com/lm/).com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178). • Thomson. B. ISBN 0030223172.google. Harcourt College Publishers.1.. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ).com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny.lightandmatter. and Tait. R. Cassiday.google. (2011. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. Wolfram Demonstrations Project.google.3. especially at Section 4.wolfram. Newton's laws of motion (http://books.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw. R.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy. Peter W.M1).. P G. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). containing Book 1 (http://books.com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). Newton's Second Law (http://www. L. G. volume 1.lightandmatter.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations. Thornton. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003). Light and Matter (http://www. W (Lord Kelvin).). • Likins. (2005). 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726).com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05.3). • Feynman. Vol. 6. especially at Section 242.google.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC). P.html#Section5. (1999). Newton's First Law (http://www. Benjamin. Jerry. Elements of Engineering Mechanics.).youtube.2). Pearson/Addison-Wesley. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. London/Berlin: Springer. Sands.Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell. Section 4. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books. Light and Matter).lightandmatter. Saunders College Publishing. R. ISBN 0805390499. • Newton. McGraw-Hill Book Company. G. Isaac.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6.com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) .htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. p. ISBN 0070378525. Newton's Third Law (http://www. and Section 5. html#Section4. • Marion. (2011).2. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www. volume 2.lightandmatter. (1973). Stephen (1995).lightandmatter. (1867).google.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC). Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. volume 1.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". • Fowles. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books. Leighton. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books.mit. 1 (2nd ed.motionmountain.

instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force. . Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. G is the gravitational constant.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. Assuming SI units. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. m2 is the second mass.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G.) In modern language. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. r in meters (m). and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. F is measured in newtons (N). Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below. first published on 5 July 1687. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. m1 is the first mass. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . Both are inverse-square laws. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers.

based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it. when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity".Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s.." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. if anything. of 24 November 1679. in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". but also.. and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions. On the latter two aspects. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. Plagiarism dispute In 1686.[7] It was later on.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. together with a principle of linear inertia.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known"... that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society. Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified".e. "prosecuting this Inquiry"). that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall.". by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers". "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent.[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". however. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time. have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". and on which some points still excite some controversy. that Hooke communicated his "supposition . Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive . being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". will so continue to move forward in a straight line.[6] In this way arose the question what."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal.

according to Newton.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). even close up. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. Newton did accept and acknowledge. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion..[20] and associated sections of Book 3.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. but that did not mean. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. which inclined me to try it . he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. without evidence in favor of the supposition. which Newton was making in the 1660s. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. but without demonstration. Hooke. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles.[14] including Bullialdus. Thus Newton gave a justification. Among the reasons.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1."[14] . The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. According to Newton. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). although significant. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[15] (who suggested. otherwise lacking.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. Newton acknowledged Wren. also without demonstration. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death.[19] In addition. in all editions of the 'Principia'. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage. supported by mathematical demonstration."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding..

That is. • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there.[26][27] In the light of the background described above. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. taken together. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force.. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". In the limit. as the component point masses become "infinitely small". Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). for example. gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. Alexis Clairaut. cancel each other out. As a consequence.. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). that "One must not think that this idea . Nevertheless. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. this entails integrating the force (in vector form.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. it becomes understandable how. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth.[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. As described above. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. on the point at r0. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. . about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727.

G is the gravitational constant. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines . Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. quantities in bold represent vectors. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. the increase due to the additional mass is 1. and if the sphere is large enough. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. In this formula.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. Thus. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. further outward the gravity increases again. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2.

Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . object 1 the Earth). it can be seen that F12 = −F21. It is a generalization of the vector form. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. per unit mass.g. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. object 2 is a rocket. Also. For 2 objects (e. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. except that F is now a vector quantity.

this is m/s2. General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. where φ is the gravitational potential. in SI. i. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity.[31] For example. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model).e. . • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. and c is the speed of light. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. The field has units of acceleration. that is. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. Gravitational fields are also conservative. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system.. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time.

you get an orbit with no precession. F = ma. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. especially of planet Mercury. In 1692. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle."[33] . they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. though hypotheses abound. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. the definitive answer has yet to be found. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. However. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. regardless of their different inertial masses. in his words. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. I believe. In point of fact. decades before Newton. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. and the observed precession. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. in his third letter to Bentley. In all other cases. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. See the Equivalence Principle. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. and assume a point mass for each. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. Yet. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force.. but in the case of gravity. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. "assigned the cause of this power"." He never. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. independent of the quantities of matter involved. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. Moreover. However. is to me so great an absurdity that. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations.. which was detected long after the life of Newton. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else.

1960). 20 June 1686. translators: Isaac Newton.).633.. google.. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. 1664-1684". already cited. [22] See J. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false). especially at page 13. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata.2. Rev. 1664-1684". pdf). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Vol 2 (1676-1687). because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". at page 66 (http:/ / books. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. 1995). google. [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. mpg. for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.. especially at 13-20. physics. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Correspondence. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'".. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. .).1103/RevModPhys. the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime... (Cambridge University Press. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Taylor. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. 80: 633–730. public.Proposition 75. pages 11-61. 1960). [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. nist. by I. 24 November 1679. doi:10.80. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Robert D. Ofer Gal. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). A. google. document #239. Phys. 1645. mpiwg-berlin. [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. pages 5-19. [2] . document #235. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed.).956 ..431-448. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). see particularly page 431. (University of California Press.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman.392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729. Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. 27 May 1686. [21] D T Whiteside. [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. Bibcode 2008RvMP. start at page 263 (http:/ / books. 168. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. Barry N. "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae".). Journal for the History of Astronomy.. General Scholium. 1666. Florence. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. In general relativity. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. Peter J. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. pages 5-19. (Cambridge University Press. at p. 45 (1991). In Einstein's theory. Newell. iastate. [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr.80. (Cambridge University Press. Mod. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. Springer. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). ch.Bernard Cohen. google. Bruce Brackenridge. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. (Cambridge University Press. [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. . htm). Direct link to value (http:/ / www. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). G. (2009). nist.I. p. David B. Theorem 35: p.633M. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). google. i (1970). Book 3. Vol. . Paris. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Vol 2 (1676-1687). google. (2008). is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. Vol 2 (1676-1687). (Cambridge University Press. [18] Page 436. 1960). [17] D T Whiteside. CUP 1989. document #286. start at page 177 (http:/ / books. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. i (1970). [8] Purrington. [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. google. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". 1960). document #288. "Astronomia philolaica".). 1960). [16] Borelli. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies.

M Nauenberg. edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. and it was the key force for planetary motion. 529-534. Westfall. [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. (C) 3.) [33] . [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. html) [31] Misner. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. it will simply fall back on Earth. Newton" (1759). Newton".W. [32] . Venus. H. cited above. Wheeler. by Richard S. at page 69. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. 10 (2005).Max Born (1924).. in Early Science and Medicine. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". 511-517.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. in Early Science and Medicine. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain.Freeman and Company.pythia. 10 (2005). in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". If the speed is very high. Thorne. John Archibald (1973)..com.The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. (D) 4. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . Rouse Ball. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. [27] See also G E Smith. at Introduction (section IX). 518-528. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. and the Earth. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". (E) . Ofer Gal. If the speed is low. utexas. New York: W. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ).. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. it will indeed leave Earth. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. Cambridge University Press. Kip S. ph. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth.. in Early Science and Medicine. stanford. 1893). It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. Gravitation. If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon. Charles W. 1. 10 (2005). but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. (A and B) 2. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée".youtube.

Carl et al. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record. php?p=2_23 . Notes [1] Sagan. net/ index. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours. net23.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision. A combination of red.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books.bucknell. eg.virginia.physics. New York: Random House.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111). A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone. When the disc is rotated.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover).edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow. the colors fade to white. google.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless.

Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. and its derivative ƒ '. f (x0)). is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). Suppose we have some current approximation xn. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. Then by simple algebra we can derive . for converging on the root can be easily derived. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. succeeded by Halley's method. That is Here. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. (x1. Suppose ƒ : [a. and the method can be iterated. The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0.

A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. However. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. (The closer to the zero. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0.) The method will usually converge. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). But. However. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. More details can be found in the analysis section below. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. He does not compute the successive approximations . but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. Finally. essentially giving the description above. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. Finally. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. In 1690. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. though the connection with calculus was missing. . 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. for a zero of multiplicity 1. in 1740. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. In the same publication. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. the better. Furthermore.

the method may overshoot. Furthermore. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. However. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. if the multiplicity of the root is known. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. Specifically. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. For situations where the method fails to converge. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. and diverge from that root. However. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. there are some difficulties with the method. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . In these situations. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent.

However. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. α being a zero of multiplicity r. ƒ(α) = 0. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. then the convergence is usually only linear. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. Specifically.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. then. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. In practice these results are local. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. in U+. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster.e. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. x in a neighborhood U of α. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance.6). Exercise 1. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x).. i. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0.

the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 2. . that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied.35287527 converges to 4. For example. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1. (b) (c) Finally.352836323 converges to 1. 2.[1] for the function .Newton's method 106 That is. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms.352836327 converges to –3. where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small.35284172 converges to –3.35283735 converges to 4. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1.

In such cases a different method. instead of the starting point. In general. x1 will be undefined. Let and take 0 as the starting point. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. In fact. . For the following subsections. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. the method will converge. preventing convergence. This can happen. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . such as bisection. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). since the tangent at (0. any iteration point is stationary. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. for example.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function).

the derivative at the root is nonzero. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. does not affect the algorithm. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. So convergence is not quadratic. then convergence will not be quadratic. let . except for x = 0. where . Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0. where its derivative is undefined (this. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. In fact. Indeed. so they do not converge in this case either. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. farther away than it initially was. For example. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. let then and consequently . however. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. In the limiting case of (square root). even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root.

0. 0. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root. darker means more iterations to converge. 0. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. For many complex functions. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions.500250376. Basins of attraction for x5 . Given . 0. For example. Indeed.251062828. 0. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined.031642362. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. the derivative is not zero at the root. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. 0. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic.067671976. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. .Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has. since both roots are non-real. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane.032741218. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero.127507934.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root.041224176.1 = 0. meaning the iterates do not converge. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. then convergence may fail to be quadratic. 0.

One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. k variables.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. . Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. In the formulation given above. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. If the nonlinear system has no solution. The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically.

For example. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. There are many methods of computing square roots.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. with derivative.5. if one wishes to find the square root of 612. which may be found via Newton's method. With an initial guess of 10. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x). We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3.) . We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. and Newton's method is one.

Eric W. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. illustrating the quadratic convergence.. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. 35.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. W. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method.). Kelley. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. Ortega. Classics in Applied Mathematics. xiv+490. 9. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. doi:10. • P. • Bonnans. Lemaréchal. 112 References • Tjalling J. Sagastizábal. Mathcad.6 [6]. Kalu. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. New York: Cambridge University Press. Universitext (Second revised ed. Teukolsky. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein. Gilbert. SIAM.7 [7]. J.. (2006). J. Newton's method [9] -. pp.). John H. 531–551. ISBN 0-521-00794-1. See especially Sections 9. PPT. C. • J. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. • Press.). and 9. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . Autar. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. ISBN 3-540-35445-X.Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . WT. T. Flannery. Berlin. MR2265882. "Chapter 9. SIAM Review 37 (4). Charles.4 [5]. Springer. 2000. Ypma. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. Vol. Matlab. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]. Claude. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. BP (2007). 2003. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics.Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. Rheinboldt. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. 2003. 1995. doi:10. Claudia A.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof.1137/1037125. Maple. M. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. of translation of 1997 French ed. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. 2004. Frédéric. Vetterling. Egwu (2008). • C. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. In particular. Deuflhard. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. • Kaw. SIAM. WH. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. SA. Cambridge University Press.

com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. nrbook. [3] http:/ / www. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. "A chaotic search for i". springer. p. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. 403-408. html [12] http:/ / animation. com/ empanel/ index. html [9] http:/ / www. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. wolfram. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. nrbook. com/ empanel/ index. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. chaos and Newton's method". In physics. edu [16] http:/ / math. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. php [11] http:/ / math. eng. mathworks. nrbook. html#Section4. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. 1 [10] http:/ / www. however. com/ empanel/ index. It is defined as: and so on. November 1997. . maccery. usf. January 1991. html [17] http:/ / plus. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. "Cubics. 6). html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. html [21] http:/ / www. amcgowan. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. nrbook. lightandmatter. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. com/ NewtonsMethod. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. fullerton. heroku. macroeconomics and other fields. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. Gilbert. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. com/ empanel/ index. fullerton. yihui. Thomas. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. usf. 3-12 (esp. pp. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). Mathematical Gazette 81. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. [2] Strang. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. or dot notation. torkian.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. maths. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. eng. r-project.

He also made all the tube. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. than by Refraction in the Glass. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. For this Circle being placed here. made with a concave Eye-glass. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. lib. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. and fittings. . Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. or a little less. and not the spherical aberration. ac. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. cam. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). stopp'd much of the erroneous Light.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". covering the limb of the Metal round about. an early composition of speculum metal. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. but be an opake Circle. mount. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. being the first known successful reflecting telescope.

". They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. Warren J. stsci. uk/ lens. clas. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). Science & Society Picture Library. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. php?imgref=10408672). com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. 1966. co. Heath's) in Strand. page 67 (http:/ / books.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE . htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope. Retrieved 22 November 2008. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index.A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life . edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m. com/ image. by Alfred Rupert Hall. Modern Optical Engineering. google. Dr Robert A. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. 1785" (http:/ / www.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23.6 References • Smith. craig-telescope..Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1. ssplprints. McGraw-Hill Inc. ..University of Florida (http:/ / www. Telescopes in History. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. [10] http:/ / www. google. Hatch . King. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. ufl. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. google. 9783540401063. Wilson Published by Springer. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). google.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope.Publication. p. Page 74 (http:/ / books.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. html .[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown.Work . 2004 ISBN 3540401067. google. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought.

[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one.mit. and there were many theories as to what caused it. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672. such as Niccolò Zucchi. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] .[3] and others. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.[9][10] If this was true.edu/~picard/personal/Newton.[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build).stsci.media. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror. then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with.

His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. and fittings. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. The surface also tarnished rapidly. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. mount. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. . with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. reducing cost and adding to portability. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. Because of these difficulties in construction. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). it would still correct chromatic aberration.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. the primary mirror (2). • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. leading to wider field of view.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. Like Gregory before him. He also made the tube. cassegrains.

This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. This flare is zero on-axis.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. Visually. . Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter). and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it.[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. low-power imagery. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. For research telescopes. For visual observing. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. suffer from coma.[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view.

By Fred Watson. page 67 (http:/ / books.M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. page 562 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. google. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. google. google. google. King. Inc NetLibrary. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. by Alfred Rupert Hall. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. Page 108 (http:/ / books.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. org/ basics. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. VandeWettering. html) [3] Stargazer . google. The Newton handbook. Page 74 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& .Mark T. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. rice.

so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley.stsci. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036).and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. Gebelein. Modern Optical Engineering. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7. p. net/ reflecting. Retrieved 2009-10-03. Hebra. 116.. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. harvard. p. google. 9783540401063..John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 77R [16] Sacek. htm).1. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith. 1966. . Rolin J. baader-planetarium. two. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . stsci.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian. David (2004). page 14 (http:/ / books. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. "8. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. google. pdf).M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. pdf) (pdf). com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. [12] telescope-optics. com/ documents/ paracorr.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space.edu . "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. google. . edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. .1. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. Vladimir (2006-07-14). "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". Retrieved 2009-09-29. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. telescope-optics. & David Shafer. google. telescope-optics. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations. .Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. cloudynights. Wilson Published by Springer. . Warren J. espacenet. com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. McGraw-Hill Inc. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life". 400 us:newtoniantelescopical ."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. . htm) [13] amazing-space. [20] Alexius J.

was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. for one. Journal of the History of Ideas. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". Yehuda Elkana. Also. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. if two globes. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. in addition to influencing philosophy. pp. he says. Calinger. David Hume. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. Ronald S. 319-330" (http:/ / links. 30. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). No. with no other clues to assess the situation.[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought.: Harvard University Press. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. CO. Retrieved 2008-03-26. in general.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. political thought and theology. 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. the tension). . floating in space. Vol. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . are connected by a cord. As an example where causes can be observed. 1974. 0. (This experiment involves observation of a force. Mass. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). jstor. Alternatively. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism.Sep. 1969). Such determination. 3 (Jul..[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. measuring the amount of tension in the cord. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). causes. . Cambridge.

[8] (Of course. partly from the forces. the fixed stars. — Isaac Newton. by means of a cord that connects them. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. — Ernst Mach. from the tension of the cord. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. pp.. according to the preceding methods. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. were revolved about their common center of gravity. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation. For instance. . 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. and therefore. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. Scholium To summarize this proposal. which are the differences of the true motions. p. no centrifugal forces are produced. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. and if. Because of the rotation. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. as an example from Newton's time. we might. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. they are not rotating.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero.[2][6] For me. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. even in an immense vacuum. then. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us.) Below. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other.Rotating spheres force). instead. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. Book 1. the matter is more subtle. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours.. . Principia. partly from the apparent motions. but standing on the Earth's surface. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. absolute space or fixed stars). here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. Alternatively.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. for example. centrifugal forces are produced. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. according to Newton.

also shown in Figure 2. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. but being on the opposite end of the string. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. putting the string under tension. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. which would stretch. This force is directed inward. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. the Coriolis force. along the direction of the string. requires a centripetal force of the same size. accounting for their observation. but circular motion at constant speed. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. However. Because of the rotation. (See reactive centrifugal force. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. (For example. they would say no force acts on the balls.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. pulling them apart. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. and is called a centripetal force. observers say they are at rest. the string is under tension. According to the rotating observer. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. the string is placed under tension. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. According to the article fictitious force. To travel in a circular path. locating one or the other of the spheres). so the string should be relaxed.)[9] To account for this tension. the Coriolis force is:[11] . See Figure 2.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. In this zero-tension case. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. Because the balls are not moving. the tying string. These two forces are provided by the string. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. m is the mass of the ball. but opposite in direction. The other ball has the same requirement. |xB| = R. and acts on everything they observe. not just these spheres. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. they clearly see the string is under tension. and should require an inward force to do that.

hence. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. |vB| = ωR. When ωI < ωS. say ωI (I = inertial). things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. . To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. while for a more rapidly moving frame. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. In either case. That is. Therefore. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. ωS < 0. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. Full notational details are in Fictitious force. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. However. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. this force is not the tension in the string. In the geometry of this example. For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction.

161. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. 82. p. Draza Marković. Retrieved 2010-05-13. . . [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books.M1). google. Courier Dover Publications. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. p. The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. google. [4] Max Born (1962). Freeman (1986). McGill-Queen's Press. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books.[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. p. google. Cambridge University Press. New York: Courier Dover Publications. google. 79. Janet D. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. p. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. 80. google. Bernard Cohen. Hand. . [8] D. . Bernard Jean Trefor Jones.M1). ISBN 354067652X. 175. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. editors) (2002). com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). p. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). google.M1).M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. Springer. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. . google. ISBN 0486607690. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. Courier Dover Publications. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M.Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. Time and Space (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521575729.M1). .). . com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. Knudsen & Poul G. ISBN 0521621135. 233. .[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. [10] Jens M. The Principia. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. ISBN 0486607690. ISBN 0486607690. and I. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. editors) (1996). Cambridge University Press. p. tripod. Smith. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). ωS is the greater. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. . [2] Robert Disalle (I. p. Courier Dover Publications. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books.M1).M1). [9] Barry Dainton (2001). 167. Moreover. p. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. p. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. 43. . Hjorth (2000). com/ definitions. Cambridge University Press. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). ISBN 0486652270. Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. ISBN 0691033234. 324. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. Princeton University Press. p. google. p. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). 43. google. Finch (1998). and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . pp. George Edwin Smith (2002). Bernard Cohen & George E. ISBN 0773523065. google. google. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. Figure 43. google. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. [5] Max Born (1962). Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. . . 386–387. [7] Max Born (1962). ISBN 0521656966. Sausalito CA: University Science . htm). ISBN 0521656966.

p. Nothingness (http:/ / books. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. Columbia University Press. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279.Rotating spheres Books. ISBN 0074603159. . com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. 55. google. Phil.4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. Cambridge University Press. Da Capo Press. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. he derived a formula for the force. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books.M1). B. Am. pp. google. 279–280.M1). In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. In Proposition 43. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.. ISBN 189138922X.[1] Since 1997. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. p. p. (3. 119. vol. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. 43. . Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). Mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). (3.. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. Dennis W. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. Lynden-Bell (1996). p. 99ff. In this example. [16] R. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. ISBN 0521621135. . google. 167. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). he showed that the added force must be a central force.M1). Bernard Jean Trefor Jones.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. p. fixed in space (the center).).M1). . [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). ISBN 0521352541. and Ralph A. google. . In Proposition 44. google. ISBN 0231066368. pp. 325–348.). google. ISBN 0738206105.3) in Stommel and Moore. pp. Moore (1989). google. no. See Henry Stommel. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. 348–349. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. 5 (1975) ed. their Eq. Mechanics (http:/ / books. . this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. D. Partridge (1995). Draza Marković (Editors) ed. Soc. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books.M1) (in Proc. first published in 1687. 275. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. . Henning Genz (2001). com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. the theorem has been . Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. .

exhibiting retrograde motion. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. However. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them.[5] Roughly 350 years later. always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. Apollonius of Perga (ca. According to these laws. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. this rotation is known as apsidal precession.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. and so on. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. 262 BC – ca. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. In particular.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . to first approximation. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. for planets orbiting the Sun.Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. Arguing from his laws of motion. To explain the epicycles. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. However. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). By analogy. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time.

whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. The radial and angular motions.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 .[13] However. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. To find this approximation. However. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession.[11] Brown. r(t) and θ1(t). that is. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force. to first approximation. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. According to this theorem. However. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. However. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r). afterwards. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. in particular.[12] and Delaunay. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun.

then. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. F2−F1 is a positive number. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. since θ2 = k θ1. such as r(t) and θ1(t). For example. F2 − F1 is a negative number. For example. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. if k2 is less than one. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. Formally. its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). the path of the second particle is given by . the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. r(t) and θ1(t). If k2 is greater than one. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). the added inverse-cube force is attractive. rather. θ1). In other words. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. the angle of the second particle. rather. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. where k is any constant. change with time t as the particle moves.Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). For this purpose. thus. A GIF version of this animation is found here. the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. By contrast. Both of these coordinates. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits.

both of which are constant. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). but not equal. ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). shown in red). the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. Hence. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. the orbit does not change as it precesses. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. in that case.. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. If k is greater than one. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. i. if k is less than one.. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. the second orbit resembles the first. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. .Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. at a constant angular speed. However. to one. Hence. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. F1(r) = 0. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω. i. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. respectively. i. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). in other words. this is true only for circular orbits. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). when the orbit is a circle. According to the conservation of angular momentum. In this case. However. where k is a constant. when the distance reaches a minimum.e. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. but revolves gradually about the center of force. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°.e.. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly.e.

whereas when k is greater than one.0 (black). Thus. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k.0 (blue). 3. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . the range of allowed angles increases. L12/m. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity. Thus. the inverse-cube force is repulsive. corresponding to an attractive force (green. as illustrated in Figure 7.0 (green). On the other hand. Thus. when k is less than one. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. 3. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. 1.0 (cyan) and 6.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m). the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. when k is greater than one. 1. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. the solution corresponds to an epispiral.0 (blue). Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces.5 (green). which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. When k is less than one. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red).0 (cyan) and 6. the force is attractive. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1.

the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. Over time.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. i. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. such as Hooke's law. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually.. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. and inverse-square forces. For example. oblateness in the attracting body. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5.e.e. in general. However. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). and other effects. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. green orbit in Figure 9). Conversely. this property is not true for other types of forces. As shown by Bertrand's theorem.) In such cases. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. For illustration. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies.e. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle.. F = Cr. An govern the motions of planets. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. i. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. the line connecting the two apses. green orbit in Figure 10). Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. In other words. such as . provided that k equals a rational number. no matter what its initial position or velocity. For example. general relativistic effects. i. However. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n.. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. F = C/r2. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. where m and n are integers.

If an elliptical orbit is stationary. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. α equals 180°. where n equals 1.C(r) is proportional to rn.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. Therefore. F(r) = rn−3 and.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). For the inverse-square force. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. this implies that. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. Thus.e.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). Wilson and Harper. the central force is a power law. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. hence. using the general law θ2 = k θ1. the apsidal angle α is 180°. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°.[16] According to their argument. i. As a final illustration.. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. As noted above. In the first two. in general. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. one of the first appearances of such a series. in the same time. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other.

which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun. of the planets.e.6 years. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit.[23] in Newton's time.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets. again on the monthly time-scale. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes). 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately..[28] Ironically.[24] for comparison.[25] First. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury. However. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic. the so-called Saros cycle.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes. In 1673. Hipparchus and Ptolemy. 18. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time. and is noticeably more complex than that. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit.0165)[26] In 1894. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier. i.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force .85 years.

. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. consistent with the formula given above. Rather.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. θ2 = k θ1. r1 = r2. the original force is not scaled. and its argument is unchanged. For comparison. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. the long axis would rotate 1. but the inverse-square term is not. and estimates of A and B. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). In this case.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. the inverse-cube force is added. since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. In contrast to Newton. For every revolution. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1).525°). roughly half of the observed 3. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same. However. The second term.[4] As Newton did. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. however. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. so Newton reasoned. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r).5°. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. Also. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. so that r1 = r2.

The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. Proposition 43. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest. which equals (k−1) θ1. derived earlier in the Principia. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r).Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. In an infinitesimal time dt. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. Expressed another way. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. by Newton's Proposition 2. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. specifically Propositions 43–45. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. All three planets (red.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. Therefore. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. and also its angle θ1(t). which equals θ2 = k θ1. by Proposition 2. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. At the apapsis and periapsis. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. Proposition 44 . the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. therefore.

to offset this. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. one in a fixed. by which two bodies may be made to move equally.Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force. the other in the same orbit revolving. which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r).[36] In this Proposition. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. In Proposition 44 of his Principia. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) .[33] By assumption. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. r(t). specifically by the formula given above. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws.

[28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). 2708v1). p. Principia.49H.14. pp.1997. [33] Chandrasekhar.245L. Book I.. pp. doi:10. 83. doi:10. Section IX. p. p. [9] Cohen. 252. doi:10. p. [21] Horrocks J (1673). "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". MA: Addison–Wesley.. D. ISBN 978-0520065895. Monthly Notices Roy. Math. 267 (Chapter 6. doi:10. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. Vawda F (2000). [14] Newton. Sc. Brown EW (1891).1111/j. Math. 187. p. 9: 31. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". [7] Sundman KF (1912). [10] Clairaut. 339–385. [32] Chandrasekhar.. doi:10.: 237. p. [35] Chandrasekhar. 192.13018. 135–147. Mechanics (3rd ed. [27] Hall A (1894). pp. [4] Mahomed FM. Principia. [5] Sugon QM. esp. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". problem 7).x. [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). [13] Delaunay C (1862). Astron. Propositions 43–45. [29] Brown EW (1903). 406. 52: 71. [19] Cook A (2000). Berkeley. 183–192. Bragais S. 184. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159.1086/102055. "Unknown title". In Norman Thrower. "Unknown title". [31] Symon KR (1971). J. London: G Godbit for J Martyn. 91–108. Delaunay C (1867). [2] Lynden-Bell. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. [37] Whittaker. Soc. pp. pp.Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. p. [11] Hill GW (1895). Am. Sc. The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. Book III. [17] Cohen IB (1990). 198.0016. Simon Newcomb. Principia. [34] Chandrasekhar. ISBN 978-1888009088.. JSTOR 2369997.386. Proposition 45. ISBN 0-201-07392-7.). "Unknown title". . [30] Roseveare N (1982). "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". doi:10... [16] Valluri SR. 98–106. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma.1023/A:1008317327402.. fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). pp. [12] Brown EW (1891).77W. editor. JSTOR 2369812. 147. [18] Chandrasekhar.. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv. [36] Chandrasekhar. Wilson C. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. Lynden-Bell RM (1997). Reading. . 254. "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". [24] Smith. Harper W (1997). p. [6] Whittaker. "Unknown title". Bibcode 1894AJ. Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. section IX of Book I. doi:10. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". Imp. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. Am. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). [20] Smith. 67–70.: 451.2008. Green Lion Press. Imp.1007/BF02422379. 193–194. Oxford.1098/rsnr. Mémoires Acad. AC (1745). org/ abs/ 0807. [22] Wilson C (1987).2307/2369997. Bibcode 2008MNRAS... Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. p. pp. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia". Proposition 2. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. bnf. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473.. Bibcode 1987JHA. p. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". [3] Lynden-Bell D. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. [25] Newton.. 183.1365-2966.18. Jin S (2008). Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. "Unknown title". "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. 141–147. [15] Newton. CA: University of California Press. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196.2307/2369812. pp. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". Mémoires Acad. [26] Chandrasekhar.

CA: University of California Press. 257–264. pp. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. 147–148. Bibcode 2007AmJPh. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. ISBN 978-0520088160. ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. • D’Eliseo. pp. New York: Dover Publications. 230–233 (sections §356–359). ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press).. • Newton I (1966). • Whittaker ET (1937).). 246–252. New York: Dover Publications.). ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). Cambridge University Press. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". pp. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. Berkeley. 84–85. CA: University of California Press. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Further reading • Bertrand J (1873).com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). Michael (1994). 246–264. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. CA: University of California Press. pp. Berkeley. pp. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). translated by I. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853.2432126. Berkeley. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". assisted by Julia Budenz ed. Bristol: Adam Hilger. ISBN 978-0520009288. 83. p. Merchant Books). CA: University of California Press. • Smith GE (1999). ISBN 978-0520088160.google. ISBN 0914098896. 56. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe".org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia .scholarpedia. (reprint.352D. Niccolò (1999). ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. Berkeley. • Cook A (1988).google. ISBN 978-0520088160.). doi:10. 534–545.).. LCCN 64-24556. CA: University of California Press. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. ISBN 9780521544030. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. The Motion of the Moon. 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). Principia Vol. John Wiley and Sons. • Pars LA (1965). Calculus (3rd ed. MM (2007). with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. Oxford University Press. • Rouse Ball WW (1893). • Smith GE (1999).75. 183–200. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". Publish or Perish. • Guicciardini. "Planetary Motion". Berkeley. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713).com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). Macmillan and Co. pp. Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. • Chandrasekhar S (1995). ISBN 0-85274-348-3.). External links • Three-body problem (http://www. • Routh EJ (1960). pp.1119/1. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. 252–257. "The first-order orbital equation". ISBN 978-0520088160. pp. pp.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). 147–148. • Spivak.

140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. without proof. pdf . John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. centre. babson. Title page of the Arithmetica. He also offered. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. In fact. None of these editions credits Newton as author. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Babson Collection. it was edited and published by William Whiston. published in 1865). edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. and the solution of equations. and so refused to have his name appear. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. arithmetic. cfm [2] http:/ / www. when Whiston's edition was published. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. the relationship between geometry and algebra. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. Written in Latin.

the distance is proportional to the square of the time. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. It contains 11 propositions. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short. Before reaching this core subject-matter. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. After further encouragement from Halley. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force. resistance is assumed nil.[4] as well as in Latin. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. both copies are without title. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. these had not been generally regarded as laws. (in the absence of external force.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. Law 1 in the Principia. (Before Newton's work. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. and its (Latin) text is available online. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws".) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion.) This . Law 3 in the Principia. Only the draft has the title now used. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. some with corollaries. then for the remaining (2) propositions.

A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. and shows that for any given time-segment. while their number increases without limit.) This theorem appears again. and the corollaries here reappear also. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. Corollary 2 shows that. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. as Proposition 1. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. using another geometrical limit argument.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. with expanded explanation. problems. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). putting this in another way. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'.) . then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. drawn from the body to the attracting center. labeled as theorems. Theorem 1. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. and inversely proportional to the radius.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. of the 'Principia'. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. Theorem 4 in the Principia. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. it follows that a radius vector. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. it would then depart along the tangent.

) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. Problem 4 then explores.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. therefore. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP². speed and direction of the orbiting body. (Proposition 15 in the Principia.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. . based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature).e.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. square] of the distance . Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun. in the Principia. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. that is. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola.. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. . and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. that if the speed is high enough. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse. where the center of attraction is at its center.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. Newton points out here. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. Problem 5 in the Principia. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others.. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse. (This material becomes Proposition 10." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. Lastly. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center. Problem 6.

[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. i. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. and both of them produced from very old memories. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places. and other items. and as if to whet Newton's interest. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. or that they were not stated by Newton. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body".[15] . are self-evident and obvious or not. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. Halley asked Newton. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. In 'De Motu'. or their views about the researches of others. using a falling body. ". Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. According to one of these reminiscences. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. as in the first edition of the Principia. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. and a short correspondence developed. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. and then gave a whole list. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. he asked what Newton thought about various matters.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. in 1686.. Later.. and the associated uniqueness statements. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. that in any given setup. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse".e.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time.

1971. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57.193-200. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. google. who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. vol. 10 (2005). 518-528. Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. 19(1) (1992). "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". . [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. [14] 'Correspondence' vol.2 already cited. Alexis Clairaut. google. at p. but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. pp. of 1729.). who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. google. vol. Math. but the point was disagreed by R.). "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". [15] H W Turnbull (ed. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". pp. and Bruce Pourciau. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. in Early Science and Medicine. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. 10 (2005). "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". p.195-6. both in Newton's lifetime and later. [13] H W Turnbull (ed.297-314. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. google. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. (Cambridge University Press. 38 (2007). Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.).60-70. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. and the 1686 correspondence at pp. f.196. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson.3968. gutenberg. 1960).[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. at pp. 511-517. Papers vol. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65).[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley.193-200.431-448. 6 (1684-1691). 1974). Weinstock. Journal for the History of Astronomy. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. (Cambridge University Press.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke.101. but not Hooke. to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". Chapter 10. who heard of this from Halley. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. org/ etext/ 28233). A Historian's Response". Correspondence of Isaac Newton.293.57. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3).297. 1960). and the original copy had no title: online. including Bullialdus. Historia Math.120. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". pp. Vol 2 (1676-1687).56-83. so-called. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. in "Newton's Orbit Problem.1 (1970). in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. See also D T Whiteside (1970).6. and printed by I Bernard Cohen. 116-138. pp. [11] Quoted in Richard S. is available here (http:/ / books.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton. A Historian's Response". Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Westfall's Never at Rest. about the Principia. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged. [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". vol. and Borelli. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. (Cambridge University Press. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. at p. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. in Early Science and Medicine.431-448. one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. in Early Science and Medicine. Ofer Gal. 10 (2005). who called it a 'petitio principii'.). footnote 73. pp. at p.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. M Nauenberg. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. also D T Whiteside. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp.89-170. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). Page 403. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest.g. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 6 (1970). see e. at pages 56 (http:/ / books.6 (1684-1691). but note that the title was added by Rigaud. 529-534. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). especially at p. and the first English translation. "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". as far as Book 1.

at page 69.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . S. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton.W. by D. Rouse Ball. 30–91. 1893). "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. ed. pp. Cambridge University Press. by R. Cambridge University Press. T. Westfall. 6. Vol. Whiteside.

Newton's results. V. Chap. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. followed by others. IV. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. King of Egypt. beginning with Sesostris. Of the Empire of Egypt. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. therefore. The majority of the treatise. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. Chap. but since republished in mass paperback format. Of the Empire of the Persians.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. I. followed by a short advertisement. VI. Chap. and that his Temple the first ever built. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. . A Description of the Temple of Solomon. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. III. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. however. Chap. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. II. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. Chap. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. Of the Assyrian Empire. with all others being copies.

Grotius. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. and later into the text itself. Armenian. first as a marginal note.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. First published in 1754. Armenia. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. Ethiopia. . concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. Syriac. ac. and Slavonic versions. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". or retain it as only a marginal reading. still in use in the several Eastern nations. Arabic. and what steps it has been changed. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. are strangers to this reading". Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. Erasmus. 27 years after his death. ac. and some others. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. Egypt. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds". Bullinger. Syria. the Father. Mesopotamia. as Luther. Muscovy. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. sussex. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. and some others. newtonproject." in support of the Trinity doctrine.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. newtonproject. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. the Word. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. Finally. and the argument full and strong. gutenberg. sussex.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. would not dissemble their knowledge". He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. He noted that "the Æthiopic. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. htm#chron http:/ / www."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2].[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. the Father. the Word.

1-2 [6] An Historical Account. was hanged at Edinburgh. p.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. [3] An Historical Account. Scotland. knew nothing of these two texts. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. 1 [4] An Historical Account.& version=31. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead. p. biblegateway. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. received up into glory. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. I understand not.& version=31. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. p. Newton argued that. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion.). p. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. Cp. aramaicpeshitta. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. htm) . biblegateway."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. preached unto the Gentiles. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. but some place it in a footnote. Aramaic version (http:/ / www." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. further legal ramifications on the second occasion.& version=31. 2 [5] An Historical Account. pp. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. believed on in the world. by a small alteration in the Greek text. likely due to the political climate. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. biblegateway. References [1] http:/ / www. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16.). aramaicpeshitta. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. p. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. biblegateway.& version=31. p. justified in the Spirit. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. Cp. [2] http:/ / www. seen of angels. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8.

but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt . but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions.ac. and published it in 1684. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673.google. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). The book was completed in 1671. archive.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099).sussex. fifty years before Newton. and published in 1736.co.newtonproject. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years).An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books.

such as water or glass. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. reflection. It is about optics and the refraction of light.[2] . into another. 1704. refractions. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. as beam expanders. The first. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. That is. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. such as air. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. Rather. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. on dispersion. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. first reported in 1672[1] . Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. Multiple-prism arrays.

unlike the Principia. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. Rather." the proper way to do science. the possible cause of gravity." In the first edition. or the tools of mathematics. These Queries. In the fourth edition of 1730. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. and then in the revised English edition. but the later ones became short essays.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. by the use of fluxions. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. In this sense. published in 1717/18. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. but that it may go on for many pages. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. Second. the nature of chemical action. They are almost all posed in the negative. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. over the next two hundred years. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. it is written in English rather than Latin. as rhetorical questions. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . Clearly. filling many pages. especially the later ones. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. there were 31 Queries. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. First of all. The first set of Queries were brief. That is." Rather. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. that number was increased in the Latin edition. published in 1706. these were sixteen such Queries. electrical phenomena. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer." In many ways. therefore. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena.

Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed. Opticks or. . Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin. • Newton. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ).). Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. 153 References [1] Newton. J.rarebookroom. Opt.org/Control/nwtopt/index. Papers on Hydrostatics. Fourth edition (http://books.: Octavo. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. A.bnf. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. Sound and Heat (http://cudl.Opticks the Principia. lib.com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. Duarte and J. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier.ac. Piper. ac. Retrieved 10 January 2012. Commun. 303–307 (1982). First edition (http://www. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. and James Black. Palo Alto. First edition (http://gallica. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. Isaac (1998). "Hydrostatics. 43. a treatise of the reflexions.html) • Gallica. Optics. refractions. [2] F. cam. Isaac. Calif. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) .cam. Optics.lib.google.

and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton also published two further editions..] . accurately proposed and demonstrated [. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses.. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]). Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". first published 5 July 1687. also Newton's law of universal gravitation.. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus. by the end of a century after publication in 1687."[7] In formulating his physical theories.] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton .. Newton wrote[10] [. at least in certain respects. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [. forming the foundation of classical mechanics.] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. in 1713 and 1726."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science". based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities.[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3].Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton.[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion. often referred to as simply the Principia. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia.... Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus. and of the forces required to produce any motions. Newton used his expression that became famous. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that.[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium).

and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. by observations. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. in revised and extended form.. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". . and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. De motu corporum Book 1. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". near-parabolic orbits.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form.. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion.' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). thus offering criteria to decide. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system.

but only a little. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. Book 3. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". others.[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]).Newton). Proposition 11. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. and accounts for the tides [37].[41] For Newton. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after).[45] . The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34].) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. attempts to derive the speed of sound. and that this centre "either is at rest. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. corollary [42]). the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. Corollary 2 [44]). and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. while some contend that the Earth. which "is acknowledg'd by all. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. De mundi systemate Book 3. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. modified in a somewhat modern way. especially its consequences for astronomy. especially the variation. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. and motion in arbitrary force laws.

but in philosophical discussions. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. assign the same causes.. In his notes. therefore. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. From a Cartesian point of view. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. . Curiously. and consider things themselves. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named.] instead of absolute places and motions.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. mathematical and common. true and apparent. Instead. [. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. till such time as other phenomena occur.. for example. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. for today's readers. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. by which they may either be made more accurate. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". this was a faulty theory. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. we ought to step back from our senses. or liable to exceptions. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. as far as possible. However. we use relative ones. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. However. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". he retracted this sentence in the published version. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. and was assured about their correctness. In the four rules. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum).

pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity.[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. of Descartes. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. Newton also gave theological argument. "I frame no hypotheses". and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". he inferred the existence of a Lord God. With these rules.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. From the system of the world.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. From this textual evolution. fires in the home and in the Sun. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. as they did. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. concerning the qualities of bodies. . and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. scientists use it today. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle.) Newton's gravitational attraction. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. 1726). The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space.

[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated.. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. assuming an inverse square law of force. and he normally kept dated notes of them. although the (lost) original may have been without title.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. and generalized the result to conic sections. . Hooke and Wren. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. but that he could not find the papers.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. how he sometimes forgot his food. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided.. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. Humphrey Newton. which he sent to Halley in late 1684. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. resolved to ask Newton.'. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. and did very little else for well over a year and a half. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies. that he immediately went to visit Newton again.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results.[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London..[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work. The contents of 'De motu. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies. and Halley. and to his project during this time.. or his sleep. but also all the laws of planetary motion.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley. Wren was unconvinced.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). or the state of his clothes. Newton's tract 'De motu.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. in November 1684. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. Halley.

that it might be read by many".. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. but he largely started afresh in a new. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. Liber primus'. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. also in 1728. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices".[59] appeared in July 1687. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. the solar system. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. tighter. amended to update cross-references. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. and its completion has been London. and less accessible mathematical style.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. in more than one manuscript. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. corporum. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. the moon. (Newton had also communicated 'De motu. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". Liber secundus' still survives. in the introduction to Book 3 [61].) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. not authorised by Newton's heirs). making it look . The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. After Newton's death in 1727. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. it survived complete. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. because in the meantime.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. and the other two books somewhat later.. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. the tides. published by Halley at his own financial risk. with handwritten corrections for the second edition.' to Flamsteed. Liber secundus' of 1685. The complete work. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets.

to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. licensing the book for publication. a second edition (1731). but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. Samuel Pepys. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. . but Halley. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). among them himself.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. In addition. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. secondary sources based on them. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. who hated disputes. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. showing considerable diplomatic skills. rather than before. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. Rather. causing some delay. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. or. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. At this time.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). 1686. in some cases. including two to Leibniz. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. Cambridge. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. as President. To these two laws he added a third a decade later.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". archive. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726.392.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). vol. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'.[105] William H. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. The first. Vol. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). by Andrew Motte. "Du systeme du monde. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 .[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. The background to Newton's "Principia". [7] G E Smith. google. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). cap. University of Toronto. Oxford University Press. Herivel. Isaac. in the 1729 English version). pp. about the 'Principia'.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. 1729 translation. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). especially at p. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. tripod." Author(s): Judith P.329. MA. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members.120. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. at page 19 of vol. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books.[2] was described by Newton scholar I. google. and well written". ac. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. into modern English. 2 (May. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. cam. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. and see also J. 1999). Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). E N Zalta (ed. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). W. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear.[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science".[104] The second full English translation. assembled and ed.2. . [11] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. See also D T Whiteside (1970). edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). p. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. google. 1972. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital.[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. published in 1996. and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. 116-138. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. 227-245. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. [3] Newton. lib. from 1729. which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). 55. 2001). google.).1 (1970). dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). google. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. 1965. [14] http:/ / books. htm).329 (according to a note on p. google. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. often incorporating revisions. stanford. No. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut.

T. . Turnbull (ed. google. cited above. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. 1980. 33. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. Edmond Halley. Retrieved 2008-05-31.2. google. in H. Stephen. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. [52] 'Cook. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392).) 167 . Volume. at page 233 (http:/ / books. [47] Edelglass et al. pp.207-221. [61] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. by D. [55] 'Westfall. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. 153-156. [59] Westfall.g. google. google.2. Book 3 (http:/ / books. be/ steffen/ GS. 1980. pdf). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. 151. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. [54] Cook. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books.15. google. Retrieved 2008-11-19. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). at pp. .2. eds. [56] Cook. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. at pp. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". Matter and Mind. google. 1998': A. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. 2A'. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. 223-274. [58] Westfall. pp. google. 1971). Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. google. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. htm). Vol. 1998. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton.147 and 152. google. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. google.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. at p. 1998. google. (Cambridge. google. [50] Ducheyne. google. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. google. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. at p. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. R Taton & C Wilson. at pp.. 1980. google. google. now often known as Huygens' formula. ugent. The Cartesian vortex theory. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . at p. ISBN 0-940262-45-2." (http:/ / logica. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. google. google. google. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673.404. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". vol. n° 2. google. W. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. also pp. vol. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books.406. [49] Snobelen. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. Books 2 & 3. at p. 406. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. n. p. google. google. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton.). [42] http:/ / books. google.47-142. 45 (1991) 11-61. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. 54. Cambridge University Press 1980. 431-448. org/ scholium. 147. [29] http:/ / books. google. 191-2. speed and radial force. [57] Westfall. Steffen. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. google. Oxford University Press 1998. google. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. Books 2 & 3.2. google. Cambridge University Press. Cook. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. [17] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. 1980': R S Westfall. [53] As dated e. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. Whiteside.

ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. and extract of his letter. at Introduction (section IX). 'Never at Rest'. museumoflondon. stanford. [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. google. Bruce Brackenridge. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . ac.. html [89] http:/ / www. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". CUP 1989. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". [83] http:/ / www. a resisting medium). [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. document #236 at page 301. and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. at page 69.. at pages 304-306. 1893). (http:/ / www.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". [80] R S Westfall. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. roe. p. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. google.2 already cited. at page 66 (http:/ / books. mpg. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . google. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. at p. google. 1980. document #286. i (1970). "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". se/ press/ pm. cam.. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). org. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). see Newton to Hooke. pages 5-19. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books.2. Journal for the History of Astronomy. 45 (1991). is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. Bernard Cohen.2 cited above. uu. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". closed curve and spiral. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. fondationbodmer. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". at page 433. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). [74] 'Correspondence' vol. ac.). ac. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. with accompanying figure).297. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. at document #239. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. (Cambridge University Press. vol. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. ch. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). 'Correspondence' vol. Part A. edu 168 . et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. [73] H W Turnbull (ed. or even a 'blunder'. Ofer Gal. (Cambridge UP 1989). [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'.2 cited above. 453. at page 259).. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). 1664-1684". cited above. document #237. but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. 1960). umich. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. Vol 2 cited above. html [86] http:/ / lion. 1995). would terminate in the center C". (University of California Press. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". see D Gjertsen. Vol 2 (1676-1687). though elongated. mpiwg-berlin. 28 November 1679. pages 11-61.W. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . cam. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. Newton" (1759). [65] http:/ / books. google. Newton". lib.e. google. lib. Rouse Ball. London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969. Never at Rest. at pages 391-2. html [88] http:/ / www. wm. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books... Tycho Brahe to Newton". Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". see 'Correspondence'. jstor. especially at 13-20. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia".431-448. google.297-314. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple.

Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation. • Brian Ellis. 1971). 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. Force in Newton’s physics. NJ: Princeton University Press. "A Guide to Newton's Principia".519. 1999. Cambridge U. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. vol. Burtt. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. at p.751–760.2. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0." in Grattan-Guinness.A. N. Cambridge 1971. • S. 29-68. [94] I Bernard Cohen. p. R. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press.. c1995).518-20. Bernard Cohen. 1965). • I. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 2005. The background to Newton’s Principia. pp. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). and obligations to you. at p. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia." [98] Westfall.712–716. xv-xvi.699.. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. I.4. • Guicciardini. vol. Notes. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. google. pp. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. University of California Press. Donahue.5. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. 1965). • John Herivel. Introduction to the Principia. "Philosophia Naturalis. Cambridge University press 1975. at pp. ed. 1954). Westfall. 1965). • François De Gandt. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. [95] Richard S. Bernard Cohen (1999). at pp. Chandrasekhar. • Richard S.. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. • Andrew Janiak. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. n. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. Press. Cambridge University press 1967.4. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. vol. Cambridge University press 1967. ed. 3rd edition. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. .802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). 1999. [101] Westfall. 2008).4. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. University of California Press. Dawsons of Pall Mall). a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. [99] Westfall. to whom he owes more than that. Clarendon Press. vol. pp. Curtis Wilson (Princeton. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy.750. Cambridge University Press 1967. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 1995). cgi?v1=8& ti=1.. • E.. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. 1971). G. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. wpi. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. NY: Doubleday and Company. Westfall. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. p. Elsevier: 59-87. Colodny. [100] Westfall.42.

archive.ntnu. in Latin) (http://books.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200).org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy.google.tripod. Partial • Google books.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. • Project Gutenberg (http://www.org (http://www. vol. • Wikisource • Archive.google. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1).archive.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica.cam.google.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2).com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage). • Principia (in Latin.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University. 1726).archive..google. first edition (1687. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.200 (http://books. interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687.net/~bjn/principia/).org #1 (http://www. regarding online editions . 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. 1713.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3. W. largely the Motte translation of 1729. vol.babson.com/toc. first edition (1687. • Google books. Chittenden. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654. (Book 3 starts at p.htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol. in Latin) (http://www.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books. annotated) (http://books. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.lib.ac.org (http://www. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version.html).1). ed.google.org #2 (http://www.gutenberg.archive. 1729.1 with Book 1 (http://books.

together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. on May 19. on April 28. which he had enlarged and completed. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. that its truth is past dispute. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. he says. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. At the next meeting of the Society.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. to make a report thereof to the council. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. 1687 and began changing the world. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn." At the next meeting of the Society. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. For the influences for the second edition. 1686. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. 1686. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. 1686. if certain. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally.

Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. though Newton had the notion from him. 1686." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. At the next meeting of the council. that Sir Chr. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. Indeed. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. so far as I could remember. the heads of it in short. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. "is so. I shall content myself to give you. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. volume. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. I am almost confident by circumstances. but it being a frivolous business. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society. and printing it at his own charge. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. Halley in his letter of May 22. which 172 . on June 2. which he engaged to do. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. and to desire his opinion as to the print. so that you might act accordingly. viz. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society." Halley adds. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. for 'tis long since they were writ." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. and the absence of the vice-president's. On June 20." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it." acknowledging at the same time that. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. cuts and so forth." "How much of this. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law." but. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. you know best. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. and I do not know that I have seen them since.

and understood it. a copy being presented to me. accused me of that ignorance. was upon other things. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. I designed the whole to consist of three books. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. so that a while after. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. and drawing the cuts fairly. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. and only wants transcribing. is expressed. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. I could not but have found it now. the second was finished last summer being short.. sun and planets. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. Oscill. and earth from the sun. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. Some new propositions I have since thought on. though not accurately enough. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. And so. and that's above fifteen years ago). and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. sent him. in compliment to sweeten my answer. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. in stating this business. and only guessed it to be so accurately. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. did not answer his third. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. in print. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. 173 . The third wants the theory of comets. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. told him I had laid philosophy aside. and guessed it to be elliptical. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. "The proof you sent me I like very well. And so. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. his letters put me upon it. that without my demonstrations. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. But. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. as to the other from Kepler. can know no more. and so upon mistaken grounds. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. in print. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. thought no further of philosophical matters than. expected to hear no further from him. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. so Mr Hooke. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. which I can as well let alone. namely.

which are much the greater number. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. which is all at present. HALLEY. which he puts so much value on. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. E. If it please you to have it so. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. in the honour you do them. The third book was presented to the Society. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. and adding. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. as I guess by what you write. found out last winter. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. I found it so formerly. and then. NEWTON. In the first page. "If you please you may change the word to sections. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. as to deprive us of your third book. July 5. which made me afterwards return to the first book. though it be not material.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. Hooke and Halley. "But. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. not to let your resentments run so high. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. upon second thoughts. 1686. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. 1686. De Motu Corporum libri duo." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. 174 . after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. Sir. I know not. which. and now I am no sooner come near her again. It will help the sale of the book. your most affectionate humble servant. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. nor on the books of the Society. I will try how well it can be done. from your affectionate friend. with her. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. on April 6. And if in truth he knew it before you. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. I must now again beg you. I retain the former title. The work. and therefore I had altered it to this. The two first books. "Is. The third I now design to suppress. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". but she gives me warning. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. Now you approve of the character and paper. you ought to be considered as the inventor. On July 14. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. without the third. ought to compose it. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. and humble servant. I will push on the edition vigorously." On June 30. 1687. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. as might have been expected. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. Sir. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. I am. The second book. as have to do. and not much more charge. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise." On June 20. It will be more convenient. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. What application he has made in private. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.

dated London. On April 21 the deputation. The deputies. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. bound in calves' leather.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. July 5. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. announcing the completion of the Principia. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. a very great part of which is extant. the master of Magdalene College. and was dismissed. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. Mr Flamsteed. On April 27 they gave their plea." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. to take my money as they are sold. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. and lettered. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. as well as of profound and public speculation. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. appeared before the court. who was vice-chancellor. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. or at 5 sh. I intend the price of them. Mr Paget. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. with their case carefully prepared. a Benedictine monk. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. before starting for London. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. and ordered them out of court. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. or else at some short time. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. but rather. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. and hope it will please you. which I entreat you to accept. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. Mr Boyle. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. nor suggested a compromise. but the university showed no sign of compliance. The following letter from Halley. to be [OCR error] shillings here. 1687. the chancellor. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. so much to your own and the nation's credit. that starts from town tomorrow. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge." . for ready. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. On May 7 it was discussed.

which doubtless must have been very alarming. upon his own accord. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. 1693. before I considered what I did. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. 1693. that it had actually done so. to let me know the very truth of the matter. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. and for five days together not a wink. but what I said of your book I remember not. and a distemper. Sir. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. which lasted eighteen months." . addressed to Samuel Pepys. I will give you an account of it if I can. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. 1694. by sleeping too often by my fire. or both. as in a letter to his friend Millington. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. "I have not seen him. or." To which Leibniz. in a letter dated June 8. wrote to Leibniz. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. and since. and before I had time to ask him any question. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. Newton wrote: "The last. and keeping him shut up." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. added. and beg your pardon. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way. Let me. put me farther out of order. at which he was much concerned. which this summer has been epidemical. whose mind was never at rest. therefore. dated September 26. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. Pepys must have heard such rumours." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. I got an ill habit of sleeping. winter. I was averse. and dated the 15th of October 1693. so that when I wrote to you. Christiaan Huygens. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. and I hope never will. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more." he says. I remember I wrote to you. In a letter dated the September 13. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. or mind. if I may but have them quietly. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. as to be put into great disorder by it. according to a report which was believed at the time. namely. replied. beg you. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. from the concern I have for him. 1693. nor have my former consistency of mind. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. where. but upon his pressing consented. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge." On September 20.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. but that "he was out of town. nor by icing James's favour. He is now very well. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in.

1997. E. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. On April 30.) [3] Richard S. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. see Isaac Newton's later life. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. the vice-chancellor of the university. Westfall. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). Newton retained his seat only about a year." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor. and gives original spellings. .G. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. Forbes et al. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'.. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. published as #537 in Vol. 1689. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. as it were. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. He enclosed a form of the proclamation.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980.1998. On February 12. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes.. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel. Never at Rest. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. ed. now archaic.

he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. He entered notes from both ends. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. fluidity. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. and other sensations. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. These were followed by questions on violent motion. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. rarity. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. Aristotle is my friend. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. They began with the nature of matter. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. colour. and others. It is also definitely before December 9. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. for example. The initial notes. whereby every question is put to experimental test. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. but my best friend is truth). 1661. Kenelm Digby. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. place. Galileo's Dialogue. 1664. At the other end of the book. Some headings were followed by vast entries. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. Robert Boyle. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. Following this. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. But following this he drew a line across the page. hardness etc. at the other. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. currently in the Cambridge University Library. Thomas Hobbes. in Greek. which had . vision. light. "Of ye Creation". Additional information This octavo notebook. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English.

Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. on the contrary. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. such as when a heavy body falls. . Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. Gassendi.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page.. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does.. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. Elsewhere. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. including his idea that it is a wave. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. would look coloured. others were blank. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct.

additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library. Lohne. • J. A. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. References • "Portsmouth Papers". "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] .Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. Westfall. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. by Richard S. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. Cambridge University Press. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society.

In this work. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. located in the chapel of Trinity College. plays. Newton or Albert Einstein. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. Cambridge . looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. mathematician. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. Newton became a scientific icon.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. natural philosopher.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. Because of the resounding impact of his work. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton was deemed the more influential. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. in 1795. Many books. published in 1687. In mathematics. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton.[1] In 1999. alone. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history." Newton was the runner-up.

. Oxford University Press. a . I suppose. "They even keep it on at weekends. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). pp. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. you see. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. perspicuity and invention." "Yes. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson.. Though that. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. "yes. Science in Popular Culture [9]. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science." . • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002). you see. Invention. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt." . Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. there was that as well. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. But the catflap . and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. set during the Great Recoinage. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology." "Gravity. pure creative invention. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. It is a door within a door. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). "there was also the small matter of gravity." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug.. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning.) Sir Isaac Newton. Greenwood Press.. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. It is a door within a door.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies. ah.. "(. 27–43." said Richard. It was there to be discovered. • A. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. of course. • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent. there is a very different matter.. was merely a discovery.. including the famous apple. Routledge.

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Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

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References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

who regularly experienced spiritual visions. Hanover. pp. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted. Walter de Gruyter.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. retrieved 10 September 2009. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. Christopher B. [4] Burwick. Science is the Tree of Death. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. S. apparently at the bottom of the sea. page 328. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www. . whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. 243."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work).[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. org.[5] References [1] Townsend. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. 1997.[3]. Foster (1988). The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. tate.

2003. Joyce (ed. William Blake: The Painter at Work.Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. London: Tate Publishing.). Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson.

in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day. when it required the interference of Mr. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. which stunk and had worms swimming in it. reaping. England. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal.[2] ". he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury.. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. and Coram drew their daggers. Mr. with many distinct farms and cottages. although his wife survived him until 1720.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. Shoveller."[2] Following the death of Coram. Mr.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon. when he let it to Dr John Young.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. Sir Thomas Clarke..[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. who married her daughter in 1665. dean of Winchester. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. Pye. although open days are occasionally held. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. near Winchester. when Young was expelled from the deanery. or hay-making.[5] .upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. He died in 1706. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley. So. The house and park are not generally open to the public. and rode at each other through the wheat. The reapers refused to work without better provisions.[1] During the Commonwealth era.[1] Sir Charles. upon the lands of the lord of the manor. no doubt.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park.

which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. and after his death. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. then a circle marked "Watch slow. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. In 1747. and a scaled-down gateway tower. the outermost divided into minutes.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. Harriet. In 1734. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. Shortly after his marriage.[9] The Castle. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. Watch fast". the estate was left to his son. Conduitt. as granted to him in 1717. the owner. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham.[5][6] On Newton's death. is below. but his election was declared invalid. and the arms of Mr. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). Bt). he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. John Rowley.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. which he also owned. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. the base of a pillar. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. leaving a daughter.C. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer. Hampshire."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. Thomas. then the months divided into days. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. a diagram of the compass. next the hours. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. On his death. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead.. the points alternately plain and embossed. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park. In 1770. built in 1780. Catherine. remaining there until his death in 1727. Nearer the centre are degrees. Towards the end of his life. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. retaining that position for four years. all round the world. Newton became resident at Cranbury. Cranbury Park. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . ("Each one is the son of his deeds" . are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras".. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781).[5] In May 1721.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. and within. etc. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774).a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate.

[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. but his wife survived him until 1825. Tankerville Chamberlayne. especially in the saloon on the south front. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht. During the Second World War. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)).[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. set in arch-headed reserves. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England. but in the rear descending rapidly. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830.[11] on her death.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald". this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896. In fact. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. is on the level ground at the top. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom. a large red brick one. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. In 1822. William Chamberlayne.[22] Writing in 1898. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. MP for Southampton. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. The house. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. Arrow. intersected by various springs. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. flat as it fronts to the south. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. which has a circular domed ceiling. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. on that . Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. built round a court.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park. Whilst serving the town.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811.

The Book of Sun-dials. [9] Yonge. Retrieved 23 September 2009. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. online-literature. www. "History of Cranbury Park. . . Lloyd. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries.britannia."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. (1898). www. p. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford.com. William (1908). A.online-literature. html). [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. parliament. [12] Leonard. Stories of Southampton Streets. . . "Later changes" (http:/ / www. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. Paul Cave Publications. horninghold. p. www. Eleanor. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. pdf). . (1898). aspx?compid=42018#s4). Charlotte M.online-literature. thepeerage. [2] Yonge. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. A. . is situated in the southern corner of the park. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. Charlotte M. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). [8] "The Buttercross. . htm).[26] References [1] Page. [10] Thompson. co. Hamilton (1953). publications. thepeerage. www. (1898).Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. online-literature. . "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. (1984).british-history.online-literature. www. html). british-history. uk/ report. Retrieved 20 September 2009. ac.com. 5 May 2004. com/ p4650.ac. City of Winchester. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3. before joining Monks Brook. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). online-literature. Winchester" (http:/ / www. pp. . ISBN 0-116700-20-3. [7] Gatty.com. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. Retrieved 23 September 2009. online-literature. [14] Yonge. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. Victoria County History of Leicestershire. Retrieved 23 September 2009. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. Retrieved 24 September 2009. (1898). and include fountains. Eden.online-literature." a word signifying a country dance. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102. Facet-Headed. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. library. Retrieved 20 September 2009. close to The Castle.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. cityofwinchester. [4] Yonge.com. . built from material plundered from Netley Abbey.com. The English Country House. H. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. a rose garden. Retrieved 23 September 2009. www. Hansard. .K F. (1898).thepeerage. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13.com. www. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 15 May 2005. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. htm#i46495).uk. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). Charlotte M. 1998.G. com/ p4650. [11] "Horninghold. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. www. britannia. Margaret Scott. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. . "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. Michael (1999).parliament.K. Charlotte M. . specimen trees and pinetum. Hampshire" (http:/ / www.[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. [5] Yonge. Netley Abbey.online-literature. . [6] Ford. 72 & 74. upenn. online-literature. org.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". Retrieved 23 September 2009.uk. Charlotte M. html). Her Majesty's Stationery Office. www.com.thepeerage. ISBN 0-86146-041-3. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. 22. 68. Retrieved 24 September 2009. (1900). "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 20 September 2009.com. 9 October 2006. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. htm#i46497).

hants. 1995.com. Matthew (2009). Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. "Papworth. 1741—1825. [19] "Cranbury Park. David (April 2004). org. uk/ m35. alresford. "Chandler’s Ford. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. in Country Life. . 3rd ed. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects. [21] Watkin.v. The New York Times: 10. Retrieved 26 September 2009. The lost country houses of England.[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. nytimes. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions.[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. which would value approximately £25. amazon. Retrieved 26 September 2009. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). www. [20] Dorothy Stroud. [25] Currie. s. co. 15 November 1956. 1600-1840. plates 23-2. uk/ Campsite/ index.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. Retrieved 24 September 2009. April 2004. [23] Yonge. online-literature.. oldmaps.oldmaps. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. Retrieved 24 September 2009. www. . com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). fieldclub. John Buonarotti".uk.000 (us$35. see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). . Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. Micheldever. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. chandlersfordscouts. htm). . "Stratton Park. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. George Dance. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3.online-literature. htm). . . "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. org. Retrieved 26 September 2009. html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). "A Survey" (http:/ / www. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. 1971:93-95. 8 and 15 November 1956. matthewbeckett.700) in late 2001's terms. Charlotte M. Retrieved 26 September 2009. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. . html). Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. Architect. (1898). [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. 16 January 1881. html). Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www.co. Retrieved 26 September 2009. noted in Howard Colvin. Retrieved 2009-07-12. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. . Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. . Christopher (Spring 2005). . com/ gst/ abstract. [22] Dorothy Stroud. Retrieved 2009-07-12. htm).

The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. That is. to the scientist.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. edu. uwa. either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). alder). au/ people/ mike. amongst others. . it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword. He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. According to Alder. Also available as Mike Alder (2004).[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. . or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. Alder admits however. Retrieved 22 july 2010. or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. bbc. [4] Mike Alder (2004). uwa. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). BBC news.[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. [3] Mike Adler. University of Western Australia. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor".[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. co. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20). which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. uwa. maths. .Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. Retrieved 22 july 2010. au/ ~mike/ ).] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened.pdf). University of Western Australia. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. maths. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved.. edu. which he describes as pure reason. . edu. .. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". . Mike Alder's Home Page. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. stm). that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. the question can be solved by experiment. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. philosophynow. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004.

inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. near Grantham. once private. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. to the rear of the house. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. and the old walled kitchen garden. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. being restored. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] .Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. were opened up to the public in 2003. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. most notably his work on light and optics. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. Woolsthorpe Manor. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. taking into account modern living. England. New areas of the house. Lincolnshire. One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house.

Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. org. uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ . nationaltrust.

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