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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

natural philosopher. When Newton was three. the subjects he is mainly associated with. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. He was an unorthodox Christian. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. alchemist. independently. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. published in 1687. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. he never married. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. due. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. and contributed to the study of power series. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. he was a small child. In mathematics. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. 25 December 1642. and theologian. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. Born prematurely.1 litres). his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. In this work. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. At the time of Newton's birth. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. Margery Ayscough. and for the style of the work.[11][12][13] . astronomer. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. Newton was also highly religious. mathematician. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them.

ordaining normally could not be dodged. Nevertheless.[18] At that time. NY: Thomas Y. and did not give a full account until 1704. master at the King's School. Famous Men of Science. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently.. for example. For such a significant appointment. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. attempted to make a farmer of him. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton. in a manuscript of October 1666. such as Descartes. He was removed from school. and very young . nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. Luckily for Newton. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". widowed by now for a second time. Crowell & Co. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague.) Such a . Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. were adopted by continental European mathematicians. he was admitted to Trinity College. and after 1820 or so. now published among Newton's mathematical papers.. he became the top-ranked student. Galileo. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. In 1665. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. Newton was educated at The King's School.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. and Kepler.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome. although with very different notations. also by British mathematicians. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. a fellow of our College.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method".[23] A related subject was infinite series. In 1667. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied".[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. where his mother. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665.[17] In June 1661. He hated farming. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. and by October 1659. Sarah K..[15] Henry Stokes. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully.

however.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism.Isaac Newton suggestion. Newton's method. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. but never finished it.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. Because of this. accepted this argument. valid for any exponent. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. However. and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit").[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem.[34] 4 .[32] Starting in 1699. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. He discovered Newton's identities. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences. However. In 1691. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables). At the time. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. In that day. of 1684. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. whose permission was needed. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. and Charles II. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form.

in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675.. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk. the first known functional reflecting telescope. . it stayed the same colour.[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. across a vacuum. Today's quantum mechanics. 12). Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. Newton published Opticks.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. As a proof of the concept. and the general phenomenon of diffraction. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. today known as a Newtonian telescope. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. In 1671. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles.II. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another. Newton lectured on optics.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. however. he might not have developed his theory of gravity. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. Thus.) In 1704..Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration).and may . revived his interest in alchemy.[39] Building the design. when Hooke.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance. John Maynard Keynes. Props. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. which he later expanded into his Opticks. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes.13).[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects.

and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. In this work. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. and much more. 8th Query). using a glass globe (Optics. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. and defined the law of universal gravitation.e. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way. as they did. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679.. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". In the same book he describes. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. the use of multiple-prism arrays. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. prisms.[49] For Newton. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. i. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness. wherever it was. In the same work. Also. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. In an article entitled "Newton. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. via diagrams. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. but they did not so far indicate its cause. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. was at rest). gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'.[51] Later.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity.

a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu. after Sir Francis Bacon. These appointments were intended as sinecures. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. Newton became internationally recognised. He took charge of England's great recoining. In his position at the Royal Society. Towards the end of his life. Cambridge.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. John (1733) – were published after his death. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. when it abruptly ended.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726]. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. the Astronomer Royal. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705. until his death in 1727. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). which Newton had used in his studies. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. With the Principia. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. Catherine Barton Conduitt. a position Newton held until his death. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. but Newton took them seriously. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. 1st Earl of Halifax. His half-niece.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). . they may be at rest).Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. with time. and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. Before Newton. the first term vanishes. this is expressed as . The SI unit of force is the newton. For example. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. named in Newton's honour. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes.[102] Apple incident . Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. Mathematically. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. Unlike Aristotle's.

has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. not in any side of the earth. therefore the apple draws the earth.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . published in 1752. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. had the first thought of his system of gravitation. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. and hence named it "universal gravitation". below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. to the Moon. that the earth draws it. he told me." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton."[106] John Conduitt. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). there must be a drawing power in matter. whose manuscript account.. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. as when formerly.[111] . He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. if matter thus draws matter. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens.[107] In similar terms. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly.[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment. We went into the garden. Cambridge. it must be in proportion of its quantity. Grantham. amidst other discourse. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance. only he.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. and get good agreement. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. the reason is. as well as the earth draws the apple. & myself. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. The King's School. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. or toward the centre. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. in an inverse-square proportion.[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought.. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. he was just in the same situation. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit.

4 [4] Gjersten. 22 [17] James. Gale E. 1993). . Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 50. Richard S. Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. p. p. Moreover. . (1999). p. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. . html). . google. ISBN 9780521058179. 159. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www. doi:10. ISBN 1-573-56256-4. Graham's Home Page. [5] Westfall. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. "Isaac Newton. PMID 12519805. org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www. Optical Lectures. jstor. 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www. No. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. bellevuecollege. 315. p. . Newton. n. ISBN 0195092244. 11. php). 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). Ioan (January 2003). google. [7] Burt. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. (2001). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. edu/ MATH/ Newton. Retrieved 28 March 2010. ac. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. At Newton's birth. fictional. oxforddnb. Vol. 84. Michael Hoskins (1997). p. isaac-newton. [18] Michael White.36. Stephen D. (1970). Retrieved 28 March 2010. September 2004. Isis. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. doi:10. google. [9] Christianson. Leibniz. The Newton Handbook. accessed 24 February 2009. 8. Greenwood Publishing Group.1. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419.1258/jrsm. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. p. 530–1. com/ view/ article/ 1541). and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Unless otherwise noted. (1996). The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. Vol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.M1) [19] ed. org/ heretic. Isaac. google. Oxford University Press. Isaac. Daniel S. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994.43. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. I. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. pp. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. 74. ISBN 9780521274357.B. (1983) [1980]. org/ stable/ 236236)". pdf) (PDF). the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books. James R. google. 2 (June. [10] Cohen. edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period.1017/S0007087499003751. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752.Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. chlt. berkeley. Cambridge University Press . uk/ newtlife. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. 1998. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Bellevue College. pp. (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. [14] http:/ / www. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. html). PMC 539373. [6] Snobelen. Retrieved 3 February 2009. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. . Oxford University Press. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. "Singular scientists". Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Barrow. flickr. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. [2] Mordechai Feingold.. Derek (1986).96. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. By the time he died. May 2007. a. c. i. html). com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). newton.e. [13] Newton. com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). online edn.

Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25.). . vol. 2A'. DuarteOPN(2000). The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. Chapter 11. pages 116–138. [26] Newton. vol. "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). doi:10. google. vol. [25] Newton. google. .6.2. . Retrieved 10 January 2012. [43] Iliffe. lib. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. ISBN 9780521566698. document #235.24D. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). p. (1898). 'Principia'. Isaac. Cambridge University Press 1974. google.).1086/353114. J. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". Book 3 (1729 vol. Matter and Mind.245 [58] Yonge. 595 15 . Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. The Man". p. google. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". ac. 151 [35] King. Isaac. at page 41 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). H W Turnbull. [24] D Gjertsen (1986). at pages 391–2. "Hydrostatics. Cambridge University Digital Library. J. Charlotte M. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www. "The Newton handbook".com. Henry C (2003). Numericana. 1729 English translation. at page 30. at page 233 (http:/ / books.. " Newton.2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. 1729 English translation. Google Books. 1676–1687' ed. [31] Stewart 2009. A. ISBN 9780486432656. Bibcode 2000OptPN.5. eds (1922–1958). online-literature. "Newton. Retrieved 23 September 2009. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. (2000). (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). htm#newton). Cambridge University Press. J.1. 1980. 1684–1691. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte. J. nor for his service at the Mint. [53] Westfall 1980. Alfred Rupert (1996). page 67 (http:/ / books. "A short account of the history of mathematics". letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679. google. '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. [49] See Curtis Wilson. pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. google. 'Never at Rest'.. [51] Edelglass et al. p. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. [60] Westfall 1980. Venn. pdf). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. ac. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). 356ff [34] White 1997. . [36] Newton.com. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). ac.107 [32] Westfall 1980. numericana. an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science. [30] D T Whiteside (1970). cam. F. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). King. at p. p. Retrieved 16 January 2010. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 10 January 2012. Google Books. [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. prisms. at page 54 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54). at page 400.11. Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes. 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. [47] R S Westfall. MacMillan St. at page 297. [27] Clifford Truesdell. (December 1982). com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. [59] Westfall 1980. 54 [52] Westfall 1980.000024. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). google. www. . [23] D T Whiteside (ed. doi:10. opticsjournal. [45] Dobbs. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. Optics. at page 319.T.Isaac Newton [20] Newton. 324 [38] Ball 1908. pp. . com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). "Newton. 232 [55] White 1997.. com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books.1364/OPN. p. Isis 73 (4): 523.). p." Westfall 1994 p. 'Principia'. Volume.. google. Martin's Press. lib. com/ arms/ index. Cambridge University Press 1960. p. 1967). [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia. (Cambridge University Press. 325 [39] White 1997. 363–4. by Alfred Rupert Hall. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). Isaac (http:/ / venn.online-literature. [54] White 1997. 1968). A very short introduction. cam. lib. especially at pages 119–120. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. cam. 44. . Robert (2007) Newton.11. com/ F.. ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. p170 [40] Hall. J. at page 149. [21] Venn. [48] D T Whiteside (ed. Cambridge University Digital Library. Retrieved 16 January 2010. John Maynard (1972).. 1696). p. but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. p. Page 74 (http:/ / books. p. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. Retrieved 16 January 2010. [37] Ball 1908. [41] White 1997.99.317 [56] Gerard Michon. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy".

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Milford. cited in. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. p. firstthings.C. 29 November 1999. 1958 p201. New Horizons [64] Wikipedia Standing on the shoulders of giants. org/ News. Charles (1948). p. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. [87] A Short Scheme of the True Religion. by Robyn Arianrhod UQP. 44.bbc. Cambridge: 1996. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. pp. 1850. ISBN 0521477379. [91] Marquard. "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability. [70] Opinion poll._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. [88] Webb.uk (http:/ / news. [84] Frankel. 1998. Query 31.co. New Haven: Yale University Press. 19 June 2007. Associated Press. [65] John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001.

[113] http:/ / www. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). and Other Myths. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. 4. google. 130. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). ISBN 0486206300. "Keynes Ms. John (1958).149C. org/ ). New York: Dover. pierre-marteau. Richard S. ISBN 9780547336046. Smith. . Retrieved 10 January 2009. p. 18 January 2010. Isaac.1038/182149a0. (1980. indiana.1098/rsnr. Pan Macmillan. • White. uk/ image1. Brogdale. . in particular.. " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. 337 [103] White 1997. Richard S. ISBN 9781447204152. Retrieved 10 January 2012. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. The Art of Science. 1998). Michael (1997). php). doi:10. Richard (2011). Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches.0017. org. dlib. ISBN 9780199213559. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. . The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. Cambridge University Press. sussex. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. p. Rouse (1908). [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www.. . valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig.org. • Christianson. Cambridge University Digital Library. Thomas (2010). p. Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. pp.73 [99] White 1997. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Bernard Cohen and George E. eds. Retrieved 30 August 2006. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). ISBN 9780495557425.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. New Scientist. ISBN 0521477379. 6 [109] Alberto A. Einstein's Wife. Never at Rest. Inc. p. • Craig. newtonproject. co. Imperial College London. Retrieved 7 September 2011. Richard S. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. ac. [98] Westfall 2007. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". doi:10. . • Westfall. • Westfall. Cambridge University Press. edu/ newton/ index. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. google. "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Isaac Newton. Retrieved 11 January 2007. php?varietyid=1089). (2007). 265–266. Mariner Books. New York: Free Press. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. • Stewart. cam. [108] I. W. • Westfall. lib. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. John. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. [107] Conduitt. This well documented work provides. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Newtonproject. (1994). • Levenson. . brogdale.W. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). Cengage Learning. James (2009). 2011). Fourth Estate Limited. html 17 References • Ball. Gale (1984). Cambridge University Press. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. . O'Reilly Media.182. Bibcode 1958Natur. Retrieved 20 December 2008. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. John (1963). The Life of Isaac Newton.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. ac.1963. pp. brogdale. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. newscientist. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story.

Derek (1986). excerpt and text search (http://www.D.questia. edited by I. focuses on philosophical issues only. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. ISBN 0375422331. Rapport. 147–9. New York: Free Press. ed. Zev (1991). London: G. Bernard. (1959). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Kepler. Guide by I. Gale E. Wright. MIT Press. ISBN 019530070X. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. ISBN 0841430144.. Great Experiments in Physics. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Gleick. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Harper & Bros. (1687). • Gjertsen. ed. excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon. "Review of Newton's Principia". Jason Socrates. T. W.amazon. London: S. Harvard University Press. Newton at the Mint.1098/rsnr. (1965). 2006. • Cohen.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. Knox. W. 1958. and H. • Keynes. • Hawking. J. New York (1972). . ISBN 0486428052. • Christianson. • Dampier. P. A. Richard (1931). I.. I.1978. W. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton.amazon. David. Leibniz. "Newtonia" pp. Dampier. E. doi:10. Isaac Newton. • Christianson. 354 pp. The Principia: a new Translation. (2000). I. • Koyré. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers.. De C. Gale (1984). John (1946). (1728). (1975). John Maynard (1963). • Newton. B. complete edition online (http://www. Alfred A. Stephen. B. S. ISBN 0-393-00189-X. M.amazon. 2001. 256 pp. Inc. • Berlinski. New York: Henry Holt and Company. • Dobbs. • Shapley. (1965). • Halley. ISBN 0792310543. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. • Shamos. – Preface by Albert Einstein. Isaac Newton. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. N. The Background to Newton's Principia. Bernard Cohen. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". Essays in Biography. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution.com/dp/0521656966). Knopf.amazon. and Cohen. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. J. "Discoveries" pp. (1946). excerpt and text search (http://www. The Newton Handbook. • de Villamil. Newtonian Studies. George E. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.0006.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. Springer. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. New York: Harper & Row. • Newton. New York. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. E.. excerpt and text search (http://www.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. ISSN 0035–9149. Norton & Co. eds. ISBN 0486253465. 150–4. (1996). James (2003). New York: Chanticleer Press.. See this site (http://www. On the Shoulders of Giants. (1959). Isaac (1642–1727). 277 pp. Readings in the Literature of Science.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. H. The Newtonian Revolution. (1950). Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. England: Cambridge University Press. • Bardi. JSTOR 531368. Newton. 500 pp. • Craig. (1988). Jed Z. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. Oxford University Press. William C.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald. ISBN 0521229642. (1980). Isaac. Palmer. Harlow. Morris H.1988. (2002). Cambridge. Bernard and Smith.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. The Calculus Wars: Newton. the Man. A Treasury of Science.

Ayval. Pp. Press. pp.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). (1999). 19 Religion • Dobbs. (1952). Sydney: The Book Company. Bruce. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Turnbull and others. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. Arianism through the Centuries. W. 974 pp. I. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. • Brackenridge. 2. • Whiteside.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. JSTOR 3653988. 1984. eds. Isaac. links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. and Richard H. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. White. (1959–77) . Opticks (4th ed. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. London: Macdonald. W. D. (1934). originally published in 1752) • Westfall. • Pfizenmaier. Stephen D.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. 1730) online edition (http://books. T.1017/S0007087499003751.org/stable/4028372). tr. rev. Isaac. "Isaac Newton. University of California Press. • Wiles. • Newton. Cambridge U. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. • Newton. Motte. (1936)." Osiris. J. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. – 8 volumes • Newton. University of California Press. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. 342pp . Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. Florian Cajori. (1999). Berkeley: University of California Press. ed. H. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. doi:10. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. Isaac. ISBN 0444196110. 1996.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. Archetypal Heresy.Isaac Newton • Simmons. or A Treatise of the Reflections. (1996) 214pp. J. (1999). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. H.jstor. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.google.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. Newton and Religion: Context. New York: Dover Publications. 16. Nature. Stephen "'God of Gods. I. (1971). The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. R. (January 1997). (edited by A. (2001). Primary sources • Newton. James E. 299 pp. • Stukeley. ISBN 0521077400. in JSTOR (http://www. Opticks. JSTOR 4027945. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. xvii + 325. (1996).google. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century.google. and Influence. Isaac. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. S. Vol. A. 7 vols. 2nd Series. • Newton. 627 pp. Maurice. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. Popkin. Betty Jo Tetter. London: Taylor and Francis. 1670–1672. 1: The Optical Lectures. Thomas C. Refractions.jstor.. (1967–82). pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vol. (1991). Inflections & Colours of Light.

J Edleston. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www. I. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes.tqnyc. Schofield.rutgers. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library. C.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ).ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page. John W.htm) Kandaswamy.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. I. Roger Cotes.ac. B.wolfram. com/predictions/newton. John J. University of St Andrews.phaser.pierre-marteau.galilean-library.com/biography/Newton.st-andrews. Cambridge.50. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 20 External links • Chisholm.adherents. Hall and M.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H. Hall. John Deighton. • Newton.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www.. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space. including letters of other eminent men (http://books.mcs. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. and motion (http://plato.dlib. Thayer. online edition (http:/ /www.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www.org/NYC051308/index. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato. Sir Isaac". Hugh. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. (1958).). ed (1911).stanford.skepticreport. (1953). London: A.php) • The Newton Project (http://www. Robertson.archive. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.org/snobelen.com/modules/historic/newton/index.indiana. Cohen and R.stanford.isaacnewton.pbs. . 1850. Edmund F.sussex.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor.. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. E. Nourse.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www. B. in Four Books.a. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.fullerton.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www.uk/prism. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702). (1962).newtonproject.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www.stanford. • Newton. S. (1975).html).math. Cambridge.questia.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www. – Google Books • Maclaurin. R.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I).com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton. time.edu/entries/newton/). • Newton. Cambridge University Press.fmalive.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports. Millar and J. Anand M. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries.ac.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss. I.edu/entries/newton-stm/).htm) (via archive.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. ed. I.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www. (1748). West Strand. Parker. "Newton.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/).stanford. A. Sir. London.org/web/20080629021908/http://www.chlt. eds.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. London: Dawson.google. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato.uk/ Biographies/Newton.

optics.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project. physics.newtonproject. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www. reception. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history. Space.ndsu.st-andrews.nodak.edu/id. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy.cmu. Refractions. full text on archive.mcmaster.com/).earlymoderntexts.enlighteningscience.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton.ac. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.org • Newton Papers.math.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.uk/collections/newton) .sussex.lib. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www. or a Treatise of the Reflections.mcs.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1.cs. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.ca/newton/) Images. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.uk/prism.archive.cam.ac. audio.ul.ltrc.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up).edu/is/newton/) • Descartes.ac.gutenberg.sussex. at the Newton Project (http://www.ac.

Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. As his father had been a farmer. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). Smith died in 1653. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. Lincolnshire. in April 1642. at quite a critical time in his education. and thus took him away from his school studies. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). By this time Isaac was ten years old. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. and returned to his mother's household. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. unlike her. who buried her next to his father. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. . 1697 by her son. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer. Later in his life. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. When Rev. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. the elder. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. when Isaac was 54. James and Margery Ayscough. when he was three years old. She and Rev. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. He spent a year away from school on the farm. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. Hannah's brother William. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. He died in October 1642. at the age of nineteen.

Hannah Smith. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later. However. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist. half-niece of Isaac Newton. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. witty and clever. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. Newton.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful.[5] . Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. the wife of John Conduitt. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. not before."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. Is.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. and baptized at Brigstock.

1543–1869. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. not to make a dispute over her legacies. Parish register. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. 1689. born in 1721. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth.[7] The couple had one daughter. Retrieved 23 September 2009. p349. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. On 30 August. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. . left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. & previous reference. towards the end of his life. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727.ac. Montague. • The Newton Project (http://www.uk/prism."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress. (1898). [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. ac. Viscount Lymington. [7] Hants Record Office. uk/ art/ portrait.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park.com. his nephew George Montague. newton. p195. by then Earl of Halifax. affection and esteem. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. National Archives.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. References [1] Robert Barton's will. www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. [9] Yonge. near Winchester. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. however. online-literature. html). Journal to Stella. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. PROB11/416. Harl Soc vol 24. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). 1715. [3] Swift. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. King's College Cambridge. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. Northampton Record Office. Westminster Record Office. National Archives. Charlotte M. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. entries in 1710 and 1711. [8] St Martin in the fields register.sussex. I have long had for her person. [5] Newton Correspondence. and their son.5. PROB11/546. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. Harliean Society.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. Catherine. John Wallop. 1886.online-literature.newtonproject.php?id=15) . Vol 4.

From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). Newton: his friend. named after her mother. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. London. isbn 0712903305. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. Covent Garden. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. 161 pp. Sir Isaac Newton. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. (PRO. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal.[1] By 1707. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. staying only two years. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. Catherine. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. proposed by the president. towards the end of his life. on petition. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. but did not graduate. near Winchester. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. but after starting. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. and his niece. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. In 1705. Cambridge with three others. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. and his uncle by marriage. a whig member for Whitchurch. he quickly stopped. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. Covent Garden. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. on 8 March 1688. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. 1st ed (reprinted). then aged 38 years.[3] . Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. described herself as 32 years old. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. London: Dawsons. 1968. defending the government on a number of issues. and was baptized at St Paul's. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. Hampshire. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. In 1720. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. Early life. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. The couple had one daughter. while at Westminster.

Retrieved 23 September 2009. J.online-literature.). Catherine. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". (1898). California. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3.british-history. Viscount Lymington (d. 1st Earl of Portsmouth.. Venn. His wife. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). ms 57. british-history. . J. who died in 1739. was buried with him.. John Wallop. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. underage. ac. vol 4. ac. online-literature. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. fo 169 [3] Yonge.ac. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. lib.cyberbeach. aspx?compid=42018#s4). near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer.htm) . Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. " Conduitt. On his death. www. A. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. and their son. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. Charlotte M.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton.uk. [4] Page. 1749) in 1740. uk/ report.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. John (http:/ / venn. cam. References [1] Venn. William (1908). Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. eds (1922–1958). Huntingdon Library. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. . www.com. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 27 September 2009.

he was admitted to Trinity College. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. the English mathematician and scientist. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. attempted to make a farmer of him. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. He was removed from school."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus.1 litre).[4] At that time. He hated farming. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. he was a small child. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother. When Newton was three. and Kepler. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. optics and the law of gravitation. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. In June 1661. In 1665. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. Newton was educated at The King's School.[3] Henry Stokes. Margery Ayscough.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. widowed by now for a second time. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. achieving an admirable final report. At the time of Newton's birth. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). Born prematurely. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. where his mother. This he did at the age of eighteen. master at the King's School. Galileo. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. author of the Principia. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. 25 December 1642.[6] . a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. and by October 1659.

and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. and next about that the inner Crown. book ii. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book." . He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. its acceleration a. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. which was of a bluish green within next the white. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. many years afterwards. in the years 1663 and 1664. and the applied force F is F = ma. and borrowed Wallis' works. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. particularly those "in affected powers. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. there are several articles on angular sections. he was unable. It was elliptical. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. and of a yellow and red without. and. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. and in summer 1665. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. several calculations about musical notes. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. which appear in his Optics. verging below farthest from the moon. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. Cambridge. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. part iv. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. and introduced him to higher mathematics. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". to two and fifty figures by the same method. I saw two such Crowns about her. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". dated January 1664. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. at night. and red on the outside of it. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. I being then Senior Sophister. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. obs. near Cambridge. in Lincolnshire. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. Isaac Barrow. In a small commonplace book.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. February 19th. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. 1699. together with observations on refraction. John Slade of Catharine Hall.

There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. and signed by the master of the college. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire.A. which he put. [see also James Gregory. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. astronomy. dated 7 August 1665. There were nine vacancies. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. apparently for chemical experiments.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. and added. and also chemicals and a furnace. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. a fellow of our college. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). statics. "the name of the author is Newton. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. Dr Pearson. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. arithmetic. who had a powerful genius for such matters. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. 29 . Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. mathematician. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. geography. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. and 22 June 1666. and who. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). probably in June 1669. and a young man. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. optics. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics.] a mathematician of no mean order. degree. Newton must have left college before August 1665." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. He wrote a paper. or some other mathematical subject. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. On each occasion it was agreed. In March 1668 he took his M. but kept the name of the author a secret.

" This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. I wondered. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. for I saw. than the like irregularities in a refracting one.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. because. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. as I found it. provided a reflecting substance could be found. if they continue them for any time. when I further considered. so that a much . he proceeded: "When I understood this. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. After he explained this to the Society. the secretary of the Royal Society. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. The whole is printed in No. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. it could not collect those also into the same point. as glass transmits. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. on 6 February 1672. than a circularly figured lens. bishop of Salisbury." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. and reflect as much light. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. But these seemed very great difficulties. were light uniform. and I have almost thought them insuperable. and finding them regular. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. which would polish as finely as glass. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. I left off my aforesaid glass works. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. So that. I understood. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. Nay. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented.

but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). And this analogy twist colours. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. than in figuring glasses for refraction. whereby. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. as I said. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. And there place a clear and colourless prism. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. and vanish into whiteness. which they had before they entered the composition. but yet most luminous in blue. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. but yet with this difference. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. but I shall conclude with this general one. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. as I imagined. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. And therefore. if I have committed any. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. care must be taken. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. or proportionally disagreeing in both. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). They have there no appropriate colour. and that the paper. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. Further on. I conceive. for. so I doubt not. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. I began to try. if any thing seem to be defective. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. you will not only find. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. or to thwart this relation. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. are taking care about it at London. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. who. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. But it is requisite. when I made the other. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. how the colours gradually convene. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. which. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. You may also see. what might be effected in this kind. are again dissipated and severed.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. the figure also would be corrected to the last. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. by such motion. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. that the prism and lens be placed steady. but not very distinctly. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. He concludes his communication with the words: This. with which 'tis illustrated. . you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. but yet most luminous in red. that. as you inform me. or of acknowledging my errors. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. proper for metal.

when a description of it was found among his papers. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. and the inflexion of light. George Villiers. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. and. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). or communicated to the Royal Society. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. and. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. I do recommend them both to be nominated. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. Others criticized the experiments. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. however. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. and he wrote on double refraction. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. and are now almost universally rejected. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". who was the chancellor of the university. and many others.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday." The heads. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. or to become a slave to defend it. till after Newton's death. . saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. The public oratorship fell vacant. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. he says. endeavored to effect a compromise which. and entered in the Regent House. or leave to come out after me. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. light polarization and binocular vision. but was not published. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices.

Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. a fellow of the Royal Society." (See Newton's cannonball. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. as several others are. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. if you have not done it already. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. who married John Conduitt. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. owing to decay. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. yet since I see I shall neither profit them." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit.57 metres) in one minute. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675. Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth. I desire to withdraw. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. till 1860. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. as he was not in holy orders. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. (4. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. Newton. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. when. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. he says.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. In one version of the story. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. by calculating from Kepler's laws.) . I thank you. and one of Newton's intimate friends. dated 23 June 1673. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. He therefore was led to inquire whether.

Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. i. Moreover. one of the secretaries of the Society. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register." He could not. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. to consult Newton on the subject. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. put his hand upon his calculation. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. in the month of August 1684. I have calculated it. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. Unless otherwise noted. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages.e. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. one of the fellows of his own college. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. or their views about the researches of others. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. At Newton's birth. Sir Christopher Wren. made the two results. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. a copy of his demonstration. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. "an ellipse". till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. however. Oldenburg. After the latter had left Cambridge. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. and started for Cambridge. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Newton replied promptly. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. the secretary. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. In January 1684. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. By the time he died. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. by the hand of Mr Paget. . and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. but he promised to send it to Halley. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result.Early life In November 1679. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. "Why.

giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. the warden of the mint. 35 References • Westfall. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994.) (1960). Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. lib. (Cambridge University Press. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship..297-314. Michael Hoskins (1997). afterwards Earl of Halifax. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state.). Vol. J. J. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. Isaac. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). I. pp. The office is the most proper for you. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. at pp. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. Cambridge. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. However. lib. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage.435-440. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. 16–19 [4] Michael White. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. cited above. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal. The Life of Isaac Newton. In a letter to Newton announcing the news.43. " Newton. Charles Montagu. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". when Montagu. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. Isaac (http:/ / venn. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. . cam. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. ISBN 0521477379. Cambridge University Press.. Richard S. Later life During his residence in London. 159. google.Early life [2] Cohen. 1960). eds (1922–1958). Venn. (1994). Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College." Newton was now 55 years old. p. (1970). after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. Mr Overton. and the esteem the king has of your merits. ac. cam. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy.M1) [5] ed. [8] http:/ / www. A. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. Montagu. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. Cambridge University Press.B. ac. and has not . "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". Vol 2 (1676-1687). p. 11.) (1960). sfu. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. was false to him. [7] Newton.

[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. To this work were added two treatises. while exports were paid for in gold.500 per annum. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. the second. however. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699.200 and £1.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. except to Newton and his friends. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. Of this. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. with an account of their properties. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. a post worth between £1. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. he did not exhibit it in the results.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. was still. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. a secret.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). a process that was completed in about two years. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. Newton took it seriously. ." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard.

" In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. and a second edition of it. 's Gravesande published a tract." says he. by Dr Machin. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. which was also written many years ago. prefixing to it an introduction. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. I have on this occasion made it public. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. . and he gave a method of determining it. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. and. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. W. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. "tanquam." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. secretary to the Royal Society. was published at London in 1712. and E. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. (2) to determine a curve such that. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. In that year the Academy was remodelled. and eight foreign associates were created. who have solicited the. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). obtained leave to make it public. He also solved the second problem. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. Leibniz." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. making it public. although Newton's solution was anonymous.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. Hartsoeker. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. P2. and made known to some friends. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. and published by Dr Wallis. with improvements by the author. but he received a letter from Leibniz. and having since met with some things copied out of it. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems.

and a number of honorary degrees conferred. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. On 21 May 1709. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton.." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. "will be glad to see you in June. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. where a congregation of the senate was held.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. He was warmly supported by the residents. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets.I forget from where . and of a new edition. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. and beaten by a large majority. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. but being a Whig. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. Dr Bentley. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. Rumours. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. the queen's husband. on Newton's recommendation. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. and discharged the duties of the post. when the queen. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia." Newton. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. fellow of Trinity College. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. however. the master of Trinity College. they paid a visit to Cambridge. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. after speaking to Newton. Dr Edleston.. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. Roger Cotes. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. In April 1705. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. have been completely investigated. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. 2002)." he said. the master of Trinity. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. of his work. in the first few months of 1695. were heard from time to time." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. so far as he could do it. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship." (I have learnt . no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . The prince had offered. He held the office for 25 years. however. he was opposed by the non-residents. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. the lunar theory would. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton.

Newton criticized all the methods. on 27 July. and received the royal assent. passed both Houses. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. and endeavoured to refute it. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. for I find that I shall be examined about it. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. In Libri primi Sect. facilior redditur et amplior. who translated it. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. On the 31st of March 1713. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. 4. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. I must not see it. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. The abbé. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. vii. At last. Caroline of Ansbach. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. about midsummer 1713. an antiquary at Paris. took every opportunity of conversing with him. "28 Mar. He mentioned four: 1. In Libri secundi Sect. N. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. to present her with a copy of the new edition. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. and. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . however. I. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. 2. "If you write any further preface. lent his copy to M Fréret. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. the following account of this new Edition. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. true in theory but difficult to execute. The Princess of Wales. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. 3. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. who called witnesses. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. pointing out their weak points. Newton waited on Queen Anne. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. she requested him to give her a copy. wife of George II. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. 1713. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers.

.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. Newton printed. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success.. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. For example in 1716 Leibniz. and though he was fatigued from work. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. John which was published in London in 1733. a nephew of Bentley. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. This was done. translated into French by the observator. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. which was published in 1728. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. he solved it later the same evening. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. He therefore asked Locke. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. after his death. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. in 1756. Upon receiving a copy of this work. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. to suppress it". On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. This edition had many errors. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. beginning his studies before 1690. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. who was on the way to the continent. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. and published at Paris. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. In an earlier part of his life. to have it translated into French and have it published there. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725.

In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. . Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. PMID 15638889. who. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society.x.January 1843 (http:/ / www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. University of Regina.1111/j. urotoday. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. Athol L Murray. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. (1898). OCLC 276340857.online-literature. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. after six years of "cock[fight]ing. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. Charlotte M. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. Gilbert J.1464-410X. He endured great suffering. pdf). html). archive. ac. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www.05242. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). Newton and the Counterfeiter. horse racing. Retrieved 23 September 2009. pdf). litencyc. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. www. [10] Westfall 1980. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. ahds. 21 September 1717. php?rec=true& UID=1304). On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. doi:10. com/ php/ stopics. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. Retrieved 2008-05-22. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. . The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). Edward. Vol V. ISBN 9780151012787. (2005). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pdf) (PDF)..com. Sir Isaac Newton.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. Wise. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005.and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. measuringworth. Richard Kleer. online-literature. 870 [11] Yonge. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. [9] Ostad. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage. . ac. Athol L Murray. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886.[10] Towards the end of his life. pierre-marteau. p.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey. ahds. April 1842 .2005. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. [6] By The King.

the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of .edu/~michael/koll. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. with a and historical introduction by I.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. he was the last of the magicians. the noted English scientist and mathematician. alchemy.". as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. 1975). Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. superstition. In this sense. and pseudoscience were still being formulated.ucsc. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). Bernard Cohen (Dawson. for example. These occult works explored chronology. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. Santa Fe. Distinctions between science. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. economist John Maynard Keynes. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science.

the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. National Science Foundation. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. In recent years. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents.[2] It was for this reason. who throughout his life. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke." 43 In 1936. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. burning 20 years of research. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. Newton is thought to have said. and perhaps to a lesser extent.[8] . catalogue. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. "O Diamond. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". and analytical chemistry. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. In the story. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. Arts and Humanities Research Board."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. with its associated nomenclature. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. A perfectionist by nature. lead. or some other substance).[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. In addition. The English Crown.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. Newton's dog started the fire. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today.K. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. several projects have begun to gather. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. Diamond. made penalties for alchemy very severe.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work.S. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts.

wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. "Ezechielem Explanationes". Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. 1728."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). In its time. "Theatrum Chemicum". in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. Nicolas Flamel. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. "Artephius his secret Book". His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. In predicting this he said. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. and the vegetable or the growing stone. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. early forms of tarot. Hieroglyphical Figures. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. though mysterious figure. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. and occultism. "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. in a search for their occult knowledge. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple.[10] In addition to scripture.[12][13] . (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. Most notably are documents entitled. "Nicholas Flammel.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. Published London. This concept. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. and his "secret book". followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. Artephius.

a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. . the same was true of their architecture. Isaac Newton's treatise. In the knowledge of this philosophy. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. Around 1692. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. as in Genesis. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. is not only to be found in the volume of nature. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. only adding to the public interest in the temple. such as golden sections. orthographic projection. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. but also in the sacred scriptures. 27 years after his death. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. when deciphered.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. both speculative and active.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. was published posthumously in 1728. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. and other harmonious constructions. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms".a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". This immense 13-foot-high (4. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". spirals. In 1628. due to the success of Villalpando's publications. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. Isaiah and others. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. To Newton.[17] In 1754. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". In addition. ” During Newton's lifetime. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. which was popular in its day. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. scholars. [14] Job. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. conic sections. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. Psalms. .

the period of 1260 days. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. Furthermore. 1. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. Christ comes as a thief in the night. part of the Yahuda collection. The first document. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. 7th.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. Britain's Daily Telegraph. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. evidently written by Isaac Newton.] 70. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. 2060. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. in or after 1705. Canada's National Post. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. It may end later.C. Nature. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. will end A. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details.[19] is a small letter slip. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. . Both of these lay essential to his calculations. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture.C. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. 800. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life.[D. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks.

are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. Homer. In Greek Mythology. an approximately 87. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. Anatolia. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. and various other classical historians.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. authors. The marriage supper. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. Africa and Asia. standards. and available source material. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. but rather one in which he believed the world. It is done. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. and poets. As such.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. . ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. Egypt. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. In fact. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. Pliny. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". In a separate manuscript. In this entry he mentions Mephres. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. and the Levant. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. or possibly the same island. Ogygia was home to Calypso. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. but was sunk into the Sea. However. Plutarch. The publication date of this work occurred after his death.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". as he saw it.

during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. which they claimed to have in their possession.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. Like Newton. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint. Considering his esteemed social status. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. anti-Catholic. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime.C. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. not esoteric societies. and highly politicised. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. these are considered learned societies. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. however. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. However. the physical universe. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. and the spiritual realm. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. would seem to exclude Newton . a recognized Knight. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious.[24][25] however. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. lack of supportive publicized material. avowedly Christian. Furthermore. Additionally.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups.". and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them. In his library.[26] At the time of his death. the level of their secrecy. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. remains unclear. For its time. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727).

Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". Discover Magazine.Occult studies from their membership. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. ISBN 0-19-850364-4.[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. "The Da Vinci Code". "Newton. dlib. Oxford University Press US. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. ._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. ISBN 019530070X. Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. p. 144. 15–19 July 1946. Rabbi Chaim. 2010 [5] Newman. [11] Christianson. Temple Institute. Page 91. google. . The Man". jsp [7] http:/ / www. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. htm). htm) on 6 May 2008. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". Temple Institute (1991-2008). Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. (http:/ / www. Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . do). Gale E. Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. christianpost. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. . Oxford University Press. s-most-famous-alchemist)". There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. as were many members of The Royal Society. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). templeinstitute. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. However. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. Retrieved 2007-08-12. (5 April 2007). Jane Bosveld. huji. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. William R. newtonproject. p. sacred geometry. edu/ newton/ about. (2005). During his own life. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1.. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. and he never publicly identified himself as one. referring not to a medieval knight.M. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. July/August. 175. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. ac. Retrieved 1 July 2008. indiana. archive. indiana. htm). php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. pbs. 19 June 2007. References [1] Keynes. Retrieved 2010-07-19. from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. 1999. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. edu/ newton/ index._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. Associated Press. uk/ prism. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. sussex. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. jnul. Pope). [6] http:/ / webapp1. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. christianpost. ac. . [10] Richman. dlib. USA: PBS. J. com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London.

gutenberg. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books.). f.jnul. . University of Sussex: The Newton Project.ac. inul.com/aReal/unit-fraction. (http:/ / www.newtonproject. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7.st-and. [17] Newton. ac. "Juan Bautista Villalpando. Fairfield University. The Newton Project. (http://www. [23] Bauer.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h.2a. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books. (http://www. ac. the Apocalypse and A. Henry (2004). sussex. pp. Retrieved 1 July 2008. google. uk/ prism." (http:/ / www. f. 117. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 146.htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.sussex. ." (http:/ / www. (1972). Retrieved 2008-06-25. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. . Delta Trade Paperbacks.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory. Retrieved 20 April 2010. sussex. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. Chetwode. ISBN 1578634040. Originally published: London : HarperElement.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum. f. 2005: Weiser.pbs.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando. J. ac. com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). . org/ newton_2060. Holy Grail. Isaac. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized). Retrieved 2007-08-15. written at USA.ac.uk)) . Retrieved 2008-06-26. 5 April 2007.indiana. newtonproject.php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www.newtonproject. uk/ texts/ viewtext. 1997. William (2010).science. Alain (2007).huji.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. google.html) • unit fractions.from Chapter 3.htm) • the math (http://www-groups. newtonproject. S. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando.org/library/drmath/view/55191. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton.sussex. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. Laurence (2007).html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon). [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www. 2060. [18] Snobelen. Stephen D. bcy. The Newton Project. Michael. Lincoln.3g. html).math.ac.M. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. faculty.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. Da Capo Press. AHRC Newton Papers Project.newtonproject.sussex.D.uk/prism. html). php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). htm).themathpage.dcs. newtonproject. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. sussex. 50 • White.3o. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. [14] Gardner.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. p. p. [26] White. Frances A.edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.J. Retrieved 2007-08-19. Retrieved 2007-08-15.faculty. . org/ ). Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life. London: Routledge.ac. William Stukeley 1752. ac.uu. . & A. .freemasons-freemasonry. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. htm). isaac-newton.fairfield. Joseph. ISBN 073820143X. sussex. Michael. Book Excerpt . newtonproject. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley.. [19] Yahuda MS 7.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell. Scott Mandelbrote.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. [28] Baigent.ac. W. uk/ texts/ viewtext.newtonproject. spalding-gentlemens-society.sussex. 496.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7. Michael (1999). php?id=74).html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www. org). .staff.dlib. . 859" (http:/ / www. . ISBN 1-59477-172-3.ac. Holy Blood. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. . fairfield. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. Rob Iliffe. .niu. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. Isaac (5 April 2007).. ed.F. freemasons-freemasonry. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. ca/ aqc/ leon. 31r [22] Newton.com/pillar_solomon_temple.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode. com/ book_bauer. p.

the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science. mathematician. "so little understood".[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. written by those who were inspired."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. In predicting this he said. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. astronomer. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. natural philosopher.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. I study the Bible daily. had it been made public. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. and he said. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word. After 1690. theologian and alchemist. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. Alternatively. space. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). or. 77–82.[1] Background These arguments. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. causes.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". in other words. The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time.[5][6] . appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. in general. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. place and motion.

However. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. his real position was that motion is absolute. who contended that all motion was relative. Thus. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. C: Both rotate.[9] When. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. — Ernst Mach.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. accordingly. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. A: Central object rotates. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. Eventually. as the cord continues to unwind. but the neighboring train.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. however. but in opposite directions. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition. and that there is no absolute motion. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. despite proximity to the pail. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. B: Outer ring rotates. it is not your own train moving. the surface of the water remains flat. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. On the other hand. not only with respect to the experimenter. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. but also in relation to the water it contains. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. In other words.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. p. it begins to spin rapidly. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. but in opposite direction. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object.[7] However.

is incomplete.. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. the vessel continues for some time this motion. a stationary frame can be identified. However. And therefore.. — Ernst Mach. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. the surface of the water will at first be plain. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. and held at rest together with the water. then filled with water. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. but relative motions.Bucket argument If a vessel. as quoted by L. as before the vessel began to move.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. see Rotating spheres. . . not relative. p. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. In fact. and may be measured by this endeavour. and while the cord is untwisting itself.. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies.. it is whirled about in the contrary way. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. hung by a long cord. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. Principia. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it.are altogether destitute of any real effect.. which is here directly contrary to the relative.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. forming itself into a concave figure.. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames.. 58 .. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water.. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. .[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water.. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. after. discovers itself. — Isaac Newton. and effectually to distinguish. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. Thus. a limitation that has not been established. and recede by little and little.. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. by the sudden action of another force. will make it begin sensibly to revolve.

and the aim is to determine this function.[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. if at rest. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. the sum of all three forces must be zero. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. p. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components. the horizontal. because the element of water does not move. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. for if this were not so. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. But from the nature of a fluid. the co-rotating frame.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. To sum to zero... — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. . The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. the water. However. 127 Moreover. see Knudsen and Hjorth. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl.. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. For example. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. one might question just how rotation brings about this change. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces.

. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. In words. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. the normal to the surface must have the same angle.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. that is. because all positions are equivalent in energy. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. That being so. That is.) As r increases. On the other hand. for example. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. were surface regions with lower energy available. equilibrium is attained. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. The potential energy is useful. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation.

Cambridge University Press. google. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. 170. ISBN 0226282198. however. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). . pdf [3] René Descartes. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. a concave surface represents the stable situation. If rotation is arrested. To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. ISBN 0521656966. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. Cambridge University Press. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. this energy is constant independent of position r. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. Smith. p. Forgotten Books.M1). ISBN 0521358124. google. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). University of Chicago Press. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. Principia philosophiae. This change in shape would not be stable. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. Cambridge University Press. at a given angular rate of rotation. Requiring the energy to be constant. p. 75. google. John Cottingham translator (1988). 43. §25. google. google. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. As the height of water increases. us. . [7] Robert Disalle (2006). let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). . The water surface is flat at first. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius.Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. ISBN 1606201433. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. 105. At some small angular rate of rotation. the more concave this surface. which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. and lowering it at smaller radius. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). for example through friction. p. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. 191. and the more rapid the rotation. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. Part ii. Bernard Cohen & George E. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame).M1). archive. . before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. editors) (2002). an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. p. p. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. See Figures 1 and 2. [2] http:/ / ia310114. [5] René Descartes (1664). . com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. Thus. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation).

com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. B. [16] Lawrence S. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. See: • R. A A Knopf.M1). At the end of this article. Academic Press. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. Lerner (1997). no. "Chapter 2. 104. pp. google. pdf) pp. archive. Jones & Bartlett. . pp. p.iep. . google. 79-81 [13] L. Poul G. ISBN 0867204796.google. . com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. [15] Jens M. 78–79. 19. google. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books.edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Soc. and Motion (http://plato. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. ISBN 354067652X. google.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). . 45. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein.google. In I.M1). pp. ISBN 0486607690. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0521857902. p. Bernard Cohen. op. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127.M1). [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). google. ISBN 0521621135. 78.M1).stanford. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones.utm. cit. .com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). Zalta. 119. 143.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. Weber & George B. article by Robert Rynasiewicz. editor) (2008). Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. New York: Courier Dover Publications. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). 325–348.edu/l/leib-met. 127. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. p. Lynden-Bell (1996). p. The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. pp. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal).M1) (in Proc. and the texture of reality. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1.. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www.M1). p. . . Leibniz (http:/ / books. ISBN 1402086679. google.. External links • Newton's Views on Space. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. . John Archibald Wheeler (1995). Arfken (2003). ISBN 0521656966. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato.htm) see section on Space. Knudsen. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. 279–280. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. 404. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. ISBN 0375412883. [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). The Universe and the Bucket".). Phil. Hjorth (2000). 167. ISBN 0521352541. ISBN 0691033234. stanford. Wiley. Time. . google. google.). 5 (1975) ed. Cambridge University Press. George Edwin Smith. Am. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. google. 386–387. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). • D. 79.google. In Edward N. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. p. p. Springer. Springer. Princeton University Press. vol. • Ralph A.Bucket argument p. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. us. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. [19] Hans J. . [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78.). time. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. Partridge (1995). . [11] Robert Disalle. ISBN 0120598779.M1). com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. p. . stanford. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate.

calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". while Archimedes (c. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. lambda calculus. Eudoxus (c.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. early forms of differentiation. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. It has two major branches.[6] . can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. Historically. Calculus is the study of change. differential calculus and integral calculus. and some of them are wrong. Calculations of volumes and areas. 1820 BC). and join calculus. economics.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics. pi calculus. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits.[4] In the 5th century AD. which prefigures the concept of the limit.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. with no indication as to method.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. integrals. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Calculus has widespread applications in science. infinite series approximations. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. functions. variational calculus.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. More generally. and infinite series. an integral test for convergence. one goal of integral calculus. to calculate areas and volumes. derivatives. calculus. or "infinitesimal calculus". but the formulas are mere instructions. term by term integration. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. broadly called mathematical analysis.

there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. The product rule and chain rule. the notion of higher derivatives. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. second and higher derivatives. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes." —John von Neumann In Europe. introduced the concept of adequality. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. Newton derived his results first. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. In other work. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. which is its logical [7] development. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. but Leibniz published first. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . in their differential and integral forms. In his publications. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. and the system of mathematical analysis. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. he developed series expansions for functions. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Isaac Barrow. Taylor series. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. He did not publish all these discoveries. By Newton's time. and James Gregory. the oblateness of the earth. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. Unlike Newton. and providing the product rule and chain rule. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. Pierre de Fermat. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. including fractional and irrational powers. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable.

which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. to the detriment of English mathematics. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. Today. but it would be 150 years later.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. including Maclaurin. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. In Cauchy's writing. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities.Calculus Society. Robinson's approach. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. Following the work of Weierstrass. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. Several mathematicians. It is Leibniz. developed in the 1960s. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. . and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. however. who gave the new discipline its name. In modern mathematics. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus.

. Historically. in some sense. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. center of mass. but less than any number in the sequence 1. arc length. work. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. "infinitely small". The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes.e. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. and less than any positive real number. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. From this point of view. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers. time. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. Calculus provides tools. However. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. and Japan. and for this reason they are the standard approach. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. just like infinitesimals. They capture small-scale behavior. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals... infinitesimals were replaced by limits. For centuries. volume. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. the slope of a curve. Persia. 1/3. In the 19th century. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. Greece. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. and pressure. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. 1/2. India. . when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. In this treatment. which resolve the paradoxes. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. and motion. Iraq. especially the limit and the infinite series. and optimization.. during the 17th century. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. i. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. but use the ordinary real number system. China.

then the derivative represents change with respect to time. To be concrete. if the doubling function is given the input three. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. it is possible to produce a new function. outputs a second function. that is. can take the squaring function as an input. f(a + h)) is close to (a. (a. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. y is the dependent variable." For instance. f(x)). if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. If h is a number close to zero. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . four is sent to sixteen. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. The derivative. Therefore (a + h. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. Thus. if the graph of the function is a straight line). so m is the slope of the secant line between (a.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. where functions usually input a number and output another number. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. and fix a point a in the domain of f. f(a + h)). b is the y-intercept. then it outputs six. If the input of the function represents time. properties. f(a)) and (a + h. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. then a + h is a number close to a. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. however. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. which is impossible. however. then it outputs nine. and applications of the derivative of a function. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. For example. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. If a function is linear (that is. where x is the independent variable. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. it is the velocity of the ball. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. Given a function and a point in the domain.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. and if the squaring function is given the input three. For example. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. three is sent to nine. pronounced "f prime. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. f(a)). let f be a function. the doubling function. In mathematical jargon. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. the derivative of the function of f is f′.

Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. For this reason. that is to say. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. .Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3.9) is 6. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. Here is a particular example.

Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. but if the speed changes. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. (This use of upper. only multiplication is needed. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. as the output. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. and applications of two related concepts. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. properties.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. introduced by Leibniz. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. In technical language. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. the derivative. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. For example: In this usage. the indefinite integral and the definite integral. however.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. the inverse operation to the derivative. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. called a Riemann sum. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. then the speed will stay more or less the same. . The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. Leibniz. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. If the speed is constant. However. integral calculus studies two related linear operators. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative.

the area between the axis and the curve. Call that value h. where C is any constant. we can choose one value of the function f(x). the area." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. The indefinite integral. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. dx is not a number. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. . Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. as an output. or antiderivative.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. and is not being multiplied by f(x). is y′ = 2x. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. For each small segment. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. The symbol of integration is . an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. To approximate that area. but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). f(x)=h. between two points (here a and b). the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration.

and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. b). economics. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. for every x in the interval (a. slope. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. actuarial science. medicine. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. b). the moment of inertia of objects. concavity and inflection points. made by both Newton and Leibniz. we use calculus to derive its path. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. the study of graphs of functions. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. Physics makes particular use of calculus. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. More precisely. demography. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. This realization. business. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. then Furthermore. In analytic geometry. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. statistics. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). computer science. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. engineering. . For example. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. In biology.

Chapter 1. Inc. htm). agnesscott. J. Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. . p. 2008.... p 2 (http:/ / books. John W. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. Sherry (2007). in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. . com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. MA. 28. Copy (http:/ / books. 1995. 279 (http:/ / books. Birkhauser Boston. p. Springer. Dennis G. pp. Fan. The Neumann Compedium. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. Vámos. google. For example. Ltd. ISBN 9810222017. html [7] von Neumann. 1947. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. p. Warren S. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. Cosimo. Pte.. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C.. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. World Scientific Publishing Co. 618–626. Cengage Learning. Elif (April 1995). 2. fixed point iteration.....see also the summed area table algorithm. . com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. p. mcs. google. and linear approximation. Discrete Green's Theorem. Donald R. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. Page 228. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. Vol. T. in Heywood. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. ISBN 0817645659. University of Chicago Press. I [3] Archimedes. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. 180–196. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. google. B. pp. Dainian. Wright. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. Kenelly. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. xxvii. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. it's used to derive dosing laws. In the realm of medicine. Boston. Robert Sonné (1966). (2009).. "The Mathematician". Reed. . in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications.. R. 1984.Calculus Green's Theorem. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. Agnes Scott College. google. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. The Works of the Mind. Reprinted in Bródy. st-andrews. In economics. Chapter . ed. Gottfried Wilhelm. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. [8] André Weil: Number theory. Liu. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). Method. Cohen.). For instance. google. ac. In nuclear medicine. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. eds. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. p. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow.. Biggers. . For example. 130. F. From Hammurapi to Legendre. Iris B. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . google. Wright. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. [9] Leibniz. Inc.. Scott. 279... Examples are methods such as Newton's method. An approach through history. google. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . • Florian Cajori. Bruce H. Calculus for a New Century. • Tom M. 1923). pp.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). Apostol. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. • Weisstein.. Vol. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics.Stephen Davis:"Calculus". Adams. Wiley. Donald A. (September 1994). Ltd. • Silvanus P. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals.html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource.wolfram. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. 1 (Sep.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. Edwards (2010). Volume 1. Press.2002. • Howard Anton. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. ed. 9th ed. • Leonid P. ED 300 252. 1–46. University Science Books." Annals of Mathematics. 1: The Tools of Calculus".. Weir. • Michael Spivak. Carl Benjamin (1949). (1996). (2003). Donald J. Wiley. Apostol. 7.. ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. Cambridge University Press. Stony Brook. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Frank R. "Calculus". Thompson and Martin Gardner. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. (1999). Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. 25. Addison-Wesley. • Thomas/Finney. Dover edition 1959. Ron. NY. Ch. "The History of Notations of the Calculus.. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. • Albers. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant.. Addison Wesley. Publish or Perish publishing. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. • Cliff Pickover. James (2008). Not a Filter. 11th ed. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. google. (1967).Calculus 73 Books • Larson. • Edmund Landau. (1969). ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. 1998. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. Hafner. A Pump. Joel Hass. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning.John Willey and Sons Pte.Irl Bivens. • Tom M. Eric W. No. • Mathematical Association of America. The Association.. Maurice D. (2003)." (http://mathworld. American Mathematical Society. • Robert A. ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. "Calculus". Lebedev and Michael J. Anderson and Don O. (1988). • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. Richard D. 2nd Ser. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. 2004. George B. Calculus: Early Transcendentals. (1998). Giordano (2008). Mathematical Association of America No. 6th ed. ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th.. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. Princeton Univ. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Loftsgaarden.. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. Volume 2.

edu/~keisler/calc. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa. mit. Michiel Hazewinkel ed. (2003). H.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.html) at PlanetMath.cacr. (2000). "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan.com/calc/calc.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.htm (http://ocw. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business).pdf) • Faraz.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre .bbc.htm) from ERICDigests. " Calculus (http://mathworld.math.encyclopediaofmath. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus". "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota.cacr. G.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes. . in Encyclopedia of Mathematics.co. (2004).mit.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.com/ (http://www.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell. P.edu/~keisler/calc.byu.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. (2001).edu/~sean/applied_math. B.math.mit.ac.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).wisc. (2006).understandingcalculus.com/calc/calc. Fullerton. Eric W..caltech.wolfram.understandingcalculus.pdf (http://www.com/Calculus.caltech.org: The Calculus page (http://www.htm) • Smith.umn. (2004). "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www.pdf) • Sloughter. H.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www. Thompson (http://djm.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.ericdigests. (2006).math.umn.co. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.nd.D.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.nd.economics.html) • Mauch.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson.math.html (http://www. ( listen now (http:// www.org/index.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.html)" from MathWorld. lightandmatter.wolfram. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.pdf (http://www. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw. External links • Weisstein. soton. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow. "Calculus" Light and Matter. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw. William V.math. URL http:// www. J.lightandmatter.htm) (HTML only) • Strang.pdf (http://www.bbc.wisc. (1991).math.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.temple.org/pre-9217/calculus.math. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath. K. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.pdf) • Garrett. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.edu/~sean/applied_math. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.htm (http://www.uiowa.math.org) at University of California.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses.calculus. Dan (2000).uiowa.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC. S.

Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. this statement went unchallenged some years.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full).com/) Raymond. minima. as in the 'Principia' of 1687. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. exams and interactive applets. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read. and others." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus.math. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. at the age of 23. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. Newton manipulated the quarrel. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". and centers of gravity. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675.mit. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. Newton. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it.Calculus Dame with activities. 4. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton.ucdavis. A.[1]. as noted above.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. 3.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus.[2]) Meanwhile. . The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death. Newton. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus. or. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima.html) by D. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's. 1709–1716. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention. 2. Moreover. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions.solved-problems. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill.

1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. In 1849. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. It is. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. whereas Newton began from derivatives. It was not until the 1704 publication of an .[2] At first. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. Gerhardt. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. the manuscript. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. Shortly before his death. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. in particular power series. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. However. No attempt was made to rebut #4. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. C. however. on the method of tangents. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. In 1696. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. one of which was new to him. and in fact worked together on some aspects. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. which was not known at the time. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). but some deny this. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. I. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands.

a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. the letter of June 7. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. When pressed for an explanation. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. before publishing them. Several points should be noted. In any event. had endeavoured to wrest from me. the debate persisted for many years. forty years ago. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. and when I did. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. and doubts emerged. dates. Moreover.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature.g." he said. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. 1713. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. Moreover. in most cases I did not keep a copy. but it appears that on more than one occasion. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. In accepting the denial. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. 77 . a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. 30 years later. which the author of that epistle. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. in the Charta Volans. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. in the Acta Eruditorum). 1716. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. and that of April 8. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. I have enjoyed little leisure. as it appeared to Newton's friends. The report of the committee. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673).. as if by the authority of a great judge. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e. dont plusiers se sont perdus. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. of which many are lost. Leibniz may have minimized. No such summary (with facts. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. All this casts doubt on his testimony. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. which I could sort through only with time and patience. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. finding in favor of Newton. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. Now that I am old. "I have never.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. suspicious details. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. which referenced all allegations." Leibniz explained his silence as follows.

of equal certainty. 1968).). Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. which were translatable one into the other. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. (Cambridge University Press. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). especially at p. not in the German-speaking world). . for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside.. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). 120. (1970). [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand.99. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. whose potentialities he fully understood. the differential and integral calculus. (Cambridge University Press. at page 41 (http:/ / books. 2003). at page 250 (http:/ / books. points of resemblance. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). 1696). ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. explaining "the method of first and last ratios". a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. google. [5] http:/ / www. and the differential and integral calculus. "The Newton handbook".. tcd. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". (Guicciardini 2003. google. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. They adopted two algorithms. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. so making the priority row a nonsense. 1967). D. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. maths. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). at page 400. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. google. at page 149. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day.. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. at p. the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. [4] D Gjertsen (1986).. the analytical method of fluxions. T. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica".

approaching a maximum value). 1997. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. R. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Anand. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. random behaviour. Edward B. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. 1908. A. including the law of universal gravitation."[1] . Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. as a perfect machine. 1980. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. or initiated by the Big Bang.. 1988.html).html). The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. Canberra. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. going on without the Interposition of God. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. • Kandaswamy.rutgers. • Hall. A thorough scholarly discussion. Rouse Ball.tcd. Cambridge Uni. Dated. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. • W. W W Norton. W.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. a prominent supporter of the theory. 4th ed. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. It continues ticking along.maths. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. and tends. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. • Stephen Hawking.math. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. Press.

Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. who created the perfect machine and let it run.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. Andrew Norton.html) The Physical World. 2: 103-117. R. Westfall. Cambridge: 1996. [2] John of Sacrbosco.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. p. ed. p. regularity. Pr. Edinburgh. Edward B. 2. 65.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. (http://physicalworld. 3. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. This steel artwork contains moving gears. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy. the machine of the world. Clarke quotation taken from article. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Further reading • Dolnick. cited in. 2011. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. 201.google. . who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. the Royal Society. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. 465. Webb. Joy Manners. God was the Prime Mover. Robert Lambourne. and beauty. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. References [1] Davis. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. p. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi.." Science and Christian Belief 3. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. On the Sphere. no. p." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. 19. a working clock. Harper Collins. Richard S. John Bolton.K. 1850. and motion. 1974). Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. 1. Cambridge University Press. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. ibid. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. Edward. Knud Haakonssen. This view of God as the creator. Ed. Alan Durrant. A Source Book in Medieval Science. In this widely popular medieval text. 1991. quoted in Edward Grant. space.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. God was the master-builder.

spatial locality. J. Particle. pp. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. Translation).[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www.edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. html) . and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. corpuscular theory of light.The Wave. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. edited by Thomas F. retaining only inertia. form. 1931). interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. time. 1210-1219 (2004) .: Am.com (http:/ / www. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. translation. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality .[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. Eugene. pp. bartleby. 72. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. Phys. Albert Einstein. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. com/ 65/ li/ light.29-32. gutenberg. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. Torrance (1982). and the additional concept of force.html) JJ Thorn et al. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers.whitman. the material point and force (interaction between material points). and all their 'inner' qualities. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). James Clerk Maxwell. htm [2] bartleby. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension.

. combined with his law of universal gravitation. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and I do not feign hypotheses.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). Third edition. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena. and hypotheses. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses. Newton's First and Second laws. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. General Scholium. whether metaphysical or physical. in Latin. 3. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. and afterwards rendered general by induction. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. or mechanical.. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. page 943 of I. first published in 1687. Newton showed that these laws of motion. in the third volume of the text. opposite and collinear. . i.[2][3][3] 2. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. Therefore. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m.e.[5] For example. 974 pages. or based on occult qualities. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. F = ma. have no place in experimental philosophy. i. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena.e. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle.

Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. then the velocity of the object is constant.e.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum.Laws of motion In their original form. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies. independently of any particle structure.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. acceleration. That is. from this point of view. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. Euler’s laws can. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. momentum.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. i. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. This is the most common. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. In the given interpretation mass. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . Thus.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. however. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. In this sense.

Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. then there is a force on it. the momentum of the body is constant. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. however. and a is the body's acceleration. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. acceleration. where F is the net force applied. Consistent with the first law. Thus. i. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law.e. Thus. otherwise it would stop moving. Galileo. even if there is no change in its magnitude. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account.[22] . The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. and hence the body will maintain its velocity.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. m is the mass of the body. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. if a body is accelerating. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens.. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. such is the case with uniform circular motion. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below). In other words.

are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. reading: If a force generates a motion. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force).[18] In classical mechanics. M is the total mass of the system. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. or gradually and successively. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly.[24] . a double force will generate double the motion. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. if the body moved before. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. known as the thrust. by substituting the definition of acceleration. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. or obliquely joined. In case of a well-defined system of particles.[23] this is understood. when they are oblique.[17] The reasoning. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. in modern terms. a triple force triple the motion.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. particles by definition have constant mass. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. Then. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. Instead. Under some conventions. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once.

the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. and directed to contrary parts. in its own motion. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. that is to say. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi.. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. For. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope.[25] In the above. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. toward the contrary part. the finger is also pressed by the stone. This law takes place also in attractions. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. If you press a stone with your finger. Although the forces are equal. but act in opposite directions. as the motions are equally changed. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. As shown in the diagram opposite. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. but act in opposite directions. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. as it does the stone towards the horse. If a body impinges upon another. if the road . The changes made by these actions are equal. and by its force changes the motion of the other.g. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. motion is Newton's name for momentum. as usual. as will be proved in the next scholium.

b are the forces from B acting on A. Given two objects A and B. 87 where Fa. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. including general relativity and quantum field theory. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. each exerting a force on the other. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. momentum. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. and in quantum mechanics. At speeds comparable to the speed of light. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. From a mathematical point of view. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. very high speeds (in special relativity. one might say. optical properties of substances. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. . and not on a single object.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. However. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. which can be stated as follows. most notably at very small scales. Newton's laws of motion. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects.[28] however from a deeper perspective. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. So each and every force has two ends. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. Therefore. Fb.a are the forces from A acting on B. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities.

html). com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. New York: Birkhäuser. energy.g.). Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. google.. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books. M. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. "4. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. us. However. McGraw-Hill Companies. "Momentum. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73.. Translations. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). . Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. I." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. tripod. Newtonian Physics. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. . since they apply to both light and matter. 58.. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. pp.45G. Clifford A. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. Jacob (2008). ISBN 0486462900. quantum mechanics. action at a distance has been completely eliminated. . the laws of conservation of momentum. Antonio. volume 1. .. Edoardo (2003).. Indeed. pdf). the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. archive. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light.. htm) [. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. doi:10. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. Benvenuto. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. Michael E. general relativity.. google. Halliday Browne. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". W (Lord Kelvin). (2003). • Section 242.. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. . he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance.12. google. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. google. P G. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. and to both classical and non-classical physics. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. ISBN 9780070084988. In modern physics. Newtonian Physics. ISBN 3764314761. quantum electrodynamics. ISBN 097046701X. . This can be stated simply. Treatise on natural philosophy. ce. [9] Benjamin Crowell. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. berkeley. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books.]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. etc. 207. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). "Newton's First Law: Text. p. Lubliner.Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics.Truesdell. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). lightandmatter. (1867). except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other.1023/A:1022632600805. and by a modern text of the early 21st century. Becchi. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. Dover Publications. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. Tseitlin. springerlink. and Tait.

Jerry S. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used. google. 24. in 5. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[. ISBN 052189266X. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. "Physics". McGraw-Hill..1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. Perspectives on Science. Marion (2004). Springer. google. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. "'Corpore cadente. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6.. is a truth that no man doubts. [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. . Physics. 1971 [20] Raymond A. vol. ISBN 0534408966." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". google. p. stanford. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. Corollary III to the laws of motion . Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. google.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. 12 ff. p. p. and (3) Bruce Pourciau.. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. ISBN 1-85233-426-6.112H. pages 143–185. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". [11] Isaac Newton. The Principia. pages 627–658. pp. Principia. London/Berlin: Springer. Daniel." [17] Halliday. doi:10. ISBN 0521602890.53. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). Juan C.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together.227P. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter.. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. Shapiro. pages 157–207.. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. Special relativity (http:/ / books. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. College Physics (http:/ / books. Phys. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). Pitman Paperbacks. s. it will lie still forever. unless somewhat else stir it. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". (2006). Robert Kolenkow (1973). p221. Whiteside (http:/ / books. ISBN 0070350485." [28] Newton. 6. also an online discussion by G E Smith. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. .T. google. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude.B. [14] Thornton. producing the relativistic expression for momentum. (http:/ / books.60 (2006). google.. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. doi:10. 133–134. google. Eds) (2002). . cited below. com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). An Introduction to Mechanics. Applied Mechanics. (1992). ISBN 0387237046. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). 53. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. Millard F. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. ISSN 0923-2958. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). Angel R. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. Harman & Alan E. 199.M1). 27 (2): 112–115. 353." [19] Hannah. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. Serway.. p. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. . [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". Educ. [16] Plastino. ISBN 0471037109. Hillier. See Harman and Shapiro. pp. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. . "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. Faughn (2006). A new translation by I. . 1. consists. Resnick. Whitman. "Newton’s third law revisited". com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). 78–79. is not so easily assented to. [22] WJ Stronge (2004). Muzzio.27. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. . [. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. pp. p.1007/BF00052611.. 1 (1993). Brooks/Cole. University of California press. Cohen and A. ISBN 0534997244. . p. . little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. [26] C Hellingman (1992). in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. (2) Stuart Pierson. 1967). Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion.).. html#NewLawMot). Berkeley 1999. John Wiley & Sons. 161. . J. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass.. 2007. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only. Bibcode 1992PhyEd..] Consequently. M J. [13] Beatty.

2. Cassiday.google.html#Section5. html#Section4.. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. London/Berlin: Springer. • Feynman.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy. B.lightandmatter.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www.1). W (Lord Kelvin).wolfram. R. • Thomson.). • Likins.lightandmatter. Saunders College Publishing.google. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". McGraw-Hill Book Company.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6. Isaac.1.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny. ISBN 0805390499.motionmountain. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw.).com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178). Jerry.com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). Sands.3)..com/lm/)..3.google.google. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). Wolfram Demonstrations Project. Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. R. Newton's First Law (http://www. • Newton. • Fowles.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. (2011. • Newton. P. G. Light and Matter (http://www.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw. containing Book 1 (http://books. ISBN 0070378525. p.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations. especially at Section 4. Harcourt College Publishers. L. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books. (1867). Leighton.html#Section4.com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) . (2005). • Marion.youtube. and Section 5. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books.google. volume 1.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC). • NMJ Woodhouse (2003). Newton's laws of motion (http://books.2). volume 1. Stephen (1995). volume 2. Benjamin.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". Vol. G. Elements of Engineering Mechanics. (2011). 6. Special relativity (http://books. R.lightandmatter. ISBN 0030973023. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. Thornton. (1999).Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell. ISBN 0030223172.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www.M1). Newton's Second Law (http://www.com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ). M.lightandmatter. 1 (2nd ed. Isaac. Peter W. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). Newton's Third Law (http://www. Section 4. P G.mit. especially at Section 242. (1973). google. Pearson/Addison-Wesley. and Tait. Light and Matter).lightandmatter.

although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. first published on 5 July 1687.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. Assuming SI units. r in meters (m). or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. m2 is the second mass. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. G is the gravitational constant. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. . instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force. Both are inverse-square laws. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: .) In modern language.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. F is measured in newtons (N). and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. m1 is the first mass.

though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. however.[6] In this way arose the question what. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it. that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions.e.Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". "prosecuting this Inquiry").. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On the latter two aspects. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. Plagiarism dispute In 1686. if anything. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time. of 24 November 1679. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity". "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. but also. being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known".[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion..". and on which some points still excite some controversy... and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions. have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674. that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall. together with a principle of linear inertia. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers".[7] It was later on. and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating. that Hooke communicated his "supposition .[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive ."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified".

but without demonstration. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. Thus Newton gave a justification. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage. According to Newton. in all editions of the 'Principia'. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. without evidence in favor of the supposition. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis..[15] (who suggested.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. Hooke. also without demonstration. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance).[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1. otherwise lacking. Newton did accept and acknowledge. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death.[20] and associated sections of Book 3. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". even close up. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. Among the reasons. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea. although significant.. according to Newton. which inclined me to try it . but that did not mean."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding.[14] including Bullialdus.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. which Newton was making in the 1660s. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. supported by mathematical demonstration. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles.[19] In addition.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy."[14] . Newton acknowledged Wren. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate.

Nevertheless.. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. on the point at r0. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. taken together. as the component point masses become "infinitely small". the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. that "One must not think that this idea .[26][27] In the light of the background described above. . As described above. this entails integrating the force (in vector form. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. That is. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. As a consequence. Alexis Clairaut. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was).. even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations. • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. for example. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. cancel each other out. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. In the limit. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses).[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. it becomes understandable how.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth.

In this formula. the increase due to the additional mass is 1.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines . and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. G is the gravitational constant. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. further outward the gravity increases again. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. and if the sphere is large enough. quantities in bold represent vectors.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. Thus. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude.

Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. per unit mass. object 1 the Earth). For 2 objects (e. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. object 2 is a rocket. except that F is now a vector quantity. Also. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . It is a generalization of the vector form. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). it can be seen that F12 = −F21. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space.g. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale.

Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. and c is the speed of light. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model).Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. in SI. where φ is the gravitational potential. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. that is. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. this is m/s2. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere.[31] For example. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. The field has units of acceleration. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. .. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. Gravitational fields are also conservative. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent.e. General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. i.

he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. in his third letter to Bentley. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. the definitive answer has yet to be found. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. However. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. the experiments of Galileo Galilei.. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. In 1692. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. decades before Newton. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. though hypotheses abound. I believe. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. but in the case of gravity. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle." He never. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". regardless of their different inertial masses. F = ma.. and the observed precession. you get an orbit with no precession. See the Equivalence Principle. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. In point of fact. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. Moreover. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. However. "assigned the cause of this power". is to me so great an absurdity that.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes."[33] . independent of the quantities of matter involved. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. In all other cases. especially of planet Mercury. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. Yet. and assume a point mass for each. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. in his words. which was detected long after the life of Newton.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another.

Bibcode 2008RvMP.1103/RevModPhys. 1664-1684". In general relativity. Newell. htm).431-448.. Mod. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. 168. [16] Borelli. Rev. google. [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. translators: Isaac Newton. at page 66 (http:/ / books. Vol. already cited. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". 1960).80. (Cambridge University Press. Taylor. Vol 2 (1676-1687).13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime.. Phys. [22] See J. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Florence. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. (2008).. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false).. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata.). document #239. 27 May 1686. ch. [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. nist.). Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. 80: 633–730. document #286. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". In Einstein's theory. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. Theorem 35: p.Proposition 75. (Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. G. pages 5-19. google. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). 1960). Vol 2 (1676-1687). [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. mpiwg-berlin. 45 (1991). especially at page 13. document #288. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. David B. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). public. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. google. google.392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729. Vol 2 (1676-1687). ISBN 3-034-60036-4. at p. [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. 1960). [17] D T Whiteside. start at page 263 (http:/ / books. see particularly page 431. [2] . "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. p. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. A. Robert D. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. (Cambridge University Press. i (1970). document #235. by I. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. 1995). com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. Vol 2 (1676-1687). [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). [18] Page 436.633. General Scholium. start at page 177 (http:/ / books.). 1645. . "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". pages 5-19.Bernard Cohen. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books.. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. . i (1970).2. [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244.). Bruce Brackenridge. Book 3. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Vol 2 (1676-1687).. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Ofer Gal. "Astronomia philolaica". gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. 1960).633M. because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime. google.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman.I. 1960). 1666. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. pdf). nist. [21] D T Whiteside..). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false).956 . Correspondence of Isaac Newton. mpg. google. Peter J. for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. 1664-1684". . Barry N. iastate. Direct link to value (http:/ / www. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". (University of California Press. 24 November 1679. pages 11-61. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. CUP 1989. especially at 13-20. (Cambridge University Press. Journal for the History of Astronomy. 20 June 1686.. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.80. physics. Journal for the History of Astronomy. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. (2009). Correspondence. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. Paris. [8] Purrington. (Cambridge University Press. doi:10. [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia".Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Springer.

in Early Science and Medicine. If the speed is low. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. in Early Science and Medicine. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). utexas. Venus. 511-517. Newton". and it was the key force for planetary motion. Kip S. M Nauenberg.Freeman and Company. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. 1. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. in Early Science and Medicine. Cambridge University Press. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. de Hook diminue la gloire de M.pythia. and the Earth. Rouse Ball.youtube..Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. html) [31] Misner. If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation".Max Born (1924). page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. (D) 4. If the speed is very high. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. 10 (2005).W. at page 69. (E) . cited above.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www.. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. at Introduction (section IX). 1893). New York: W. John Archibald (1973).. 518-528. (A and B) 2. Charles W. it will indeed leave Earth.. stanford. edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. 529-534. ph. [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. (C) 3. 10 (2005). Newton" (1759). "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". [27] See also G E Smith. it will simply fall back on Earth. 10 (2005). [32] . H. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. Thorne. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth.) [33] .The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. Gravitation. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. Westfall. in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.com. Ofer Gal. by Richard S. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. Wheeler.

Carl et al.physics.bucknell.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. net23. New York: Random House. the colors fade to white. A combination of red.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. google. Notes [1] Sagan. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover).Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111). net/ index. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result.virginia. eg. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell. When the disc is rotated.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. php?p=2_23 .

The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. (x1. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. and its derivative ƒ '. f (x0)). We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. Then by simple algebra we can derive . for converging on the root can be easily derived. succeeded by Halley's method. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. Suppose ƒ : [a. and the method can be iterated. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). That is Here. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically.

The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. . However. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. the better. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. He does not compute the successive approximations . This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. in 1740. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. for a zero of multiplicity 1. though the connection with calculus was missing. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. In the same publication. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. Finally.) The method will usually converge. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. However. More details can be found in the analysis section below. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. (The closer to the zero. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. Finally. essentially giving the description above. But. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. In 1690. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. Furthermore.

if the multiplicity of the root is known. For situations where the method fails to converge. However. there are some difficulties with the method. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. However. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. and diverge from that root. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. the method may overshoot. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: .Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. In these situations. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. Furthermore. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. Specifically.

However.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. then. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α.. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. In practice these results are local. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. i. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . Specifically. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x). ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0.6). If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . then the convergence is usually only linear. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. ƒ(α) = 0. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. α being a zero of multiplicity r. in U+.e. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. x in a neighborhood U of α. Exercise 1. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers.

For example. 3. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied.35284172 converges to –3. 2.35287527 converges to 4. 2.352836323 converges to 1. 2.352836327 converges to –3. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms.35283735 converges to 4. 2.[1] for the function . where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small.Newton's method 106 That is. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2. 2. . (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1. (b) (c) Finally.

preventing convergence. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). For the following subsections. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . any iteration point is stationary. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. Let and take 0 as the starting point. In such cases a different method. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. In fact. In general. since the tangent at (0. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. such as bisection. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. instead of the starting point. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. x1 will be undefined.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. for example. the method will converge. This can happen. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). .

In fact. In the limiting case of (square root). does not affect the algorithm. except for x = 0. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. let . then convergence will not be quadratic. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. however. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. so they do not converge in this case either. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. farther away than it initially was. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. So convergence is not quadratic. where . So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. where its derivative is undefined (this. let then and consequently . the iterations diverge to infinity for every . Indeed. the derivative at the root is nonzero. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. For example. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0.

Basins of attraction for x5 .[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root. 0. Indeed.067671976. . even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. 0.1 = 0. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. 0. 0. For example. 0. For many complex functions. meaning the iterates do not converge. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root. then convergence may fail to be quadratic. the derivative is not zero at the root. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has.251062828.031642362. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero.500250376. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence.041224176. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. 0. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. since both roots are non-real. darker means more iterations to converge.032741218. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. Given . and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes.127507934.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. 0. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction.

The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. If the nonlinear system has no solution. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. .Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. In the formulation given above. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). k variables. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J.

this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. which may be found via Newton's method. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x). Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. There are many methods of computing square roots. with derivative. For example. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. With an initial guess of 10. We try a starting value of x0 = 0.) . showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. and Newton's method is one. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. if one wishes to find the square root of 612.5. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places.

Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. Egwu (2008).1007/978-3-540-35447-5. Maple. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. Charles. Kelley. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. Lemaréchal. 2004. Vetterling. 9. 2003. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. Cambridge University Press. John H.. 35. 531–551. Claude.).7 [7]. See especially Sections 9. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. of translation of 1997 French ed. xiv+490. Classics in Applied Mathematics. Frédéric.). 2003. MR2265882. Gilbert. J. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. Teukolsky. (2006). • P. SIAM. SIAM Review 37 (4).1137/1037125. doi:10. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. illustrating the quadratic convergence. SIAM. Deuflhard. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. Eric W. • C.Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. • Kaw. 1995. PPT. Ypma. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. J. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. SA. C. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. New York: Cambridge University Press. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. Flannery. • Bonnans.6 [6].Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . WT. • Endre Süli and David Mayers.). Universitext (Second revised ed. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. pp. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. Matlab. Claudia A. doi:10. • J. Newton's method [9] -. Kalu. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein.4 [5]. W. BP (2007). Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. M. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. Autar. ISBN 0-521-00794-1. In particular. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. Sagastizábal. Rheinboldt. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. Berlin. T. and 9. "Chapter 9. 2000. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4].. • Press. 112 References • Tjalling J. Ortega. WH. Vol. Springer. Mathcad.

com/ NewtonsMethod. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. November 1997. edu [16] http:/ / math. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. however. Gilbert. 3-12 (esp. Mathematical Gazette 81. [2] Strang. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. nrbook. 6). heroku. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. com/ empanel/ index. In physics.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. maccery. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. com/ empanel/ index. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. [3] http:/ / www. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. eng. wolfram. nrbook. fullerton. mathworks. php [11] http:/ / math. amcgowan. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. r-project. or dot notation. maths. usf. com/ empanel/ index. torkian. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. html#Section4. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. fullerton. html [12] http:/ / animation. html [17] http:/ / plus. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. Thomas. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. pp. com/ empanel/ index. chaos and Newton's method". html [9] http:/ / www. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. nrbook. It is defined as: and so on. "Cubics. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. usf. html [21] http:/ / www. springer. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. January 1991. eng. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. macroeconomics and other fields. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. nrbook. lightandmatter. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). "A chaotic search for i". . name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. 1 [10] http:/ / www. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. 403-408. p. yihui.

and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. an early composition of speculum metal. . By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. ac. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. and fittings. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. lib. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. For this Circle being placed here. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. but be an opake Circle. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. or a little less. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. He also made all the tube. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". being the first known successful reflecting telescope. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. made with a concave Eye-glass.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. covering the limb of the Metal round about. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. mount. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. cam. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. than by Refraction in the Glass. and not the spherical aberration. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex.

6 References • Smith. google.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23. Page 74 (http:/ / books. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. stsci. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index. 2004 ISBN 3540401067. ufl. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. com/ image. Modern Optical Engineering. p.Publication.. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. php?imgref=10408672). Wilson Published by Springer. htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope.A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life . It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics. google. by Alfred Rupert Hall. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m. 9783540401063. craig-telescope. 1785" (http:/ / www.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). page 67 (http:/ / books. Science & Society Picture Library.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1. King. google.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). McGraw-Hill Inc.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books.. when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm).University of Florida (http:/ / www. ssplprints. 1966.[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr.". .M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE . co.Work . [10] http:/ / www. Retrieved 22 November 2008. They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. google. Warren J. clas.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. Hatch . but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4. uk/ lens. Heath's) in Strand. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. google. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. Dr Robert A. html . Telescopes in History.

[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build). using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour.mit.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index. and there were many theories as to what caused it.[3] and others. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with.[9][10] If this was true. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.stsci.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).edu/~picard/personal/Newton. then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one. such as Niccolò Zucchi. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] . Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672.media. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope.

.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). Because of these difficulties in construction. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope. The surface also tarnished rapidly. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. leading to wider field of view.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. mount. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. it would still correct chromatic aberration. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. and fittings. namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). cassegrains. the primary mirror (2). overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). reducing cost and adding to portability. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. He also made the tube. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. Like Gregory before him. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface.

and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter). where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. . counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. low-power imagery. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path.[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. suffer from coma. For visual observing.[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². Visually. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. For research telescopes. This flare is zero on-axis.

google. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. page 67 (http:/ / books. google. org/ basics. by Alfred Rupert Hall. Page 108 (http:/ / books. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . google. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& . King.By Fred Watson. google.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. The Newton handbook. html) [3] Stargazer . Page 74 (http:/ / books. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought.Mark T.M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. rice. google. VandeWettering.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. Inc NetLibrary. page 562 (http:/ / books. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen.

Warren J. McGraw-Hill Inc.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. telescope-optics. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . htm). Retrieved 2009-10-03. Retrieved 29 November 2010. Gebelein. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. . 400 us:newtoniantelescopical .M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more.. David (2004). two. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. . 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. 116. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. Rolin J.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. 9783540401063. com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object.stsci. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith.edu . Hebra. pdf). [20] Alexius J. 77R [16] Sacek. cloudynights. harvard. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. Wilson Published by Springer. 1966. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. p. edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. page 14 (http:/ / books. espacenet. . htm) [13] amazing-space. com/ documents/ paracorr. google. google. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www.1. Retrieved 2009-09-29. Vladimir (2006-07-14). & David Shafer. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. telescope-optics. google. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley. baader-planetarium. p.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books..1. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life".net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian. "8. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs.John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). [12] telescope-optics. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations. stsci. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www.and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. pdf) (pdf). . . net/ reflecting. . Modern Optical Engineering. google.

[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. with no other clues to assess the situation. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. As an example where causes can be observed. 1974. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. jstor. David Hume. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. if two globes. Yehuda Elkana. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". . Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. for one. 319-330" (http:/ / links. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation. (This experiment involves observation of a force. 1969). in addition to influencing philosophy. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. Such determination. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . the tension).. Cambridge.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. political thought and theology. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). in general. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. Ronald S. Retrieved 2008-03-26. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. 3 (Jul. CO.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. . While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. Vol. Journal of the History of Ideas. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. causes. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage).Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. 0. floating in space. 30.: Harvard University Press.Sep. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. Alternatively. Mass. Also. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. he says. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). No. are connected by a cord. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. pp. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. measuring the amount of tension in the cord. Calinger.

may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. no centrifugal forces are produced. — Ernst Mach. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. and therefore. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared.Rotating spheres force). absolute space or fixed stars). even in an immense vacuum. Principia. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. the matter is more subtle. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. the fixed stars. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. For instance. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. by means of a cord that connects them. Scholium To summarize this proposal. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars.. but standing on the Earth's surface.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space.[8] (Of course. instead.. p. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. Because of the rotation. according to the preceding methods. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. from the tension of the cord. we might. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. which are the differences of the true motions. pp. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. — Isaac Newton. . Alternatively. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. Book 1. centrifugal forces are produced. they are not rotating. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero.[2][6] For me. for example. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest.) Below. then. partly from the apparent motions. were revolved about their common center of gravity. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. according to Newton. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. and if. partly from the forces. as an example from Newton's time. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. .

requires a centripetal force of the same size. The other ball has the same requirement. |xB| = R. According to the article fictitious force. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. accounting for their observation. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). observers say they are at rest. putting the string under tension. These two forces are provided by the string. the string is placed under tension. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. also shown in Figure 2. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. (For example. the string is under tension. locating one or the other of the spheres). and should require an inward force to do that. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. However. Because of the rotation. In this zero-tension case. and is called a centripetal force. (See reactive centrifugal force.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. Because the balls are not moving. the tying string. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. but opposite in direction.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world.)[9] To account for this tension. the Coriolis force is:[11] . pulling them apart. m is the mass of the ball. See Figure 2. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. they clearly see the string is under tension. but being on the opposite end of the string. but circular motion at constant speed. so the string should be relaxed. and acts on everything they observe. not just these spheres. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. they would say no force acts on the balls. This force is directed inward. To travel in a circular path. which would stretch. along the direction of the string. According to the rotating observer. the Coriolis force. they could split the string and put a spring in its center.

Full notational details are in Fictitious force. hence. For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. say ωI (I = inertial). and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. In the geometry of this example. |vB| = ωR. However. Therefore. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. . this force is not the tension in the string. ωS < 0. while for a more rapidly moving frame.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. In either case. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). When ωI < ωS. That is. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward).

Courier Dover Publications. . Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. google. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. McGill-Queen's Press.Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. Princeton University Press. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). 82. google. George Edwin Smith (2002). . [4] Max Born (1962). ISBN 0486607690. 79. [5] Max Born (1962). Knudsen & Poul G. p.M1). Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. p. google. New York: Courier Dover Publications. google. 175. htm). ISBN 0521621135. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). tripod. Springer. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43.M1). Time and Space (http:/ / books. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. [10] Jens M. Hand. Hjorth (2000). Figure 43. google. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). ISBN 0521656966. 43.M1). ISBN 0773523065. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. ISBN 354067652X. . com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. ISBN 0486652270. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). Cambridge University Press. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. google. 43. . + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). Cambridge University Press. . Smith. Courier Dover Publications. 80.M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. . the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example.M1). ISBN 0521575729. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. Moreover. . editors) (2002). google.[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). 386–387. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Freeman (1986). google. ISBN 0691033234. Cambridge University Press. p. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. Sausalito CA: University Science . . Bernard Cohen. Bernard Cohen & George E. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. com/ definitions. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). . Retrieved 2010-05-13. The Principia. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. . and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . Draza Marković. 167. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. p. Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). editors) (1996).[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. google. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). . p. and I. ISBN 0486607690. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. pp. [7] Max Born (1962). 324. google. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. Courier Dover Publications. The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. google. [8] D.). ISBN 0486607690. [2] Robert Disalle (I. 233.M1). google. p. p.M1). Janet D. . Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. p. p. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521656966. Finch (1998). p. [9] Barry Dainton (2001). 161. Cambridge University Press. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. ωS is the greater. p.

[1] Since 1997.M1). . ISBN 0521621135. In Proposition 44. . Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). Cambridge University Press. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force.M1). ISBN 0231066368. Mechanics (http:/ / books. google. pp. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers.M1) (in Proc. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). (3. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. 275. B. . google. fixed in space (the center). google. [16] R. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55.). com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. 119.M1). D. google. Moore (1989). An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. Da Capo Press. 279–280. pp. 43. 55. 5 (1975) ed. their Eq. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books.4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. ISBN 0521352541. p. vol. Henning Genz (2001). one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same.Rotating spheres Books. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. ISBN 189138922X. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004).3) in Stommel and Moore. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. he derived a formula for the force. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. first published in 1687. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. google. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. no.M1). ISBN 0738206105. In this example. [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. 99ff. p. . and Ralph A. whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. 167. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). ISBN 0074603159. 348–349. he showed that the added force must be a central force. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. p. . but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. In Proposition 43. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975)... Draza Marković (Editors) ed. Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. Mechanics (http:/ / books. p. . pp. Phil. Dennis W. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. Soc. . the theorem has been . google. Am. Lynden-Bell (1996). See Henry Stommel. Nothingness (http:/ / books. Partridge (1995). 325–348. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. google. com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. . p. Columbia University Press. (3.).

However. According to these laws. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. Arguing from his laws of motion. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton.Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. In particular. for planets orbiting the Sun. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. By analogy.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). 262 BC – ca.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. to first approximation. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. Apollonius of Perga (ca. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis.[5] Roughly 350 years later. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. and so on. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. To explain the epicycles. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). However. exhibiting retrograde motion. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was .

It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r).Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . To find this approximation. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. According to this theorem. The radial and angular motions. However. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force. r(t) and θ1(t). as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. afterwards. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity.[12] and Delaunay. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. However. in particular. However. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun. that is.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force.[11] Brown. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. to first approximation.[13] However. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits.

Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. Formally. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. if k2 is less than one. thus. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. F2−F1 is a positive number. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. r(t) and θ1(t). it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. rather. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. F2 − F1 is a negative number. For example. such as r(t) and θ1(t). the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). If k2 is greater than one. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. where k is any constant. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). the path of the second particle is given by . the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. Both of these coordinates. the angle of the second particle. rather. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). the added inverse-cube force is attractive. since θ2 = k θ1. For this purpose. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. For example. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. A GIF version of this animation is found here. In other words. θ1). change with time t as the particle moves. then. it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). By contrast.

However. where k is a constant. when the distance reaches a minimum. but not equal. ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. Hence. this is true only for circular orbits. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. both of which are constant. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0).e. respectively. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. Hence. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω.Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). in other words. shown in red). Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. if k is less than one. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion.. to one. when the orbit is a circle. . the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. but revolves gradually about the center of force. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). i. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly.e. F1(r) = 0. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. If k is greater than one. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1.. According to the conservation of angular momentum. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. However. i. in that case. the second orbit resembles the first. In this case.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). i. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. the orbit does not change as it precesses. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°.. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter.e. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). at a constant angular speed.

when k is less than one. Thus. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k.0 (blue). One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. when k is greater than one. L12/m. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). On the other hand. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals.0 (cyan) and 6. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7).0 (green).Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). Thus.5 (green). Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. the force is attractive. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. 3. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . 1. When k is less than one. the range of allowed angles increases. the inverse-cube force is repulsive. and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ.0 (cyan) and 6. as illustrated in Figure 7. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. Thus. whereas when k is greater than one. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. corresponding to an attractive force (green. which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m. 3.0 (blue).0 (black). the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. 1. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m).

provided that k equals a rational number. such as . A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green).[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. In other words. For example. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). the line connecting the two apses. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem.. oblateness in the attracting body.e. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. this property is not true for other types of forces. where m and n are integers. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. and other effects. For example. Over time. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion.e. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. F = C/r2. F = Cr. i. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. green orbit in Figure 9). and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. However. An govern the motions of planets. no matter what its initial position or velocity. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. i. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. For illustration. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. i. general relativistic effects. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. such as Hooke's law. green orbit in Figure 10). Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits.e.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. in general.. Conversely. However.. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. and inverse-square forces.) In such cases. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses.

where n equals 1. Thus. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. For the inverse-square force. As noted above. As a final illustration.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). in the same time. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). α equals 180°. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°.. hence. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. this implies that. i. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words.[16] According to their argument.C(r) is proportional to rn. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. In the first two. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. F(r) = rn−3 and. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. one of the first appearances of such a series. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. Therefore. in general.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). the central force is a power law. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. the apsidal angle α is 180°. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. using the general law θ2 = k θ1.e. Wilson and Harper. and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation.

while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time. In 1673.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force .e. i. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury. 18. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets.. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion. of the planets.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. and is noticeably more complex than that. However. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude.[23] in Newton's time.85 years. Hipparchus and Ptolemy. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic.[24] for comparison. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes.6 years. the so-called Saros cycle. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.[28] Ironically. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses.0165)[26] In 1894. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2. again on the monthly time-scale. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes). The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8.[25] First. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit.

since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. In this case. roughly half of the observed 3. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1). Also. For comparison. The second term. so that r1 = r2. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries.5°. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. but the inverse-square term is not. the inverse-cube force is added. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and its argument is unchanged. the original force is not scaled. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). r1 = r2.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. However. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). the long axis would rotate 1. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. In contrast to Newton.[4] As Newton did. θ2 = k θ1. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. consistent with the formula given above. . Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. so Newton reasoned. For every revolution. however.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. and estimates of A and B. Rather. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia.525°).

Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. Therefore. Proposition 44 . and also its angle θ1(t).[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. by Newton's Proposition 2. therefore. which equals θ2 = k θ1. which equals (k−1) θ1. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. Expressed another way. by Proposition 2. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. At the apapsis and periapsis. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. All three planets (red. specifically Propositions 43–45. the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. derived earlier in the Principia. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r).Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. Proposition 43. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. In an infinitesimal time dt. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ.

The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows.Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. to offset this. r(t). In Proposition 44 of his Principia. which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. specifically by the formula given above. one in a fixed. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) .[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r). by which two bodies may be made to move equally. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles.[36] In this Proposition. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement.[33] By assumption. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. the other in the same orbit revolving.

. [15] Newton. pp.14. Harper W (1997). "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. p. 135–147. Astron.245L. Berkeley. Propositions 43–45. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). ISBN 0-201-07392-7. Jin S (2008). pp.. Lynden-Bell RM (1997). 193–194.1007/BF02422379. Vawda F (2000). 184. doi:10. [27] Hall A (1894). bnf.1111/j. [21] Horrocks J (1673). Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315.18. D.1086/102055.. Section IX. [35] Chandrasekhar. 183. doi:10. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. Proposition 2. "Unknown title". Wilson C. [10] Clairaut. 2708v1). AC (1745). "Unknown title". [25] Newton. [24] Smith. 141–147. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. p. Am. doi:10. [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911).x. Mémoires Acad. Imp. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. Book I. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. p. Proposition 45. section IX of Book I. "Unknown title".1997. 198. Monthly Notices Roy. [13] Delaunay C (1862). Principia. [14] Newton. p. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv. Brown EW (1891). [11] Hill GW (1895). Delaunay C (1867). 147.77W. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". Principia. JSTOR 2369997. Book III. [6] Whittaker. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. Math. [22] Wilson C (1987). Bragais S. Simon Newcomb. p. Mémoires Acad. p. "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". [5] Sugon QM. doi:10. CA: University of California Press. The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. Oxford. Green Lion Press. p. p.0016. "Unknown title". Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. pp. Bibcode 1894AJ. [31] Symon KR (1971). [7] Sundman KF (1912).. esp. [20] Smith. doi:10. 83. Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. [29] Brown EW (1903). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. 9: 31.1365-2966. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". [34] Chandrasekhar.386. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. Math. doi:10.: 237.2008. [32] Chandrasekhar. [26] Chandrasekhar.. 254. [2] Lynden-Bell. [36] Chandrasekhar. [18] Chandrasekhar. Am. pp. 187.).2307/2369812. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". "Unknown title". Sc. Principia. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. 98–106. 339–385. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. 52: 71. Imp. pp. p. 252.. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. 267 (Chapter 6.1023/A:1008317327402.1098/rsnr. 91–108. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. [30] Roseveare N (1982). "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure".49H. [3] Lynden-Bell D.. "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". pp.. [17] Cohen IB (1990). Reading. Mechanics (3rd ed. Soc. Sc. [12] Brown EW (1891). pp. 406. editor.Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. ISBN 978-1888009088. In Norman Thrower. p.. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". [16] Valluri SR. [19] Cook A (2000). Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. 192. "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". [37] Whittaker. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". ISBN 978-0520065895. "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". [9] Cohen. 67–70.. problem 7). [4] Mahomed FM. [33] Chandrasekhar. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. London: G Godbit for J Martyn. JSTOR 2369812. org/ abs/ 0807. doi:10.. MA: Addison–Wesley.2307/2369997. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). . J.. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia".13018.: 451. Bibcode 1987JHA. pp. Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. . 183–192.

• Spivak. New York: Dover Publications. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. pp. Publish or Perish. Merchant Books). "A Guide to Newton's Principia". "The first-order orbital equation". 147–148. pp. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). ISBN 978-0520088160. with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed.75. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0520009288. Berkeley. 246–264. 56. assisted by Julia Budenz ed. Bristol: Adam Hilger. Calculus (3rd ed. • Smith GE (1999).352D. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". • Pars LA (1965). CA: University of California Press. translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. pp. Berkeley. Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. pp. • D’Eliseo. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". Berkeley. 147–148. • Newton I (1966). Niccolò (1999). CA: University of California Press. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). ISBN 0-85274-348-3. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. • Routh EJ (1960). 83. 534–545. p. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3.). Bibcode 2007AmJPh.). Macmillan and Co.com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). 230–233 (sections §356–359). • Smith GE (1999). Cambridge University Press. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". • Chandrasekhar S (1995). CA: University of California Press. 246–252. 252–257. • Rouse Ball WW (1893).). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. translated by I. ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press).1119/1. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. pp. • Whittaker ET (1937). MM (2007).2432126. ISBN 978-0520088160.. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713).scholarpedia. Michael (1994). Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. pp. pp. New York: Dover Publications. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books.google. Oxford University Press.com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). The Motion of the Moon.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0914098896. • Cook A (1988). pp. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853.).). 257–264. CA: University of California Press. 183–200. doi:10. Principia Vol. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). "Planetary Motion". Berkeley. ISBN 978-0520088160. LCCN 64-24556.google.. ISBN 9780521544030. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). External links • Three-body problem (http://www. (reprint. • Guicciardini.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. Berkeley. ISBN 978-0520088160. 84–85. pp.

Babson Collection. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. cfm [2] http:/ / www. without proof. and the solution of equations. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. it was edited and published by William Whiston. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. published in 1865). He also offered. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. arithmetic. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. when Whiston's edition was published. babson. the relationship between geometry and algebra. Title page of the Arithmetica. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. pdf . edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. centre. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. Written in Latin. and so refused to have his name appear. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. In fact. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. None of these editions credits Newton as author.

but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws". Before reaching this core subject-matter. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation.[4] as well as in Latin.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia. Law 3 in the Principia. Only the draft has the title now used. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. both copies are without title. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. After further encouragement from Halley. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. and its (Latin) text is available online.) This . It contains 11 propositions. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. some with corollaries. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. then for the remaining (2) propositions. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line).) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. the distance is proportional to the square of the time.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. these had not been generally regarded as laws.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). (in the absence of external force. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. resistance is assumed nil.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. (Before Newton's work. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. Law 1 in the Principia.

2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). then the centripetal force would be independent of R. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. Theorem 4 in the Principia.) . then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period.) This theorem appears again. of the 'Principia'. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). using another geometrical limit argument. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. Theorem 1. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. with expanded explanation. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. and inversely proportional to the radius. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. putting this in another way. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. it would then depart along the tangent. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. labeled as theorems. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. Corollary 2 shows that. problems. and the corollaries here reappear also. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. while their number increases without limit. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. it follows that a radius vector. and shows that for any given time-segment. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. drawn from the body to the attracting center. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. as Proposition 1. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4.

) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. Problem 4 then explores.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. (This material becomes Proposition 10. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. in the Principia. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center.. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. Lastly. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP². but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature).e.. therefore. .De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. Problem 6. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. speed and direction of the orbiting body. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. where the center of attraction is at its center." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. that if the speed is high enough. square] of the distance . (Proposition 15 in the Principia. that is. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun. Newton points out here. Problem 5 in the Principia. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. .

Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. and a short correspondence developed. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". Halley asked Newton. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime.. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. ". Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time. and as if to whet Newton's interest. and other items. are self-evident and obvious or not. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. In 'De Motu'. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. and then gave a whole list. as in the first edition of the Principia. i. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse". he asked what Newton thought about various matters. and both of them produced from very old memories.[15] . or their views about the researches of others.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. or that they were not stated by Newton. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not.e. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. and the associated uniqueness statements. Later. According to one of these reminiscences.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. in 1686..what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. using a falling body. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places. that in any given setup. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move.

[8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. 518-528. "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined".101. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged. . 529-534. A Historian's Response". p. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". especially at p.195-6. and Borelli. and the original copy had no title: online. rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. but the point was disagreed by R. pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). 19(1) (1992). giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. at pp. at p. at p. [13] H W Turnbull (ed. is available here (http:/ / books. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica".6 (1684-1691). Correspondence of Isaac Newton.431-448. in Early Science and Medicine. but not Hooke.1 (1970). but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli. Vol 2 (1676-1687). f. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. (Cambridge University Press. 10 (2005). 1960). M Nauenberg. and the first English translation. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin).). among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. See also D T Whiteside (1970). Historia Math. (Cambridge University Press. [11] Quoted in Richard S. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. org/ etext/ 28233). 10 (2005). vol. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp.57. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia".89-170. google. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91.). of 1729.g.). at p. and printed by I Bernard Cohen. Weinstock. pp. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. but note that the title was added by Rigaud.6. 511-517. at pages 56 (http:/ / books.[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727.293. about the Principia. so-called. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest. in "Newton's Orbit Problem. A Historian's Response". 116-138. 38 (2007). Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. [15] H W Turnbull (ed.2 already cited. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". 1960).De motu corporum in gyrum Newton.297-314. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Vol 2 (1676-1687). vol. google. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. pp. Page 403.193-200. see e. in Early Science and Medicine. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. including Bullialdus. Ofer Gal. in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. 1971.[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed.120.60-70. Papers vol.56-83. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". Math. 6 (1684-1691). google. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. who heard of this from Halley.3968. also D T Whiteside. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. [14] 'Correspondence' vol. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. 6 (1970). to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors".193-200. (Cambridge University Press. as far as Book 1. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add.196. who called it a 'petitio principii'. in Early Science and Medicine. pp. pp. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul').297. Alexis Clairaut. vol.431-448. who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. gutenberg. footnote 73. google. Westfall's Never at Rest.). Chapter 10. 1974). "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. both in Newton's lifetime and later.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. and Bruce Pourciau. 10 (2005). and the 1686 correspondence at pp.

pp. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. ed. Cambridge University Press. by R. Rouse Ball. Vol. 30–91. T. at page 69.W. 1893). Cambridge University Press. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. by D. 6. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. Whiteside. Westfall. S.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W.

with all others being copies. King of Egypt. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. III. Of the Assyrian Empire. Chap. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. . The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. The majority of the treatise. Of the Empire of Egypt. beginning with Sesostris. II. followed by others. therefore. Chap. Of the Empire of the Persians. Newton's results.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. however. but since republished in mass paperback format. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. VI. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. Chap. and that his Temple the first ever built. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. followed by a short advertisement. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. V. I. Chap. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. IV. Chap. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity.

Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. Finally. and Slavonic versions. the Father. and what steps it has been changed. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds"."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. Grotius. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. and the argument full and strong. Muscovy. Arabic. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. are strangers to this reading". Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. the Word. and some others. first as a marginal note. . sussex. Bullinger. Mesopotamia. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse." in support of the Trinity doctrine. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. newtonproject. and later into the text itself. gutenberg. sussex. Armenia.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. as Luther. the Father. Syriac. 27 years after his death. Egypt. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. or retain it as only a marginal reading. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. would not dissemble their knowledge". Ethiopia.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. First published in 1754. Syria. ac. and some others. Erasmus. Armenian. ac. He noted that "the Æthiopic.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. the Word. still in use in the several Eastern nations. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. htm#chron http:/ / www. newtonproject. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures.

[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. p. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16. biblegateway. biblegateway. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. knew nothing of these two texts.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. believed on in the world.& version=31.). and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. Cp. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. [2] http:/ / www. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. Cp. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. Scotland.& version=31."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. pp. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. but some place it in a footnote. p. p. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. [3] An Historical Account. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. preached unto the Gentiles. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. Newton argued that. by a small alteration in the Greek text. aramaicpeshitta. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8.& version=31. htm) . 2 [5] An Historical Account. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead.& version=31. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. was hanged at Edinburgh. p. p. References [1] http:/ / www.).[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". justified in the Spirit. I understand not. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. seen of angels. likely due to the political climate. aramaicpeshitta. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. received up into glory. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. p." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. 1 [4] An Historical Account. biblegateway. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. further legal ramifications on the second occasion. biblegateway. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711.

org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt .sussex.google. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions. and published it in 1684. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. and published in 1736.newtonproject. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). archive. although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus).ac. fifty years before Newton. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years). The book was completed in 1671.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667.co.

Multiple-prism arrays. first reported in 1672[1] . It is about optics and the refraction of light.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. on dispersion. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. as beam expanders. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. The first. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. into another. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. Rather. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments.[2] . and is considered one of the great works of science in history. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. such as water or glass. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. reflection. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. such as air. That is. Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. refractions. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. 1704. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light.

and even the ethical conduct of human beings. In the fourth edition of 1730. by the use of fluxions. That is. therefore." the proper way to do science. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. or the tools of mathematics. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. there were 31 Queries. but the later ones became short essays. Second. the possible cause of gravity. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. electrical phenomena.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. over the next two hundred years. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions." In the first edition. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations." In many ways. and then in the revised English edition. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. They are almost all posed in the negative. In this sense. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. these were sixteen such Queries. First of all. as rhetorical questions. especially the later ones. that number was increased in the Latin edition." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. These Queries. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. Rather." Rather. but that it may go on for many pages. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. it is written in English rather than Latin. published in 1717/18. unlike the Principia. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. The first set of Queries were brief. published in 1706. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. filling many pages. the nature of chemical action. Clearly. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form." Other scientists followed Newton's lead.

Opticks the Principia.ac. • Newton. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed.html) • Gallica. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Duarte and J. First edition (http://gallica. Fourth edition (http://books.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. 153 References [1] Newton. 303–307 (1982).com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom.lib. cam. Calif. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. Optics. J.rarebookroom.cam. Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. [2] F. Papers on Hydrostatics. Sound and Heat (http://cudl. ISBN 1-891788-04-3.org/Control/nwtopt/index. and James Black. Retrieved 10 January 2012. . refractions. "Hydrostatics. Opt. 43.). Isaac (1998). Opticks or.: Octavo. Commun. Piper. A. Isaac. ac. First edition (http://www. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. a treatise of the reflexions. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). Palo Alto. lib.google. Optics. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin.

[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion..[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3].[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium). also Newton's law of universal gravitation. in 1713 and 1726. by the end of a century after publication in 1687. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]).] . based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. at least in certain respects. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton . The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science".] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate.. Newton used his expression that became famous. and of the forces required to produce any motions.. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus. often referred to as simply the Principia.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). Newton wrote[10] [. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia.. Newton also published two further editions.. spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses."[7] In formulating his physical theories. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that... accurately proposed and demonstrated [. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [.. first published 5 July 1687.] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics.

in revised and extended form. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). near-parabolic orbits. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. De motu corporum Book 1. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. . Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). by observations. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions.. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media.. for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter.' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). thus offering criteria to decide. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form.

This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. corollary [42]). and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. others. and that this centre "either is at rest. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. but only a little. attempts to derive the speed of sound. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. modified in a somewhat modern way. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34].Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. and accounts for the tides [37]. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. and motion in arbitrary force laws. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system.[45] .[41] For Newton. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. while some contend that the Earth. especially its consequences for astronomy.Newton). and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. Corollary 2 [44]).[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. Book 3. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). which "is acknowledg'd by all. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. De mundi systemate Book 3. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. Proposition 11. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. especially the variation.

but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. assign the same causes. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. Curiously. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. In the four rules. we ought to step back from our senses. till such time as other phenomena occur. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. for example. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. but in philosophical discussions. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. he retracted this sentence in the published version. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. as far as possible. In his notes. by which they may either be made more accurate. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. therefore.. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. Instead. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. true and apparent. this was a faulty theory. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. for today's readers. However. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum). And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. [. . Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. From a Cartesian point of view.] instead of absolute places and motions. we use relative ones. However. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy".Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. or liable to exceptions. mathematical and common. and consider things themselves. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. and was assured about their correctness. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them..

had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. as they did. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule.) Newton's gravitational attraction. he inferred the existence of a Lord God. Newton also gave theological argument. . which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. fires in the home and in the Sun.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. of Descartes. 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. concerning the qualities of bodies. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction".[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". From the system of the world. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. "I frame no hypotheses". From this textual evolution. scientists use it today. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements. The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. With these rules.[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle. but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". 1726). as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets.

This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. but also all the laws of planetary motion. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. how he sometimes forgot his food.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. and to his project during this time.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies. Halley. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. Newton's tract 'De motu. Hooke and Wren. assuming an inverse square law of force.. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work.. that he immediately went to visit Newton again. Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London.[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. .Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work. and did very little else for well over a year and a half.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided.. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies. which he sent to Halley in late 1684. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. or his sleep. resolved to ask Newton. and generalized the result to conic sections. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. and Halley. The contents of 'De motu.'. in November 1684. but that he could not find the papers.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley. although the (lost) original may have been without title. and he normally kept dated notes of them. Humphrey Newton.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. or the state of his clothes. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. Wren was unconvinced. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science..

but he largely started afresh in a new. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. the moon. corporum. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. Liber secundus' still survives.[59] appeared in July 1687. and less accessible mathematical style. the tides.' to Flamsteed. and its completion has been London. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. with handwritten corrections for the second edition. not authorised by Newton's heirs). But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. that it might be read by many". A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. the solar system. published by Halley at his own financial risk. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. After Newton's death in 1727. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. because in the meantime. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. and the other two books somewhat later. The complete work. in more than one manuscript. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets.. also in 1728.. tighter.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. making it look . (Newton had also communicated 'De motu. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. Liber primus'. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. amended to update cross-references. it survived complete. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. Liber secundus' of 1685. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession.

and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. Newton's role Newton had studied these books.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). . Samuel Pepys. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. in some cases. as President. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. causing some delay. showing considerable diplomatic skills. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). To these two laws he added a third a decade later. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. In addition. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. among them himself.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. or. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. rather than before. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. but Halley. who hated disputes. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. secondary sources based on them. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them).[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. including two to Leibniz. 1686. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. At this time. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). a second edition (1731). Rather. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. Cambridge. licensing the book for publication. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

University of Toronto.2. E N Zalta (ed. Oxford University Press. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). especially at p. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. cam. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle".Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. [11] http:/ / books. Isaac. cap. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). MA. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol.). and see also J. "Du systeme du monde. stanford. about the 'Principia'. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). [14] http:/ / books. google. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). assembled and ed. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. The background to Newton's "Principia". in the 1729 English version). Vol. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. htm). among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. tripod. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato.329 (according to a note on p. Herivel. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP. by Andrew Motte. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. and well written". google. at p. 2 (May. The first. 1965.120. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. google. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". google. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. google. both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. 116-138. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. 55. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. Journal for the History of Astronomy. lib. often incorporating revisions. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings.1 (1970). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. No. 2001). into modern English. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. 1729 translation. ac. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge.329. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). from 1729. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary." Author(s): Judith P. W. edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). pp. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele.392.[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. 1999). archive. [7] G E Smith. google. See also D T Whiteside (1970). and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. .[2] was described by Newton scholar I. which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death).[104] The second full English translation. published in 1996.[105] William H. [3] Newton. Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. vol. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. at page 19 of vol. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). 1972.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234).[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. 227-245.

com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. google. google.2. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. google. Cambridge University Press. 191-2. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . google.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. at p. 1980': R S Westfall. [58] Westfall. . R Taton & C Wilson. 431-448. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. google. google. at p. [17] http:/ / books. 1998': A. 1980. Books 2 & 3. google." (http:/ / logica. n° 2. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. [57] Westfall. 45 (1991) 11-61. n. google. 1998. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 1971). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. Turnbull (ed. google. google. Steffen. vol. ugent. 151. google. 1980. 406. at page 233 (http:/ / books. cited above. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. 1980. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. [54] Cook. google. in H. [47] Edelglass et al. [59] Westfall. 2A'. at p.g. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. now often known as Huygens' formula. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. Vol. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. 153-156. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. Book 3 (http:/ / books.) 167 . Volume.404. google. google. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. google. Cook. at pp. [49] Snobelen. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. be/ steffen/ GS. 54. htm). W. google. Stephen. org/ scholium. at p. 223-274.2. [55] 'Westfall.).2. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. google. Oxford University Press 1998.406.147 and 152. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. at pp. speed and radial force. eds. The Cartesian vortex theory. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press 1980. [42] http:/ / books. also pp. ISBN 0-940262-45-2.2. 147. google. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. p. google. pp. [61] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. vol. Matter and Mind. [53] As dated e. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. [50] Ducheyne. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. google. 1998. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. google. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989.. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). by D. google. google. pdf). google. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'.207-221. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. 33. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. Edmond Halley. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. pp. at p. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. google. (Cambridge. Books 2 & 3. google. [52] 'Cook. at pp. Retrieved 2008-05-31. google. [29] http:/ / books.15. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. Whiteside. . "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. [56] Cook.47-142. T. google.

[79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.). "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy".297. and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. [80] R S Westfall. 28 November 1679. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside.. and extract of his letter. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [74] 'Correspondence' vol.. vol.431-448. google. ch. [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. ac. would terminate in the center C". 'Never at Rest'. 1893). CUP 1989. p. pages 5-19. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . Newton". (Cambridge University Press. org. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980).13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books.2 cited above. google.2 cited above. especially at 13-20. [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. closed curve and spiral. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. google. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. edu 168 . mpg. google. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. uu. google. fondationbodmer. Journal for the History of Astronomy. umich. html [88] http:/ / www. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. see 'Correspondence'. google. html [89] http:/ / www. asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books.2 already cited. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. at pages 304-306. 1960). [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). wm. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686".297-314. Part A. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). roe. se/ press/ pm. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". though elongated. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. 'Correspondence' vol. at pages 391-2.. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). a resisting medium). see D Gjertsen. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. at page 259). museumoflondon. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www. 1664-1684". document #236 at page 301. at page 66 (http:/ / books. jstor. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. i (1970). 45 (1991). [65] http:/ / books. mpiwg-berlin.2.. at page 433. Bruce Brackenridge. Newton" (1759). also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". at page 69. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). 453.. 1995). cited above. Tycho Brahe to Newton". uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). lib. Never at Rest. (Cambridge UP 1989). but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. Ofer Gal. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. ac. see Newton to Hooke. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. stanford. ac. Rouse Ball. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. (http:/ / www. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969. at Introduction (section IX). html [86] http:/ / lion. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. [83] http:/ / www. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. [73] H W Turnbull (ed. and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp.e. cam. google. at document #239. pages 11-61. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. Bernard Cohen. (University of California Press. document #286. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".. lib. has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . 1980. Vol 2 (1676-1687).W. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. document #237. cam. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. or even a 'blunder'. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. at p. Vol 2 cited above. with accompanying figure).

518-20.751–760. [101] Westfall. • Guicciardini. Curtis Wilson (Princeton. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. Bernard Cohen.750.2. wpi. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968).802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. Introduction to the Principia. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. n. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. Cambridge University press 1967. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders." in Grattan-Guinness. R.. Burtt. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. p.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Bernard Cohen (1999).699." [98] Westfall. to whom he owes more than that. • S.4. G. google. • François De Gandt. Cambridge University Press 1967.. NY: Doubleday and Company. Notes. • Brian Ellis. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. 1954). • Andrew Janiak. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. 29-68. vol. University of California Press. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University press 1967. University of California Press.4. 1995). c1995). 1971). Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. The background to Newton’s Principia. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. • I. • Richard S. at p. Cambridge 1971. Force in Newton’s physics. • John Herivel. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. Clarendon Press. Colodny. Press. 1971). 2005. 1965). vol. 3rd edition. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. pp. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. at pp. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. and obligations to you. I. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. 2008). 1999. Westfall.A. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. 1965).42. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia. Westfall. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation. 1999. [99] Westfall. ed.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. cgi?v1=8& ti=1.519. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. [100] Westfall. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. Elsevier: 59-87. 1965). xv-xvi. pp. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. ed. vol.4.712–716. Dawsons of Pall Mall).. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.. Chandrasekhar. • E. N. Cambridge University press 1975. at pp. [95] Richard S. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. [94] I Bernard Cohen. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics.. vol. NJ: Princeton University Press. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. p. . "Philosophia Naturalis. Cambridge U. Donahue. at p. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you.5. pp.

1713.babson.org (http://www.archive.google. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur. first edition (1687.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. in Latin) (http://www. • Wikisource • Archive.google. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. (Book 3 starts at p. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'..com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200). • Google books.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica.net/~bjn/principia/).tripod.google.org (http://www. largely the Motte translation of 1729. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. regarding online editions . W. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive.1 with Book 1 (http://books.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte.archive.lib.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.archive.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2).com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage).) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3. annotated) (http://books. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource.org #2 (http://www. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version.com/toc. vol. Chittenden.htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above).2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1).org #1 (http://www. 1726).google. 1729. first edition (1687. Partial • Google books.google.cam.1).ac.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).html). • Principia (in Latin.ntnu.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654. interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University. • Project Gutenberg (http://www. vol.archive.gutenberg.200 (http://books.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687. ed. in Latin) (http://books.

and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses." At the next meeting of the Society. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. 1686. which he had enlarged and completed." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. to make a report thereof to the council. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. on May 19. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. For the influences for the second edition. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the ." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. 1686. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. he says. 1687 and began changing the world.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. that its truth is past dispute. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. At the next meeting of the Society. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. if certain. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. on April 28. 1686.

Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. which 172 . In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society." "How much of this. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law." acknowledging at the same time that. and to desire his opinion as to the print. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. and the absence of the vice-president's. and I do not know that I have seen them since. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. and printing it at his own charge. which he engaged to do. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. so that you might act accordingly. but it being a frivolous business. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. At the next meeting of the council. for 'tis long since they were writ. Halley in his letter of May 22. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton. so far as I could remember. Indeed. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. "is so." but. though Newton had the notion from him. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. 1686. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. that Sir Chr. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters." Halley adds. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. the heads of it in short. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. I am almost confident by circumstances. you know best. viz. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. cuts and so forth. I shall content myself to give you. on June 2. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. On June 20. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. volume.

that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. and earth from the sun. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). so that a while after. and only wants transcribing. accused me of that ignorance. I designed the whole to consist of three books. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. in print. told him I had laid philosophy aside. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. I could not but have found it now. so Mr Hooke. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. and guessed it to be elliptical. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. expected to hear no further from him. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. And so. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. though not accurately enough. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. and drawing the cuts fairly. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. is expressed. and understood it.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. thought no further of philosophical matters than. 173 . Some new propositions I have since thought on. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. and that's above fifteen years ago). whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. "The proof you sent me I like very well. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. was upon other things. a copy being presented to me. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. did not answer his third. in compliment to sweeten my answer. in stating this business. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. that without my demonstrations. as to the other from Kepler. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. and only guessed it to be so accurately. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. And so. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. The third wants the theory of comets. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. which I can as well let alone. and so upon mistaken grounds. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. can know no more.. Oscill. in print. his letters put me upon it. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. namely. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. sent him. But. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. sun and planets. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. the second was finished last summer being short.

1686. and humble servant. but she gives me warning. on April 6. found out last winter. which made me afterwards return to the first book. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. not to let your resentments run so high. The third book was presented to the Society. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren." On June 20. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. from your affectionate friend. "Is. 1687. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. And if in truth he knew it before you. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. The third I now design to suppress. though it be not material. which he puts so much value on. De Motu Corporum libri duo. with her. The two first books. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. The second book. It will be more convenient.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. which. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. I will push on the edition vigorously. as have to do. 1686. Hooke and Halley. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. In the first page." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". I will try how well it can be done. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. NEWTON. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. Now you approve of the character and paper. If it please you to have it so. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. upon second thoughts. and then. Sir. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. "If you please you may change the word to sections. I am. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. which are much the greater number. 174 . who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. as I guess by what you write. and therefore I had altered it to this. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. in the honour you do them. ought to compose it. which is all at present. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. without the third. HALLEY. I found it so formerly. On July 14. and adding. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. July 5. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. I retain the former title.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. What application he has made in private." On June 30. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. nor on the books of the Society. It will help the sale of the book. as might have been expected. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. "But. Sir. I must now again beg you. as to deprive us of your third book. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. The work. you ought to be considered as the inventor. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. your most affectionate humble servant. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. and not much more charge. I know not. and now I am no sooner come near her again. E.

and hope it will please you. a Benedictine monk. before starting for London. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. but the university showed no sign of compliance. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. to take my money as they are sold. Mr Flamsteed. On April 21 the deputation. nor suggested a compromise. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. July 5. The deputies. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. as well as of profound and public speculation. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. and lettered. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. or at 5 sh. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. Mr Boyle. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. bound in calves' leather. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. or else at some short time. a very great part of which is extant. 1687. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. to be [OCR error] shillings here. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. appeared before the court. On April 27 they gave their plea. so much to your own and the nation's credit. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. I intend the price of them. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. Mr Paget. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths." . Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. for ready. with their case carefully prepared. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. the chancellor. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. and ordered them out of court. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. that starts from town tomorrow. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. the master of Magdalene College. dated London. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. who was vice-chancellor. but rather. which I entreat you to accept. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. On May 7 it was discussed. announcing the completion of the Principia. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. and was dismissed. The following letter from Halley.

when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. "I have not seen him. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. but what I said of your book I remember not. Sir. 1694. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way. and since. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. before I considered what I did. to let me know the very truth of the matter. which doubtless must have been very alarming. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. or mind. beg you. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again." he says. replied. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. so that when I wrote to you. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. nor by icing James's favour. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. by sleeping too often by my fire. winter. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. in a letter dated June 8. nor have my former consistency of mind. namely. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. but upon his pressing consented. whose mind was never at rest. I will give you an account of it if I can. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. In a letter dated the September 13." On September 20. according to a report which was believed at the time. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. and keeping him shut up. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. and I hope never will. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. where. as in a letter to his friend Millington. wrote to Leibniz. Newton wrote: "The last. put me farther out of order. and beg your pardon. at which he was much concerned. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. which lasted eighteen months. I was averse. or both." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. but that "he was out of town. 1693. added. Let me. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. Christiaan Huygens." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. Pepys must have heard such rumours. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. or." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. 1693. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food." To which Leibniz. and for five days together not a wink. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. in a letter dated the 22nd of June.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. addressed to Samuel Pepys. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. and dated the 15th of October 1693. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding." . if I may but have them quietly. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. dated September 26. and a distemper. therefore. 1693. I remember I wrote to you. that it had actually done so. upon his own accord. and before I had time to ask him any question. as to be put into great disorder by it. I got an ill habit of sleeping. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. which this summer has been epidemical. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. from the concern I have for him. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. He is now very well.

E. 1689.) [3] Richard S.. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". published as #537 in Vol. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. ed. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. see Isaac Newton's later life. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. Never at Rest. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel. as it were. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power.G. . on points which affected the interests of the university and its members.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. Westfall. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. Newton retained his seat only about a year. the vice-chancellor of the university. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article.1998. now archaic. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. On April 30. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time. Forbes et al.. 1997. On February 12. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. and gives original spellings. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style).

They began with the nature of matter. He entered notes from both ends. at the other. Some headings were followed by vast entries. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. vision. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. place. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. Galileo's Dialogue. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". But following this he drew a line across the page. 1661. colour. which had . were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". Following this. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. light. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. currently in the Cambridge University Library. whereby every question is put to experimental test. rarity. Thomas Hobbes. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. fluidity. and others. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. Additional information This octavo notebook.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. and other sensations. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. It is also definitely before December 9. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. Kenelm Digby. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. These were followed by questions on violent motion. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. Aristotle is my friend. "Of ye Creation". in Greek. hardness etc. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. for example. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. The initial notes. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. 1664. At the other end of the book. Robert Boyle. but my best friend is truth).

showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. on the contrary. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct. such as when a heavy body falls. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court.. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. Gassendi. would look coloured. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . . transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium.. others were blank. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. including his idea that it is a wave. Elsewhere. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways.

Cambridge University Press. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. Lohne. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. Westfall. A. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. References • "Portsmouth Papers". 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] . • J. by Richard S. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library.

as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. located in the chapel of Trinity College. natural philosopher. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. plays. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history." Newton was the runner-up. Newton became a scientific icon. Newton or Albert Einstein. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. mathematician. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. Newton was deemed the more influential. published in 1687. Because of the resounding impact of his work. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. in 1795. Cambridge . In this work. In mathematics.[1] In 1999. Many books. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. alone.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton.

Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. "there was also the small matter of gravity. It was there to be discovered. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. Though that. there is a very different matter. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. "yes. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt. ah. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. a . • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. Oxford University Press. pure creative invention..) Sir Isaac Newton. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent.. Science in Popular Culture [9]. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. pp. It is a door within a door.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies." . • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. you see. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. of course. "(. there was that as well. Greenwood Press." "Yes. you see. perspicuity and invention.. was merely a discovery. including the famous apple. • A. 27–43. Invention. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). But the catflap . with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx.. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr.. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. set during the Great Recoinage. "They even keep it on at weekends. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). Routledge. It is a door within a door." . Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme.." said Richard. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code." "Gravity. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. I suppose. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002). • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3..

Newton in popular culture

183

Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

[3]. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. tate. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. Hanover. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. S. 1997. 243. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. . [4] Burwick. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted. org. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. Science is the Tree of Death. Walter de Gruyter. pp. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. who regularly experienced spiritual visions. apparently at the bottom of the sea. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. retrieved 10 September 2009. Christopher B. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. page 328. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. Foster (1988). The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser.[5] References [1] Townsend. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795.

2003. Joyce (ed. London: Tate Publishing. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . William Blake: The Painter at Work.). Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson.Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

upon the lands of the lord of the manor.. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. reaping. when he let it to Dr John Young. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". England. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park. The house and park are not generally open to the public. when it required the interference of Mr.[2] ". Mr. and rode at each other through the wheat.[1] Sir Charles.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley. Shoveller. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland.[1] During the Commonwealth era.. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day. and Coram drew their daggers. which stunk and had worms swimming in it.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. dean of Winchester.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. although open days are occasionally held. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. or hay-making. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. with many distinct farms and cottages.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. when Young was expelled from the deanery. So. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury.[5] . He died in 1706. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland. who married her daughter in 1665. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church. Sir Thomas Clarke. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. near Winchester. although his wife survived him until 1720. Pye. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. Mr.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580. no doubt."[2] Following the death of Coram.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging.

and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781). ("Each one is the son of his deeds" . he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. etc. Catherine. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. John Rowley. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. next the hours. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. retaining that position for four years.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. On his death. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774). Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. In 1747. leaving a daughter. and the arms of Mr. remaining there until his death in 1727. the owner. Nearer the centre are degrees.[5][6] On Newton's death. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. then the months divided into days. Newton became resident at Cranbury. the estate was left to his son. is below. the base of a pillar. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate. Hampshire. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. Bt). a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. Watch fast". another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. In 1770. and within. and after his death. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton.C. Cranbury Park. all round the world. Thomas. In 1734.. built in 1780. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass.[5] In May 1721. Towards the end of his life. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. the outermost divided into minutes. then a circle marked "Watch slow. a diagram of the compass.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras". which he also owned.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham.. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer. Conduitt. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. the points alternately plain and embossed.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. as granted to him in 1717. and a scaled-down gateway tower. but his election was declared invalid.[9] The Castle. Harriet. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. Shortly after his marriage. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park.

[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. Arrow. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. During the Second World War. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights. Whilst serving the town. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. on that . MP for Southampton. In 1822.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. set in arch-headed reserves.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park. intersected by various springs. which has a circular domed ceiling.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811. but his wife survived him until 1825. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings.[22] Writing in 1898. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. William Chamberlayne. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)).[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel. but in the rear descending rapidly. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. a large red brick one. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre. Tankerville Chamberlayne. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald".[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. flat as it fronts to the south. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill. In fact. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. is on the level ground at the top.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife.[11] on her death. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. especially in the saloon on the south front. The house.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896. built round a court. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England.

[14] Yonge. "History of Cranbury Park. (1898). www. online-literature.ac.com. org. Retrieved 23 September 2009.online-literature. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. www. Retrieved 24 September 2009. and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). publications. (1898). com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. The English Country House. www. htm). Victoria County History of Leicestershire. Retrieved 23 September 2009.online-literature. britannia. html). Retrieved 23 September 2009. City of Winchester. (1898). William (1908). pdf). co.[26] References [1] Page. before joining Monks Brook. Retrieved 20 September 2009.online-literature. ac. Charlotte M.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth.uk. html). From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. . com/ p4650. Michael (1999). . uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. Charlotte M."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3.online-literature. (1898). . pp. uk/ report. Charlotte M. 1998.K. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102.uk. [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. 5 May 2004. and include fountains. [4] Yonge. Retrieved 23 September 2009. html).com. Paul Cave Publications.britannia. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. aspx?compid=42018#s4). . www. Hamilton (1953). htm#i46497). htm#i46495).com. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Lloyd. Hansard. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 15 May 2005.parliament.com. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www. parliament. built from material plundered from Netley Abbey. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. a rose garden. [10] Thompson. . com/ p4650. . online-literature. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. Hampshire" (http:/ / www.com. "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. Stories of Southampton Streets. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. H. www.thepeerage.com. A. Retrieved 20 September 2009. (1900). p. and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. . Retrieved 23 September 2009. online-literature." a word signifying a country dance. Facet-Headed. The Book of Sun-dials. [9] Yonge. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. . uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. [7] Gatty. thepeerage. ISBN 0-86146-041-3. Retrieved 24 September 2009. upenn. . is situated in the southern corner of the park. specimen trees and pinetum. www. Charlotte M. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. Margaret Scott. Retrieved 23 September 2009.online-literature. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. Eden. A. Charlotte M. thepeerage. online-literature.com. [12] Leonard. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds.Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. .[19] The folly known as "The Castle". [8] "The Buttercross. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. online-literature. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. 9 October 2006. [6] Ford.com. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. 68. british-history. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www.[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. www. www. Netley Abbey. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. p. close to The Castle. Eleanor. www.british-history. [5] Yonge. "Later changes" (http:/ / www. cityofwinchester. Winchester" (http:/ / www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). 72 & 74. . John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.G. Retrieved 23 September 2009. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. library. . (1984). . 22. (1898). [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. [11] "Horninghold. www. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets.thepeerage. [2] Yonge. horninghold.K F. .

Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Charlotte M. John Buonarotti". The New York Times: 10. "Stratton Park. Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. oldmaps.700) in late 2001's terms. alresford. uk/ Campsite/ index. [19] "Cranbury Park. [23] Yonge. "Papworth. uk/ m35. Retrieved 2009-07-12. . noted in Howard Colvin. plates 23-2.v. Retrieved 24 September 2009. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). com/ gst/ abstract. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE).online-literature.000 (us$35. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). . . [22] Dorothy Stroud. chandlersfordscouts. Retrieved 24 September 2009. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. [25] Currie. Architect. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). html). see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. which would value approximately £25. .. 15 November 1956. Retrieved 2009-07-12. .oldmaps. George Dance. htm). About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. 3rd ed. Micheldever. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. 8 and 15 November 1956. online-literature. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3.[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. amazon. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects. The lost country houses of England. . s. . "Chandler’s Ford. Christopher (Spring 2005). 1995. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. matthewbeckett. org. Retrieved 26 September 2009. nytimes. Retrieved 26 September 2009. (1898).[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth.uk. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. org. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. David (April 2004). 16 January 1881.co. hants. in Country Life. www. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. Matthew (2009). . 1600-1840. April 2004.com. . fieldclub. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. 1971:93-95. htm). Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. www. 1741—1825. html). Retrieved 26 September 2009. [21] Watkin. [20] Dorothy Stroud. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. co. . htm).633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring.

stm).] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. edu. University of Western Australia. Mike Alder's Home Page.. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. That is. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. philosophynow.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. . co. which he describes as pure reason. uwa. alder). either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. Retrieved 22 july 2010. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor".[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard.Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. . and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. to the scientist. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword. maths. The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. edu. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. the question can be solved by experiment.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". uwa.pdf). uwa.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. au/ ~mike/ ). According to Alder. amongst others. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion.[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. [4] Mike Alder (2004).. bbc. . . . University of Western Australia. [3] Mike Adler. BBC news. maths. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". Also available as Mike Alder (2004). [2] Clive James (2007-07-20). Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. Alder admits however. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. Retrieved 22 july 2010. or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. . "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. edu. au/ people/ mike. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought.

to the rear of the house. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. taking into account modern living. were opened up to the public in 2003. and the old walled kitchen garden. near Grantham. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). New areas of the house. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. most notably his work on light and optics. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. Lincolnshire. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. once private. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. being restored. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. England. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. Woolsthorpe Manor.

Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. org. uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ . nationaltrust.

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