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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

astronomer. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. 25 December 1642. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. Margery Ayscough. he was a small child. alchemist. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. and contributed to the study of power series. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. In mathematics. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. and theologian. mathematician.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth.[11][12][13] . Born prematurely. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. At the time of Newton's birth. published in 1687. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. Newton was also highly religious. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. When Newton was three. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. he never married.1 litres). The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. He was an unorthodox Christian. the subjects he is mainly associated with. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. independently. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. natural philosopher. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. and for the style of the work. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. In this work. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. due. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written.

nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. NY: Thomas Y. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things".) Such a . Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. In 1667. such as Descartes. Sarah K. Crowell & Co.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. and very young . there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. and by October 1659. where his mother. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below).[17] In June 1661. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. Newton was educated at The King's School. also by British mathematicians.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. widowed by now for a second time. Luckily for Newton.[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. and did not give a full account until 1704. although with very different notations. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". a fellow of our College. Nevertheless. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. In 1665.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. he became the top-ranked student. were adopted by continental European mathematicians.[18] At that time. and after 1820 or so.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method". Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. and Kepler.. He was removed from school. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. He hated farming. For such a significant appointment.[23] A related subject was infinite series.. master at the King's School. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below).. for example. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. he was admitted to Trinity College. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton. in a manuscript of October 1666. Galileo. Famous Men of Science. attempted to make a farmer of him. ordaining normally could not be dodged. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently.[15] Henry Stokes. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton.

Because of this. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716.Isaac Newton suggestion. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. valid for any exponent.[32] Starting in 1699. Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. However. of 1684. In 1691. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. but never finished it. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. accepted this argument.[34] 4 . fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. He discovered Newton's identities. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. however. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". Newton's method. However. At the time. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. whose permission was needed. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). and Charles II. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables). and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. In that day. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form.

and may . and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. when Hooke. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. which he later expanded into his Opticks. As a proof of the concept.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work.II. and the general phenomenon of diffraction. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration). Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk. In 1671. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour. Props.13).. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas.[39] Building the design. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. revived his interest in alchemy. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. the first known functional reflecting telescope. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. Thus. 12).[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. Today's quantum mechanics. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. however. across a vacuum. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. it stayed the same colour.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. Newton lectured on optics. he might not have developed his theory of gravity. Newton published Opticks. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80. John Maynard Keynes. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. .[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles. today known as a Newtonian telescope.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light.) In 1704. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672..

In the same book he describes. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. via diagrams.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke. and much more.[51] Later. In an article entitled "Newton. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. as they did. In the same work. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. 8th Query). but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 .[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. was at rest). i. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684.[49] For Newton. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. the use of multiple-prism arrays.e. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions.. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. but they did not so far indicate its cause. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. In this work. wherever it was. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way. prisms. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. Also. and defined the law of universal gravitation. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". using a glass globe (Optics. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon.

a position Newton held until his death. after Sir Francis Bacon. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. John (1733) – were published after his death. including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. but Newton took them seriously. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. These appointments were intended as sinecures. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. Catherine Barton Conduitt. the Astronomer Royal. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. Cambridge.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. 1st Earl of Halifax. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). then Chancellor of the Exchequer. until his death in 1727. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo).[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. Newton became internationally recognised. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. With the Principia. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. In his position at the Royal Society.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu. Towards the end of his life. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . His half-niece. He took charge of England's great recoining. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726].[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. which Newton had used in his studies. when it abruptly ended.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

Mathematically. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. they may be at rest). Unlike Aristotle's. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). .Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. with time. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. The SI unit of force is the newton. For example. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force.[102] Apple incident . the first term vanishes. this is expressed as . in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. Before Newton. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. named in Newton's honour. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. the reason is. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. that the earth draws it. to the Moon. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. if matter thus draws matter. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. The King's School. or toward the centre." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends.[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment.. & myself. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth..[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. had the first thought of his system of gravitation. Cambridge. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. amidst other discourse.[107] In similar terms. he was just in the same situation. not in any side of the earth. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. whose manuscript account.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. as when formerly. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. We went into the garden. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. Grantham. he told me. it must be in proportion of its quantity. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece."[106] John Conduitt.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. as well as the earth draws the apple. and get good agreement. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. and hence named it "universal gravitation". below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. there must be a drawing power in matter. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre.[111] . whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. in an inverse-square proportion. therefore the apple draws the earth. published in 1752. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. only he. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance.

New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. I. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. ISBN 0195092244. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. html). Retrieved 28 March 2010. 22 [17] James. [6] Snobelen. PMID 12519805. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. n. i. Michael Hoskins (1997). 315.36. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period. Optical Lectures.B.1. At Newton's birth. . James R. [18] Michael White.96. [10] Cohen. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). (1983) [1980]. chlt. Retrieved 28 March 2010. c. google. oxforddnb. Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. html). Oxford University Press. flickr.4 [4] Gjersten. The Newton Handbook. [7] Burt. Leibniz. 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. html). 530–1. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books. Daniel S. google. (1996). (1999). doi:10. p. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.M1) [19] ed. September 2004. [5] Westfall. p.1017/S0007087499003751. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Moreover. ISBN 1-573-56256-4. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. [9] Christianson. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. 1998. org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. [14] http:/ / www. 74. online edn. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. Gale E. 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www. google. The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. pdf) (PDF). Isaac. p. (1970). the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. Greenwood Publishing Group. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. ISBN 9780521274357. Graham's Home Page. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. edu/ MATH/ Newton. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. Oxford University Press. PMC 539373. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. Retrieved 3 February 2009. a. 2 (June.43. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. Derek (1986). heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). Stephen D. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. isaac-newton. "Isaac Newton. org/ heretic. . uk/ newtlife. Ioan (January 2003). May 2007. No. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. p. Vol. newton. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. [13] Newton. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752.1258/jrsm. ac. .. 8. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www. Isis.e. 159. p. pp. (2001). Richard S. p. php). accessed 24 February 2009. google. . [2] Mordechai Feingold. Cambridge University Press . 50. . 84. Newton. By the time he died. ISBN 9780521058179. Barrow. Bellevue College. Isaac. . but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. com/ view/ article/ 1541). Unless otherwise noted. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www. "Singular scientists". 11. org/ stable/ 236236)".Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. jstor. doi:10. 1993). berkeley. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Vol. pp. google. fictional. Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). bellevuecollege.

'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.99. 'Principia'.1086/353114. 1980.. A very short introduction. 1967). letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679. see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books. nor for his service at the Mint. 151 [35] King. Retrieved 10 January 2012. . at page 297. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". pp. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). cam. 'Never at Rest'. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-940262-45-2.com.24D. . "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy.. J. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. . [25] Newton. cam. Charlotte M. [59] Westfall 1980. ac.Isaac Newton [20] Newton. Retrieved 23 September 2009. H W Turnbull. MacMillan St. at p. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte. cam. google. Google Books. [45] Dobbs. Cambridge University Digital Library. vol. 1676–1687' ed. DuarteOPN(2000). com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. [54] White 1997. Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes. doi:10.317 [56] Gerard Michon. document #235. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting.). Isaac. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). eds (1922–1958). 325 [39] White 1997. page 67 (http:/ / books. p. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. p. by Alfred Rupert Hall.. [60] Westfall 1980. Google Books. htm#newton). 1729 English translation.245 [58] Yonge. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908. 1696). Martin's Press. Retrieved 16 January 2010. google. [47] R S Westfall. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2). google. [48] D T Whiteside (ed. google. 1684–1691. Cambridge University Press 1960. [24] D Gjertsen (1986). [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. "Hydrostatics. . [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia. Venn.online-literature. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. google. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Retrieved 16 January 2010. "Newton.6. at page 233 (http:/ / books. Isaac (http:/ / venn. . vol. especially at pages 119–120. Book 3 (1729 vol. Volume. Page 74 (http:/ / books.11. at page 149.). [51] Edelglass et al. F. vol. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). Matter and Mind. '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. J.1364/OPN. 356ff [34] White 1997. J. google. pages 116–138. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". google. Alfred Rupert (1996). . [26] Newton. Isis 73 (4): 523. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). ISBN 9780486432656. p. ac. p170 [40] Hall. (2000). but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. Cambridge University Press 1974. Chapter 11. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). p. "The Newton handbook". and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www.. Isaac. at page 319. Optics. " Newton. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986)." Westfall 1994 p. pdf). doi:10. an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science. [49] See Curtis Wilson. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions".com. 'Principia'. . ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. "Newton. (Cambridge University Press. com/ F.107 [32] Westfall 1980. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. p.2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. p. at page 41 (http:/ / books. ac. [23] D T Whiteside (ed. 595 15 . Retrieved 10 January 2012. at page 30. J. 1729 English translation... 1968). uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669).T. Numericana. Bibcode 2000OptPN. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. ISBN 9780521566698. p. [31] Stewart 2009. J. [53] Westfall 1980. opticsjournal. p. at page 400.11.000024. "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. at pages 391–2. 54 [52] Westfall 1980. Cambridge University Digital Library. numericana. A.2. [21] Venn. lib. 232 [55] White 1997. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". "A short account of the history of mathematics". at page 54 (http:/ / books. lib. [27] Clifford Truesdell.5. 2A'. online-literature. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. 363–4. p. (December 1982). Retrieved 16 January 2010. [30] D T Whiteside (1970). Henry C (2003). p. www. google. lib. Cambridge University Press. [41] White 1997. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). The Man". pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. 44. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54). com/ arms/ index. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). [36] Newton. prisms.1. [37] Ball 1908. John Maynard (1972). [43] Iliffe. Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25. King. Robert (2007) Newton.). 324 [38] Ball 1908. (1898).

Ch.H. (1958). "The Enlightenment. . L. Lagrange. Retrieved 27 August 2009. Thayer. 1. Richard S. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. T. Wilson. [87] A Short Scheme of the True Religion. [67] Memoirs of the Life. vol 3. Associated Press. [73] Avery Cardinal Dulles. Michigan. Book III. [84] Frankel. christianpost.C. p. p. . (1959–77). [90] Westfall. [78] Newton to Richard Bentley 10 December 1692. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). London: Oxford UP. bankofengland. the success of Newtonian physics in providing a mathematical description of an ordered world clearly played a big part in the flowering of this movement in the eighteenth century" John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. [72] "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide" (http:/ / www. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. p. J. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. 200. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology. [77] John P. U.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. p. New York: King's Crown Press. [79] Opticks. [91] Marquard. Manchester University Press. “The emergence of Rational Dissent. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. Gilbert G. [86] Principia. [92] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. le comte J. christianpost. 1. p. 1850. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web.: Mott Media.uk (http:/ / news. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. p. ed. p. com/ print. [89] H. Meier. htm). (1975). 1989. [70] Opinion poll. "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability. 14. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. 259 [96] White 1997. pp. . New Horizons [64] Wikipedia Standing on the shoulders of giants. 37. and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. Hafner Library of Classics. 11. Richard S. H. as transcribed in Jean-Pierre Maury (1992) Newton: Understanding the Cosmos. Monday. (1997). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1976). ibid. NY. Writings. westminster-abbey. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ISBN 0521477379. Paris. Manchester University Press. Westminster Abbey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10 November 2003. 27) [68] "Einstein's Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics". Knud. [76] Tiner. Robert M. In Martin Fitzpatrick ed. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings. ed. cited in. "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. 1998. Query 31. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. php?type=article& year=2008& month=08& title_link=the-deist-minimum--28). [94] "Although it was just one of the many factors in the Enlightment." in Farewell to Matters of Principle. p187. [62] Fred L. [74] Westfall. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. Cambridge: 1996. Cornell University Press. [75] Pfizenmaier. . . Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists. p19._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. org/ web/ 20070813033620/ http:/ / www. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0208008438. Retrieved 13 November 2009. htm). com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Wallace trans. G. [80] H.S." Oeuvres de Lagrange I. xx. htm) on 13 August 2007. Isaac Newton: Inventor. in Turnbull et al. html). New Haven: Yale University Press. A Marginal Jew. History of Science: Newton citing: Delambre. 1953.. uk/ banknotes/ denom_guide/ nonflash/ 1-SeriesD-Revised. org/ News. Newton runner-up: BBC news. 44. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. 1998. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. The Sydney Morning Herald [69] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of Royal Society scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. 65. Charles (1948). p. Retrieved 1 August 2007. ISBN 0855270667. [83] Haakonssen. The Life of Isaac Newton. 29 November 1999. 28. p._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33. 233.K. 267 16 . Edinburgh. p 241 [95] White 1997. com/ biography/ Newton. politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons". co. January 2005. p. [93] Cassels. cited in. firstthings. Bank of England. archive. v. p. (1994). [63] Letter from Isaac Newton to Robert Hooke. [88] Webb.Isaac Newton [61] "Newton. 42. [81] Jacob. org/ our-history/ people/ sir-isaac-newton). provisionally judges 30 most likely. [65] John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. News. 1867.S. Odo. Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. p. pp. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. 5 February 1676. Scientist and Teacher. 64. M. R. ISBN 0521560608. The Royal Society. stm) [71] "Famous People & the Abbey: Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. Milford. G. Alan. ISBN 0915134950. p 164. ISBN 0791413195. 19 June 2007. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. by Robyn Arianrhod UQP.bbc. bbc. 1958 p201.. reviewed by Jane Gleeson-White. [66] White 1997. wolfram. 2nd Ed 1706. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. Knud Haakonssen. Retrieved 30 August 2006. [82] Westfall. p2. Margaret C. [85] Germain.co. co.

valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times.0017. The Life of Isaac Newton. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). lib. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. Cambridge University Digital Library. Bernard Cohen and George E. "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Fourth Estate Limited. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. [113] http:/ / www. James (2009). edu/ newton/ index. • Christianson. . 337 [103] White 1997. • Craig. Cambridge University Press. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. p. Cambridge University Press. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. 6 [109] Alberto A. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). . Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. php?varietyid=1089). . The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. Retrieved 7 September 2011. John (1958). pierre-marteau. • Westfall. cam. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. doi:10. 130. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). O'Reilly Media. New York: Dover. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. Brogdale. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. pp. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. (1980. This well documented work provides. [98] Westfall 2007. in particular. eds. and Other Myths. W. Retrieved 11 January 2007. New York: Free Press.1098/rsnr. • Westfall. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". Cambridge University Press. Isaac Newton. ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. org. • White.1038/182149a0. The Art of Science. ac. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. Michael (1997).Isaac Newton [97] Newton. Imperial College London. New Scientist. ISBN 9781447204152. html 17 References • Ball. doi:10. 2011). Bibcode 1958Natur. Richard S. brogdale. co. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. org/ ).org.149C. ISBN 0486206300. newtonproject. Rouse (1908). (1994). Smith. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. ISBN 9780495557425. php). " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. newscientist. . ISBN 0521477379.W. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". Mariner Books. Newtonproject. ac. • Stewart. (2007). dlib. • Levenson. p.182. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. Retrieved 10 January 2009. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. google. Richard S. Retrieved 30 August 2006.1963. 1998). p. . "Keynes Ms. Einstein's Wife.. pp. sussex. brogdale.73 [99] White 1997. p. [107] Conduitt. ISBN 9780547336046. Inc. Richard (2011). google. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. . • Westfall. 4. Retrieved 10 January 2012. . Gale (1984). The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. [108] I. Richard S. John (1963). Never at Rest. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. 18 January 2010. John. uk/ image1. indiana. Cengage Learning. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www.. 265–266.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. Thomas (2010). com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). ISBN 9780199213559. Isaac. Retrieved 20 December 2008. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. Pan Macmillan.

MIT Press. (1959). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Bernard. excerpt and text search (http://www. England: Cambridge University Press. Oxford University Press. Harlow.amazon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.. "Newtonia" pp. Harvard University Press. Cambridge.1098/rsnr. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Palmer. 277 pp.D. Leibniz. (1950). A. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. London: G. 147–9. Richard (1931). Gale (1984). JSTOR 531368. Bernard Cohen. P. W. E. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". Zev (1991). ISBN 0-393-00189-X. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. the Man. Stephen. Bernard and Smith. (1965). Wright. (2000).com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. 2006. W. ISBN 0521229642. Dampier. H. 2001. S. 1958.. excerpt and text search (http://www. The Calculus Wars: Newton. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. Knox. Great Experiments in Physics. (1946). See this site (http://www. E. New York: Harper & Row. • Shamos. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. W. "Discoveries" pp. Derek (1986). • Christianson. Jason Socrates. • Dampier. Newton at the Mint. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Alfred A. Norton & Co. Newtonian Studies. • Shapley. M. Jed Z. excerpt and text search (http://www. • Dobbs. New York: Henry Holt and Company.amazon. J. 500 pp.. J. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. Springer. "Review of Newton's Principia".amazon. • Berlinski. B. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. I.questia. George E. John (1946). ISBN 0486253465.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. focuses on philosophical issues only. New York.com/dp/0521656966). • Newton. Isaac Newton. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. – Preface by Albert Einstein. • Newton. ed. I.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald. William C. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. ISBN 0486428052. ISBN 0841430144. ISBN 0792310543.amazon. De C. N. edited by I. Harper & Bros. 256 pp. (1728). David. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (1959). Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. ISBN 019530070X. and Cohen. Isaac Newton. ISBN 0375422331. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation.amazon.1988.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. Knopf. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. (1988).. The Background to Newton's Principia.0006. • Koyré. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. • Craig. New York: Chanticleer Press. complete edition online (http://www. (2002). • de Villamil. (1996). T. Inc.. • Cohen. • Gleick. New York: Free Press. • Christianson. Isaac (1642–1727). • Hawking. James (2003). B. Isaac. (1975). doi:10. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. excerpt and text search (http://www. Newton. London: S. (1687). Essays in Biography.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. ISSN 0035–9149. (1965). . and H. (1980). A Treasury of Science. • Bardi. eds. • Halley. John Maynard (1963). • Gjertsen. 150–4. • Keynes. 354 pp. Gale E. Morris H. I. Kepler. Readings in the Literature of Science. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. New York (1972). Guide by I.1978. The Principia: a new Translation. Rapport. The Newtonian Revolution. The Newton Handbook. On the Shoulders of Giants.

13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. (1952). (1999). Isaac. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. Stephen D. Florian Cajori. • Pfizenmaier. University of California Press. Thomas C. tr. Vol. H. Opticks. pp. (1991). originally published in 1752) • Westfall. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. (edited by A. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. • Wiles. 16. 19 Religion • Dobbs. • Newton. argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. W. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. rev. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Newton. Berkeley: University of California Press. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. 974 pp.google. ISBN 0444196110. • Brackenridge. 1670–1672. T. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. (1996). Maurice. 299 pp. Isaac. Turnbull and others. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. Newton and Religion: Context. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. Motte. (1999).com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. J. Inflections & Colours of Light. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. (1999). (2001). 1996. in JSTOR (http://www. xvii + 325. Stephen "'God of Gods. • Whiteside. University of California Press. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. R. links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. and Influence. (1959–77) . eds. White. S. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419.. • Newton.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. Vol.jstor. Betty Jo Tetter. (1934). J. Opticks (4th ed. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. Ayval. Primary sources • Newton. – 8 volumes • Newton.Isaac Newton • Simmons. Nature. 7 vols.google. • Stukeley. Isaac. 1730) online edition (http://books. A. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life.1017/S0007087499003751. Arianism through the Centuries. 2. JSTOR 3653988. Bruce.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). (January 1997). The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. 342pp . I. (1936). London: Taylor and Francis. 627 pp. ISBN 0521077400." Osiris. W. 1984. 1: The Optical Lectures.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. Cambridge U. doi:10. D. ed. 2nd Series. "Isaac Newton. (1971). H. New York: Dover Publications. Popkin. (1967–82). or A Treatise of the Reflections. Press. (1996) 214pp. James E.google. I. London: Macdonald. Isaac. Archetypal Heresy.org/stable/4028372). and Richard H. JSTOR 4027945.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. Sydney: The Book Company. Pp.jstor. Refractions.

pierre-marteau.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. (1953). S. C. • Newton. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www.org/web/20080629021908/http://www. London: Dawson. A.galilean-library. (1958).indiana. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.com/biography/Newton. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. Cohen and R.mcs. West Strand.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I).phaser.ac.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page.stanford.archive. – Google Books • Maclaurin. I.rutgers. J Edleston.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www. Millar and J.fmalive.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www. London.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/). Hall and M. .50. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library. 20 External links • Chisholm.sussex. and motion (http://plato.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web.org/snobelen. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space. Hugh. John Deighton.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H.google. Anand M. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. Sir. (1975).com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. University of St Andrews. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. Nourse. R. • Newton. Sir Isaac".htm) (via archive.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www. E. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. in Four Books.isaacnewton.math. Thayer. time. Cambridge.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ). Hall. Robertson.html). by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato.tqnyc. Cambridge University Press.wolfram.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www. • Newton. Roger Cotes. 1850.fullerton.stanford.htm) Kandaswamy.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. ed (1911).st-andrews.ac.uk/prism.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato.edu/entries/newton-stm/). eds. com/predictions/newton. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702). John W. John J. including letters of other eminent men (http://books.pbs. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history.stanford. Schofield.dlib.questia. I. Edmund F.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton.. B. Parker. ed.skepticreport.org/NYC051308/index.a. B.edu/entries/newton/). MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.newtonproject.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor.). (1962). Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. I. online edition (http:/ /www.adherents.uk/ Biographies/Newton. London: A. "Newton. (1748)..php) • The Newton Project (http://www. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. I. Cambridge.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss.com/modules/historic/newton/index.stanford.chlt.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www.

and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.cam.uk/prism.sussex. physics.mcmaster.ca/newton/) Images.newtonproject.ltrc.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes.edu/id. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.ac.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1. or a Treatise of the Reflections.st-andrews. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history.math. full text on archive.mcs.ac.gutenberg. reception.sussex.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy.ac. optics.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton.uk/collections/newton) . Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www.lib.archive.nodak. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. at the Newton Project (http://www.org • Newton Papers.ul.earlymoderntexts. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.cmu.com/).cs.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up).ndsu. Space.ac.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www.enlighteningscience. audio. Refractions.

She and Rev. when he was three years old. He spent a year away from school on the farm. unlike her. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). at quite a critical time in his education. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. 1697 by her son. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. . in April 1642. Lincolnshire. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. By this time Isaac was ten years old. the elder. and returned to his mother's household. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. As his father had been a farmer. who buried her next to his father. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). Smith died in 1653. at the age of nineteen. when Isaac was 54. Hannah's brother William. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. He died in October 1642. James and Margery Ayscough. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. and thus took him away from his school studies. Later in his life. When Rev. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer.

although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful. However. Hannah Smith. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. not before. half-niece of Isaac Newton."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. I am Your loving Unkle (sic).[5] . Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. witty and clever.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. Is. the wife of John Conduitt. and baptized at Brigstock. Newton.

She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton.[7] The couple had one daughter. 1715. John Wallop. ac. p195. Charlotte M. 1543–1869. by then Earl of Halifax.com. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth.sussex. newton.newtonproject. PROB11/546. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220.uk/prism. however. [7] Hants Record Office. 1689.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. entries in 1710 and 1711. I have long had for her person. html). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.ac. • The Newton Project (http://www. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. PROB11/416. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. Journal to Stella.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. p349. . [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. born in 1721. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. his nephew George Montague."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. Westminster Record Office. affection and esteem. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. 1886. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. Vol 4. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. Harliean Society. Montague. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. Catherine. Parish register. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. References [1] Robert Barton's will. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. Viscount Lymington.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. [9] Yonge. National Archives. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. and their son. & previous reference. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. [8] St Martin in the fields register. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton. not to make a dispute over her legacies. [3] Swift. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress. Harl Soc vol 24. King's College Cambridge. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. online-literature. Retrieved 23 September 2009.online-literature. near Winchester. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. [5] Newton Correspondence. National Archives. www.5. towards the end of his life. (1898). Northampton Record Office. On 30 August. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. uk/ art/ portrait.php?id=15) .

he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. and his niece. Sir Isaac Newton. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. Hampshire. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. but did not graduate. Cambridge with three others. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. In 1705. Covent Garden.[3] . He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. named after her mother. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. on 8 March 1688. described herself as 32 years old.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. Newton: his friend. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. while at Westminster. then aged 38 years. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. he quickly stopped. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. 1968. In 1720. proposed by the president. on petition. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. defending the government on a number of issues. (PRO. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. a whig member for Whitchurch. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. London: Dawsons. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. and was baptized at St Paul's. 1st ed (reprinted). and his uncle by marriage. near Winchester. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. but after starting. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. Covent Garden. 161 pp. The couple had one daughter.[1] By 1707. Catherine. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. isbn 0712903305. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. towards the end of his life. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. staying only two years. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. London. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. Early life.

Viscount Lymington (d. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. vol 4.uk. Catherine. online-literature. (1898). . On his death.. John Wallop. J. J.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton.british-history.cyberbeach. was buried with him.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. british-history. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. John (http:/ / venn. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". He was the eldest son of John Wallop. www. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer.). who died in 1739. A. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. Venn. lib. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. " Conduitt. California. [4] Page. Huntingdon Library.ac. His wife..online-literature.com. and their son.htm) . John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. ac. fo 169 [3] Yonge. eds (1922–1958). underage. cam. uk/ report. 1749) in 1740. ac. ms 57. Cambridge University Press. William (1908). References [1] Venn. 1st Earl of Portsmouth. . In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. aspx?compid=42018#s4). Retrieved 27 September 2009. Charlotte M. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. Retrieved 23 September 2009. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). www.

he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. he was a small child. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus.1 litre). Galileo. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. This he did at the age of eighteen. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. At the time of Newton's birth. Newton was educated at The King's School. He was removed from school. master at the King's School. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day.[3] Henry Stokes. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. achieving an admirable final report.[6] . 25 December 1642. When Newton was three. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Born prematurely.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. optics and the law of gravitation. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. He hated farming. the English mathematician and scientist. In 1665. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. author of the Principia. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. and Kepler.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. widowed by now for a second time. he was admitted to Trinity College. where his mother. In June 1661. and by October 1659. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.[4] At that time. attempted to make a farmer of him. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. Margery Ayscough. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665.

and. several calculations about musical notes. February 19th. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. to two and fifty figures by the same method. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. particularly those "in affected powers. in the years 1663 and 1664. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. 1699. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". there are several articles on angular sections. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". together with observations on refraction. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). he was examined in Euclid by Dr. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. its acceleration a. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. and the applied force F is F = ma. and next about that the inner Crown. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. In a small commonplace book. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. and borrowed Wallis' works. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). I being then Senior Sophister. verging below farthest from the moon. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". It was elliptical. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. many years afterwards. Cambridge. obs. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. and of a yellow and red without. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. at night. near Cambridge. dated January 1664. in Lincolnshire. which appear in his Optics. and red on the outside of it. John Slade of Catharine Hall. he was unable. and introduced him to higher mathematics. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. Isaac Barrow. which was of a bluish green within next the white. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors." . I saw two such Crowns about her. and in summer 1665. book ii. part iv.

"the name of the author is Newton. statics. Newton must have left college before August 1665. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). He wrote a paper. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions.] a mathematician of no mean order. degree. or some other mathematical subject. In March 1668 he took his M. probably in June 1669. and signed by the master of the college. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. and a young man. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. arithmetic. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. 29 . He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. geography. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. and added." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. which he put. optics. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. There were nine vacancies. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. apparently for chemical experiments. mathematician. On each occasion it was agreed. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. [see also James Gregory. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. and who. astronomy. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. dated 7 August 1665. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. and 22 June 1666. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. who had a powerful genius for such matters. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. but kept the name of the author a secret. a fellow of our college. and also chemicals and a furnace. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom.A. Dr Pearson. Barrow did this on 31 July1669.

if they continue them for any time. Nay. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. and reflect as much light. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. provided a reflecting substance could be found. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. and I have almost thought them insuperable." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. But these seemed very great difficulties. because. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. So that. I wondered. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. were light uniform. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. which would polish as finely as glass. After he explained this to the Society. and finding them regular. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. for I saw. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. on 6 February 1672. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. as I found it. he proceeded: "When I understood this. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. the secretary of the Royal Society. as glass transmits. when I further considered. so that a much . not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. than a circularly figured lens. The whole is printed in No. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. I left off my aforesaid glass works. I understood. it could not collect those also into the same point. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. bishop of Salisbury.

at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. He concludes his communication with the words: This. but not very distinctly. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. or proportionally disagreeing in both. than in figuring glasses for refraction. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. as I said. or to thwart this relation. And therefore. but yet with this difference. You may also see. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. proper for metal. as you inform me. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. Further on. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. that. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. But it is requisite. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. which. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. care must be taken. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. when I made the other. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. whereby. or of acknowledging my errors." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. you will not only find. I began to try. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. the figure also would be corrected to the last. if any thing seem to be defective. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. . and refrangibility is very precise and strict. but yet most luminous in blue. are taking care about it at London. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. if I have committed any. how the colours gradually convene. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. so I doubt not. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. which they had before they entered the composition. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. as I imagined. but yet most luminous in red. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. And there place a clear and colourless prism. and that the paper. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. with which 'tis illustrated. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. by such motion. but I shall conclude with this general one. And this analogy twist colours. who. and vanish into whiteness. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). I conceive. for.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. They have there no appropriate colour. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. that the prism and lens be placed steady. are again dissipated and severed. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). what might be effected in this kind. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London).

excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. and entered in the Regent House. George Villiers. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". but was not published. when a description of it was found among his papers. or to become a slave to defend it. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth." The heads. and the inflexion of light. . one of whom was to be elected by the senate. and he wrote on double refraction. endeavored to effect a compromise which. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. and many others. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. till after Newton's death. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. however. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. or communicated to the Royal Society. and. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. he says. or leave to come out after me. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. Others criticized the experiments. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. who was the chancellor of the university. The public oratorship fell vacant. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. I do recommend them both to be nominated. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. and are now almost universally rejected. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. and. light polarization and binocular vision. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College.

The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. a fellow of the Royal Society. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. by calculating from Kepler's laws. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story." (See Newton's cannonball. till 1860." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. he says. as several others are. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. In one version of the story. I desire to withdraw. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. I thank you. and one of Newton's intimate friends. Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. who married John Conduitt. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies.) . "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. when. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun.57 metres) in one minute. if you have not done it already. He therefore was led to inquire whether. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. (4." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. Newton. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. as he was not in holy orders. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. dated 23 June 1673. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. owing to decay.

Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem.e. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. Moreover. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. In January 1684. "Why. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square." He could not. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". put his hand upon his calculation. one of the secretaries of the Society. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. "an ellipse". and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. a copy of his demonstration. I have calculated it. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". however. Newton replied promptly. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. one of the fellows of his own college. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. Sir Christopher Wren. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. . the secretary. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. but he promised to send it to Halley. Unless otherwise noted. by the hand of Mr Paget. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. After the latter had left Cambridge.Early life In November 1679. Oldenburg.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. to consult Newton on the subject. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. or their views about the researches of others. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. in the month of August 1684. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. and started for Cambridge. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. i. made the two results. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. At Newton's birth. By the time he died. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject.

Montagu. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. Richard S. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple.. 159. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post.Early life [2] Cohen. " Newton.435-440. J. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. lib. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. Vol 2 (1676-1687). p. Cambridge. Isaac. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. The office is the most proper for you. Michael Hoskins (1997). ac.). Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. Later life During his residence in London. A. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage." Newton was now 55 years old. J. Mr Overton. Vol. (Cambridge University Press. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. The Life of Isaac Newton. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". 16–19 [4] Michael White. p. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". when Montagu. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. [8] http:/ / www. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. In a letter to Newton announcing the news. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. and has not . [7] Newton. Cambridge University Press. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal.. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. at pp. ac. and the esteem the king has of your merits. However. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. Isaac (http:/ / venn.) (1960). and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. . 35 References • Westfall. ISBN 0521477379. sfu. 11. pp. Charles Montagu. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. Venn. (1994). html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. lib. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. eds (1922–1958).43.297-314. I. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. cam. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. cam. (1970).) (1960).M1) [5] ed. google.B. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. was false to him. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. cited above. afterwards Earl of Halifax. 1960). the warden of the mint.

Of this. was still. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. except to Newton and his friends. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. To this work were added two treatises.200 and £1. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. he did not exhibit it in the results." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. however. a secret. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. the second. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. while exports were paid for in gold.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method.500 per annum. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble. a post worth between £1. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. .Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. a process that was completed in about two years. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. Newton took it seriously. with an account of their properties.

"tanquam. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. and he gave a method of determining it. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. W. and joining a Scholium concerning that method." says he. obtained leave to make it public. Leibniz. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. but he received a letter from Leibniz. although Newton's solution was anonymous. was published at London in 1712. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. P2. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. He also solved the second problem. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). (2) to determine a curve such that. I have on this occasion made it public. and a second edition of it. which was also written many years ago. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. and made known to some friends. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. 's Gravesande published a tract." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. by Dr Machin." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. with improvements by the author. and published by Dr Wallis. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. and E. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. . Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. making it public. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. Hartsoeker. and eight foreign associates were created. prefixing to it an introduction. and. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. secretary to the Royal Society. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. In that year the Academy was remodelled. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. who have solicited the. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. and having since met with some things copied out of it. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber.

had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. he was opposed by the non-residents. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. the master of Trinity. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . Rumours. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. The prince had offered. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. Dr Bentley. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. the lunar theory would. were heard from time to time. in the first few months of 1695. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. have been completely investigated." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. In April 1705. On 21 May 1709. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship." Newton. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. and a number of honorary degrees conferred. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). and of a new edition. Roger Cotes. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. but being a Whig. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. Dr Edleston. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. however.. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. He was warmly supported by the residents. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. He held the office for 25 years. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. they paid a visit to Cambridge. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. and beaten by a large majority. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. 2002). the queen's husband. and discharged the duties of the post. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. however. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. when the queen. the master of Trinity College. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. where a congregation of the senate was held. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband." (I have learnt . fellow of Trinity College. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton.." he said. so far as he could do it.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint.I forget from where . "will be glad to see you in June. after speaking to Newton. on Newton's recommendation. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. of his work.

3." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. Caroline of Ansbach. Newton waited on Queen Anne. In Libri secundi Sect. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. "If you write any further preface. wife of George II. vii. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. N.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. Newton criticized all the methods. pointing out their weak points. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. In Libri primi Sect. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. for I find that I shall be examined about it. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. lent his copy to M Fréret." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. about midsummer 1713. took every opportunity of conversing with him. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. however. The Princess of Wales. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. to present her with a copy of the new edition. On the 31st of March 1713. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. an antiquary at Paris. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. "28 Mar. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. 4. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. and. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. 2. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. who called witnesses. on 27 July. facilior redditur et amplior. who translated it. she requested him to give her a copy. true in theory but difficult to execute. and endeavoured to refute it. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. the following account of this new Edition. and received the royal assent. I. At last. He mentioned four: 1. The abbé. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. I must not see it. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. 1713. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. passed both Houses.

translated into French by the observator. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. and though he was fatigued from work. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. This edition had many errors. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. to suppress it". John which was published in London in 1733. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. in 1756. a nephew of Bentley. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. Newton printed. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. after his death. he solved it later the same evening. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". to have it translated into French and have it published there. which was published in 1728. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. For example in 1716 Leibniz. In an earlier part of his life. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. This was done. beginning his studies before 1690. who was on the way to the continent. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. .. Upon receiving a copy of this work. He therefore asked Locke. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. and published at Paris. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. he became alarmed at the possible consequences.

pierre-marteau. ahds. . 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold.05242. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009).online-literature. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men.2005. php?rec=true& UID=1304). PMID 15638889. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. (2005). (1898).1464-410X. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park.and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. measuringworth. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. archive. [6] By The King. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. ISBN 9780151012787. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. html). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. University of Regina. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. online-literature. pdf). horse racing. pdf). Vol V. [10] Westfall 1980.January 1843 (http:/ / www.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. ahds. after six years of "cock[fight]ing.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage.com. He endured great suffering. litencyc. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads. who. . BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). Athol L Murray. 21 September 1717. In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. Wise. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. 870 [11] Yonge. In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. Edward. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. ac.1111/j. OCLC 276340857. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). ac. Charlotte M. com/ php/ stopics. [9] Ostad. Retrieved 2008-05-22. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. Newton and the Counterfeiter. Richard Kleer.[10] Towards the end of his life.x. Retrieved 23 September 2009. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. urotoday. www. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. Gilbert J. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey. April 1842 . Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. Athol L Murray. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. pdf) (PDF). A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. doi:10. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). Sir Isaac Newton. .. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p.

so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime. alchemy. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . and pseudoscience were still being formulated. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702).ucsc. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse).". 1975). for example. Santa Fe. Distinctions between science. with a and historical introduction by I. After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him.edu/~michael/koll. economist John Maynard Keynes. the noted English scientist and mathematician. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. These occult works explored chronology. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. Bernard Cohen (Dawson. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. he was the last of the magicians. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. superstition.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. In this sense. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science.

Newton is thought to have said.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. and analytical chemistry. In addition. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. In the story. Newton's dog started the fire. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution.K. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life." 43 In 1936. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. several projects have begun to gather. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. The English Crown. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. "O Diamond. or some other substance). lead. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. with its associated nomenclature. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. In recent years. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. who throughout his life. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. and perhaps to a lesser extent. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. made penalties for alchemy very severe. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. Diamond.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community.[2] It was for this reason. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents. burning 20 years of research. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. Arts and Humanities Research Board. catalogue. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work.[8] . National Science Foundation. A perfectionist by nature.S. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704.

early forms of tarot. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". This concept. "Ezechielem Explanationes". (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. "Theatrum Chemicum". Nicolas Flamel. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. "Artephius his secret Book". was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. Most notably are documents entitled.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. and occultism. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone".[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple.[10] In addition to scripture. though mysterious figure. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. 1728. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. Published London. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end.[12][13] . "Nicholas Flammel. in a search for their occult knowledge. Artephius. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. In predicting this he said. and his "secret book". followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple. and the vegetable or the growing stone. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. Hieroglyphical Figures. In its time. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible.

was published posthumously in 1728. there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. In 1628. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. Isaac Newton's treatise.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. as in Genesis. spirals.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". due to the success of Villalpando's publications. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. To Newton. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. scholars. Around 1692. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. such as golden sections. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. In the knowledge of this philosophy. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. [14] Job. Psalms. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. orthographic projection. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". In addition. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. Isaiah and others. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. but also in the sacred scriptures. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. ” During Newton's lifetime. 27 years after his death. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. the same was true of their architecture. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. is not only to be found in the volume of nature. conic sections. which was popular in its day. .a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. when deciphered. only adding to the public interest in the temple.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. and other harmonious constructions. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . both speculative and active. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede.[17] In 1754. . Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. This immense 13-foot-high (4.

Britain's Daily Telegraph.C. 1. 2060. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. evidently written by Isaac Newton. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. Both of these lay essential to his calculations. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. 7th. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. It may end later. in or after 1705.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370.] 70. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. Nature.[19] is a small letter slip. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. The first document. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot.[D.C. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. Canada's National Post. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. the period of 1260 days. part of the Yahuda collection. . 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. Furthermore. will end A. Christ comes as a thief in the night. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. 800.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks.

though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. Homer. or possibly the same island. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. Africa and Asia. but rather one in which he believed the world. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. Anatolia. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. It is done. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. The marriage supper. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. As such.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. as he saw it.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. and various other classical historians. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. and the Levant.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. Ogygia was home to Calypso. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. Plutarch. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". though does not cite his reasons for believing so. standards. In Greek Mythology. but was sunk into the Sea. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. Egypt. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. and available source material. Pliny. In this entry he mentions Mephres. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. In fact. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. However. an approximately 87. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. In a separate manuscript. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. and poets. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. authors. . Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief.

Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. and the spiritual realm.". Furthermore.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs.C. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. the level of their secrecy. For its time. remains unclear. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. Like Newton. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. these are considered learned societies. and highly politicised. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. however. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized. Additionally. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. a recognized Knight. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). which they claimed to have in their possession. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime.[24][25] however. anti-Catholic. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. lack of supportive publicized material. the physical universe. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. not esoteric societies. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. In his library. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. However.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. Considering his esteemed social status. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. avowedly Christian. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. would seem to exclude Newton . Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696.[26] At the time of his death. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone.

. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). USA: PBS. jsp [7] http:/ / www. Gale E. J. ac. do). "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". p. as were many members of The Royal Society. ac. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. . 1999. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. Discover Magazine. During his own life. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. s-most-famous-alchemist)". However. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. indiana. dlib. The Man". 2010 [5] Newman. July/August. (5 April 2007). uk/ prism. dlib.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. Jane Bosveld. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. Associated Press. . p. Rabbi Chaim. from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. "Newton. Retrieved 1 July 2008. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. newtonproject. . [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. templeinstitute._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. sacred geometry. jnul. Oxford University Press US. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. [10] Richman. Temple Institute (1991-2008). Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). Page 91. edu/ newton/ index. "The Da Vinci Code". Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. References [1] Keynes. William R. sussex. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. 19 June 2007. (2005). 144. Retrieved 2007-08-12. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. Temple Institute. 175. archive. .M. .Occult studies from their membership. huji. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. (http:/ / www. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. htm) on 6 May 2008. google. referring not to a medieval knight. 15–19 July 1946. pbs. ISBN 019530070X. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. [6] http:/ / webapp1. christianpost. [11] Christianson. Retrieved 2010-07-19. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. htm). There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Oxford University Press. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. christianpost. htm). indiana. edu/ newton/ about. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". and he never publicly identified himself as one. Pope).[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself.

ac. pp. Joseph. Michael. [23] Bauer. ISBN 1-59477-172-3.science.sussex. 146.F.com/aReal/unit-fraction. ac. 2060. William (2010). htm). London: Routledge. Scott Mandelbrote.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. spalding-gentlemens-society. (http:/ / www.htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www.ac. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books.2a. org). 1997.M.freemasons-freemasonry. Michael. .html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. Isaac (5 April 2007). Rob Iliffe.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www. (http://www. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed.sussex.uk/prism. org/ newton_2060.uu. . Fairfield University. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). f.themathpage." (http:/ / www. 2005: Weiser. the Apocalypse and A. Retrieved 20 April 2010.gutenberg. S. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies.sussex.. . [14] Gardner. sussex. sussex.3o.org/library/drmath/view/55191. Da Capo Press.jnul. The Newton Project. Delta Trade Paperbacks. newtonproject.niu. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Chetwode. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. .newtonproject.faculty.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h. ISBN 073820143X. "Juan Bautista Villalpando. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 117.3g. php?id=74).fairfield. [17] Newton. f.indiana. uk/ prism. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7. [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando. Book Excerpt . uk/ texts/ viewtext. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. . Alain (2007). 859" (http:/ / www.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory.math.ac. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. fairfield. William Stukeley 1752. Henry (2004). .edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. faculty. .htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum. AHRC Newton Papers Project. ed. Lincoln. . [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www.dcs. ISBN 1578634040. Retrieved 2007-08-15.com/pillar_solomon_temple. Holy Blood. ac. W.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell.st-and. bcy. newtonproject.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. newtonproject. University of Sussex: The Newton Project. .newtonproject. 5 April 2007. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. J. com/ book_bauer.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando.huji.. & A.htm) • the math (http://www-groups. .from Chapter 3. [26] White. [19] Yahuda MS 7. isaac-newton. 31r [22] Newton.html) • unit fractions. . sussex. sussex. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. Stephen D.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www.newtonproject. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A.newtonproject. p. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www. [18] Snobelen. freemasons-freemasonry." (http:/ / www.ac.ac. Laurence (2007).J.php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. 50 • White. org/ ). com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). Frances A. 496. Retrieved 2008-06-26. newtonproject.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. f. html). Originally published: London : HarperElement. Retrieved 1 July 2008. inul. written at USA. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. google. htm).ac. Retrieved 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2008-06-25. [28] Baigent.sussex. Retrieved 2007-08-15. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized).).uk)) . .staff. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).D. html).org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode. ca/ aqc/ leon. p. Isaac.dlib. Holy Grail. Michael (1999). Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life. The Newton Project. (http://www. (1972). p.pbs.ac. google. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley.

he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science. had it been made public. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy. I study the Bible daily.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. "so little understood". mathematician. In predicting this he said. astronomer. and he said. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. natural philosopher. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word. After 1690.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be. theologian and alchemist. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. written by those who were inspired.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

place and motion. in other words. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. 77–82. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. or. appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. in general. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body.[5][6] . Alternatively. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". space.[1] Background These arguments. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). causes.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space.

but in opposite direction. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. despite proximity to the pail. — Ernst Mach. A: Central object rotates. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. C: Both rotate. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. as the cord continues to unwind.[7] However. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. but also in relation to the water it contains. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. In other words. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. but the neighboring train. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. who contended that all motion was relative. and that there is no absolute motion. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. the surface of the water remains flat. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object. not only with respect to the experimenter. his real position was that motion is absolute. B: Outer ring rotates. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. Thus.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water".[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . but in opposite directions.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. it begins to spin rapidly. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. On the other hand.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. However. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. p. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition. accordingly. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. Eventually. it is not your own train moving. however. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation.[9] When.

— Ernst Mach. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water.[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string. In fact. but relative motions. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. .. And therefore. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. and held at rest together with the water. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. and recede by little and little. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved.. after. and ascend to the sides of the vessel.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion.. discovers itself. Principia. will make it begin sensibly to revolve. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute.. then filled with water. not relative. as before the vessel began to move. Thus. the vessel continues for some time this motion. . who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it.. which is here directly contrary to the relative.. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. . nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. — Isaac Newton.. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. However. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. 58 . the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer.. see Rotating spheres. p. and may be measured by this endeavour. as quoted by L. hung by a long cord. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. and effectually to distinguish. by the sudden action of another force. a limitation that has not been established.are altogether destitute of any real effect.Bucket argument If a vessel... and the true and absolute circular motion of the water. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. a stationary frame can be identified. it is whirled about in the contrary way. forming itself into a concave figure. is incomplete. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies.. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. and while the cord is untwisting itself. the surface of the water will at first be plain.

because the element of water does not move. for if this were not so. the co-rotating frame. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. the sum of all three forces must be zero. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame..[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. the water. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. . which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force. one might question just how rotation brings about this change. 127 Moreover. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. the horizontal.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. if at rest. To sum to zero. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. see Knudsen and Hjorth. For example. But from the nature of a fluid. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. and the aim is to determine this function.. However. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω.. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. p.

These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. That is. equilibrium is attained. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. that is. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. In words. The potential energy is useful. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. .) As r increases. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. because all positions are equivalent in energy. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. were surface regions with lower energy available. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0. That being so. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. for example. On the other hand.

Requiring the energy to be constant. google. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. Principia philosophiae. google. p. p. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. ISBN 0521358124. 105. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). p. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. this energy is constant independent of position r. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Forgotten Books. If rotation is arrested. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. This change in shape would not be stable. editors) (2002). . John Cottingham translator (1988).M1). The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. google. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy.M1). which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. the more concave this surface. ISBN 1606201433. Smith. Thus. pdf [3] René Descartes. At some small angular rate of rotation. ISBN 0521656966. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. Cambridge University Press. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. and lowering it at smaller radius. archive. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. . because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. Part ii. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). . See Figures 1 and 2. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water.Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. ISBN 0226282198. and the more rapid the rotation. p. however. §25. Bernard Cohen & George E. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. As the height of water increases. . the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. [5] René Descartes (1664). either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. p. us. for example through friction. at a given angular rate of rotation. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. Cambridge University Press. 170. before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. 43. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). google. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). google. 191. Cambridge University Press. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). University of Chicago Press. [2] http:/ / ia310114. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. 75. . The water surface is flat at first. a concave surface represents the stable situation.

The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. google. google. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). google. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. "Chapter 2. . John Archibald Wheeler (1995). Wiley. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. [11] Robert Disalle. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. George Edwin Smith. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1. Cambridge University Press.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279.google. google. us. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. archive.. B. 119. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78.google. ISBN 0521621135. ISBN 0521857902. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. . • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate.M1). 325–348. [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. p. p. 78–79. ISBN 0521352541. 5 (1975) ed. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. Springer.utm.iep. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. pp. Poul G. Knudsen. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. op. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. . 104. 143. com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). p. no. . cit. ISBN 354067652X. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. pp.). Springer. Time.Bucket argument p. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127. 45.htm) see section on Space. and Motion (http://plato. [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). p.M1). google. p. Lynden-Bell (1996). see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein.M1) (in Proc.). Draza Marković (Editors) ed. Zalta. John Wiley & Sons. • D. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. google. 167. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). 386–387. Leibniz (http:/ / books. p. Partridge (1995).M1).M1). ISBN 0120598779. 127. stanford. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. • Ralph A.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. pdf) pp. New York: Courier Dover Publications. editor) (2008). . [15] Jens M. See: • R. Jones & Bartlett. . Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. 19. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth).edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. .edu/l/leib-met.. .stanford.M1).M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. google. Bernard Cohen. . Weber & George B. p. 404. 79-81 [13] L. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich.). . stanford.M1). Phil. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). google. [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0867204796. External links • Newton's Views on Space. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. A A Knopf. In I. time. The Universe and the Bucket". Arfken (2003). pp. Lerner (1997). Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. At the end of this article. ISBN 0691033234. and the texture of reality. Soc. . ISBN 0521656966. google. ISBN 0486607690. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. . Academic Press. ISBN 1402086679.google. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. In Edward N. Am. article by Robert Rynasiewicz. 79. [16] Lawrence S. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). 279–280. Hjorth (2000). Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. [19] Hans J. p. vol.com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. ISBN 0375412883. pp. 78. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space.

variational calculus.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus.[6] .[2] From the age of Greek mathematics. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. differential calculus and integral calculus. lambda calculus. Calculations of volumes and areas. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. Calculus is the study of change. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. broadly called mathematical analysis. to calculate areas and volumes. It has two major branches. and join calculus. Historically. while Archimedes (c. term by term integration. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. with no indication as to method. calculus. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. derivatives.[4] In the 5th century AD. and infinite series. functions. more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. and some of them are wrong. one goal of integral calculus. pi calculus. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation. early forms of differentiation. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. an integral test for convergence. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. infinite series approximations. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. integrals. economics. 1820 BC). a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. Eudoxus (c. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. but the formulas are mere instructions. More generally. Calculus has widespread applications in science. which prefigures the concept of the limit. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". or "infinitesimal calculus".

These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. the notion of higher derivatives. introduced the concept of adequality. and James Gregory. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. the oblateness of the earth. Taylor series. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. In his publications. Newton derived his results first. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. Unlike Newton. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. He did not publish all these discoveries. but Leibniz published first.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. which is its logical [7] development. including fractional and irrational powers. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. in their differential and integral forms. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. By Newton's time. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. he developed series expansions for functions. Pierre de Fermat. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. In other work. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. The product rule and chain rule. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). Isaac Barrow.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. second and higher derivatives. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. and providing the product rule and chain rule." —John von Neumann In Europe. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. and the system of mathematical analysis.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time.

which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. In modern mathematics. who gave the new discipline its name. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. It is Leibniz. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. Following the work of Weierstrass. Several mathematicians. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. developed in the 1960s. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous.Calculus Society. however. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. . and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. Today. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. In Cauchy's writing. to the detriment of English mathematics. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. Robinson's approach. but it would be 150 years later. including Maclaurin.

and Japan.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt.. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. the slope of a curve. Greece. arc length. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. but less than any number in the sequence 1. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. In the 19th century. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers.. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. For centuries. and for this reason they are the standard approach. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. "infinitely small". i. volume. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. and less than any positive real number. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. especially the limit and the infinite series. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. but use the ordinary real number system. work. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. In this treatment. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. Calculus provides tools. .e. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. However. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. center of mass. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. From this point of view. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. just like infinitesimals. 1/3. time. China. during the 17th century. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers. in some sense. 1/2. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. . which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. which resolve the paradoxes. and pressure. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. and optimization. Iraq. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. and motion. They capture small-scale behavior. Persia. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. India.. Historically.

and applications of the derivative of a function. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. If h is a number close to zero. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. the derivative of the function of f is f′. For example. To be concrete. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. which is impossible. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. (a. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. and if the squaring function is given the input three. pronounced "f prime. If the input of the function represents time. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. The derivative. then it outputs six.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. properties. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. f(a + h)). the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. outputs a second function. In mathematical jargon. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. it is possible to produce a new function. f(a)) and (a + h. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. the doubling function. it is the velocity of the ball. then a + h is a number close to a. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. where x is the independent variable. where functions usually input a number and output another number. however. Given a function and a point in the domain. y is the dependent variable. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. For example. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. that is. four is sent to sixteen. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. f(a)). Thus. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. however. f(x)). Therefore (a + h. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. and fix a point a in the domain of f. if the doubling function is given the input three. let f be a function. If a function is linear (that is. f(a + h)) is close to (a. three is sent to nine. can take the squaring function as an input. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation." For instance. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. then it outputs nine. if the graph of the function is a straight line). if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. b is the y-intercept. meaning that it considers the behavior of f .

the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. . The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. Here is a particular example. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. For this reason.9) is 6. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. that is to say. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function.

We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. however. but if the speed changes. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. If the speed is constant. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. as the output.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. . integral calculus studies two related linear operators. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. the inverse operation to the derivative. properties. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. called a Riemann sum. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. However. the derivative. which takes a function as an input and gives another function.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. then the speed will stay more or less the same. introduced by Leibniz. (This use of upper. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. In technical language. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. Leibniz. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. and applications of two related concepts. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. only multiplication is needed. For example: In this usage. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. the indefinite integral and the definite integral.

and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. where C is any constant. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. For each small segment. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. To approximate that area.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. . as an output. the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. Call that value h. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. or antiderivative. The symbol of integration is . an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). the area between the axis and the curve." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. dx is not a number. and is not being multiplied by f(x). the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. The indefinite integral. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. between two points (here a and b). the area. we can choose one value of the function f(x). the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. is y′ = 2x. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. f(x)=h. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x).

The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. for every x in the interval (a. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. then Furthermore. slope. demography. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. the moment of inertia of objects. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. we use calculus to derive its path. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. medicine. made by both Newton and Leibniz. b). engineering. economics. computer science. This realization. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. statistics. Physics makes particular use of calculus. b). It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. More precisely. In analytic geometry. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. For example. . was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. actuarial science. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. the study of graphs of functions. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. concavity and inflection points. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. business. In biology.

Liu. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. . uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. Method. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books.. Cosimo.. In economics. F. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. . University of Chicago Press. [8] André Weil: Number theory. Chapter . calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow.. Ltd. B. Kenelly. Springer. Gottfried Wilhelm. Inc. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. . T. agnesscott. Cengage Learning. p. Scott. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed.. Dainian. Cohen. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . Chapter 1. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. google. John W. mcs. 180–196. Biggers. The Works of the Mind. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times.. 2008. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. For example. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. html [7] von Neumann. Elif (April 1995). eds. Warren S. pp. MA. I [3] Archimedes.. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. htm). google. Examples are methods such as Newton's method. Reed. Sherry (2007). 28.. Vol. ISBN 0-763-75995-3..Calculus Green's Theorem. st-andrews. in Heywood. google. google.. . Pte. 2. 618–626. Donald R. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. Page 228. 1984. . spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. An approach through history. R. ed. Vámos. 1995. Wright. The Neumann Compedium. 279. p. p. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. Boston. Wright. p. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. pp. J. Reprinted in Bródy. it's used to derive dosing laws. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). Iris B. p. Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. 279 (http:/ / books. Dennis G. and linear approximation. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. google. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains.. Birkhauser Boston. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. p 2 (http:/ / books. "The Mathematician". fixed point iteration. Robert Sonné (1966). com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. In nuclear medicine. google.. For example. Agnes Scott College. Fan. Jones & Bartlett Learning.. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. xxvii. Discrete Green's Theorem. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies.. ISBN 9810222017. Inc. ISBN 0817645659.. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. Copy (http:/ / books. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books.see also the summed area table algorithm. google. [9] Leibniz. ac. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. 130. World Scientific Publishing Co.). (2009). For instance. 1947. In the realm of medicine. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. From Hammurapi to Legendre..

Loftsgaarden. Frank R. Maurice D.John Willey and Sons Pte. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus.. • Robert A. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. Volume 1. Apostol. Thompson and Martin Gardner." Annals of Mathematics. • Tom M. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. 1 (Sep. ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th. Weir.. Edwards (2010). Hafner. Joel Hass. (1996).com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover).Irl Bivens.. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Vol. NY. Princeton Univ.2002. George B. Carl Benjamin (1949). Mathematical Association of America No. 2004.." (http://mathworld. "Calculus". Wiley. (1998). ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. (1967). A Pump. Publish or Perish publishing. • Silvanus P. Richard D.. Dover edition 1959. • Thomas/Finney. 11th ed. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus.Stephen Davis:"Calculus". ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. American Mathematical Society. • Mathematical Association of America. Addison-Wesley. (2003). Addison Wesley. Calculus: Early Transcendentals.ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . Anderson and Don O. ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. • Florian Cajori. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. (1999).html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. 7. 1923). No. 1: The Tools of Calculus". 9th ed. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. (September 1994). Bruce H. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. Press. Cambridge University Press. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. James (2008). Wiley. • Albers.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. 25. Adams. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. • Tom M. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. • Michael Spivak. google. • Howard Anton.wolfram.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. (2003). Lebedev and Michael J.. Stony Brook. Eric W.. 6th ed. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers.. Calculus for a New Century. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. Donald A. ed. "The History of Notations of the Calculus. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. "Calculus". Volume 2. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Ron. Ch. • Cliff Pickover. Donald J. Ltd. (1969). University Science Books. The Association. • Leonid P. • Edmund Landau. Apostol. Not a Filter. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. ED 300 252. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Giordano (2008). 1–46. 2nd Ser. (1988). • Weisstein. 1998. pp. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis.

htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.pdf (http://www.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business).edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www. H. B.umn. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www.co.bbc.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www.com/Calculus.html (http://www. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2003).html) at PlanetMath.math.nd. (2006). Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism. H. "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www.math.wisc.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).understandingcalculus.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler. Eric W. External links • Weisstein.pdf) • Sloughter.calculus.co.bbc.org/pre-9217/calculus.com/ (http://www. Fullerton.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism.math. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre .understandingcalculus.html)" from MathWorld. (2006).htm) (HTML only) • Strang.wolfram.math.nd.. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa.edu/~sean/applied_math.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.edu/~keisler/calc. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.pdf (http://www.math.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.pdf) • Garrett. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw. (2001).encyclopediaofmath. Dan (2000). (2000).edu/~sean/applied_math. G.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.wolfram. Michiel Hazewinkel ed. K.pdf (http://www. P.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.ericdigests.uiowa.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. J. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus". Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. mit.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.htm) • Smith.ac.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. . (2004). "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals.pdf) • Faraz.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.math. Thompson (http://djm.edu/~keisler/calc. S.caltech. (1991).htm) from ERICDigests.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus. URL http:// www. (2004).temple.D. ( listen now (http:// www.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology.htm (http://ocw.byu. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P.htm (http://www. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow. lightandmatter. William V.uiowa.mit. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.com/calc/calc.org/index.org: The Calculus page (http://www. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses.org) at University of California.mit. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.math.cacr.lightandmatter.html) • Mauch.math. "Calculus" Light and Matter.com/calc/calc. soton.economics.caltech.umn.cacr. " Calculus (http://mathworld.wisc. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.

.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. 2. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. as noted above. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687.[2]) Meanwhile.math. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. exams and interactive applets.mit. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. this statement went unchallenged some years.ucdavis. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus. and centers of gravity. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. Newton manipulated the quarrel. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life.com/) Raymond. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton. 1709–1716." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention. 3. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. Newton.[1]. minima. A.solved-problems. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. Moreover. and others.html) by D. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus. 4.Calculus Dame with activities. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith. as in the 'Principia' of 1687. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www. or. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. Newton. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. at the age of 23. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read.

It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. in particular power series. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. on the method of tangents. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. which was not known at the time. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. In 1696. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. the manuscript. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. C. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704.[2] At first. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. No attempt was made to rebut #4. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. Shortly before his death. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. whereas Newton began from derivatives. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. but some deny this. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. In 1849. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. It is. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. one of which was new to him. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. I. Gerhardt. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. and in fact worked together on some aspects. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. however. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. However.

was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. in most cases I did not keep a copy. had endeavoured to wrest from me. 1716. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. as it appeared to Newton's friends. which the author of that epistle. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. When pressed for an explanation. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. Moreover. the debate persisted for many years. The report of the committee. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. No such summary (with facts. which referenced all allegations. the letter of June 7. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz.. of which many are lost. which I could sort through only with time and patience. and when I did. Leibniz may have minimized. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. 77 . "I have never. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. 1713. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans.g. All this casts doubt on his testimony. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. I have enjoyed little leisure. dont plusiers se sont perdus." he said. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. forty years ago. In any event. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. but it appears that on more than one occasion. Moreover. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. finding in favor of Newton. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. Several points should be noted. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. before publishing them. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. as if by the authority of a great judge. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. 30 years later. In accepting the denial. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. suspicious details. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. in the Acta Eruditorum). and that of April 8. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. and doubts emerged. Now that I am old. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. dates. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. in the Charta Volans. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton.

[5] http:/ / www. whose potentialities he fully understood. (1970). was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. . so making the priority row a nonsense. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. (Cambridge University Press.). Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. D. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. at p. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). 1967). References [1] D T Whiteside (ed.. which were translatable one into the other. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. [4] D Gjertsen (1986). at page 400. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). T. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. at page 149. explaining "the method of first and last ratios". especially at p. for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside.. google. and the differential and integral calculus. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. They adopted two algorithms. at page 250 (http:/ / books. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". 120. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. tcd. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). google. points of resemblance. google.. 2003). not in the German-speaking world). [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia.99. 1696). the differential and integral calculus. the analytical method of fluxions. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. of equal certainty. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . at page 41 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. maths. "The Newton handbook". (Guicciardini 2003. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm.. 1968). (Cambridge University Press.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain.

Responding to Gottfried Leibniz.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Anand.html). This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. random behaviour. 1980.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Edward B. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. Rouse Ball. 1997. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. • Hall. a prominent supporter of the theory. W.maths. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. as a perfect machine. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. It continues ticking along."[1] . could explain the behaviour of the solar system. including the law of universal gravitation. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. going on without the Interposition of God. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable.. W W Norton. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. or initiated by the Big Bang.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. A. 1908.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. Canberra. R. Dated. The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences.html).math. and tends. A thorough scholarly discussion.tcd.rutgers. • Stephen Hawking. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. approaching a maximum value). • W. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. Cambridge Uni. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. Press. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. 4th ed. • Kandaswamy. 1988.

p. Westfall. 65. 2011. Edward B. This view of God as the creator. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. 2: 103-117. quoted in Edward Grant.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge." Science and Christian Belief 3. Pr.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. R. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. A Source Book in Medieval Science. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. cited in. 201.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. God was the Prime Mover. p. Richard S.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). Clarke quotation taken from article. Edward. 1974). (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. 1991. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. Cambridge: 1996. p. Alan Durrant. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Knud Haakonssen.html) The Physical World. 19. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. Robert Lambourne. no. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". and motion. . Edinburgh. On the Sphere. 1. space. Webb. Joy Manners. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. who created the perfect machine and let it run. In this widely popular medieval text. 2. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. John Bolton.. 465. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy. References [1] Davis. [2] John of Sacrbosco. a working clock. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. ibid.K. This steel artwork contains moving gears. Cambridge University Press. who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. ed. 1850. God was the master-builder. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. and beauty. Andrew Norton. Ed.google. p. regularity. Further reading • Dolnick. (http://physicalworld. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. Harper Collins. the Royal Society. 3. the machine of the world.

Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. retaining only inertia. htm [2] bartleby. html) .whitman. Albert Einstein. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. and the additional concept of force. Translation). 1210-1219 (2004) . gutenberg. edited by Thomas F. Eugene. 72. corpuscular theory of light. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change.edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. Phys. interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. James Clerk Maxwell. Particle.com (http:/ / www.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. translation. spatial locality. pp. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. and all their 'inner' qualities.29-32. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. bartleby. Torrance (1982). one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. com/ 65/ li/ light. the material point and force (interaction between material points). The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). set forward by Sir Isaac Newton.The Wave. 1931).: Am.html) JJ Thorn et al. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. time. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. form. J.[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces.

Third edition. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. page 943 of I. and I do not feign hypotheses.[5] For example. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal. or based on occult qualities. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. first published in 1687. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. combined with his law of universal gravitation. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726).Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. Newton showed that these laws of motion. or mechanical. in Latin.. opposite and collinear. F = ma. 3. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m. i. have no place in experimental philosophy. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries.e. in the third volume of the text.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. . The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. General Scholium. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[2][3][3] 2. 974 pages. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4.e. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. whether metaphysical or physical. and afterwards rendered general by induction. Newton's First and Second laws.. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. and hypotheses. Therefore. i. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star.

and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. This is the most common. independently of any particle structure. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. That is. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. acceleration. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. from this point of view. Euler’s laws can. Thus. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. however. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. In the given interpretation mass. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. then the velocity of the object is constant. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . the first law can be restated as: In every material universe. i. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum.e.Laws of motion In their original form. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. In this sense. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. momentum.

84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where.. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. Consistent with the first law. Thus. Galileo. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. then there is a force on it. acceleration. however. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it.e. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. the momentum of the body is constant. such is the case with uniform circular motion.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. and a is the body's acceleration. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest. m is the mass of the body. otherwise it would stop moving. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. Thus. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. where F is the net force applied. even if there is no change in its magnitude. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below). In other words. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation.[22] . Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. i. if a body is accelerating.

Instead. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force).[17] The reasoning. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. or gradually and successively. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. M is the total mass of the system. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. reading: If a force generates a motion.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law.[23] this is understood. when they are oblique. or obliquely joined. a triple force triple the motion. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. by substituting the definition of acceleration. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F.[18] In classical mechanics. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. a double force will generate double the motion. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. particles by definition have constant mass.[24] . is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. known as the thrust. In case of a well-defined system of particles. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. in modern terms. Under some conventions. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. Then. if the body moved before. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system.

For. If a body impinges upon another. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. as will be proved in the next scholium. as the motions are equally changed. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. in its own motion. The changes made by these actions are equal.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. if the road .g. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. but act in opposite directions. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. as it does the stone towards the horse. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. toward the contrary part. and directed to contrary parts.. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. that is to say. motion is Newton's name for momentum. and by its force changes the motion of the other. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". Although the forces are equal. as usual. but act in opposite directions. If you press a stone with your finger. This law takes place also in attractions.[25] In the above. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. As shown in the diagram opposite. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. the finger is also pressed by the stone. The action and the reaction are simultaneous.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body.

At speeds comparable to the speed of light. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. and not on a single object. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. and in quantum mechanics. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. momentum. one might say. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. 87 where Fa. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. So each and every force has two ends. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. . each exerting a force on the other. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. Fb. very high speeds (in special relativity. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires.[28] however from a deeper perspective. However. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. which can be stated as follows. optical properties of substances. Given two objects A and B. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. including general relativity and quantum field theory. most notably at very small scales. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus.b are the forces from B acting on A. Newton's laws of motion. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities.a are the forces from A acting on B. Therefore. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. From a mathematical point of view.

and Tait. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. 58. Edoardo (2003). . [9] Benjamin Crowell. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points")..45G. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). and by a modern text of the early 21st century. Newtonian Physics. ISBN 9780070084988. ISBN 0486462900.). The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. Lubliner. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books.. google. Michael E. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). "Newton's First Law: Text. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. Indeed. quantum electrodynamics. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. google. berkeley.1023/A:1022632600805. Treatise on natural philosophy. However. Jacob (2008). except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement.. the laws of conservation of momentum.g. volume 1.]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. doi:10. . google. html). energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. . general relativity. ISBN 3764314761. etc.. springerlink. Antonio. pdf).. htm) [. 207. pp. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. Clifford A. p. W (Lord Kelvin). Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. Newtonian Physics. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. Translations. ce. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). ISBN 097046701X. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. action at a distance has been completely eliminated. M. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. (2003). [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. since they apply to both light and matter. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. P G.Truesdell. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. "4. and to both classical and non-classical physics. . Tseitlin. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series).Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. Dover Publications. Benvenuto. quantum mechanics. . energy. (1867). and is not used in fundamental theories (e. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. This can be stated simply. Halliday Browne. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws. .. "Momentum. lightandmatter.12. tripod. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. archive. • Section 242. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. McGraw-Hill Companies. us. In modern physics. google. New York: Birkhäuser. I. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. Becchi. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory..." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www.

little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[. [11] Isaac Newton. . com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). The Principia." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009)." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. and (3) Bruce Pourciau." [17] Halliday. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. Berkeley 1999. 2007. google. pp... Corollary III to the laws of motion . p. ISBN 1-85233-426-6.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011.] Consequently. Daniel. John Wiley & Sons. See Harman and Shapiro. Marion (2004). the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. doi:10. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). ISBN 0534997244.. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. (2006). "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". Faughn (2006). (1992). [16] Plastino.227P." [19] Hannah. Phys. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). Educ.M1). Applied Mechanics. 12 ff. Juan C. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books.. p. Physics. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". 1. 78–79. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. google.. (2) Stuart Pierson.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. 24. Eds) (2002). Bibcode 1992PhyEd. [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. [26] C Hellingman (1992). Resnick. pages 627–658. ISBN 0471037109. "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. 199. 353. google. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". . Shapiro. 6. Special relativity (http:/ / books. producing the relativistic expression for momentum. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. Cohen and A. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. pp. is not so easily assented to. An Introduction to Mechanics.. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed.53. p. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. Pitman Paperbacks. it will lie still forever. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. [. M J. in 5. cited below. (http:/ / books. Principia. s.. 1967). Hillier. p221. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity.). Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. google. [13] Beatty." [28] Newton. google. "Physics". . Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. ISBN 0387237046. doi:10. "Newton’s third law revisited".1007/BF00052611. Whiteside (http:/ / books. . McGraw-Hill. html#NewLawMot). The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. Serway.112H. 53.27.. vol. [22] WJ Stronge (2004). [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still.. London/Berlin: Springer. Angel R. ISBN 052189266X. ISBN 0521602890. Perspectives on Science. "'Corpore cadente. . ISBN 0534408966.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. stanford. [14] Thornton. Whitman. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. . google. p. 1971 [20] Raymond A. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. Millard F. also an online discussion by G E Smith.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies.. is a truth that no man doubts. . consists. Springer. Muzzio. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. 27 (2): 112–115. Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0070350485. pp.60 (2006).. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. Jerry S. . When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). J. unless somewhat else stir it. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. University of California press. Robert Kolenkow (1973). pages 143–185. pages 157–207. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M.B. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). 1 (1993). but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. 133–134. Harman & Alan E. 161. p. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. google. . p. ISSN 0923-2958. College Physics (http:/ / books. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used.T. . Bibcode 1992CeMDA. A new translation by I.

containing Book 1 (http://books. Saunders College Publishing. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). Newton's Third Law (http://www. R. G.wolfram. Stephen (1995).com/lm/). especially at Section 242. Sands.com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www.lightandmatter. McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC). (1867).com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178). (2011).com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05.M1). volume 1. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Newton's Second Law (http://www. volume 2. • Fowles. html#Section4. Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. ISBN 0070378525. (2005). "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".google.1). M.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. Cassiday. Light and Matter (http://www. Peter W. • Marion.motionmountain. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. P. W (Lord Kelvin). 1 (2nd ed.2. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). especially at Section 4. P G. ISBN 0030973023. 6.google.1.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ). ISBN 0030223172. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books. Special relativity (http://books. • Thomson. R.html#Section5.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6.3. Vol.lightandmatter. volume 1. G.). Thornton.3)..com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) .lightandmatter. Isaac. Pearson/Addison-Wesley.Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell.youtube.google. L.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC).google. ISBN 0805390499. p.lightandmatter. Light and Matter)..2). and Section 5. London/Berlin: Springer. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw. Harcourt College Publishers. • Likins. • Newton. Benjamin. (1999).). google. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books. Jerry. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04. R. Newton's laws of motion (http://books. Newton's First Law (http://www.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny.. (1973). Wolfram Demonstrations Project.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy. • Newton.lightandmatter. • Feynman. Isaac. B. Section 4.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04. Elements of Engineering Mechanics.mit. (2011. and Tait.html#Section4.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6. Leighton.google.

Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. Assuming SI units. and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. Both are inverse-square laws.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. G is the gravitational constant. m1 is the first mass. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. F is measured in newtons (N). in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies.) In modern language. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). r in meters (m). The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. m2 is the second mass. . first published on 5 July 1687.

[6] In this way arose the question what... "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known". that Hooke communicated his "supposition . and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating. and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive .[7] It was later on. however. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. "prosecuting this Inquiry"). in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity"."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. On the latter two aspects. and on which some points still excite some controversy. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions.e. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674.. being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society.." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". if anything. Plagiarism dispute In 1686. but also.[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity.Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified". Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention.". Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers". together with a principle of linear inertia. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it. of 24 November 1679. that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall.

[20] and associated sections of Book 3.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. although significant. but without demonstration. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. also without demonstration. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding."[14] . and Borelli[16] (who suggested. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. but that did not mean. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. According to Newton. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. Thus Newton gave a justification. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand. Among the reasons. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law.. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. Newton did accept and acknowledge. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. which inclined me to try it . could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. supported by mathematical demonstration. even close up. without evidence in favor of the supposition.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance).[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea.[19] In addition.. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements.[15] (who suggested.[14] including Bullialdus. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. according to Newton.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. which Newton was making in the 1660s. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1. otherwise lacking. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". in all editions of the 'Principia'. Hooke. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. Newton acknowledged Wren.

even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. it becomes understandable how. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). as the component point masses become "infinitely small". about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727.. that "One must not think that this idea . Alexis Clairaut.. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. In the limit. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour. within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. taken together. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". on the point at r0. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. for example. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. . • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations. this entails integrating the force (in vector form.[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. Nevertheless.[26][27] In the light of the background described above.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. cancel each other out. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. As described above. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). As a consequence. Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. That is.

m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. In this formula. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines .2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. the increase due to the additional mass is 1. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. Thus. further outward the gravity increases again. G is the gravitational constant. quantities in bold represent vectors. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. and if the sphere is large enough.

object 2 is a rocket. except that F is now a vector quantity. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). For 2 objects (e. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. per unit mass. Also. Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. object 1 the Earth).Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. It is a generalization of the vector form. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. it can be seen that F12 = −F21.g. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth .

but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. where φ is the gravitational potential. General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. this is m/s2. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution.[31] For example. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. in SI. i. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model). Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic.e. . Gravitational fields are also conservative. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. and c is the speed of light. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. The field has units of acceleration. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. that is..

made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. Moreover. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. you get an orbit with no precession. in his third letter to Bentley. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. and assume a point mass for each. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. regardless of their different inertial masses. In point of fact." He never. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally..[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. decades before Newton. but in the case of gravity. which was detected long after the life of Newton. especially of planet Mercury. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. F = ma. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. Yet. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. and the observed precession. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. in his words. is to me so great an absurdity that. See the Equivalence Principle. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. "assigned the cause of this power". but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. In 1692. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. I believe. independent of the quantities of matter involved.. the definitive answer has yet to be found. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity."[33] . as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". However. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. though hypotheses abound. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. However. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. In all other cases. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets.

start at page 263 (http:/ / books. Theorem 35: p. (Cambridge University Press. ch. 1664-1684". 1960). p. (Cambridge University Press.431-448. 1666. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. (University of California Press. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books.. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. Vol 2 (1676-1687). "Astronomia philolaica".80. Journal for the History of Astronomy. CUP 1989.956 . google. pdf). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [18] Page 436.80. [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". (Cambridge University Press. i (1970).).13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". Florence. for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. [16] Borelli. 1645. mpg. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy.Proposition 75.633. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. . [6] H W Turnbull (ed. Barry N. Paris. Vol 2 (1676-1687). pages 11-61. Bruce Brackenridge. google. [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false). google. 1995). document #235. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. document #239. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. 20 June 1686. especially at 13-20. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729. [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. start at page 177 (http:/ / books. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. Robert D. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. pages 5-19. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.. physics. [21] D T Whiteside. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". Ofer Gal. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. google. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". Direct link to value (http:/ / www.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. google.. the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. Vol 2 (1676-1687). "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.633M. Phys. Mod. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.. doi:10. 1960). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). (2008).2. at p. translators: Isaac Newton. google. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". General Scholium. Book 3. nist. 168. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. Correspondence. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [22] See J. [17] D T Whiteside. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". Springer. David B. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. . In general relativity. Journal for the History of Astronomy. htm). . 1960). A.). [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). at page 66 (http:/ / books. Taylor. 1960). by I. Newell. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. Vol.. (Cambridge University Press. [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645).).I. pages 5-19.). [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. public. (2009).Bernard Cohen. Vol 2 (1676-1687). "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. iastate. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". [8] Purrington. nist.). In Einstein's theory.. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. mpiwg-berlin. 27 May 1686. 45 (1991). document #288. (Cambridge University Press. [2] . especially at page 13. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. 1960). document #286. Bibcode 2008RvMP..1103/RevModPhys. already cited. G. google. Rev. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 1664-1684". 80: 633–730. Peter J. because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime.. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. i (1970). gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata. see particularly page 431. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 24 November 1679.

cited above. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". it will simply fall back on Earth. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. Rouse Ball. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1.com. [32] .. ph. 529-534. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World.youtube. 518-528.. 10 (2005). (E) . stanford. If the speed is low. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. 511-517. New York: W. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). in Early Science and Medicine. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon. Charles W.Max Born (1924). html) [31] Misner.pythia. utexas. H. (A and B) 2. 10 (2005). If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. and it was the key force for planetary motion. edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . M Nauenberg. Westfall. [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. it will indeed leave Earth. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. Ofer Gal. Kip S. Newton" (1759). in Early Science and Medicine.Freeman and Company. If the speed is very high. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato.) [33] . Thorne. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www.The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. Wheeler. by Richard S. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. Venus. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. 1. at Introduction (section IX). If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. John Archibald (1973). page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". 1893). Gravitation. in Early Science and Medicine. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". at page 69. (C) 3. 10 (2005). ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. (D) 4.W.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. [27] See also G E Smith. Cambridge University Press. and the Earth.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. Newton". in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance..ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal.

green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result. Carl et al.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours. When the disc is rotated. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books. A combination of red. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record.physics. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell.bucknell. php?p=2_23 . New York: Random House. the colors fade to white. eg. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. google. net/ index.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. Notes [1] Sagan.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www.virginia.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein. net23.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111).

succeeded by Halley's method. for converging on the root can be easily derived. f (x0)). We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. and the method can be iterated. That is Here. and its derivative ƒ '. Suppose ƒ : [a. Then by simple algebra we can derive . f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. (x1. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point.

his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. . for a zero of multiplicity 1. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. Furthermore. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. though the connection with calculus was missing. essentially giving the description above. Finally. More details can be found in the analysis section below. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. In the same publication. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. However. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis.) The method will usually converge. the better. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. (The closer to the zero. Finally. But. in 1740. However. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. He does not compute the successive approximations . published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. In 1690. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995).Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end.

An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. For situations where the method fails to converge. there are some difficulties with the method. However. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. Specifically. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. Furthermore.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. However. In these situations. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. if the multiplicity of the root is known. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. the method may overshoot. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. and diverge from that root. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root.

in U+. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood.. ƒ(α) = 0. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic.6). then the convergence is usually only linear. α being a zero of multiplicity r. x in a neighborhood U of α. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. Exercise 1.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. Specifically. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. In practice these results are local. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. i. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x).e. However. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. then. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α.

2. (b) (c) Finally. . 2.352836323 converges to 1. 2. For example. where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1.352836327 converges to –3.35284172 converges to –3. 2. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1.Newton's method 106 That is. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2. 2.35283735 converges to 4. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied.[1] for the function . 3. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms.35287527 converges to 4.

any iteration point is stationary. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. the method will converge. In such cases a different method. such as bisection. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . x1 will be undefined. instead of the starting point. Let and take 0 as the starting point. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. for example. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. preventing convergence. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). .Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. This can happen. In fact. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). For the following subsections. since the tangent at (0. In general.

let . applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. where . even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. then convergence will not be quadratic. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). however. farther away than it initially was. In fact. except for x = 0. In the limiting case of (square root). let then and consequently . So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. where its derivative is undefined (this. so they do not converge in this case either. the derivative at the root is nonzero. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. For example. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0. Indeed. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. So convergence is not quadratic. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. does not affect the algorithm. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable.

while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. the derivative is not zero at the root.500250376.067671976. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. 0. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes.1 = 0.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. For example. since both roots are non-real. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. Indeed. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. then convergence may fail to be quadratic. Given .251062828. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. meaning the iterates do not converge. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions.032741218. darker means more iterations to converge. 0. 0.041224176. 0. 0. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. Basins of attraction for x5 . .031642362. 0.127507934. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root. 0. For many complex functions.

One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. In the formulation given above. one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). . the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. If the nonlinear system has no solution. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. k variables. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk.

There are many methods of computing square roots. For example. if one wishes to find the square root of 612.5. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. with derivative. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. and Newton's method is one. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x). We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. We try a starting value of x0 = 0.) . With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. With an initial guess of 10. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. which may be found via Newton's method. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3.

9. PPT. SIAM. doi:10. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]. Ortega. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. Gilbert. Matlab. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms.1137/1037125. Universitext (Second revised ed. SIAM Review 37 (4). C. T. Teukolsky. Claude.Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. 2003.6 [6]. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. ISBN 0-521-00794-1.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . 2000. • P. • J. Kalu. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. and 9. 2004. • Bonnans. Kelley. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method.4 [5]. Frédéric. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed.). Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. doi:10. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. SA. 2003. Flannery. Berlin. Vetterling.). of translation of 1997 French ed. Eric W. John H. BP (2007). Mathcad. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. illustrating the quadratic convergence. ISBN 3-540-35445-X.. "Chapter 9. J. WH. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. • C. Claudia A. W. M. MR2265882. Newton's method [9] -. Classics in Applied Mathematics.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. Charles. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. 35. Egwu (2008). 1995. • Press..7 [7]. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. Cambridge University Press.). New York: Cambridge University Press. Deuflhard. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. • Kaw. In particular. Lemaréchal. Autar. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. WT. Vol.Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein. Springer. Sagastizábal. Rheinboldt. 531–551. 112 References • Tjalling J. (2006). Maple. J. xiv+490. Ypma. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. pp. SIAM. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. See especially Sections 9.

uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. macroeconomics and other fields. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. html [21] http:/ / www. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. springer. nrbook. It is defined as: and so on. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. html [9] http:/ / www. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. usf. html [17] http:/ / plus. php [11] http:/ / math. pp. 3-12 (esp. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. Gilbert. Thomas. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. com/ empanel/ index. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. edu [16] http:/ / math. or dot notation. usf. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. maths. com/ empanel/ index. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. html#Section4. com/ empanel/ index. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. eng. heroku. fullerton. lightandmatter. . ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. "A chaotic search for i". com/ NewtonsMethod. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. com/ empanel/ index. November 1997. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. nrbook. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. 6). html [12] http:/ / animation. yihui. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. [3] http:/ / www. p. "Cubics. In physics. [2] Strang. fullerton. amcgowan. Mathematical Gazette 81. nrbook. r-project. January 1991. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). maccery. mathworks. chaos and Newton's method". org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. 403-408. wolfram. 1 [10] http:/ / www. eng. however. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. nrbook. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. torkian.

and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. lib. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. covering the limb of the Metal round about. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. . and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. and not the spherical aberration. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. cam. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. or a little less. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. He also made all the tube. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. For this Circle being placed here. but be an opake Circle. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. being the first known successful reflecting telescope. and fittings. than by Refraction in the Glass. ac. made with a concave Eye-glass. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. mount. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. an early composition of speculum metal. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye.

ssplprints. by Alfred Rupert Hall. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. Retrieved 22 November 2008.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. co.. google.. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. Page 74 (http:/ / books.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1.University of Florida (http:/ / www. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE .A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life . com/ image. Science & Society Picture Library. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. google. 1785" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. page 67 (http:/ / books. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). Wilson Published by Springer. google. google.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm).[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. Dr Robert A. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. ufl. uk/ lens.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4. google.6 References • Smith. [10] http:/ / www. html . htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope. craig-telescope. clas. King. McGraw-Hill Inc. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown. Hatch . Warren J. 9783540401063. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics. stsci.Work . It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. Modern Optical Engineering. .". Heath's) in Strand. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. php?imgref=10408672). p. They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. Telescopes in History.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. 2004 ISBN 3540401067. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space.Publication. 1966.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm).

Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space.stsci.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day. then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope.[3] and others.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour. and there were many theories as to what caused it. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope.[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] . A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope.edu/~picard/personal/Newton.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build).mit.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index.media.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.[9][10] If this was true. such as Niccolò Zucchi. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.

[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. it would still correct chromatic aberration. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. Because of these difficulties in construction. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. and fittings. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. cassegrains. .[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. The surface also tarnished rapidly. reducing cost and adding to portability. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types. Like Gregory before him. mount. overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. He also made the tube. namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). the primary mirror (2). His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. leading to wider field of view. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system.

• For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. Visually. For research telescopes. suffer from coma. For visual observing. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F².[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. and can still yield beautiful wide-field.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. low-power imagery. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider.[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. This flare is zero on-axis. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter). and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. . like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape).

Page 108 (http:/ / books. google. King. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& .M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi.Mark T. Page 74 (http:/ / books.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . google. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. html) [3] Stargazer .Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books.By Fred Watson. page 562 (http:/ / books. by Alfred Rupert Hall. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. google. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. VandeWettering. Inc NetLibrary. org/ basics. google. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. The Newton handbook. page 67 (http:/ / books. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. google.

edu . edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. "8. harvard. 116. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . telescope-optics. google. pdf) (pdf). com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. page 14 (http:/ / books.1. google. David (2004). "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical .John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey.and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. . [12] telescope-optics..Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. Wilson Published by Springer. "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. . net/ reflecting. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. Hebra. two.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. [20] Alexius J. & David Shafer. 9783540401063. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). baader-planetarium. htm) [13] amazing-space. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. Retrieved 2009-09-29. Modern Optical Engineering. . 1966. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7. p. Warren J. google. telescope-optics. cloudynights.1.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life". whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics.. Vladimir (2006-07-14). . net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. Retrieved 29 November 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-03. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. espacenet. . p. htm). com/ documents/ paracorr. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. pdf). edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. McGraw-Hill Inc. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith. . stsci. "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books.stsci. Rolin J. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. google. Gebelein. 77R [16] Sacek.

[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. Alternatively..[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. political thought and theology. in addition to influencing philosophy. if two globes.Sep. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. David Hume. Yehuda Elkana. Retrieved 2008-03-26. . alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. in general. 30. causes. No. Journal of the History of Ideas.2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. As an example where causes can be observed. Ronald S. jstor.: Harvard University Press. 1969). The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". the tension). Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. Also. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). Cambridge. measuring the amount of tension in the cord. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. . and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". Such determination. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). 3 (Jul. pp. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. floating in space. 0. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. Vol. CO. 319-330" (http:/ / links.[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. 1974. (This experiment involves observation of a force. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. are connected by a cord. for one. Calinger. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. he says. with no other clues to assess the situation. Mass.

the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. For instance. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride.. by means of a cord that connects them. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. the fixed stars. pp. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. and therefore. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. absolute space or fixed stars).[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. Principia.Rotating spheres force). the string tying the spheres together is under tension. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. Scholium To summarize this proposal. even in an immense vacuum. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. — Isaac Newton. for example. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. from the tension of the cord. Alternatively. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. partly from the forces. partly from the apparent motions. . pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. then. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. according to Newton. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Book 1. no centrifugal forces are produced. Because of the rotation. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation.. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. p. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space.) Below. we might. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. according to the preceding methods.[8] (Of course. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. — Ernst Mach. which are the differences of the true motions. . as an example from Newton's time. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us.[2][6] For me. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. and if. instead. the matter is more subtle. were revolved about their common center of gravity. but standing on the Earth's surface. centrifugal forces are produced. they are not rotating.

However. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. so the string should be relaxed. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. locating one or the other of the spheres). putting the string under tension. the Coriolis force is:[11] . |xB| = R. but opposite in direction. they clearly see the string is under tension. the tying string. pulling them apart. (For example. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. they would say no force acts on the balls. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. and should require an inward force to do that. m is the mass of the ball. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion).Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. See Figure 2. According to the article fictitious force. observers say they are at rest. along the direction of the string. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. This force is directed inward. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. the string is under tension. not just these spheres. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. and is called a centripetal force. In this zero-tension case. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. but being on the opposite end of the string. Because of the rotation. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. To travel in a circular path. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. the Coriolis force. The other ball has the same requirement.)[9] To account for this tension. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. but circular motion at constant speed. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. which would stretch. and acts on everything they observe. requires a centripetal force of the same size. accounting for their observation. These two forces are provided by the string. According to the rotating observer. (See reactive centrifugal force. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. also shown in Figure 2. the string is placed under tension. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. Because the balls are not moving.

In the geometry of this example. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. hence. However. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. When ωI < ωS. . it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. In either case.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. ωS < 0. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. |vB| = ωR. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. this force is not the tension in the string. Therefore. say ωI (I = inertial). That is. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). Full notational details are in Fictitious force. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. while for a more rapidly moving frame.

Cambridge University Press. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. Sausalito CA: University Science . being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521621135. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. [8] D. . Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books.M1). p. google. George Edwin Smith (2002). The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324).M1). The Principia. [2] Robert Disalle (I. [5] Max Born (1962). 167. pp.[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. 161. p. New York: Courier Dover Publications. Hand. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. ISBN 0486607690. [4] Max Born (1962).).M1). and I. p. Knudsen & Poul G. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. . 233. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). 175. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). . Retrieved 2010-05-13. p. . google. Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. google. Bernard Cohen & George E. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. ωS is the greater. Smith. ISBN 0691033234. Courier Dover Publications. Cambridge University Press. 43. google. google. Draza Marković. Moreover. ISBN 354067652X. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. McGill-Queen's Press. Courier Dover Publications. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). p. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. Courier Dover Publications. [10] Jens M. Time and Space (http:/ / books. 386–387.M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. google. 79. htm). p. [9] Barry Dainton (2001). Freeman (1986).M1). p. Hjorth (2000). google. Cambridge University Press. . com/ definitions. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). .Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. Bernard Cohen. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. ISBN 0486607690. Janet D. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. [7] Max Born (1962). p. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. 43. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. 324. 80. . editors) (1996).[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. Finch (1998). ISBN 0521575729. ISBN 0486652270. . Springer. p. google. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. . ISBN 0521656966.M1). p. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. . John Archibald Wheeler (1995). inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. Cambridge University Press. google. Figure 43. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). editors) (2002). ISBN 0773523065. google. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. 82. . ISBN 0486607690. [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. ISBN 0521656966. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. tripod. p. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167.M1). Princeton University Press. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. google. google. .

167. 5 (1975) ed. . and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. their Eq. google. Phil. ISBN 0074603159. . google. the theorem has been . The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Mechanics (http:/ / books. pp. google.M1). Cambridge University Press. 325–348. Moore (1989). p. first published in 1687.M1). one that varies as the inverse cube of r. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. pp. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324.3) in Stommel and Moore. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. Dennis W. 99ff. Mechanics (http:/ / books. . [16] R. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. . ISBN 189138922X. p. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. ISBN 0521621135. B. Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5.M1). whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same.).M1). 43. D. no. An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. p. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. Da Capo Press. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. he derived a formula for the force. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. google. and Ralph A. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). he showed that the added force must be a central force. . pp. ISBN 0738206105. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). vol. Columbia University Press.. 275. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force.). (3.4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. (3. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. Am. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. Soc. but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k.. fixed in space (the center). . google. p. p. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. 348–349. ISBN 0521352541.M1) (in Proc. 55. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. Lynden-Bell (1996). 119.[1] Since 1997. See Henry Stommel. In Proposition 44. google. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. Nothingness (http:/ / books. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. 279–280.Rotating spheres Books. Partridge (1995). . Draza Marković (Editors) ed. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. In Proposition 43. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. . Henning Genz (2001). In this example. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. ISBN 0231066368. google.

this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. However. In particular. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". 262 BC – ca. to first approximation.[5] Roughly 350 years later. always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. By analogy. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. Apollonius of Perga (ca. According to these laws. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. and so on. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. exhibiting retrograde motion. for planets orbiting the Sun. Arguing from his laws of motion. To explain the epicycles. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation.Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. However. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic).[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant.

its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. However.[13] However. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r).[11] Brown.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. afterwards.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. in particular. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun. According to this theorem. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. that is. to first approximation. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. However. To find this approximation. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex. However. The radial and angular motions.[12] and Delaunay. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. r(t) and θ1(t). this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant.

thus. A GIF version of this animation is found here. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°.Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. F2 − F1 is a negative number. F2−F1 is a positive number. since θ2 = k θ1. For example. For example. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. then. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. By contrast. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). change with time t as the particle moves. rather. the path of the second particle is given by . Both of these coordinates. the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. For this purpose. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. θ1). its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. the angle of the second particle. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. If k2 is greater than one. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). where k is any constant. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. if k2 is less than one. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. In other words. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). rather. such as r(t) and θ1(t). the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). the added inverse-cube force is attractive. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. r(t) and θ1(t). Formally.

in that case. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. the orbit does not change as it precesses. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. In this case. to one. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. when the orbit is a circle. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). F1(r) = 0. both of which are constant.. i. if k is less than one. i.. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. the second orbit resembles the first. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. this is true only for circular orbits. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. shown in red). Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. but revolves gradually about the center of force.e. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. when the distance reaches a minimum. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0).Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. .[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. at a constant angular speed.e. Hence.e. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). but not equal. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. i. Hence. However. However. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. According to the conservation of angular momentum. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). where k is a constant. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. If k is greater than one. in other words.. respectively. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant.

whereas when k is greater than one.0 (blue). Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces.0 (green).0 (cyan) and 6. Thus. when k is less than one. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity.0 (blue).Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). when k is greater than one. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit.0 (black). as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . the inverse-cube force is repulsive. Thus. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. 1. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. On the other hand. the force is attractive. Thus. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. corresponding to an attractive force (green. which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m.0 (cyan) and 6. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. 1. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. as illustrated in Figure 7. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. When k is less than one. L12/m. and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. 3. the range of allowed angles increases.5 (green). as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m). 3. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7).

An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. F = Cr.) In such cases. Over time. such as . F = C/r2. this property is not true for other types of forces.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. However.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. and inverse-square forces. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. where m and n are integers. Conversely. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. such as Hooke's law. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. general relativistic effects. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. For illustration. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. in general. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). An govern the motions of planets.. i.e. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. provided that k equals a rational number. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually. and other effects. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer.e. no matter what its initial position or velocity. As shown by Bertrand's theorem.. For example. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely.. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. For example. This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. oblateness in the attracting body. green orbit in Figure 9).e. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. In other words. the line connecting the two apses. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. However. i. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. i. green orbit in Figure 10).

the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. F(r) = rn−3 and. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. the apsidal angle α is 180°. this implies that.. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°.C(r) is proportional to rn. Wilson and Harper. where n equals 1.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%.e. i. using the general law θ2 = k θ1.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. hence. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. Thus. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε.[16] According to their argument. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. in the same time. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. For the inverse-square force. in general.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. In the first two. one of the first appearances of such a series. the central force is a power law. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). Therefore. As a final illustration. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). α equals 180°. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. As noted above.

Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8. In 1673. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance. 18. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion.[28] Ironically.[24] for comparison..85 years. However. i.0165)[26] In 1894. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force .6 years. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes.[25] First. again on the monthly time-scale. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity. Hipparchus and Ptolemy.[23] in Newton's time. of the planets. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes). while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time.e. the so-called Saros cycle.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic. and is noticeably more complex than that.

the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). but the inverse-square term is not. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. the inverse-cube force is added. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. However. Also. In this case. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. and its argument is unchanged. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation.5°. . Rather.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000.525°).Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. consistent with the formula given above. so that r1 = r2. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. so Newton reasoned. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1). where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth. For every revolution.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. roughly half of the observed 3. θ2 = k θ1. r1 = r2. the long axis would rotate 1. since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. and estimates of A and B. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. the original force is not scaled. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same.[4] As Newton did. For comparison. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. however. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle. The second term. In contrast to Newton. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181.

[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. Proposition 43. the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. therefore.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. Therefore. At the apapsis and periapsis. In an infinitesimal time dt. by Newton's Proposition 2. and also its angle θ1(t). Expressed another way. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. by Proposition 2. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. derived earlier in the Principia. specifically Propositions 43–45. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest. which equals θ2 = k θ1. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. All three planets (red. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. which equals (k−1) θ1. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. Proposition 44 .

which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. specifically by the formula given above. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). one in a fixed. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. In Proposition 44 of his Principia. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) .[33] By assumption. to offset this. by which two bodies may be made to move equally. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. the other in the same orbit revolving.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r). The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. r(t). h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius.Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces.[36] In this Proposition. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force.

bnf. 52: 71. MA: Addison–Wesley. Brown EW (1891). Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. [9] Cohen. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. p. Principia. Bibcode 1987JHA. Soc. 192. [34] Chandrasekhar.2307/2369812. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". Lynden-Bell RM (1997). section IX of Book I. [17] Cohen IB (1990). Green Lion Press. [26] Chandrasekhar. Wilson C. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000).. Proposition 2. Math.1023/A:1008317327402. . Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. Vawda F (2000).. JSTOR 2369812. American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. 187. [24] Smith. 2708v1). 91–108. [16] Valluri SR. Book I. 198.. ISBN 978-0520065895..386. [10] Clairaut. Mémoires Acad. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations".. Book III. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia". doi:10. pp. [19] Cook A (2000). Astron. [33] Chandrasekhar.1007/BF02422379. esp. 193–194. Propositions 43–45. "Unknown title". "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. Bibcode 1894AJ.: 237. [21] Horrocks J (1673). org/ abs/ 0807.. "Unknown title". Sc. [3] Lynden-Bell D. Reading.Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". [5] Sugon QM. [29] Brown EW (1903). [22] Wilson C (1987). pp. 252. p. London: G Godbit for J Martyn.. [6] Whittaker. Principia. [18] Chandrasekhar. p.245L. "Unknown title".1365-2966. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). ISBN 978-1888009088.: 451. [30] Roseveare N (1982). [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). Section IX. p. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. Math. Delaunay C (1867). The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. pp. D. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473.. [25] Newton. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. 135–147. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. [13] Delaunay C (1862). [11] Hill GW (1895). p. [31] Symon KR (1971). Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude..1098/rsnr. [7] Sundman KF (1912). Mechanics (3rd ed. problem 7). Berkeley. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". 147. doi:10. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534.x. "Unknown title". "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". Principia.2008. fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). Monthly Notices Roy. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. [15] Newton. Bragais S. Mémoires Acad. pp. p. Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315.). Jin S (2008). "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". doi:10. p.14. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". 183–192. Am. doi:10. p.2307/2369997. JSTOR 2369997.1111/j. [4] Mahomed FM.13018. Imp.. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". p. pp. J. [14] Newton. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. [12] Brown EW (1891). 406. 9: 31. pp.. 98–106. . In Norman Thrower. AC (1745).1086/102055. "Unknown title". [20] Smith. [2] Lynden-Bell.49H. 339–385. Simon Newcomb. 184. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. doi:10. 83.77W. Sc. [37] Whittaker. Proposition 45. Imp. 183. CA: University of California Press. doi:10. 267 (Chapter 6. editor. [32] Chandrasekhar. 141–147.. 67–70. pp. 254.0016. [27] Hall A (1894). Harper W (1997).1997. [35] Chandrasekhar. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. pp. Am. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury".18. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". doi:10. [36] Chandrasekhar. "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". Oxford. p.

ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. • D’Eliseo. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. pp.. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint).2432126. ISBN 978-0520088160. 252–257. pp. 83. New York: Dover Publications. • Newton I (1966). • Smith GE (1999).1119/1. ISBN 978-0520009288.). pp. New York: Dover Publications. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). External links • Three-body problem (http://www. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. ISBN 0914098896.). (reprint. ISBN 0-85274-348-3.). pp. 56. • Spivak. ISBN 978-0520088160.com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. ISBN 978-0520088160. pp. Michael (1994). Cambridge University Press. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books.google. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. Berkeley. The Motion of the Moon. pp. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press. 84–85. pp. • Rouse Ball WW (1893). Oxford University Press. 246–252. Publish or Perish. pp. Berkeley. • Whittaker ET (1937).. John Wiley and Sons. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. • Cook A (1988). doi:10.scholarpedia.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . pp. 147–148. MM (2007). Bibcode 2007AmJPh. ISBN 978-0520088160. CA: University of California Press. p. ISBN 9780521544030.). Macmillan and Co.352D.75. • Guicciardini. • Routh EJ (1960).). Berkeley. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. translated by I. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. 246–264. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". • Smith GE (1999). Principia Vol. • Pars LA (1965). Calculus (3rd ed. Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). "Planetary Motion". "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". CA: University of California Press. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. Niccolò (1999). Merchant Books). "The first-order orbital equation". 257–264.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). 534–545. 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. LCCN 64-24556. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion".google. CA: University of California Press. assisted by Julia Budenz ed. Bristol: Adam Hilger. 183–200. 230–233 (sections §356–359). 147–148.com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. • Chandrasekhar S (1995). Berkeley. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. CA: University of California Press.

centre. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. the relationship between geometry and algebra. without proof. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. Babson Collection. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. and so refused to have his name appear. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. and the solution of equations. pdf . The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. it was edited and published by William Whiston. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. In fact. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. when Whiston's edition was published. arithmetic.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. cfm [2] http:/ / www. babson. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. None of these editions credits Newton as author. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. He also offered. Written in Latin. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. published in 1865). Title page of the Arithmetica. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two.

4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. Only the draft has the title now used. Law 3 in the Principia. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. some with corollaries. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short. the distance is proportional to the square of the time. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. (in the absence of external force. but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws". It contains 11 propositions.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). (Before Newton's work. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. After further encouragement from Halley.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law.[4] as well as in Latin. Law 1 in the Principia. these had not been generally regarded as laws. both copies are without title. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios.) This . then for the remaining (2) propositions. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. resistance is assumed nil.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. and its (Latin) text is available online. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. Before reaching this core subject-matter.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect.

(This subject reappears as Proposition 4. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed.) . Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. putting this in another way. and the corollaries here reappear also. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. as Proposition 1.) This theorem appears again. and inversely proportional to the radius. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. while their number increases without limit. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. it would then depart along the tangent.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. Theorem 4 in the Principia. labeled as theorems. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. Theorem 1. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. drawn from the body to the attracting center. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. using another geometrical limit argument. of the 'Principia'. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). and shows that for any given time-segment. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. it follows that a radius vector. with expanded explanation. problems. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. Corollary 2 shows that. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc.

143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line. speed and direction of the orbiting body.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. where the center of attraction is at its center. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. Lastly.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. that if the speed is high enough. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP². Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times.e. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse. Newton points out here. Problem 5 in the Principia. in the Principia. therefore. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. Problem 4 then explores.. that is. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). square] of the distance . for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. . considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1. Problem 6.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. . He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun.. (This material becomes Proposition 10.

that in any given setup. or their views about the researches of others.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. as in the first edition of the Principia. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. and both of them produced from very old memories. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. in 1686. and then gave a whole list. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length).. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation.. or that they were not stated by Newton. are self-evident and obvious or not. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. According to one of these reminiscences. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. and other items. and the associated uniqueness statements. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. i. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. Later.e.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80.[15] . but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. and a short correspondence developed. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time. and as if to whet Newton's interest. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. In 'De Motu'. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse". mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body".De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. ". Halley asked Newton.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. using a falling body.

wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". Journal for the History of Astronomy. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. in Early Science and Medicine. see e.g. google.[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. Alexis Clairaut. Ofer Gal. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results".196.297-314. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. but not Hooke.2 already cited. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. A Historian's Response". [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. including Bullialdus. gutenberg. vol. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". Math. and the first English translation. pp. at p.3968. to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. f. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. 1974). com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. 10 (2005). giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. 529-534. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. [11] Quoted in Richard S. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. vol.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton. who heard of this from Halley. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". of 1729.89-170. (Cambridge University Press. at pp. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem.297. A Historian's Response".60-70. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". but note that the title was added by Rigaud. 6 (1684-1691). [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized.[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed.293. so-called. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 10 (2005). 1960). p. org/ etext/ 28233). "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". Historia Math. pp.).431-448. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". pp. [15] H W Turnbull (ed. but the point was disagreed by R. pp. Page 403. both in Newton's lifetime and later. pp.).101. in Early Science and Medicine. Chapter 10. google. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp.). Papers vol. one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies.1 (1970). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 10 (2005). Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.57. . apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged.6. and the 1686 correspondence at pp. rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. (Cambridge University Press.). 19(1) (1992). 1960). vol. in Early Science and Medicine. in "Newton's Orbit Problem. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. Vol 2 (1676-1687). [13] H W Turnbull (ed. as far as Book 1. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. M Nauenberg. at pages 56 (http:/ / books. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.6 (1684-1691). google. footnote 73. (Cambridge University Press. 38 (2007). [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini.193-200. about the Principia. at p. google. See also D T Whiteside (1970). Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. is available here (http:/ / books. also D T Whiteside. Weinstock.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). 511-517. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize.195-6. who called it a 'petitio principii'. and printed by I Bernard Cohen. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital.431-448. 116-138.120.193-200. 6 (1970). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). and Bruce Pourciau. at p.56-83. [14] 'Correspondence' vol. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". 518-528. Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. and the original copy had no title: online. especially at p. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. 1971. Westfall's Never at Rest. and Borelli.

T. Vol. Whiteside. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. pp. by R. 30–91. at page 69. 1893). 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . Westfall. 6. S.W. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Rouse Ball.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. ed. by D. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan.

often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. Newton's results. Of the Empire of the Persians. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. I. Chap. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. Chap. V. and that his Temple the first ever built. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. Of the Empire of Egypt. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. beginning with Sesostris. therefore. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. King of Egypt. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. II. III. Chap. IV. with all others being copies. VI. The majority of the treatise. Chap. .000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. followed by a short advertisement. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. however. but since republished in mass paperback format. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. Chap. Of the Assyrian Empire. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. followed by others.

and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. Grotius. the Father. Muscovy. htm#chron http:/ / www.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture".[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. First published in 1754. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. sussex. the Word. He noted that "the Æthiopic. Syria.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds". and what steps it has been changed. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. and later into the text itself. Finally."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. the Word. as Luther. Arabic." in support of the Trinity doctrine. and the argument full and strong. and some others. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. Ethiopia. Egypt. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. sussex. would not dissemble their knowledge". are strangers to this reading". gutenberg. . the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. Syriac. or retain it as only a marginal reading. 27 years after his death. and Slavonic versions. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. the Father. newtonproject. ac. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". Armenian. Bullinger. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. still in use in the several Eastern nations. Armenia. newtonproject.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. and some others. first as a marginal note. Erasmus. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. Mesopotamia. ac.

88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. preached unto the Gentiles. 1 [4] An Historical Account. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. 2 [5] An Historical Account.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. aramaicpeshitta. believed on in the world. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. biblegateway. References [1] http:/ / www.). p."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. Newton argued that. was hanged at Edinburgh. Cp. seen of angels. aramaicpeshitta. biblegateway. justified in the Spirit. biblegateway." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords.& version=31. knew nothing of these two texts. likely due to the political climate.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture.). further legal ramifications on the second occasion. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. but some place it in a footnote. Cp. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. p. pp. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account. p. I understand not. [3] An Historical Account.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16.& version=31. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity.& version=31. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. p. p. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Scotland.& version=31. biblegateway. p. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. [2] http:/ / www.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". by a small alteration in the Greek text. received up into glory. htm) . htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711.

newtonproject. and published in 1736. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years).uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions.co.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). archive. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz. fifty years before Newton.google. although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. and published it in 1684.sussex. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly.ac. The book was completed in 1671. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt . The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton.

Rather. as beam expanders. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. It is about optics and the refraction of light. refractions. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. into another. 1704. reflection. on dispersion. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. first reported in 1672[1] . The first. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. That is.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. Multiple-prism arrays. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light. such as air.[2] . this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. such as water or glass. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them.

it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. it is written in English rather than Latin. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. In this sense. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. published in 1706. there were 31 Queries. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. These Queries. that number was increased in the Latin edition. but that it may go on for many pages. the nature of chemical action. Rather. and then in the revised English edition. The first set of Queries were brief." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. unlike the Principia." Rather. the possible cause of gravity. First of all. That is. They are almost all posed in the negative. published in 1717/18. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer. but the later ones became short essays. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics." In many ways. In the fourth edition of 1730.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms)." the proper way to do science." In the first edition. over the next two hundred years. filling many pages. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. these were sixteen such Queries. as rhetorical questions. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. Clearly. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. by the use of fluxions. especially the later ones. Second. or the tools of mathematics. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. therefore. electrical phenomena.

"Hydrostatics. Calif. Retrieved 10 January 2012. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. 43. Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. ac. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. 303–307 (1982). uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). Sound and Heat (http://cudl. Optics. refractions.ac. Duarte and J. Palo Alto. A. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. lib. Isaac (1998). First edition (http://gallica. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin.: Octavo. • Newton. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . cam.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed.Opticks the Principia. Isaac.lib. Papers on Hydrostatics.html) • Gallica.org/Control/nwtopt/index.cam.bnf. and James Black. a treatise of the reflexions. .com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. Opticks or. [2] F. Piper. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. Opt.). Optics. 153 References [1] Newton. J.google. Commun. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. Fourth edition (http://books. First edition (http://www.rarebookroom.

Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that.. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia.. also Newton's law of universal gravitation."[7] In formulating his physical theories. often referred to as simply the Principia. first published 5 July 1687. by the end of a century after publication in 1687...[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton .[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3]..] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy.] . spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia..[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. and of the forces required to produce any motions. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]). Newton wrote[10] [. Newton also published two further editions. accurately proposed and demonstrated [. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'. at least in certain respects.[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium). The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science". forming the foundation of classical mechanics..] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus. Newton used his expression that became famous. in 1713 and 1726.

It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter.. thus offering criteria to decide. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. in revised and extended form. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters. and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. . De motu corporum Book 1. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. near-parabolic orbits. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces.' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia').Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis.. by observations. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain.

while some contend that the Earth. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. others.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". modified in a somewhat modern way. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. Proposition 11. since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34]. This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. attempts to derive the speed of sound. and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. Corollary 2 [44]). Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). especially the variation. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity.[41] For Newton. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]).[45] . and that this centre "either is at rest. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre".Newton). and accounts for the tides [37]. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. De mundi systemate Book 3. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. Book 3. and motion in arbitrary force laws. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. which "is acknowledg'd by all. corollary [42]).[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. especially its consequences for astronomy. but only a little. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids.

he retracted this sentence in the published version. true and apparent. but in philosophical discussions. for example. for today's readers. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. we ought to step back from our senses. and consider things themselves. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. In the four rules. till such time as other phenomena occur. as far as possible. However. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. From a Cartesian point of view. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named.. we use relative ones.] instead of absolute places and motions. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. or liable to exceptions. by which they may either be made more accurate. . A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. Instead. In his notes. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". [. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. Curiously. mathematical and common. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. and was assured about their correctness. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. assign the same causes. However. therefore. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum). And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. this was a faulty theory. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether..

fires in the home and in the Sun. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. Newton also gave theological argument. concerning the qualities of bodies. From the system of the world. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3).) Newton's gravitational attraction. of Descartes. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time.[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". With these rules. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. . or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. "I frame no hypotheses". 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. as they did. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. he inferred the existence of a Lord God. which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. 1726). and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. scientists use it today. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. 1713 (and amended in the third edition.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. From this textual evolution.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'.

. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. although the (lost) original may have been without title. but that he could not find the papers. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. and to his project during this time.. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. and did very little else for well over a year and a half. Hooke and Wren.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. but also all the laws of planetary motion.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley. Halley. Wren was unconvinced.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. and generalized the result to conic sections. and he normally kept dated notes of them. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. .[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work. which he sent to Halley in late 1684.. The contents of 'De motu. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down.'. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. Humphrey Newton. or his sleep. how he sometimes forgot his food. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. or the state of his clothes. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. that he immediately went to visit Newton again.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. and Halley. in November 1684. assuming an inverse square law of force.. Newton's tract 'De motu. resolved to ask Newton. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy).

1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it.[59] appeared in July 1687. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. corporum. the solar system. also in 1728. with handwritten corrections for the second edition.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. Liber secundus' still survives. tighter. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. and the other two books somewhat later. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums.. amended to update cross-references. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. and less accessible mathematical style.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. and its completion has been London. but he largely started afresh in a new. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. the moon.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. Liber secundus' of 1685. under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. published by Halley at his own financial risk. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books".Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. making it look . but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum.. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. (Newton had also communicated 'De motu. Liber primus'. because in the meantime. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. that it might be read by many". in more than one manuscript. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. After Newton's death in 1727. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. The complete work.' to Flamsteed. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. it survived complete. the tides. not authorised by Newton's heirs). drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote.

In addition. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). Newton's role Newton had studied these books. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. but Halley. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. a second edition (1731). To these two laws he added a third a decade later. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. in some cases. Samuel Pepys. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. rather than before. . 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. as President. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. including two to Leibniz. 1686. showing considerable diplomatic skills. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. causing some delay. Cambridge. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). or. licensing the book for publication.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. secondary sources based on them. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. who hated disputes. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them).[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. Rather. At this time. among them himself. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

about the 'Principia'. tripod. Oxford University Press. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). and well written". Isaac. especially at p. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. cam. ac. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut. published in 1996. No. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". The first. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. See also D T Whiteside (1970). and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. 116-138. [3] Newton.1 (1970). "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato.[105] William H. Vol. lib. google. 1729 translation.329. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP. [14] http:/ / books. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). 1965. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. htm).). google. "Du systeme du monde. MA. vol. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). p. in the 1729 English version).120. at page 19 of vol.[2] was described by Newton scholar I. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. Journal for the History of Astronomy. google.2. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. Herivel. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . at p. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. . google. and see also J. by Andrew Motte.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). cap. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. 1972.[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. 1999). stanford.329 (according to a note on p. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". google. 2 (May. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. pp. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. into modern English. Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. archive. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). University of Toronto. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. E N Zalta (ed. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. The background to Newton's "Principia". google. W. 227-245.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. [7] G E Smith. often incorporating revisions. [11] http:/ / books.[104] The second full English translation.392." Author(s): Judith P. 55. from 1729. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. assembled and ed. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. 2001).[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St.

Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. [47] Edelglass et al. by D. at p. google. google. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. be/ steffen/ GS. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. google.2. at p. Stephen. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books.207-221. at p. google. [56] Cook. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. Book 3 (http:/ / books. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol.147 and 152. at pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. T. vol. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. now often known as Huygens' formula. n° 2. 45 (1991) 11-61. also pp. 1980. 191-2. [53] As dated e. p. google. google. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. google. Retrieved 2008-11-19. Matter and Mind. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. . 1971). R Taton & C Wilson. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. google. Whiteside. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. 431-448. [17] http:/ / books. 1980. [50] Ducheyne. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books." (http:/ / logica. at p. Volume. google. The Cartesian vortex theory. google. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". [59] Westfall. [29] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. 151. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. Cambridge University Press 1980. 147. (Cambridge. 1998': A. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. pdf).) 167 . W. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. 223-274. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. google.g. google. google. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. 1998. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. google. 1998.47-142. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. ugent. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. htm). Books 2 & 3. 1980': R S Westfall. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. google. 1980. google. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. [42] http:/ / books. google. [54] Cook. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). vol. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). Books 2 & 3. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. speed and radial force. Edmond Halley. at pp. Oxford University Press 1998. at pp. 153-156. 54. Cook. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. 2A'. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books.. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. google. 33. 406. Retrieved 2008-05-31. google. at page 233 (http:/ / books. Vol.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books.2. google.2. Steffen. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. org/ scholium. [49] Snobelen. Turnbull (ed. [61] http:/ / books. cited above. [58] Westfall.2. eds. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. . pp. google. in H. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books.).406. google. [52] 'Cook. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. [55] 'Westfall. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. google.15. pp. n. Cambridge University Press.404. [57] Westfall. google. google. google. google.

cited above. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. 1664-1684". "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy.. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. see Newton to Hooke. and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. document #286. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. at document #239. mpg. org. [73] H W Turnbull (ed. at p. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. 'Correspondence' vol. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. p. pages 11-61. roe.2. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. jstor. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . 453.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. ac. at pages 391-2. edu 168 . ac. vol.. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". at page 433. 1960).2 cited above.. Bernard Cohen. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. se/ press/ pm. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. see D Gjertsen. Part A. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. especially at 13-20. 45 (1991). stanford.431-448.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". umich. Rouse Ball. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. google. and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. document #237. Bruce Brackenridge. Vol 2 (1676-1687). html [89] http:/ / www. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www.2 already cited. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i.e.. (Cambridge University Press.297. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". 1893). also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . 28 November 1679. html [88] http:/ / www. cam. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. or even a 'blunder'. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. lib. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books.. [80] R S Westfall. google. Vol 2 cited above. closed curve and spiral. Journal for the History of Astronomy. would terminate in the center C". com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). google. (Cambridge UP 1989). google. mpiwg-berlin. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. see 'Correspondence'. at page 66 (http:/ / books. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. document #236 at page 301. fondationbodmer. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. with accompanying figure). html [86] http:/ / lion. and extract of his letter. google. museumoflondon. ac. Newton". Correspondence of Isaac Newton. at Introduction (section IX). uu. 1995). has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . CUP 1989. [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). Newton" (1759). (University of California Press. cam.2 cited above. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. [83] http:/ / www. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. at page 259). de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). though elongated. i (1970). 'Never at Rest'. Tycho Brahe to Newton". at page 69. [74] 'Correspondence' vol. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. google. lib. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". Never at Rest. [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. google. a resisting medium). at pages 304-306. 1980. pages 5-19..). Ofer Gal. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). wm. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". (http:/ / www. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp.297-314. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy".W. London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969. [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. [65] http:/ / books. ch. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980).

Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. I. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. • Guicciardini. vol. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. Introduction to the Principia. 2008). 1971). vol. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. Cambridge University press 1967. [95] Richard S. 1999.4. [99] Westfall. N. 1954). Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. "Philosophia Naturalis. Donahue. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press.519. at pp.. and obligations to you. [94] I Bernard Cohen. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. Burtt. 3rd edition. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). p.. • E. cgi?v1=8& ti=1.42. • Richard S. • Brian Ellis. p. University of California Press. Bernard Cohen.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. Cambridge University press 1975. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.712–716. pp.5. R.751–760. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. n. Cambridge 1971. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. [101] Westfall. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia." in Grattan-Guinness. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. • Andrew Janiak. 2005.4. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". vol. at p. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. G. Dawsons of Pall Mall). [100] Westfall. 1971).750.. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0. ed. 1965). [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. 1999. University of California Press.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. 29-68. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation.. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. Force in Newton’s physics. . Clarendon Press. wpi. Curtis Wilson (Princeton. Notes. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford." [98] Westfall. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. to whom he owes more than that. google. Press. Cambridge U. Bernard Cohen (1999).A. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier.2. 1995).518-20. c1995). the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen..4. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. NY: Doubleday and Company. • I. at p. Chandrasekhar. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. The background to Newton’s Principia. Cambridge University press 1967. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. • John Herivel. 1965). Westfall. • François De Gandt. ed. NJ: Princeton University Press.699. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. Elsevier: 59-87.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. vol. at pp. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. • S. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. pp. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. Cambridge University Press 1967. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. pp. Westfall. 1965). xv-xvi. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. Colodny.

com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University.ac. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource. in Latin) (http://books.google.gutenberg.com/toc.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte.google.1). Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive.1 with Book 1 (http://books. • Project Gutenberg (http://www. in Latin) (http://www. • Wikisource • Archive. (Book 3 starts at p.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1). interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections.archive. • Principia (in Latin. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee.archive.archive. 1713. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy. annotated) (http://books.200 (http://books.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200).net/~bjn/principia/).htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.archive.google. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above).google. 1726). vol. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2).org #1 (http://www. 1729.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive.org (http://www.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654.org (http://www. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.ntnu.lib. regarding online editions .google. first edition (1687. largely the Motte translation of 1729.cam. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur.. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687. W.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.html). 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version. Chittenden. • Google books.tripod. vol. ed.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica. Partial • Google books.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist.org #2 (http://www.babson. first edition (1687.

on May 19. on April 28." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. that its truth is past dispute. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. 1686. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. 1686. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. to make a report thereof to the council. he says. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law. For the influences for the second edition. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. which he had enlarged and completed. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. 1687 and began changing the world. At the next meeting of the Society. 1686." Although this manuscript contained only the first book." At the next meeting of the Society. if certain.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses.

and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. and the absence of the vice-president's. you know best." acknowledging at the same time that. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. on June 2." but.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery." "How much of this. and printing it at his own charge. that Sir Chr. I am almost confident by circumstances. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. and I do not know that I have seen them since. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. the heads of it in short. "is so. which 172 ." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. 1686. which he engaged to do. Indeed. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton. though Newton had the notion from him. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. Halley in his letter of May 22. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself." Halley adds. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. and to desire his opinion as to the print. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. so that you might act accordingly. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. volume. cuts and so forth. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. for 'tis long since they were writ. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. so far as I could remember. On June 20. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. but it being a frivolous business. I shall content myself to give you. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. viz. At the next meeting of the council. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society.

to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. can know no more. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. in compliment to sweeten my answer. I designed the whole to consist of three books. and understood it. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. did not answer his third. Some new propositions I have since thought on. though not accurately enough. thought no further of philosophical matters than. and only wants transcribing. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. expected to hear no further from him. The third wants the theory of comets. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. namely. I could not but have found it now. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. the second was finished last summer being short. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. sent him. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. And so. and that's above fifteen years ago). and earth from the sun. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. is expressed. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. that without my demonstrations. and only guessed it to be so accurately. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. so that a while after. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. which I can as well let alone. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. Oscill. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. in stating this business. And so. and guessed it to be elliptical. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. his letters put me upon it. in print. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. a copy being presented to me. sun and planets. 173 . but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. so Mr Hooke.. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). in print. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. and so upon mistaken grounds. "The proof you sent me I like very well. as to the other from Kepler. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. accused me of that ignorance. and drawing the cuts fairly. But.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. told him I had laid philosophy aside. was upon other things. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books.

but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. I must now again beg you. Sir. but she gives me warning. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. which is all at present. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. nor on the books of the Society. as have to do. It will help the sale of the book. If it please you to have it so. upon second thoughts. On July 14. as to deprive us of your third book. as might have been expected." On June 20. What application he has made in private. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. I will push on the edition vigorously. And if in truth he knew it before you. I know not. and then. and therefore I had altered it to this. though it be not material. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. 174 . and humble servant. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. which. 1687. The third I now design to suppress. and adding. without the third. on April 6. ought to compose it. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. your most affectionate humble servant." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. I found it so formerly. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. "If you please you may change the word to sections. HALLEY. from your affectionate friend. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren." On June 30. I am. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. 1686. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. 1686. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. and now I am no sooner come near her again. as I guess by what you write. you ought to be considered as the inventor. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. The second book. "Is. "But. E. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. NEWTON. I will try how well it can be done. and not much more charge.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. In the first page. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. De Motu Corporum libri duo. not to let your resentments run so high. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. in the honour you do them. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. It will be more convenient. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. I retain the former title.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. Sir. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. The third book was presented to the Society. Now you approve of the character and paper. found out last winter. The work. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. The two first books. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. which made me afterwards return to the first book. with her. July 5. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. Hooke and Halley. which are much the greater number. which he puts so much value on.

and lettered. with their case carefully prepared. so much to your own and the nation's credit. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. July 5. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. nor suggested a compromise. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. The following letter from Halley." . and was dismissed. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. to be [OCR error] shillings here. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. announcing the completion of the Principia. to take my money as they are sold. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. the master of Magdalene College. On April 21 the deputation. as well as of profound and public speculation. who was vice-chancellor. a Benedictine monk. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. I intend the price of them. for ready. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. the chancellor. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. On April 27 they gave their plea. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. and ordered them out of court. appeared before the court. Mr Paget. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. 1687. which I entreat you to accept. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. or else at some short time. Mr Boyle. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. but the university showed no sign of compliance. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. Mr Flamsteed. a very great part of which is extant. that starts from town tomorrow. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. or at 5 sh. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. before starting for London. and hope it will please you. The deputies. but rather. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. dated London. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. bound in calves' leather. On May 7 it was discussed. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle.

till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. Let me. if I may but have them quietly. that it had actually done so. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. 1693. whose mind was never at rest. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. In a letter dated the September 13. I will give you an account of it if I can. according to a report which was believed at the time. He is now very well. to let me know the very truth of the matter. or mind. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. nor have my former consistency of mind. nor by icing James's favour. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. but upon his pressing consented. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. Sir. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. and I hope never will. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. therefore. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. winter. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. or. put me farther out of order. as in a letter to his friend Millington. which this summer has been epidemical. and before I had time to ask him any question. 1693. but what I said of your book I remember not. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. 1694. Pepys must have heard such rumours. I never designed to get any thing by your interest." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. from the concern I have for him. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. "I have not seen him. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. dated September 26. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. wrote to Leibniz. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. replied. and since. at which he was much concerned. in a letter dated June 8." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book." To which Leibniz. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. as to be put into great disorder by it. beg you. before I considered what I did. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. Christiaan Huygens. addressed to Samuel Pepys. Newton wrote: "The last. but that "he was out of town. I was averse. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. and for five days together not a wink. by sleeping too often by my fire. where. I remember I wrote to you. and keeping him shut up.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way. or both. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. upon his own accord. and a distemper. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. and beg your pardon." he says. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food." . namely. added. so that when I wrote to you. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. which doubtless must have been very alarming. which lasted eighteen months. I got an ill habit of sleeping. 1693. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. and dated the 15th of October 1693. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability." On September 20.

He enclosed a form of the proclamation. see Isaac Newton's later life. On February 12. 1997.. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". ed. Newton retained his seat only about a year." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. published as #537 in Vol. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes. now archaic. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. . 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. the vice-chancellor of the university.) [3] Richard S. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. E. Westfall. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. as it were.1998. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time.. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members.G. Never at Rest. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. Forbes et al. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. and gives original spellings. 1689. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. On April 30. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube.

They began with the nature of matter. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. Thomas Hobbes. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. Additional information This octavo notebook. which had . The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. and others. light. 1661. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. fluidity. At the other end of the book. and other sensations. Robert Boyle. for example. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. Galileo's Dialogue. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. He entered notes from both ends. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. It is also definitely before December 9. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. currently in the Cambridge University Library. rarity. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. whereby every question is put to experimental test. place. vision. in Greek. Aristotle is my friend. hardness etc. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. "Of ye Creation". but my best friend is truth). This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. colour. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. The initial notes. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. Following this. Kenelm Digby. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. Some headings were followed by vast entries. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. These were followed by questions on violent motion. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. But following this he drew a line across the page. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. 1664. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. at the other.

or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct.. others were blank. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo. . Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. including his idea that it is a wave. such as when a heavy body falls. Elsewhere. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. would look coloured.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. Gassendi. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court.. on the contrary.

vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. Cambridge University Press. Westfall. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. Lohne. by Richard S. additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. A. • J. References • "Portsmouth Papers". • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] .

[1] In 1999. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. Newton became a scientific icon.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. Newton was deemed the more influential. natural philosopher. In this work. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. Cambridge . as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. Newton or Albert Einstein. Because of the resounding impact of his work. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. alone. in 1795. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. Many books. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics." Newton was the runner-up. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. located in the chapel of Trinity College. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In mathematics. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. mathematician. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. plays. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. published in 1687. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity.

"(.. including the famous apple. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002).. pp. you see." . with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent. Though that. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. there was that as well. Invention. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. It was there to be discovered. Oxford University Press. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason.) Sir Isaac Newton. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. "They even keep it on at weekends. Routledge.. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects.. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. there is a very different matter. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). Science in Popular Culture [9]." said Richard. pure creative invention. I suppose. Greenwood Press. But the catflap . of course. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics. 27–43. a .." "Yes. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt. perspicuity and invention. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. It is a door within a door. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr.. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. "yes. "there was also the small matter of gravity. It is a door within a door. "Newton as a national hero" [8]." . was merely a discovery. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. ah. you see. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. set during the Great Recoinage.." "Gravity. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). • A. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter.

Newton in popular culture

183

Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. [4] Burwick. 243. apparently at the bottom of the sea. .[3]. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. Science is the Tree of Death. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. 1997. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. Christopher B.[5] References [1] Townsend. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). who regularly experienced spiritual visions. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. Foster (1988). 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. retrieved 10 September 2009. S. pp. org."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. Hanover. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. Walter de Gruyter. tate. page 328. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser.

William Blake: The Painter at Work. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . London: Tate Publishing. Joyce (ed. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. 2003.). ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson.

Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". when Young was expelled from the deanery. no doubt. and Coram drew their daggers. when it required the interference of Mr. So.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580.[1] Sir Charles. England.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. which stunk and had worms swimming in it.. or hay-making.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. Sir Thomas Clarke. Mr. reaping. although open days are occasionally held. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family.[5] . Mr.[1] During the Commonwealth era. He died in 1706. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury."[2] Following the death of Coram. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day. when he let it to Dr John Young. The house and park are not generally open to the public. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church. and rode at each other through the wheat. upon the lands of the lord of the manor. who married her daughter in 1665. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park.[2] ". England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. dean of Winchester. Shoveller. Pye. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. with many distinct farms and cottages. near Winchester. although his wife survived him until 1720.. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham.

and within. which he also owned. retaining that position for four years. John Rowley. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross.. Watch fast". half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. the owner. the base of a pillar. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task.. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. next the hours. a diagram of the compass. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. is below. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. but his election was declared invalid.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint.[9] The Castle. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras". of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. then a circle marked "Watch slow. In 1747. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass.[5][6] On Newton's death. Thomas. Nearer the centre are degrees. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. In 1770. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. the outermost divided into minutes.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). the points alternately plain and embossed. Catherine. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" .[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. then the months divided into days. Conduitt. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. remaining there until his death in 1727. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. Shortly after his marriage.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey. and a scaled-down gateway tower. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781).[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737.[5] In May 1721. Cranbury Park. all round the world. the estate was left to his son. built in 1780. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. Bt).C. leaving a daughter. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. On his death. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774). as granted to him in 1717. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. Towards the end of his life. Harriet. In 1734."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. and after his death. and the arms of Mr. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. Hampshire. etc. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. Newton became resident at Cranbury.

the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England. built round a court.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. intersected by various springs. but in the rear descending rapidly. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. Arrow. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre.[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906.[11] on her death. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park. a large red brick one. especially in the saloon on the south front. Whilst serving the town. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. flat as it fronts to the south. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. Tankerville Chamberlayne. which has a circular domed ceiling. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. In fact. on that . who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)). William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald". In 1822.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter. is on the level ground at the top. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. but his wife survived him until 1825.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. During the Second World War.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel. William Chamberlayne. The house.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. MP for Southampton. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom.[22] Writing in 1898. set in arch-headed reserves. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht.

www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ).[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. www. (1898).K F. www. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. a rose garden. Lloyd. close to The Castle.online-literature.[26] References [1] Page. . City of Winchester. Stories of Southampton Streets. William (1908). www. . com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 23 September 2009.britannia. 5 May 2004. online-literature.com. library.online-literature. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). specimen trees and pinetum.online-literature. . [10] Thompson. co. britannia. (1898).thepeerage. www. Charlotte M.ac. Charlotte M. 15 May 2005. . aspx?compid=42018#s4). Winchester" (http:/ / www. 9 October 2006. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. online-literature. pdf).com. [4] Yonge. Hampshire" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 23 September 2009. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. Michael (1999). and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. [11] "Horninghold. www.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". [7] Gatty."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south." a word signifying a country dance.com. . and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. british-history. . [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. cityofwinchester. Hamilton (1953). . www.G. Eden. html). H. ISBN 0-86146-041-3. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. 68. html). Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. Retrieved 20 September 2009. www. Retrieved 20 September 2009. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. 22. Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. thepeerage. before joining Monks Brook. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. p.com. [2] Yonge. pp. Retrieved 23 September 2009. . . built from material plundered from Netley Abbey.parliament. Netley Abbey. "History of Cranbury Park.thepeerage. . Hansard. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www.com.british-history. uk/ report. [14] Yonge.com. Charlotte M. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. [12] Leonard. Charlotte M. Retrieved 24 September 2009. and include fountains. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. (1900). . htm). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3.uk. Retrieved 23 September 2009.com. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. html). Paul Cave Publications. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. The Book of Sun-dials. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. htm#i46495). From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). [9] Yonge. online-literature. com/ p4650. Retrieved 20 September 2009. Charlotte M. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime.online-literature. online-literature. (1898). (1898). upenn.uk. Victoria County History of Leicestershire. . John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. online-literature. (1898). Retrieved 23 September 2009. Facet-Headed. org. ac. com/ p4650. Retrieved 24 September 2009.online-literature. [6] Ford. 1998. Margaret Scott. horninghold. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. thepeerage. . The English Country House. parliament.com. p. . htm#i46497). (1984). 72 & 74. www. "Later changes" (http:/ / www. A. [8] "The Buttercross.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. is situated in the southern corner of the park. Retrieved 23 September 2009.K. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). Retrieved 23 September 2009. A.Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102. [5] Yonge. Eleanor. www. publications. "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www.

[24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). chandlersfordscouts. 1995. Retrieved 26 September 2009. online-literature.co. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. David (April 2004). org. 3rd ed.oldmaps. April 2004. 8 and 15 November 1956. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. . which would value approximately £25. George Dance. 1600-1840. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3. 1971:93-95. . "Chandler’s Ford. amazon. Retrieved 2009-07-12. . References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. html). plates 23-2. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 15 November 1956. Retrieved 24 September 2009. htm). "Papworth. "Stratton Park. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. Charlotte M. www. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). Matthew (2009). fieldclub. Micheldever. htm).Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. [22] Dorothy Stroud. www. 1741—1825. 16 January 1881. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. The New York Times: 10. Architect. html). uk/ m35.v. matthewbeckett. [25] Currie. htm). . [21] Watkin. noted in Howard Colvin.. [20] Dorothy Stroud. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. . (1898). Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 26 September 2009. hants.[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. John Buonarotti". Retrieved 26 September 2009. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. nytimes. alresford.online-literature.000 (us$35. [19] "Cranbury Park. com/ gst/ abstract. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. Christopher (Spring 2005). . .700) in late 2001's terms. . uk/ Campsite/ index. . com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). Retrieved 26 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www.uk.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring.[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. The lost country houses of England. in Country Life. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. oldmaps. s. Retrieved 26 September 2009. org. co. [23] Yonge. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects. see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October.com.

So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. Retrieved 22 july 2010. That is. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. . Also available as Mike Alder (2004).[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www.Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. the question can be solved by experiment. uwa. edu. co. edu. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). BBC news. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". Alder admits however. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. bbc. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. philosophynow.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. [3] Mike Adler.. uwa. Mike Alder's Home Page. . alder). or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20). . Retrieved 22 july 2010. amongst others. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. .[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. uwa. and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. University of Western Australia. The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". [4] Mike Alder (2004). Either the object would move or it wouldn't.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. which he describes as pure reason. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. to the scientist. au/ ~mike/ ). or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible. According to Alder. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults.. .[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge.pdf). edu. stm). maths. au/ people/ mike. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword.] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. maths. He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. University of Western Australia. .

near Grantham. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . were opened up to the public in 2003. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. being restored.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. taking into account modern living. Lincolnshire. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. England. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. to the rear of the house. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. Woolsthorpe Manor. New areas of the house. once private. and the old walled kitchen garden. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. most notably his work on light and optics.

Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. nationaltrust. uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ . org.

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