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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

independently."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. mathematician. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. the subjects he is mainly associated with. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. Margery Ayscough. he never married. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. He was an unorthodox Christian. and for the style of the work. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. Newton was also highly religious.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. 25 December 1642. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. In mathematics. and contributed to the study of power series. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. natural philosopher. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. due. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. When Newton was three. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. alchemist. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. In this work. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. At the time of Newton's birth. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. astronomer. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. Born prematurely. being highly engrossed in his studies and work."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. he was a small child.[11][12][13] .1 litres). His half-niece was Catherine Barton. published in 1687. and theologian. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth.

and of astronomers such as Copernicus. and Kepler. Galileo. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers.. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. and after 1820 or so. In 1665. in a manuscript of October 1666.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus.[17] In June 1661. For such a significant appointment. Nevertheless. NY: Thomas Y. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Famous Men of Science. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. for example. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle.[18] At that time. nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. a fellow of our College. and by October 1659.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests. and very young . ordaining normally could not be dodged. were adopted by continental European mathematicians. Luckily for Newton. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things".) Such a . Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method".[15] Henry Stokes. he became the top-ranked student. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. He was removed from school. widowed by now for a second time. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). where his mother. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views.[23] A related subject was infinite series. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague.. also by British mathematicians. and did not give a full account until 1704. attempted to make a farmer of him. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.. Newton was educated at The King's School.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. such as Descartes. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". Crowell & Co. master at the King's School. He hated farming.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. Sarah K.[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. although with very different notations. In 1667. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. he was admitted to Trinity College.

based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. but never finished it. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). accepted this argument. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables). and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism.[32] Starting in 1699. Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. In that day. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. Newton's method. whose permission was needed. of 1684.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. In 1691.Isaac Newton suggestion. however.[34] 4 . who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. At the time. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). valid for any exponent. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). However. However. Because of this. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". and Charles II. He discovered Newton's identities. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it.

But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death.) In 1704.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. Thus. As a proof of the concept. 12). opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. however. he might not have developed his theory of gravity.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour.[39] Building the design. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance.[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. it stayed the same colour. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. Newton published Opticks. and the general phenomenon of diffraction. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. John Maynard Keynes. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration).[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. Newton lectured on optics. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props.. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles. Today's quantum mechanics. across a vacuum.and may . revived his interest in alchemy. . that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another. Props. when Hooke. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium.13). In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. the first known functional reflecting telescope.. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80. today known as a Newtonian telescope.II. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. which he later expanded into his Opticks."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. In 1671.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum).

via diagrams. i.[51] Later.[49] For Newton. wherever it was. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. In the same book he describes. and defined the law of universal gravitation.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke. In this work. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. was at rest). because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets.e. In the same work. and much more. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . 8th Query). Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. using a glass globe (Optics. prisms. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. but they did not so far indicate its cause. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. in the second edition of the Principia (1713)..Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. Also. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. the use of multiple-prism arrays. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'. In an article entitled "Newton. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. as they did. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity.

Newton became internationally recognised. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. a position Newton held until his death. With the Principia. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. John (1733) – were published after his death. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. but Newton took them seriously. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. He took charge of England's great recoining. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. when it abruptly ended. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705. 1st Earl of Halifax. His half-niece. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. the Astronomer Royal. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. which Newton had used in his studies.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley).[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. Towards the end of his life. In his position at the Royal Society.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. until his death in 1727. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726].Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Cambridge.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. after Sir Francis Bacon. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. These appointments were intended as sinecures. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Catherine Barton Conduitt.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. Unlike Aristotle's. they may be at rest). Before Newton. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. named in Newton's honour. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. . the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. the first term vanishes. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. The SI unit of force is the newton. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0).Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. Mathematically. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum.[102] Apple incident . this is expressed as . the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. For example. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. with time.

as well as the earth draws the apple.[111] . not in any side of the earth. that the earth draws it. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727).[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. The King's School. the reason is. and get good agreement. published in 1752. or toward the centre. whose manuscript account. if matter thus draws matter.[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. he was just in the same situation. there must be a drawing power in matter. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. amidst other discourse.. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. Cambridge. the notion of gravitation came into his mind.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. & myself. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. Grantham. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. therefore the apple draws the earth."[106] John Conduitt. We went into the garden. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. as when formerly. it must be in proportion of its quantity. only he.[107] In similar terms. and hence named it "universal gravitation". claims that the tree was purchased by the school. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory.. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. to the Moon. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. in an inverse-square proportion. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. had the first thought of his system of gravitation. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . he told me. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance.

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. uk/ newtlife. html). fictional. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 9780521274357. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Richard S. Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. oxforddnb. [14] http:/ / www. Oxford University Press. No. Bellevue College. php). newton. i. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. 1998. [2] Mordechai Feingold. 22 [17] James. (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. Cambridge University Press . p. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. edu/ MATH/ Newton.Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. 50. Barrow. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. By the time he died. com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). Greenwood Publishing Group. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. [13] Newton. Gale E. (1996).1. 315. 74. p. . Daniel S. heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. com/ view/ article/ 1541). Stephen D. Oxford University Press. . (1970). . PMID 12519805. The Newton Handbook.4 [4] Gjersten. pdf) (PDF). prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. chlt. Unless otherwise noted. pp. accessed 24 February 2009. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www. Leibniz. 8. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books. 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www. p.. n. Isaac. flickr.43. 530–1. Retrieved 28 March 2010. At Newton's birth. . google. p. [7] Burt.1258/jrsm. a. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. Vol. May 2007. p. 1993). 2 (June. 11. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. Graham's Home Page. (1983) [1980]. Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). pp. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Isaac. ISBN 0195092244. "Isaac Newton. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. [5] Westfall. Retrieved 28 March 2010. html). jstor. [6] Snobelen. I. Michael Hoskins (1997). com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. 159. doi:10.B. c. Optical Lectures. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. doi:10. ISBN 9780521058179. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. PMC 539373. google. .M1) [19] ed. ac. google. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. "Singular scientists". Newton. [9] Christianson. (2001). 84. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'.1017/S0007087499003751. ISBN 1-573-56256-4. online edn. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). bellevuecollege. p. org/ heretic. Moreover. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. Ioan (January 2003). explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. google. . . google. org/ stable/ 236236)". and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. James R. berkeley. org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page.e. [10] Cohen. (1999). The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. Derek (1986). Isis. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar.36. html). com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). September 2004. Vol. edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period. Retrieved 3 February 2009.96. [18] Michael White. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days.

com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). 363–4. Book 3 (1729 vol. p. 2A'. [36] Newton. H W Turnbull. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. Isaac (http:/ / venn. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2).online-literature. letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679. Cambridge University Press 1960. pp. 325 [39] White 1997. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter".24D. Robert (2007) Newton. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. DuarteOPN(2000). htm#newton). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54).11. 44. google. . John Maynard (1972). (Cambridge University Press. com/ arms/ index. 'Principia'. [48] D T Whiteside (ed. Cambridge University Press. opticsjournal. Retrieved 10 January 2012.). Retrieved 16 January 2010. Matter and Mind. cam. google. [37] Ball 1908. 'Principia'. www. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). Retrieved 16 January 2010. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). [45] Dobbs. . ISBN 9780521566698. see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia. "Newton. google. vol.2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. F. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". pages 116–138. p. p. lib. at pages 391–2. Retrieved 10 January 2012. an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science. [43] Iliffe. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. A very short introduction. google. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. Volume. J. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. Isis 73 (4): 523. vol.245 [58] Yonge. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908. Isaac. at page 54 (http:/ / books. Martin's Press. page 67 (http:/ / books.11. at page 41 (http:/ / books. at page 30.1086/353114.). Google Books. Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes. '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. MacMillan St. p. Venn.6. Retrieved 23 September 2009. online-literature. com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). Numericana. . p. cam. numericana. J.. nor for his service at the Mint. "The Newton handbook". ISBN 9780486432656. ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. at page 297. [24] D Gjertsen (1986). Chapter 11. at page 149.1. [27] Clifford Truesdell. at page 319. ac. [41] White 1997. 356ff [34] White 1997. 151 [35] King. J. 1729 English translation. [49] See Curtis Wilson.. at page 400. 1696). 1980.). J. com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). p. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). "A short account of the history of mathematics". Charlotte M. especially at pages 119–120. [53] Westfall 1980. 1968).5. Alfred Rupert (1996). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). Cambridge University Digital Library. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). [25] Newton. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. [60] Westfall 1980. [21] Venn. 595 15 . [51] Edelglass et al. "Newton. " Newton. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). 1967). Retrieved 16 January 2010. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton.com..317 [56] Gerard Michon. doi:10. "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. p170 [40] Hall. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). [26] Newton. King. cam. p. Isaac. "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. J.. ac. (December 1982). pdf). . Bibcode 2000OptPN. 1684–1691. (1898).2. at page 233 (http:/ / books. uk/ cgi-bin/ search.1364/OPN. . [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. ..000024. 232 [55] White 1997. Optics. ac. lib. Google Books. [23] D T Whiteside (ed. Cambridge University Press 1974. [30] D T Whiteside (1970). google. doi:10. 'Never at Rest'. [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris.. 1729 English translation. 1676–1687' ed." Westfall 1994 p. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte.Isaac Newton [20] Newton. . google.99. A. eds (1922–1958). (2000). com/ F. vol. [59] Westfall 1980. Page 74 (http:/ / books. 324 [38] Ball 1908. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1).107 [32] Westfall 1980. Henry C (2003). document #235. p. lib. google. by Alfred Rupert Hall. The Man". part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". prisms. google. p. [54] White 1997. [31] Stewart 2009. 54 [52] Westfall 1980. Cambridge University Digital Library. pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. [47] R S Westfall.T. Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25. at p. p. "Hydrostatics. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www.com.

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"Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability. 1.co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840.bbc. in Turnbull et al. 1998. . . Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. p187. Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings. 10 November 2003. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. T. G.. [84] Frankel. Newton runner-up: BBC news. 1867. M. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World.: Mott Media. 19 June 2007. p. Scientist and Teacher. [70] Opinion poll. (1997). The Life of Isaac Newton. [81] Jacob. The Sydney Morning Herald [69] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of Royal Society scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. Margaret C. 1. 29 November 1999. p. [78] Newton to Richard Bentley 10 December 1692." Oeuvres de Lagrange I.uk (http:/ / news.H. Cambridge University Press. Knud Haakonssen. 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January 2005. le comte J. Edinburgh. New Horizons [64] Wikipedia Standing on the shoulders of giants. ISBN 0855270667. In Martin Fitzpatrick ed. Book III. org/ our-history/ people/ sir-isaac-newton). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. L. Michigan. com/ print. ISBN 0521477379. 27) [68] "Einstein's Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics". xx. Associated Press. 37. [80] H. Charles (1948). politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons". vol 3. p. p. pp. cited in. co. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [87] A Short Scheme of the True Religion. ibid. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. [86] Principia. [82] Westfall.

• Stewart. doi:10. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. cam. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). and Other Myths. • Westfall. sussex. The Life of Isaac Newton. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. . Brogdale. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). Retrieved 11 January 2007. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. Never at Rest. 265–266. ISBN 0486206300. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. [108] I. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. php).W. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. 1998). brogdale. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". John (1963). • White. "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Newtonproject. • Westfall. 6 [109] Alberto A. Richard (2011). google. 130. New York: Dover. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". Cambridge University Press.182. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 9780495557425. Richard S. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908..73 [99] White 1997. . newtonproject. (2007). Cambridge University Press. John (1958). dlib. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. [98] Westfall 2007. org/ ). The Art of Science.149C. p. 2011).4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. Fourth Estate Limited. Michael (1997). ac. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. p. in particular. co. James (2009). uk/ image1.1963. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. ISBN 9781447204152. • Christianson. . newscientist. Retrieved 7 September 2011. . Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. • Westfall. eds. Imperial College London. html 17 References • Ball. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. Gale (1984). 4. (1994). ac. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. Inc. 337 [103] White 1997. O'Reilly Media. W. Mariner Books. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. Retrieved 10 January 2012. p. pp. Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. Bernard Cohen and George E. pierre-marteau. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. ISBN 9780547336046. lib.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. Rouse (1908). brogdale. Retrieved 30 August 2006. p. 18 January 2010. Bibcode 1958Natur. .org. This well documented work provides. (1980.. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). Retrieved 20 December 2008. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl.1038/182149a0. Richard S. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. . google. [113] http:/ / www. Cambridge University Press. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). doi:10. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www. edu/ newton/ index. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. Thomas (2010). ISBN 0521477379. ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. [107] Conduitt. Isaac. " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. pp. . valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. org. php?varietyid=1089). Cambridge University Digital Library. John. Smith. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Retrieved 10 January 2009.0017. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. "Keynes Ms. Richard S. Isaac Newton. Cengage Learning. Einstein's Wife. ISBN 9780199213559. • Levenson. New Scientist. indiana.1098/rsnr. New York: Free Press. • Craig.

B. Bernard. 150–4. The Newtonian Revolution. 354 pp.amazon. William C.amazon.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald. JSTOR 531368. Isaac (1642–1727). New York: Harper & Row. focuses on philosophical issues only. • Hawking. • Christianson. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. • Newton. excerpt and text search (http://www. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. • Dobbs. Derek (1986). Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. "Review of Newton's Principia". Readings in the Literature of Science. Richard (1931). James (2003). Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. Zev (1991). Jed Z. Newton at the Mint. W. 2006. ISBN 0841430144. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. Rapport. New York: Free Press. H. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1959). "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". ISBN 0521229642. excerpt and text search (http://www.0006. ISBN 0792310543. I. W. (2002).questia. excerpt and text search (http://www. • Shapley. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". The Cambridge Companion to Newton.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. The Background to Newton's Principia. ed. ISSN 0035–9149. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. • Halley. 500 pp.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jason Socrates..1978. • Gleick. John Maynard (1963). • Gjertsen. edited by I. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. and H. S. England: Cambridge University Press. A. (1988). Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. ISBN 0375422331. eds. Wright. Norton & Co. Leibniz. Bernard Cohen. Stephen.. 1958. • Cohen. Harper & Bros. George E. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Isaac Newton. London: G. • Christianson.. ISBN 0-674-46853-8.amazon. (1965). Knox. A Treasury of Science. P. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. "Newtonia" pp. Newton. N. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. ISBN 0486428052. • Bardi. ISBN 0486253465. MIT Press.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. ISBN 019530070X. (1946). B. Isaac. (1975). and Cohen.D.. Harvard University Press. (1980). Essays in Biography. New York: Henry Holt and Company. M. Harlow. London: S. Great Experiments in Physics. Springer. • Koyré. 2001.1988.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. • de Villamil. Morris H. E. • Craig. 147–9. • Keynes. 256 pp. • Berlinski. (1687). ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. Newtonian Studies. The Principia: a new Translation. (1728). See this site (http://www. T. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. • Newton. The Newton Handbook. ed. Alfred A.1098/rsnr.amazon. Knopf. • Shamos. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. (2000). W.com/dp/0521656966). doi:10. Guide by I. Gale E. Oxford University Press. (1959). I. New York (1972). the Man. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. Inc. Bernard and Smith. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "Discoveries" pp. J. The Calculus Wars: Newton.. 277 pp. excerpt and text search (http://www. New York. E. complete edition online (http://www. Kepler. On the Shoulders of Giants. • Dampier. John (1946). Isaac Newton. (1965). Dampier. Palmer. (1950). David. .amazon. (1996). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. De C. Cambridge. Gale (1984). ISBN 0-393-00189-X. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. – Preface by Albert Einstein. I. Oxford: Clarendon Press. New York: Chanticleer Press. J.

974 pp.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton.google. • Whiteside. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. Florian Cajori. xvii + 325. J. 1670–1672. (2001).org/stable/4028372). Motte.Isaac Newton • Simmons.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). H. and Influence.1017/S0007087499003751. 7 vols. H. (1996). (1952). links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. (1971). W. Archetypal Heresy. and Richard H. in JSTOR (http://www. Arianism through the Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1999). J. (1996) 214pp. • Newton. 342pp . Nature. • Brackenridge. Pp. New York: Dover Publications. Cambridge U. 16. Opticks (4th ed. (1934). with chapter 4 on 18th century England. W. Sydney: The Book Company. Isaac. 299 pp. originally published in 1752) • Westfall. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. I.google. London: Taylor and Francis. Ayval. • Stukeley. ISBN 0521077400. 1730) online edition (http://books. Isaac. (1959–77) . tr. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438.jstor. 1: The Optical Lectures. R. (edited by A. "Isaac Newton. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. • Pfizenmaier. London: Macdonald. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. • Newton. The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time." Osiris. (January 1997). rev. University of California Press. ISBN 0444196110. ed. Popkin. 2nd Series. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. 19 Religion • Dobbs. (1999). 1996. Vol. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. Maurice. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. A. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. D. – 8 volumes • Newton. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. Newton and Religion: Context. 627 pp.. Turnbull and others. 2. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. I. Vol. (1999). Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. T. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. Berkeley: University of California Press. Press.jstor. JSTOR 4027945. 1984.google. Isaac. • Newton. S. Primary sources • Newton. doi:10.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. • Wiles. or A Treatise of the Reflections. (1936). Refractions. Stephen D. White. James E. Bruce. Stephen "'God of Gods. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. JSTOR 3653988. eds. pp. (1991). Thomas C. Betty Jo Tetter. Inflections & Colours of Light. University of California Press. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. (1967–82). "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?".com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. Isaac. Opticks.

and motion (http://plato. • Newton. ed.questia.org/snobelen.math.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. John Deighton. Hall and M. • Newton. Cambridge University Press.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries.stanford. London: A.newtonproject. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Hugh.skepticreport. 1850.htm) (via archive. Schofield.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton.archive.indiana.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton.uk/prism.a. online edition (http:/ /www. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents.php) • The Newton Project (http://www.org/NYC051308/index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.mcs.ac.stanford.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www.phaser. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato. (1748).org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato. R. Cohen and R. B.pbs. J Edleston. John J. E.html). "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history. Cambridge. in Four Books.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page..tqnyc. I.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H. (1953).isaacnewton.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports. B. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato. Cambridge. John W.org/web/20080629021908/http://www. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. Anand M. Sir Isaac".dlib.uk/ Biographies/Newton.stanford.. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www.htm) Kandaswamy.ac.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.galilean-library.google. West Strand. C. London.stanford. Thayer.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss.sussex.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ). A. I. com/predictions/newton.adherents. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes. Nourse.chlt.rutgers.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www. (1962).html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www.fmalive. Millar and J. Sir. I. "Newton. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space. Robertson. time.edu/entries/newton/). London: Dawson. Parker. ed (1911).50. Roger Cotes.pierre-marteau. . I. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web. S.com/modules/historic/newton/index. Hall. eds. – Google Books • Maclaurin. Edmund F.com/biography/Newton. • Newton. (1958).edu/entries/newton-stm/).edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library.). including letters of other eminent men (http://books.st-andrews.fullerton.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702).edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/). (1975).html) Newton's First ODE (http://www.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www. University of St Andrews. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I). 20 External links • Chisholm.wolfram.

html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts.ac.mcs. optics. audio.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.ac.ac. full text on archive.gutenberg.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history.sussex. Space.uk/prism.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.com/). at the Newton Project (http://www.cam. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www.ca/newton/) Images.ltrc.earlymoderntexts. physics.ac. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www.cs.org • Newton Papers. or a Treatise of the Reflections.sussex.uk/collections/newton) . reception.lib.enlighteningscience.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up). php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.ul.mcmaster.archive.nodak.st-andrews.edu/id.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy. Refractions. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www.cmu.ndsu.newtonproject. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.math.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton.

James and Margery Ayscough. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. As his father had been a farmer. unlike her. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. By this time Isaac was ten years old. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. When Rev. and returned to his mother's household. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). in April 1642. at quite a critical time in his education. who buried her next to his father. and thus took him away from his school studies. She and Rev. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. He spent a year away from school on the farm. the elder. . Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. He died in October 1642. Smith died in 1653. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. Hannah's brother William. at the age of nineteen. Lincolnshire. when he was three years old. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). Later in his life.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. when Isaac was 54. 1697 by her son. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer.

[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. witty and clever. However. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. Is. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). not before. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. and baptized at Brigstock.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist. Newton. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. half-niece of Isaac Newton. the wife of John Conduitt.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives.[5] . Hannah Smith.

[8] St Martin in the fields register. Westminster Record Office. 1715. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress. near Winchester. Harl Soc vol 24. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton. p195. by then Earl of Halifax. entries in 1710 and 1711. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Charlotte M. [9] Yonge. King's College Cambridge. html). not to make a dispute over her legacies. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. Montague. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706.[7] The couple had one daughter. Vol 4. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. ac. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. I have long had for her person.sussex. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. however. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. online-literature. p349. 1543–1869. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park.5. On 30 August.newtonproject. Parish register. John Wallop. . uk/ art/ portrait. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. [3] Swift. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. National Archives. National Archives. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. (1898). References [1] Robert Barton's will.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. PROB11/416. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130.online-literature. Harliean Society. 1886. Northampton Record Office. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. Catherine. • The Newton Project (http://www. www. towards the end of his life.ac. PROB11/546. Retrieved 23 September 2009.php?id=15) . & previous reference. 1689. [7] Hants Record Office. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. born in 1721. and their son. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. [5] Newton Correspondence.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. Viscount Lymington. his nephew George Montague.com. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year.uk/prism. newton. affection and esteem. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. Journal to Stella.

During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life.[3] . and was baptized at St Paul's. Hampshire. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. Covent Garden. In 1720. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. on 8 March 1688. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. on petition. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. but after starting. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. Early life. 1st ed (reprinted). near Winchester. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. and his niece. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. proposed by the president. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. defending the government on a number of issues. towards the end of his life. 1968. London. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. he quickly stopped. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). Sir Isaac Newton. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. Cambridge with three others. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. Covent Garden. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. while at Westminster. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. Catherine. and his uncle by marriage. a whig member for Whitchurch. The couple had one daughter. London: Dawsons. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. described herself as 32 years old. named after her mother. isbn 0712903305. Newton: his friend. but did not graduate. 161 pp. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. In 1705. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. staying only two years. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. then aged 38 years. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. (PRO.[1] By 1707.

John (http:/ / venn. His wife. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. . ac. who died in 1739. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". was buried with him. Charlotte M. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. www. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine.cyberbeach. ac. 1st Earl of Portsmouth. online-literature. (1898). vol 4. Retrieved 23 September 2009. J. Retrieved 27 September 2009.. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. aspx?compid=42018#s4). Viscount Lymington (d. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. 1749) in 1740.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. ms 57. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. . underage. [4] Page.com. Cambridge University Press. A. References [1] Venn. On his death. Venn. fo 169 [3] Yonge. cam. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. eds (1922–1958). www. J.uk. and their son.ac.. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. uk/ report. british-history.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton. lib.). Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley.british-history. William (1908). Huntingdon Library.htm) . Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. John Wallop. " Conduitt. California.online-literature. Catherine. uk/ cgi-bin/ search.

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. This he did at the age of eighteen.[4] At that time. Born prematurely. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). widowed by now for a second time.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. the English mathematician and scientist. 25 December 1642. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. and Kepler. optics and the law of gravitation. He hated farming. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. master at the King's School. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. In 1665. At the time of Newton's birth. Newton was educated at The King's School. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. he was a small child.[3] Henry Stokes. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. and by October 1659. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. attempted to make a farmer of him.[6] . the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. He was removed from school. Margery Ayscough. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. When Newton was three. achieving an admirable final report. In June 1661. Galileo. author of the Principia. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. he was admitted to Trinity College. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education.1 litre). where his mother. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband.

I saw two such Crowns about her. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. Isaac Barrow. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. many years afterwards. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. February 19th. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon." . for in the beginning of the Year 1664. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. part iv. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. its acceleration a. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. at night. and. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. and of a yellow and red without. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. which appear in his Optics. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. obs. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. 1699." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. and the applied force F is F = ma. together with observations on refraction. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. several calculations about musical notes. and introduced him to higher mathematics. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. in Lincolnshire. and in summer 1665. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". to two and fifty figures by the same method. John Slade of Catharine Hall. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. and borrowed Wallis' works. and red on the outside of it. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. In a small commonplace book. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. Cambridge. which was of a bluish green within next the white. and next about that the inner Crown. in the years 1663 and 1664.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors. particularly those "in affected powers. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. there are several articles on angular sections. I being then Senior Sophister. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. he was unable. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. book ii. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. near Cambridge. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. It was elliptical. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. dated January 1664. verging below farthest from the moon.

astronomy. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). "the name of the author is Newton. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. geography. Newton must have left college before August 1665. or some other mathematical subject. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. a fellow of our college. and also chemicals and a furnace. dated 7 August 1665. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. On each occasion it was agreed. and 22 June 1666." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. apparently for chemical experiments. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. He wrote a paper. 29 . as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. mathematician. probably in June 1669. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. In March 1668 he took his M. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing.] a mathematician of no mean order. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion.A. who had a powerful genius for such matters. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. but kept the name of the author a secret.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. There were nine vacancies. which he put. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. statics. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). arithmetic. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. Dr Pearson. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. optics. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. [see also James Gregory. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. and signed by the master of the college. and who. and a young man. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. and added. degree.

because. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. as glass transmits. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. I wondered. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. and which was read before the society two days afterwards.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. which would polish as finely as glass. it could not collect those also into the same point. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. he proceeded: "When I understood this. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. So that. and finding them regular. After he explained this to the Society. than a circularly figured lens. for I saw. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. bishop of Salisbury. But these seemed very great difficulties. Nay. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. were light uniform. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. when I further considered. provided a reflecting substance could be found. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. the secretary of the Royal Society. and reflect as much light. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. as I found it. on 6 February 1672. so that a much . I understood. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). if they continue them for any time. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. and I have almost thought them insuperable. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. The whole is printed in No. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. I left off my aforesaid glass works. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence.

and in an inverted order retain the same colours. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. And this analogy twist colours. when I made the other. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. Further on. so I doubt not. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. and that the paper. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. You may also see. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. are again dissipated and severed. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. you will not only find. but yet most luminous in blue. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. as I imagined. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. but not very distinctly. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. with which 'tis illustrated. but yet most luminous in red. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. the figure also would be corrected to the last. as you inform me. which. but I shall conclude with this general one. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. as I said. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. for. by such motion. that the prism and lens be placed steady. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). whereby. are taking care about it at London. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. and vanish into whiteness. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. I conceive. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. how the colours gradually convene. They have there no appropriate colour. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. care must be taken. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. proper for metal. . And therefore. I began to try. if I have committed any. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. He concludes his communication with the words: This. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). or to thwart this relation. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. or proportionally disagreeing in both. that none of the colours fall besides the lens." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. what might be effected in this kind. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. or of acknowledging my errors. But it is requisite. if any thing seem to be defective. And there place a clear and colourless prism. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. that. than in figuring glasses for refraction. who. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. which they had before they entered the composition. but yet with this difference.

Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. light polarization and binocular vision. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. and. and entered in the Regent House. George Villiers. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). The public oratorship fell vacant. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. and the inflexion of light. I do recommend them both to be nominated. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. but was not published. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. he says. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. till after Newton's death. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. or communicated to the Royal Society. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. and are now almost universally rejected. and many others. who was the chancellor of the university. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. when a description of it was found among his papers. and he wrote on double refraction. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. and. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. ." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. or leave to come out after me. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. or to become a slave to defend it. however. endeavored to effect a compromise which. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. Others criticized the experiments." The heads.

Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth. as several others are.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. Newton. and one of Newton's intimate friends. I desire to withdraw. I thank you. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon.) . had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675." (See Newton's cannonball. by calculating from Kepler's laws. he says. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). owing to decay. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet.57 metres) in one minute. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. (4. as he was not in holy orders. dated 23 June 1673. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. a fellow of the Royal Society. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. till 1860. when." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. He therefore was led to inquire whether. who married John Conduitt. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. In one version of the story. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. if you have not done it already. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth.

and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. one of the secretaries of the Society. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. one of the fellows of his own college. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. Newton replied promptly. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. in the month of August 1684. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. but he promised to send it to Halley. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. Unless otherwise noted.e. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. By the time he died. . At Newton's birth. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. and started for Cambridge. by the hand of Mr Paget. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. i. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. In January 1684. "an ellipse"." He could not. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. Moreover. the secretary. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. After the latter had left Cambridge. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. or their views about the researches of others. to consult Newton on the subject. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. however. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. I have calculated it. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. put his hand upon his calculation. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself.Early life In November 1679. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. "Why. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. made the two results. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. Sir Christopher Wren. a copy of his demonstration. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. Oldenburg.

He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. ISBN 0521477379. J.. Isaac. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. Cambridge University Press. 35 References • Westfall. (1994). Charles Montagu.43. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. " Newton. afterwards Earl of Halifax. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint.B. lib. was false to him. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". Venn. eds (1922–1958). pp. cam.297-314. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994." Newton was now 55 years old. A. Later life During his residence in London. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. when Montagu. Isaac (http:/ / venn.435-440. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. Cambridge University Press. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. The office is the most proper for you. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. google. 11. cam. Vol 2 (1676-1687).. However. I. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal. sfu. In a letter to Newton announcing the news. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. 16–19 [4] Michael White. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. J.) (1960). ac. at pp. (Cambridge University Press. and the esteem the king has of your merits. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. Michael Hoskins (1997). its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. and has not .). giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp.Early life [2] Cohen. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". p. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. p.M1) [5] ed. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. Vol. [7] Newton. Montagu. the warden of the mint. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. Cambridge. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. cited above. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. 1960). uk/ cgi-bin/ search. (1970). . 159. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. ac. The Life of Isaac Newton. lib. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. Mr Overton. [8] http:/ / www.) (1960). Richard S.

Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. a secret. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum.200 and £1. a post worth between £1. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. the second. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. To this work were added two treatises. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. however. a process that was completed in about two years. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble. while exports were paid for in gold. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. with an account of their properties. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. except to Newton and his friends. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. Newton took it seriously. was still. he did not exhibit it in the results. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports.500 per annum. Of this. .[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]).

and a second edition of it. and E. I have on this occasion made it public.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. by Dr Machin. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. P2." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. "tanquam. but he received a letter from Leibniz. obtained leave to make it public. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. and. with improvements by the author. 's Gravesande published a tract. secretary to the Royal Society. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. prefixing to it an introduction. and having since met with some things copied out of it. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. and published by Dr Wallis. who have solicited the. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. W. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. . And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. which was also written many years ago. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions." says he. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. In that year the Academy was remodelled. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. and he gave a method of determining it. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. and made known to some friends. although Newton's solution was anonymous. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). He also solved the second problem. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. making it public. was published at London in 1712. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. and eight foreign associates were created. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. Hartsoeker. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. Leibniz. (2) to determine a curve such that.

who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. fellow of Trinity College. and a number of honorary degrees conferred." Newton. have been completely investigated." (I have learnt . Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. "will be glad to see you in June. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society.." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. when the queen. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. however." he said. Dr Edleston. but being a Whig. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. were heard from time to time. and of a new edition. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. however. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. in the first few months of 1695. On 21 May 1709. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton.I forget from where . no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the ." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. and discharged the duties of the post. In April 1705. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. the master of Trinity. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. He held the office for 25 years. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. on Newton's recommendation. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. He was warmly supported by the residents. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. the queen's husband. so far as he could do it. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July. Rumours. 2002). Dr Bentley. The prince had offered. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. the master of Trinity College. after speaking to Newton. the lunar theory would.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint.. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. where a congregation of the senate was held.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). they paid a visit to Cambridge. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. Roger Cotes. and beaten by a large majority. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. of his work. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. he was opposed by the non-residents.

Newton criticized all the methods. The abbé. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. true in theory but difficult to execute. Caroline of Ansbach. On the 31st of March 1713. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. and. and endeavoured to refute it. "28 Mar. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . I. wife of George II. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. passed both Houses. on 27 July. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. for I find that I shall be examined about it.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. N. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. 3. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. 4. He mentioned four: 1. The Princess of Wales. lent his copy to M Fréret. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. 2. who translated it. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. took every opportunity of conversing with him." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. the following account of this new Edition. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. to present her with a copy of the new edition. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. I must not see it. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. who called witnesses. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. "If you write any further preface. At last. facilior redditur et amplior. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. 1713. vii. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. In Libri primi Sect. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. about midsummer 1713. an antiquary at Paris. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. Newton waited on Queen Anne. pointing out their weak points. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. however. and received the royal assent. In Libri secundi Sect. she requested him to give her a copy. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions.

in a letter to the Abbe Conti. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. and published at Paris. beginning his studies before 1690. after his death. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. to suppress it". One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. who was on the way to the continent. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. which was published in 1728. and though he was fatigued from work.. He therefore asked Locke. John which was published in London in 1733. translated into French by the observator. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. In an earlier part of his life. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. This was done. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. in 1756. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. he solved it later the same evening." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. . Upon receiving a copy of this work. to have it translated into French and have it published there. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. For example in 1716 Leibniz. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. This edition had many errors. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. a nephew of Bentley. Newton printed. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work.

litencyc. p.x. . Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Athol L Murray. pierre-marteau. University of Regina. PMID 15638889. ahds. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage.com. 21 September 1717. php?rec=true& UID=1304). after six years of "cock[fight]ing. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. who. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. [10] Westfall 1980. www. ahds.1111/j. pdf). Wise. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads. . horse racing. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. Gilbert J. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. Vol V. Charlotte M. ac. [9] Ostad. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. [6] By The King. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Retrieved 2008-05-22. doi:10. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. archive. Athol L Murray. pdf) (PDF).online-literature.05242. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. pdf).and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. 870 [11] Yonge. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). April 1842 . urotoday. html). He endured great suffering.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. Sir Isaac Newton.1464-410X. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. ISBN 9780151012787. measuringworth. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. (1898). online-literature.[10] Towards the end of his life. ac. (2005).Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey.. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Newton and the Counterfeiter. com/ php/ stopics. OCLC 276340857.2005.January 1843 (http:/ / www. Edward. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). Retrieved 23 September 2009. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. Richard Kleer. .

Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. with a and historical introduction by I. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science. the noted English scientist and mathematician. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. alchemy.ucsc. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). In this sense. for example. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science.edu/~michael/koll. Bernard Cohen (Dawson.". Santa Fe. 1975).html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . economist John Maynard Keynes. he was the last of the magicians. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). Distinctions between science. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. superstition. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. These occult works explored chronology.

"[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. catalogue. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. and analytical chemistry. Diamond. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. several projects have begun to gather.[8] .[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy. with its associated nomenclature. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. In recent years.S.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. or some other substance). a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. The English Crown. In the story. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. A perfectionist by nature. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings.[2] It was for this reason. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". Newton is thought to have said. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U." 43 In 1936. and perhaps to a lesser extent. made penalties for alchemy very severe. Newton's dog started the fire. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. who throughout his life. In addition. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. Arts and Humanities Research Board. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. lead. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. National Science Foundation. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. burning 20 years of research. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. "O Diamond. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today.K. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community.

(one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. "Ezechielem Explanationes". "Nicholas Flammel. and his "secret book". Artephius. This concept.[12][13] . including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. 1728. and the vegetable or the growing stone. Published London. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. in a search for their occult knowledge. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. and occultism. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. though mysterious figure. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. "Theatrum Chemicum".[10] In addition to scripture. Nicolas Flamel. Most notably are documents entitled. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. early forms of tarot. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. In its time. Hieroglyphical Figures. In predicting this he said. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. "Artephius his secret Book".

is not only to be found in the volume of nature. the same was true of their architecture. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. conic sections. Psalms. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. only adding to the public interest in the temple. ” During Newton's lifetime. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. Around 1692. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. due to the success of Villalpando's publications. and other harmonious constructions. there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. In addition. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. 27 years after his death. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". scholars. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. . Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. but also in the sacred scriptures. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. orthographic projection. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". Isaac Newton's treatise. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. when deciphered. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. both speculative and active.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". In 1628.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. such as golden sections. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. was published posthumously in 1728. This immense 13-foot-high (4. To Newton.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. [14] Job.[17] In 1754. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. . spirals.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. as in Genesis. In the knowledge of this philosophy. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Isaiah and others. which was popular in its day.

an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. The first document.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. 2060. Nature. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. It may end later. 7th. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. Both of these lay essential to his calculations. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. the period of 1260 days. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. will end A.] 70. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. evidently written by Isaac Newton. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio.C. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. 800. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. in or after 1705. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks. Britain's Daily Telegraph. 1. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. .Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. part of the Yahuda collection. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents.[19] is a small letter slip. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. Christ comes as a thief in the night. Canada's National Post.C. Furthermore.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year.[D. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents.

The marriage supper. but rather one in which he believed the world.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. Homer. and various other classical historians. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. In Greek Mythology. but was sunk into the Sea. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. Anatolia. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. Africa and Asia. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. and the Levant. Plutarch.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. as he saw it. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. and available source material. In a separate manuscript. and poets. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. In fact. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. As such. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. However. standards. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. It is done. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. Pliny. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. authors. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. Egypt. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". an approximately 87. Ogygia was home to Calypso. or possibly the same island. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). . In this entry he mentions Mephres. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth.

He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. would seem to exclude Newton .C. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. and highly politicised. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. which they claimed to have in their possession. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. however. remains unclear.[26] At the time of his death. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). the physical universe. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. not esoteric societies. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized. anti-Catholic. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. Additionally. these are considered learned societies. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. Furthermore. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint. the level of their secrecy. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them.[24][25] however. a recognized Knight. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. Considering his esteemed social status. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. In his library. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). For its time.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups.". The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. Like Newton. and the spiritual realm.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. avowedly Christian. However. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. lack of supportive publicized material. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself.

htm) on 6 May 2008. Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. 1999. . Retrieved 2007-08-12. do). from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. p. 2010 [5] Newman. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. USA: PBS. google. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. christianpost. Retrieved 1 July 2008. dlib. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. [11] Christianson. Oxford University Press US. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Temple Institute. However. Gale E. References [1] Keynes. edu/ newton/ index. July/August. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. ac.M. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. Retrieved 2010-07-19. htm). . 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. as were many members of The Royal Society.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. "Newton. [10] Richman. pbs. William R. indiana. huji. Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. Temple Institute (1991-2008). however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. . archive. During his own life. (2005). Page 91. templeinstitute. Discover Magazine. uk/ prism. . Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. The Man". ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. [6] http:/ / webapp1. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. referring not to a medieval knight. jnul.. christianpost. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web.[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. 175. J. sussex. htm). com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. p. and he never publicly identified himself as one. ISBN 019530070X._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. Rabbi Chaim.Occult studies from their membership. 15–19 July 1946. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. 144. (http:/ / www. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. 19 June 2007.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. dlib. (5 April 2007). Archived from the original (http:/ / www.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. Oxford University Press. indiana. Associated Press. newtonproject. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". edu/ newton/ about. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. jsp [7] http:/ / www._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. ac. "The Da Vinci Code". com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. s-most-famous-alchemist)". Jane Bosveld. sacred geometry. . Pope). org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context.

htm).html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www. p. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www.math. Retrieved 1 July 2008. newtonproject.D. p. Retrieved 2008-06-25. Joseph.jnul. 5 April 2007.science.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory.. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. J. "Juan Bautista Villalpando. Chetwode. University of Sussex: The Newton Project.sussex. .).org/library/drmath/view/55191. sussex. Michael.html) • unit fractions. org).htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. Laurence (2007). uk/ texts/ viewtext.gutenberg. pp. ac. Scott Mandelbrote. ISBN 1578634040.dlib.ac. inul. Holy Blood. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley.newtonproject.dcs. faculty.F. html). [23] Bauer. freemasons-freemasonry. google.ac. . f. p. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7. newtonproject. Michael (1999). com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). . bcy. London: Routledge.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies.themathpage. 1997. AHRC Newton Papers Project. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando. . 2005: Weiser. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. ed. [14] Gardner. uk/ texts/ viewtext. [19] Yahuda MS 7. .uk)) . htm).htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www.staff.freemasons-freemasonry.ac. ISBN 073820143X.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. 146. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books.ac. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized).Occult studies [13] MacDonnell.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h. 859" (http:/ / www. [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www.pbs. 50 • White. Holy Grail. & A. Da Capo Press. William (2010). com/ book_bauer. [18] Snobelen. 496. . Isaac.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. 2060.M.indiana. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. sussex.2a.st-and.com/aReal/unit-fraction.newtonproject. Isaac (5 April 2007). . Retrieved 2007-08-15.htm) • the math (http://www-groups. The Newton Project. ac. Retrieved 2007-08-15. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. Frances A.huji. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. 117.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode. sussex.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. Alain (2007). 31r [22] Newton. (1972). [28] Baigent.J. fairfield. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum. uk/ prism. the Apocalypse and A. ISBN 1-59477-172-3.newtonproject. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. Delta Trade Paperbacks. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life.fairfield. . (http:/ / www. W. f.from Chapter 3. google.3g.3o. Lincoln. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. Originally published: London : HarperElement.faculty. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. html).sussex. newtonproject. Michael. .newtonproject. ca/ aqc/ leon. ac. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7. written at USA.uk/prism. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-26. (http://www. Retrieved 20 April 2010. Henry (2004)." (http:/ / www. The Newton Project. spalding-gentlemens-society. (http://www. [26] White.php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley.com/pillar_solomon_temple.edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. ac. Book Excerpt . William Stukeley 1752. php?id=74). Fairfield University. . Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed. newtonproject.ac.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando.uu.ac..uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www.sussex. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No.niu. Retrieved 2007-08-19. isaac-newton. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. Stephen D. f. [17] Newton. org/ ). The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books." (http:/ / www. sussex. org/ newton_2060. Rob Iliffe. . S.sussex. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www.

After 1690. I study the Bible daily.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. theologian and alchemist. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. In predicting this he said. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. and he said. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. mathematician. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. written by those who were inspired. natural philosopher.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. "so little understood". including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. astronomer. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. had it been made public. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. in other words. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies.[1] Background These arguments. or. causes. The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. 77–82. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. place and motion. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. in general.[5][6] . space. Alternatively. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?".

Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. it begins to spin rapidly. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. On the other hand.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. — Ernst Mach. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition.[9] When. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. B: Outer ring rotates.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. C: Both rotate. but in opposite direction. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. Thus. his real position was that motion is absolute. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. Eventually. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. and that there is no absolute motion.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest.[7] However. who contended that all motion was relative.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. as the cord continues to unwind. A: Central object rotates. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. however. accordingly. not only with respect to the experimenter.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. but the neighboring train. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force. despite proximity to the pail. p. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. In other words. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. the surface of the water remains flat. but in opposite directions. but also in relation to the water it contains. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. it is not your own train moving. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. However.

Bucket argument If a vessel.. . and held at rest together with the water..[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string.. And therefore. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it.. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. forming itself into a concave figure. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. p. it is whirled about in the contrary way. as quoted by L.. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. then filled with water. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. discovers itself. but relative motions. as before the vessel began to move. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. will make it begin sensibly to revolve. and effectually to distinguish... and may be measured by this endeavour. the vessel continues for some time this motion. by the sudden action of another force. However. the surface of the water will at first be plain. and while the cord is untwisting itself. and ascend to the sides of the vessel.. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. see Rotating spheres. a limitation that has not been established.are altogether destitute of any real effect.. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. — Ernst Mach. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. after. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces.. is incomplete. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. In fact. do by no means come under the observations of our senses.. 58 . because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. . a stationary frame can be identified. and recede by little and little. . — Isaac Newton. Principia. Thus. not relative. which is here directly contrary to the relative. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. hung by a long cord. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. with no need for an additional centrifugal force.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover.

Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface..[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. . for if this were not so. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface.. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. But from the nature of a fluid. For example. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω. the sum of all three forces must be zero. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force. and the aim is to determine this function. the horizontal. the water. if at rest.. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. because the element of water does not move. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. one might question just how rotation brings about this change.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. p. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. However. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. To sum to zero. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. the co-rotating frame. 127 Moreover. see Knudsen and Hjorth. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses.

On the other hand. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. . To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. The potential energy is useful. were surface regions with lower energy available. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or.) As r increases. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. that is. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. That being so. equilibrium is attained. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. for example. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. because all positions are equivalent in energy. That is. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. In words. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other.

. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. John Cottingham translator (1988). google. p. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. [5] René Descartes (1664). with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. See Figures 1 and 2. 75. at a given angular rate of rotation. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. editors) (2002).Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. ISBN 0226282198. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. Cambridge University Press. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. Thus. This change in shape would not be stable. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. . Principia philosophiae. ISBN 0521358124. Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. Forgotten Books. p. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Requiring the energy to be constant. At some small angular rate of rotation. pdf [3] René Descartes. ISBN 1606201433. Cambridge University Press. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. google. University of Chicago Press. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books.M1). 43. the more concave this surface. 191. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. §25. 170. [2] http:/ / ia310114. Cambridge University Press. 105. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). p. archive. If rotation is arrested. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. p. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. google. however. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Smith. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. . To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. Part ii. for example through friction. The water surface is flat at first. ISBN 0521656966. this energy is constant independent of position r. As the height of water increases. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). us. a concave surface represents the stable situation. Bernard Cohen & George E. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. p. and the more rapid the rotation. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. google.M1). google. . and lowering it at smaller radius. . To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work.

. p. p. p..). Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. vol. google. ISBN 354067652X. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. 79-81 [13] L. ISBN 0521621135. George Edwin Smith. Springer. pp. Arfken (2003). ISBN 0521656966. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Cambridge University Press.iep. Time. p.M1). Lerner (1997). ISBN 0521857902. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein. Poul G.utm.. . com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127.edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279.stanford. A A Knopf. "Chapter 2.google. pdf) pp. pp. .M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. google. google. • Ralph A. and the texture of reality. 78–79. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. google.M1) (in Proc. . Bernard Cohen.google.com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). google. . com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). B. stanford. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal.Bucket argument p. [19] Hans J. 279–280. . Phil. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. [15] Jens M. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1. archive. google. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. pp. pp. . Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. 79. Soc.M1). • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. 78. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004).google. . edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. . Jones & Bartlett. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. In I. Lynden-Bell (1996).M1). [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). John Archibald Wheeler (1995). The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. Weber & George B. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. . "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. ISBN 0375412883. 143. Wiley. See: • R. Academic Press. • D. [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). op. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114.M1). 5 (1975) ed. New York: Courier Dover Publications.M1). . Hjorth (2000). 104. ISBN 0691033234.edu/l/leib-met. . John Wiley & Sons. The Universe and the Bucket". ISBN 0521352541. Am. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. 19. Springer. Partridge (1995). Princeton University Press. Leibniz (http:/ / books. Zalta. 404. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). [11] Robert Disalle. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.M1). google.). ISBN 0486607690. p. ISBN 0867204796. External links • Newton's Views on Space. p. 119. 325–348. article by Robert Rynasiewicz.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. 127. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). google. In Edward N. ISBN 1402086679. 386–387. us. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. cit. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. [16] Lawrence S. editor) (2008). time. no. At the end of this article. [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). and Motion (http://plato. 45. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. 167. ISBN 0120598779.). google. p. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini.htm) see section on Space. Knudsen. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. p. stanford.

broadly called mathematical analysis. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. but the formulas are mere instructions. one goal of integral calculus. differential calculus and integral calculus. derivatives. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. Calculus has widespread applications in science. or "infinitesimal calculus".[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. It has two major branches. with no indication as to method. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. variational calculus. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. to calculate areas and volumes. integrals. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". and some of them are wrong. and infinite series. which prefigures the concept of the limit. functions. an integral test for convergence. 1820 BC). and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. pi calculus. Historically.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation.[4] In the 5th century AD. calculus. Calculations of volumes and areas. Calculus is the study of change.[6] . economics. while Archimedes (c. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. Eudoxus (c. More generally. term by term integration. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. and join calculus. early forms of differentiation. infinite series approximations. lambda calculus.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin.

Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. In his publications. He did not publish all these discoveries. but Leibniz published first. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. The product rule and chain rule. Pierre de Fermat. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. including fractional and irrational powers. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Taylor series. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. and the system of mathematical analysis. in their differential and integral forms. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. Unlike Newton. Isaac Barrow. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. and providing the product rule and chain rule. the notion of higher derivatives. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. Newton derived his results first. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus." —John von Neumann In Europe. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. By Newton's time. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. introduced the concept of adequality. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. and James Gregory. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. he developed series expansions for functions. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. which is its logical [7] development. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. the oblateness of the earth. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. In other work. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. second and higher derivatives. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time.

The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. In modern mathematics. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. Several mathematicians. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. Robinson's approach. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. Today. developed in the 1960s. to the detriment of English mathematics. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. including Maclaurin. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. who gave the new discipline its name. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. Following the work of Weierstrass. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral.Calculus Society. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. but it would be 150 years later. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. however. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. It is Leibniz. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. . In Cauchy's writing.

However. "infinitely small". Greece. but use the ordinary real number system. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. Iraq. 1/2. For centuries. In the 19th century. China. Historically. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. . the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. the slope of a curve. and motion. and pressure. time..e. arc length.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. and optimization. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. These questions arise in the study of motion and area.. They capture small-scale behavior. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. work. volume. From this point of view. especially the limit and the infinite series. which resolve the paradoxes. during the 17th century.. India. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. and less than any positive real number. in some sense. but less than any number in the sequence 1. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. Persia. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. . In this treatment. and for this reason they are the standard approach. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. 1/3. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. center of mass. i. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. and Japan. just like infinitesimals. Calculus provides tools. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves.

) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. where functions usually input a number and output another number. four is sent to sixteen. Therefore (a + h. however. y is the dependent variable. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. if the doubling function is given the input three. f(x)). This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. that is. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. then it outputs six. f(a)) and (a + h. If h is a number close to zero. where x is the independent variable. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. let f be a function. Thus. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. The derivative. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. it is possible to produce a new function. it is the velocity of the ball. then a + h is a number close to a. b is the y-intercept. pronounced "f prime. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. For example. For example. and applications of the derivative of a function. which is impossible. however. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. and fix a point a in the domain of f. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. can take the squaring function as an input. three is sent to nine. In mathematical jargon. the doubling function. the derivative of the function of f is f′. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. Given a function and a point in the domain. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. f(a + h)). properties." For instance. If the input of the function represents time. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. To be concrete. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. then it outputs nine. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. (a. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. f(a + h)) is close to (a. f(a)). outputs a second function. if the graph of the function is a straight line). If a function is linear (that is. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. and if the squaring function is given the input three.

The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. Here is a particular example. For this reason. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically.9) is 6. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. that is to say. .

We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. (This use of upper. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. the inverse operation to the derivative. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. however. integral calculus studies two related linear operators.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. If the speed is constant. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. only multiplication is needed. called a Riemann sum. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. properties. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. and applications of two related concepts. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. . the indefinite integral and the definite integral.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. as the output. the derivative. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. For example: In this usage. but if the speed changes. Leibniz. introduced by Leibniz. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. In technical language. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. then the speed will stay more or less the same. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. However. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative.

The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. Call that value h. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. The indefinite integral. the area between the axis and the curve. where C is any constant. the area. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. dx is not a number. we can choose one value of the function f(x). as an output. between two points (here a and b). To approximate that area. and is not being multiplied by f(x). but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. is y′ = 2x. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. The symbol of integration is . the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. f(x)=h. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). . A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. For each small segment. or antiderivative. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C.

Physics makes particular use of calculus. More precisely. slope. . the moment of inertia of objects. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. In analytic geometry. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. the study of graphs of functions. concavity and inflection points. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. engineering. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. for every x in the interval (a. statistics. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. then Furthermore. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. computer science. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. we use calculus to derive its path. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. business. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. This realization. For example. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). made by both Newton and Leibniz. In biology. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. b). demography. actuarial science.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. b). it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. economics. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. medicine. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a.

Reed. In nuclear medicine. Warren S. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. World Scientific Publishing Co. Jones & Bartlett Learning. J. Copy (http:/ / books. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow.. pp.. p. In economics. Method. Discrete Green's Theorem. F. John W. p 2 (http:/ / books. From Hammurapi to Legendre. google. Liu. Boston. google. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). Cengage Learning. Reprinted in Bródy. Inc. google.. Cosimo. An approach through history. html [7] von Neumann. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. Robert Sonné (1966). mcs. google. Cohen. Elif (April 1995). ac. University of Chicago Press. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. eds.. The Neumann Compedium. Dennis G. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. T. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. Wright. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. Donald R. 618–626. Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. "The Mathematician". 28. p. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. Vámos.. For instance. [9] Leibniz. Vol.Calculus Green's Theorem. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. Kenelly. fixed point iteration. For example.. .. p. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. 180–196. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. p. In the realm of medicine. ed. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. google... The Works of the Mind. ISBN 9810222017. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. p. Gottfried Wilhelm. Pte. Biggers. Scott. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. st-andrews. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. Chapter 1. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. 1984. Page 228. (2009). com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. 2. 130. Sherry (2007). For example. [8] André Weil: Number theory.). Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books.. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. R. . Inc.. B. Springer. 1995. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. google. Birkhauser Boston. 279 (http:/ / books. Agnes Scott College.see also the summed area table algorithm. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre... Fan.. ISBN 0817645659. I [3] Archimedes. Iris B. Dainian. Ltd. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. 279. Wright. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. agnesscott. and linear approximation. 1947. it's used to derive dosing laws. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. . Examples are methods such as Newton's method. xxvii. 2008. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. .. in Heywood. MA. pp. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. google. htm). com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. Chapter . .

.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. • Cliff Pickover. Bruce H. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie.. 1: The Tools of Calculus". No. • Tom M.ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 .. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. Wiley.. 9th ed. • Tom M. Calculus: Early Transcendentals. Maurice D.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. Stony Brook.. • Florian Cajori. Dover edition 1959. Press. Hafner.John Willey and Sons Pte. • Albers. (1988). NY. Carl Benjamin (1949). Mathematical Association of America No. • Edmund Landau. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. 11th ed. Calculus for a New Century." (http://mathworld. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. Richard D.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). University Science Books. Addison-Wesley. Donald A. (1967). (2003). ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th." Annals of Mathematics. Donald J. Apostol. ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. "Calculus". • Silvanus P. (September 1994). ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. ed. Apostol. (1998). Anderson and Don O. • Howard Anton. • Leonid P. google. The Association.. ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. American Mathematical Society. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. 25. pp. Princeton Univ. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. Ch. 2nd Ser.html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. Edwards (2010). 1 (Sep. • Robert A. "Calculus". Eric W. Adams. ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course.Irl Bivens. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. • Mathematical Association of America.2002. Publish or Perish publishing. ED 300 252. "The History of Notations of the Calculus. • Michael Spivak. Loftsgaarden. Frank R. Addison Wesley. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. (1969). Ltd. Not a Filter. 7. • Thomas/Finney. • Weisstein.. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. James (2008). (1999). Thompson and Martin Gardner. George B. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. Joel Hass. Wiley. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. A Pump. (1996). Weir. 1–46. Ron. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. (2003). Giordano (2008). 2004. Volume 1. 1998. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications..Stephen Davis:"Calculus". 6th ed. 1923).wolfram. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. Volume 2. Vol. Lebedev and Michael J.

• Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw.cacr.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses.nd.com/calc/calc.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.uiowa. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics. (1991). G. soton.uiowa. (2004).encyclopediaofmath.html (http://www.math.bbc.D.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.math. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.ericdigests.economics.org: The Calculus page (http://www. (2006).pdf (http://www.wolfram.html)" from MathWorld..edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. William V.pdf) • Faraz.htm) from ERICDigests.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus.math. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.ac. H.lightandmatter. Michiel Hazewinkel ed.math.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson. lightandmatter.caltech.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.mit.edu/~keisler/calc.pdf) • Sloughter.cacr. Thompson (http://djm.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www.pdf (http://www. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.wolfram. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus".html) • Mauch. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism.umn.pdf (http://www.understandingcalculus.htm) • Smith.bbc. URL http:// www. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism.nd. (2001). Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. (2003).edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext. mit.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business).understandingcalculus. (2004).com/Calculus. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.htm (http://ocw. K.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. Eric W.co.htm (http://www. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P. J. . P. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www. Dan (2000).math.wisc.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.mit.calculus.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler.umn.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw. H. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow.org) at University of California.com/calc/calc. (2000).edu/~keisler/calc.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes. ( listen now (http:// www.math.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. S. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.edu/~sean/applied_math.caltech.org/pre-9217/calculus.com/ (http://www. Fullerton. " Calculus (http://mathworld. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology.htm) (HTML only) • Strang.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.pdf) • Garrett. "Calculus" Light and Matter.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell.edu/~sean/applied_math.co.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC. B.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www. External links • Weisstein.math. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre . (2006). "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www.org/index.wisc.temple.byu.math.html) at PlanetMath.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).

Newton manipulated the quarrel. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word. this statement went unchallenged some years. as noted above.[1]. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. Newton. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. Moreover. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. minima. 4. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675. or. and centers of gravity. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. A. and others.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton. exams and interactive applets.com/) Raymond. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. at the age of 23.Calculus Dame with activities.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman. as in the 'Principia' of 1687. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. 1709–1716. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith.mit. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. 2. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus. Newton.[2]) Meanwhile. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. . Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674.solved-problems.ucdavis. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton.html) by D. 3. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it.math. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687.

there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. one of which was new to him. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. on the method of tangents.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. Gerhardt. the manuscript. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. hence Newton's conjecture was not published.[2] At first. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. which was not known at the time. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. Shortly before his death. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. No attempt was made to rebut #4. C. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. However. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. however. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. I. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. In 1849. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. It is. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. but some deny this. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. and in fact worked together on some aspects. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. whereas Newton began from derivatives. in particular power series. In 1696. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation.

the letter of June 7." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. I have enjoyed little leisure. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. as it appeared to Newton's friends. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. dont plusiers se sont perdus. No such summary (with facts. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. the debate persisted for many years. In accepting the denial. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. and that of April 8. Several points should be noted. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. had endeavoured to wrest from me. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. of which many are lost. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess.. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. When pressed for an explanation.g. Moreover. The report of the committee. forty years ago. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. which the author of that epistle. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. as if by the authority of a great judge. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. but it appears that on more than one occasion. Now that I am old. in the Acta Eruditorum). Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e." he said. in the Charta Volans. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. before publishing them. All this casts doubt on his testimony. in most cases I did not keep a copy. finding in favor of Newton. Leibniz may have minimized. and doubts emerged. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. which I could sort through only with time and patience. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. 30 years later.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. 1713. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. dates. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. In any event. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. which referenced all allegations. Moreover.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. and when I did. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. "I have never. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. 77 . and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. 1716. suspicious details. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673).

com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). the differential and integral calculus. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. the analytical method of fluxions. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day.. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. whose potentialities he fully understood. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. tcd.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. 2003). the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. points of resemblance. at p. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. google. at page 250 (http:/ / books. They adopted two algorithms. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. (1970). ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. especially at p. not in the German-speaking world). (Cambridge University Press. . a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). google. which were translatable one into the other..99. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. (Guicciardini 2003. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. 1696). for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. google.. [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". [5] http:/ / www. at page 41 (http:/ / books. the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. at page 149. explaining "the method of first and last ratios". (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). and the differential and integral calculus. 120. D. 1967). "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1).. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. T. [4] D Gjertsen (1986). (Cambridge University Press. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . maths. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". of equal certainty. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. so making the priority row a nonsense. at page 400. "The Newton handbook". 1968). [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia.).

A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. W W Norton. The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. Rouse Ball.html). (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence.tcd. Press. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine."[1] . and tends. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. 1908. R. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. Edward B. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. W. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. Anand. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. A thorough scholarly discussion. or initiated by the Big Bang. • W. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. Canberra. including the law of universal gravitation.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness.html). 1988. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. • Stephen Hawking. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. as a perfect machine. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. Cambridge Uni. A.math. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. 1997.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. approaching a maximum value).rutgers. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. going on without the Interposition of God. 1980. 4th ed. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. random behaviour.maths. It continues ticking along. • Hall. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. a prominent supporter of the theory. • Kandaswamy. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz.. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. Dated.

the machine of the world. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. 2: 103-117. Robert Lambourne. 465. Richard S. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". [2] John of Sacrbosco. p.google. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. Pr. A Source Book in Medieval Science. Edinburgh. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy.html) The Physical World. References [1] Davis. Ed. cited in. ibid.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. On the Sphere. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. Cambridge: 1996. In this widely popular medieval text. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. God was the Prime Mover. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. This steel artwork contains moving gears. 1991. 3." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain." Science and Christian Belief 3. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. 201. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. p. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. This view of God as the creator. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. Alan Durrant. Andrew Norton. Edward. a working clock. 1850. who created the perfect machine and let it run. p. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine.K. God was the master-builder. and motion. Cambridge University Press. Joy Manners. Webb. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. 65. Further reading • Dolnick. 19. . R. p. regularity.. who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. quoted in Edward Grant. Clarke quotation taken from article. no.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. 1. 1974). and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". space. the Royal Society. Knud Haakonssen. 2011. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). Edward B.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. John Bolton. (http://physicalworld. Westfall. and beauty. ed. 2. Harper Collins.

1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. pp. Particle. com/ 65/ li/ light.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. Phys. translation. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865).[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. corpuscular theory of light. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. bartleby. James Clerk Maxwell. and the additional concept of force. and all their 'inner' qualities. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. spatial locality. 1210-1219 (2004) .com (http:/ / www. interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory.edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. html) . 1931). J.The Wave. Translation).Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics.whitman. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people.29-32. pp. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. 72. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. gutenberg.html) JJ Thorn et al. time. Eugene. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. Torrance (1982). Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. form. the material point and force (interaction between material points). htm [2] bartleby. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space.: Am. edited by Thomas F. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. retaining only inertia. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. Albert Einstein. an appreciation by Albert Einstein.

F = ma. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation.. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. and afterwards rendered general by induction. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. Therefore. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena.. or mechanical. Newton showed that these laws of motion. in Latin. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. opposite and collinear.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. and hypotheses. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m. Third edition. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal.e. page 943 of I. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. 3. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena. first published in 1687. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. in the third volume of the text. have no place in experimental philosophy. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). or based on occult qualities. whether metaphysical or physical. General Scholium. Newton's First and Second laws. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica.[5] For example. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. i. i. combined with his law of universal gravitation. and I do not feign hypotheses. .e. 974 pages. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1.[2][3][3] 2.

nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. from this point of view. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.e. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. independently of any particle structure. In this sense. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. In the given interpretation mass. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. then the velocity of the object is constant. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies.Laws of motion In their original form. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. i. This is the most common.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. Thus. Euler’s laws can. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity. momentum. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. however. acceleration. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. That is.

acceleration. and a is the body's acceleration. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. such is the case with uniform circular motion. In other words. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. if a body is accelerating. otherwise it would stop moving. Galileo. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. even if there is no change in its magnitude. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. Thus.[22] . The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. where F is the net force applied. Thus. the momentum of the body is constant.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate.e. i.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. then there is a force on it. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below). since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. m is the mass of the body. Consistent with the first law. however.. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it.

In case of a well-defined system of particles. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. by substituting the definition of acceleration. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. or obliquely joined. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F.[23] this is understood. Then. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system.[24] . is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. when they are oblique. particles by definition have constant mass. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. a double force will generate double the motion.[18] In classical mechanics.[17] The reasoning. a triple force triple the motion. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. known as the thrust. M is the total mass of the system. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). or gradually and successively. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. reading: If a force generates a motion. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. Instead. if the body moved before.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. in modern terms. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. Under some conventions.

not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. toward the contrary part. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. If a body impinges upon another. If you press a stone with your finger. For.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. but act in opposite directions. in its own motion. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. This law takes place also in attractions. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law.. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. and by its force changes the motion of the other. as the motions are equally changed. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. and directed to contrary parts. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. if the road . as will be proved in the next scholium. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. motion is Newton's name for momentum. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. as usual.[25] In the above. as it does the stone towards the horse.g. Although the forces are equal. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. As shown in the diagram opposite. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. The changes made by these actions are equal. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. but act in opposite directions. the finger is also pressed by the stone. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. that is to say.

Therefore. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. each exerting a force on the other. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. which can be stated as follows. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum.b are the forces from B acting on A. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. optical properties of substances. From a mathematical point of view. Fb. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. including general relativity and quantum field theory. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. At speeds comparable to the speed of light. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. one might say. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. So each and every force has two ends.[28] however from a deeper perspective.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). . 87 where Fa. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. and in quantum mechanics. most notably at very small scales. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity.a are the forces from A acting on B. Newton's laws of motion. momentum. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. Given two objects A and B. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. very high speeds (in special relativity. and not on a single object. However. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum.

Benvenuto. • Section 242. htm) [. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. "4. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. . and Tait. . Jacob (2008). volume 1.. (1867). Antonio. pdf). google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". . lightandmatter. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. Newtonian Physics. p. ce. html).. and is not used in fundamental theories (e.45G. [9] Benjamin Crowell. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books.Truesdell. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. ISBN 097046701X. the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. W (Lord Kelvin). and to both classical and non-classical physics. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. McGraw-Hill Companies.. google. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws. and by a modern text of the early 21st century. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. Translations.g. general relativity. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. Newtonian Physics. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). Treatise on natural philosophy. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. "Newton's First Law: Text. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www..Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. M. Halliday Browne. tripod. P G. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. doi:10. "Momentum. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. 58. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. Lubliner. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance.. quantum mechanics. since they apply to both light and matter.12. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. . Clifford A." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. google.]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. energy. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. Michael E. Dover Publications. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books. google. Becchi.. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. In modern physics. 207. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. ISBN 9780070084988. archive. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. quantum electrodynamics. berkeley. the laws of conservation of momentum. I. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. New York: Birkhäuser. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". us. ISBN 0486462900. . (2003).). see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books.1023/A:1022632600805. . the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. etc. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). springerlink. However. ISBN 3764314761. pp. Tseitlin. action at a distance has been completely eliminated... Edoardo (2003). This can be stated simply. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. Indeed.

[they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009)." [17] Halliday. .. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. Jerry S. google. pages 143–185. . The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0534997244. . Bibcode 1992PhyEd. google. (2) Stuart Pierson. "'Corpore cadente. Physics. ISBN 0387237046.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.112H. (http:/ / books. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[. html#NewLawMot). . p. p. p221. p.1007/BF00052611. Millard F. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only. 353.. 1. Faughn (2006).': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". [. doi:10.. McGraw-Hill. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. Muzzio. Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0521602890. Daniel.. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232." [19] Hannah.. pp. Educ. London/Berlin: Springer. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). stanford. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. "Physics". J. unless somewhat else stir it. 24. and (3) Bruce Pourciau.. com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. Resnick. Eds) (2002). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M. Berkeley 1999. ISBN 0471037109. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. pp. in 5. (2006). "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". 199. ISSN 0923-2958. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. Hillier. Marion (2004). vol. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves." [28] Newton. An Introduction to Mechanics.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. pages 627–658.B. ISBN 0534408966. is a truth that no man doubts. . 161. it will lie still forever. [13] Beatty. 133–134. 53. (1992).1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. ISBN 0070350485. Harman & Alan E. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. 1967). [22] WJ Stronge (2004)." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. 27 (2): 112–115. A new translation by I. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. Whiteside (http:/ / books. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. . [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. producing the relativistic expression for momentum. is not so easily assented to. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. 78–79. p.227P.M1). google.53. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Special relativity (http:/ / books. google. M J.). Serway. ISBN 052189266X.... Juan C. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude.T. College Physics (http:/ / books. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). s. 2007. 1971 [20] Raymond A. google. University of California press. Springer. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. p.. [11] Isaac Newton. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable.60 (2006). "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. . Pitman Paperbacks. Cohen and A. Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion.. Applied Mechanics. Angel R. pages 157–207. Phys. Archive for History of Exact Sciences." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". [14] Thornton. pp.27. 12 ff. but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. consists. 6. google. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". Principia.] Consequently. . doi:10. Robert Kolenkow (1973). See Harman and Shapiro. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. The Principia. [16] Plastino. cited below. Shapiro. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. . p. [26] C Hellingman (1992).Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. Whitman. Perspectives on Science. . For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. 1 (1993). also an online discussion by G E Smith. "Newton’s third law revisited". edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. google. John Wiley & Sons. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. Corollary III to the laws of motion .

edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6.wolfram. G. Isaac.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ). (1973). Special relativity (http://books.google.com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".google.).3). The Feynman Lectures on Physics. ISBN 0030973023.1).. Newton's Second Law (http://www.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). Newton's laws of motion (http://books.google.com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) . especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books. B.M1). Harcourt College Publishers. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books.motionmountain. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw. (2005). 6. ISBN 0070378525. P G. (2011). R.html#Section4.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations. W (Lord Kelvin). • NMJ Woodhouse (2003). (1999). volume 1.lightandmatter. containing Book 1 (http://books.. (1867). Newton's First Law (http://www.. London/Berlin: Springer. Vol. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). Peter W. M.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. Jerry. R. Leighton.lightandmatter. volume 2. volume 1.com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www. Benjamin. McGraw-Hill Book Company. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". ISBN 1-85233-426-6.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04. • Newton. (2011. and Tait.2). Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. Elements of Engineering Mechanics. Pearson/Addison-Wesley. especially at Section 242. Stephen (1995). Newton's Third Law (http://www. • Likins.).com/lm/). Saunders College Publishing. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books. Light and Matter). Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. P. html#Section4.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05. Thornton. ISBN 0805390499. Section 4. Sands.youtube. p. Light and Matter (http://www.3.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy.lightandmatter. and Section 5. Isaac.Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC). • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www. G. Cassiday. Wolfram Demonstrations Project. • Thomson.html#Section5. especially at Section 4. ISBN 0030223172.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC). • Newton.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. R. • Fowles. google.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04.google.2.lightandmatter. L. • Feynman.lightandmatter.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny. 1 (2nd ed.com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178). • Marion.1.mit.google.

Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. m1 is the first mass.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. first published on 5 July 1687. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. F is measured in newtons (N). Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. G is the gravitational constant.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. r in meters (m). but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. . (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant. and the constant G is approximately equal to 6.) In modern language. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects. m2 is the second mass. Both are inverse-square laws. Assuming SI units.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces.

"[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. Plagiarism dispute In 1686. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known". that Hooke communicated his "supposition . that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center".. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle".".[6] In this way arose the question what. but also. of 24 November 1679. On the latter two aspects." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". and on which some points still excite some controversy. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance. however.. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive . Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity.[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent.. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal. "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat. have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall. if anything. will so continue to move forward in a straight line.Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s.e. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers".. "prosecuting this Inquiry"). Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified".[7] It was later on. in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity". together with a principle of linear inertia. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.

[19] In addition. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. although significant. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. even close up. according to Newton. and Borelli[16] (who suggested."[14] . Among the reasons. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. Thus Newton gave a justification.[14] including Bullialdus. Hooke. but without demonstration.[15] (who suggested.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. without evidence in favor of the supposition. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding.[20] and associated sections of Book 3. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. otherwise lacking.. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. Newton did accept and acknowledge. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand. According to Newton. which Newton was making in the 1660s.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law.. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements. supported by mathematical demonstration. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. Newton acknowledged Wren. in all editions of the 'Principia'.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. which inclined me to try it .[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). but that did not mean. also without demonstration. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy.

. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. As a consequence. • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations... it becomes understandable how. gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses).[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. on the point at r0.[26][27] In the light of the background described above.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". see below) over the extents of the two bodies. Alexis Clairaut. taken together. as the component point masses become "infinitely small". where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". that "One must not think that this idea . for example.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. Nevertheless. That is. this entails integrating the force (in vector form. Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. cancel each other out.[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. In the limit. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. As described above. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable.

the increase due to the additional mass is 1. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2. further outward the gravity increases again. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. Thus. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. G is the gravitational constant. In this formula. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. quantities in bold represent vectors. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines . and if the sphere is large enough. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore.

g.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. object 2 is a rocket. object 1 the Earth). Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. Also. except that F is now a vector quantity. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). per unit mass. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . For 2 objects (e. It is a generalization of the vector form. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. it can be seen that F12 = −F21. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space.

. i. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Gravitational fields are also conservative. in SI. . In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system.[31] For example. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits.e. that is. this is m/s2. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. The field has units of acceleration. where φ is the gravitational potential. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model). General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. and c is the speed of light.

• The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. In point of fact. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. and the observed precession. Yet. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. "assigned the cause of this power". General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). independent of the quantities of matter involved. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. the definitive answer has yet to be found. you get an orbit with no precession. However. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science.. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. but in the case of gravity. which was detected long after the life of Newton. regardless of their different inertial masses.. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else." He never.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. I believe. in his words. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. though hypotheses abound. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories."[33] . and assume a point mass for each. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. Moreover. especially of planet Mercury. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. in his third letter to Bentley. decades before Newton. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. However. In all other cases. is to me so great an absurdity that. See the Equivalence Principle. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. In 1692. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. F = ma.

at p. at page 66 (http:/ / books. (University of California Press. 1960). "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". G. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google. document #286.. already cited. (Cambridge University Press. General Scholium. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. [21] D T Whiteside. doi:10. [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). Peter J.2. Bibcode 2008RvMP. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books.). Ofer Gal. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr.). nist..633M. see particularly page 431. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. translators: Isaac Newton. pages 5-19. especially at page 13. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". Barry N. the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. In general relativity. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). 1664-1684". iastate.633. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books.. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. Bruce Brackenridge. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". mpg. (Cambridge University Press.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. 45 (1991). mpiwg-berlin. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. google. start at page 177 (http:/ / books. physics. 1666. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. nist. [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". especially at 13-20. Florence. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Newell.. Mod. [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false).431-448. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. [2] . com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). pdf). 1645. Vol 2 (1676-1687). [18] Page 436. Direct link to value (http:/ / www. (2008). google. . Journal for the History of Astronomy. 1960). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. p. document #288. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg).1103/RevModPhys. public. (2009). (Cambridge University Press. 1960). [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. Book 3. [16] Borelli. In Einstein's theory. 1664-1684". 20 June 1686. [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. 24 November 1679. i (1970). A. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. start at page 263 (http:/ / books. Vol 2 (1676-1687). giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. i (1970). google. because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime. CUP 1989..956 . [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). 80: 633–730.I. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.Bernard Cohen.. . Rev. Vol 2 (1676-1687). pages 5-19. [22] See J. Correspondence.392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". (Cambridge University Press. [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. document #235. Vol.80. Theorem 35: p. [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 1995). 168. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. David B. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). Robert D. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686".. pages 11-61.). for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false). google.). [17] D T Whiteside. [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside.). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). by I..Proposition 75. Taylor. [8] Purrington. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. document #239. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. . 27 May 1686. 1960). ch. Springer. google. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Phys.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Paris. 1960). google. "Astronomia philolaica". htm).80. [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. (Cambridge University Press.

[28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. Charles W. edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109..W. M Nauenberg. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. (D) 4. 10 (2005). ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. Wheeler. by Richard S. H. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. Westfall. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". 1893).. Newton" (1759). then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. 518-528. it will indeed leave Earth. If the speed is very high. at page 69.youtube. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results".The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. utexas. stanford.) [33] . (C) 3. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. [32] . 529-534. Kip S.pythia. cited above. 10 (2005). in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 511-517.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. and it was the key force for planetary motion. it will simply fall back on Earth. John Archibald (1973). [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. Cambridge University Press. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. (A and B) 2. [27] See also G E Smith. New York: W. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée ..com. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. Gravitation. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. 1. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics".ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. html) [31] Misner. 10 (2005). and the Earth.Freeman and Company. Venus. in Early Science and Medicine. in Early Science and Medicine. ph.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". If the speed is low. Rouse Ball. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. (E) . at Introduction (section IX).Max Born (1924). in Early Science and Medicine. Thorne.. Newton". Ofer Gal. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World.

When the disc is rotated.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111). Carl et al. the colors fade to white. New York: Random House. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision. Notes [1] Sagan. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light.physics. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone.bucknell. eg. A combination of red. php?p=2_23 . google.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover).de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless. net/ index.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. net23. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result.virginia. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell.

The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. (x1. Suppose ƒ : [a. and the method can be iterated. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). for converging on the root can be easily derived. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. and its derivative ƒ '.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. f (x0)). Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. succeeded by Halley's method. That is Here. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. Then by simple algebra we can derive . f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root.

More details can be found in the analysis section below. though the connection with calculus was missing. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. In the same publication. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. essentially giving the description above.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. the better. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. for a zero of multiplicity 1. He does not compute the successive approximations . Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. . he arrives at an approximation for the root x. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). (The closer to the zero. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. But. in 1740. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. Finally. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis.) The method will usually converge. In 1690. Furthermore. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). However. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. Finally. However. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta.

there are some difficulties with the method. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. the method may overshoot. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. and diverge from that root. However. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. However. In these situations. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. if the multiplicity of the root is known. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. Specifically. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. For situations where the method fails to converge. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. Furthermore. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: .

6). then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. the sequence {xn} will converge to α.e. Exercise 1. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x). Specifically. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. However. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. then. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. In practice these results are local.. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. ƒ(α) = 0. α being a zero of multiplicity r. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. in U+. then the convergence is usually only linear. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. x in a neighborhood U of α. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. i.

Newton's method 106 That is. where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small.35287527 converges to 4.352836327 converges to –3.35283735 converges to 4. 3. 2. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2.352836323 converges to 1. 2. 2. For example. . (b) (c) Finally. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied.[1] for the function .35284172 converges to –3. 2. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms. 2. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1.

Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. This can happen. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or .1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. the method will converge. In general. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). In fact. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). Even if the derivative is small but not zero. for example. any iteration point is stationary. In such cases a different method. such as bisection. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. preventing convergence. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. . x1 will be undefined. For the following subsections. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. Let and take 0 as the starting point. instead of the starting point. since the tangent at (0. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root.

let . since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. For example. Indeed. where . Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. however. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. farther away than it initially was. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). In fact. except for x = 0. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. let then and consequently . So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . where its derivative is undefined (this. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. does not affect the algorithm. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. the derivative at the root is nonzero. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. In the limiting case of (square root).Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. so they do not converge in this case either. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. So convergence is not quadratic. then convergence will not be quadratic. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it.

Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. since both roots are non-real. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. 0. Given . meaning the iterates do not converge. 0.251062828. and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence.500250376. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions. . 0. For many complex functions. darker means more iterations to converge. 0. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. 0.032741218.067671976. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of .031642362. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. the derivative is not zero at the root. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. then convergence may fail to be quadratic. 0. Basins of attraction for x5 . even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. Indeed. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has.041224176.1 = 0. 0. For example.127507934. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic.

Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. k variables. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. . one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. In the formulation given above.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. If the nonlinear system has no solution.

We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2.) .5. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. which may be found via Newton's method. There are many methods of computing square roots. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. For example. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. and Newton's method is one. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. if one wishes to find the square root of 612. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x).Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. With an initial guess of 10. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. with derivative.

WT. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. New York: Cambridge University Press. 531–551. C. Classics in Applied Mathematics.7 [7]. Frédéric. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. Ortega.6 [6].). Universitext (Second revised ed. Deuflhard. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems.. J. 2000. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis.4 [5]. Kelley. and 9.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. • C. SA. Autar. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. John H. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. Springer. W. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10.1137/1037125. 2003. T. WH. doi:10. Vol. 1995. Charles. Flannery. MR2265882. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. • J. of translation of 1997 French ed. Gilbert. Cambridge University Press. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. Berlin. pp. 112 References • Tjalling J.Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . (2006). ISBN 0-521-00794-1. illustrating the quadratic convergence.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. SIAM Review 37 (4). • P. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]. Eric W. Sagastizábal.. Lemaréchal. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. Ypma.). • Kaw. J. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. 2003. • Press. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. Claude. PPT. Mathcad. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. 35. • Bonnans. SIAM. In particular. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein.).Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. See especially Sections 9. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. Kalu. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. BP (2007). 2004. "Chapter 9. xiv+490. Claudia A. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. Newton's method [9] -. Rheinboldt. Egwu (2008). 9. doi:10. Matlab. M. SIAM. Teukolsky. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. Maple. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. Vetterling.

edu [16] http:/ / math. springer. [3] http:/ / www. com/ empanel/ index. r-project. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. "A chaotic search for i". html [12] http:/ / animation. November 1997. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. php [11] http:/ / math. Gilbert. fullerton. nrbook. . html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. pp. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. 403-408. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. html#Section4. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. or dot notation. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. html [21] http:/ / www. however. "Cubics. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. com/ NewtonsMethod. com/ empanel/ index. amcgowan. 6). html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. In physics. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. yihui. It is defined as: and so on. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). maths. usf. fullerton. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. html [9] http:/ / www. p. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. torkian. eng. wolfram. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. chaos and Newton's method". Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. January 1991. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. macroeconomics and other fields. com/ empanel/ index. nrbook.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. 1 [10] http:/ / www. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. usf. [2] Strang. com/ empanel/ index. 3-12 (esp. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. html [17] http:/ / plus. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. Mathematical Gazette 81. lightandmatter. nrbook. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. nrbook. mathworks. heroku. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. Thomas. maccery. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. eng.

made with a concave Eye-glass. cam. but be an opake Circle. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. ac. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. being the first known successful reflecting telescope. covering the limb of the Metal round about. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. lib.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. He also made all the tube. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. or a little less. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. and not the spherical aberration. For this Circle being placed here. an early composition of speculum metal. than by Refraction in the Glass. and fittings. . but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. mount.

com/ image. Science & Society Picture Library. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. by Alfred Rupert Hall.. ufl. King.Publication. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown. Wilson Published by Springer. craig-telescope. Retrieved 22 November 2008.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE . London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). Modern Optical Engineering. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space. [10] http:/ / www. google. htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope. 1785" (http:/ / www. uk/ lens. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). p.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1..[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. google. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. Heath's) in Strand.University of Florida (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. McGraw-Hill Inc.[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. google. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. ssplprints. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. Telescopes in History.". Hatch . google. co. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. stsci. Dr Robert A. google. 2004 ISBN 3540401067. .M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. 1966.Work . Page 74 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. 9783540401063. Warren J.A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life .[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. page 67 (http:/ / books. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. html . clas. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23. They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672.6 References • Smith. php?imgref=10408672). when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm).

edu/~picard/personal/Newton.[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with.[9][10] If this was true. then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build).edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.media.mit.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one.[3] and others. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).stsci.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] . and there were many theories as to what caused it. such as Niccolò Zucchi.

Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. Like Gregory before him. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. cassegrains. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. Because of these difficulties in construction. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. mount. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. He also made the tube. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. . reducing cost and adding to portability. leading to wider field of view. it would still correct chromatic aberration. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. the primary mirror (2).3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. The surface also tarnished rapidly. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. and fittings. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671.

This flare is zero on-axis.[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter). The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation.[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape).[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. Visually. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. suffer from coma. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. low-power imagery. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. For visual observing. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. . For research telescopes.

a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. google. The Newton handbook. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. rice. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& . html) [3] Stargazer . Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. google. google.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . page 67 (http:/ / books. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. google.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. page 562 (http:/ / books. google.M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. VandeWettering. Page 108 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. Page 74 (http:/ / books. Inc NetLibrary. by Alfred Rupert Hall. org/ basics.By Fred Watson.Mark T. King.

[18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. htm).1. Wilson Published by Springer. com/ documents/ paracorr. p. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7. google.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian. Retrieved 2009-09-29. Hebra. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . Retrieved 2009-10-03. google. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. 77R [16] Sacek.John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. p. htm) [13] amazing-space. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life".M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. 9783540401063. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e.. . baader-planetarium. 116. espacenet. google. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley. Modern Optical Engineering. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. two. Vladimir (2006-07-14).and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. .edu . telescope-optics. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. . pdf) (pdf). [20] Alexius J. telescope-optics. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). Rolin J. stsci. 1966. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. "8. page 14 (http:/ / books.1. edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. google. McGraw-Hill Inc. .stsci. . David (2004).. "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. pdf). com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. net/ reflecting. Retrieved 29 November 2010. harvard. Gebelein. [12] telescope-optics. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. Warren J. ."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. & David Shafer. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical . com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. cloudynights.

. As an example where causes can be observed. 1974. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. Calinger. measuring the amount of tension in the cord. the tension). political thought and theology. pp. Vol. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. Mass. causes. (This experiment involves observation of a force. David Hume. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. if two globes. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. Retrieved 2008-03-26. he says. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. for one.: Harvard University Press. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. in addition to influencing philosophy. 3 (Jul. floating in space. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". . but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. with no other clues to assess the situation. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation. Journal of the History of Ideas. Such determination. are connected by a cord. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. Yehuda Elkana. 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument).[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. No. Ronald S. Cambridge. . Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. jstor. in general. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). 0.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. 319-330" (http:/ / links.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. 1969). Alternatively. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. CO. Also. 30. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a .2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".Sep.

if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. we might. Alternatively. Scholium To summarize this proposal. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. absolute space or fixed stars). for example. were revolved about their common center of gravity. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia.Rotating spheres force)..[8] (Of course. partly from the apparent motions. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. which are the differences of the true motions. by means of a cord that connects them. . have been established already as not in a state of rotation. . and if. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. Principia. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. — Isaac Newton. instead. For instance. from the tension of the cord. but standing on the Earth's surface. p. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. centrifugal forces are produced. as an example from Newton's time. and therefore.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. Book 1. according to Newton. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply.. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. even in an immense vacuum. they are not rotating. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. pp. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. the fixed stars. according to the preceding methods.[2][6] For me. partly from the forces. Because of the rotation. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. no centrifugal forces are produced. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. then. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation. the matter is more subtle. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. — Ernst Mach.) Below.

the tying string. but being on the opposite end of the string. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. Because of the rotation. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. Because the balls are not moving. and should require an inward force to do that. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. but circular motion at constant speed. See Figure 2. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. These two forces are provided by the string. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. (See reactive centrifugal force. they clearly see the string is under tension. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. In this zero-tension case. observers say they are at rest. According to the rotating observer. However. This force is directed inward. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. According to the article fictitious force. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. so the string should be relaxed. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. which would stretch.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. along the direction of the string. accounting for their observation. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. the string is placed under tension. the Coriolis force is:[11] . the string is under tension. the Coriolis force. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. they would say no force acts on the balls. pulling them apart. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). and is called a centripetal force. |xB| = R.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. (For example. and acts on everything they observe.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. m is the mass of the ball. not just these spheres. The other ball has the same requirement. but opposite in direction. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. also shown in Figure 2.)[9] To account for this tension. To travel in a circular path. putting the string under tension. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. locating one or the other of the spheres). requires a centripetal force of the same size. they could split the string and put a spring in its center.

it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. this force is not the tension in the string. In the geometry of this example. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. |vB| = ωR. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. hence. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. However. That is. Therefore. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. Full notational details are in Fictitious force. . the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. ωS < 0. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. In either case. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. When ωI < ωS. say ωI (I = inertial). so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. while for a more rapidly moving frame. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction.

[9] Barry Dainton (2001). [7] Max Born (1962). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. The Principia. Courier Dover Publications. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0521575729. Cambridge University Press. p. .Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. google. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. [5] Max Born (1962). Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. . Time and Space (http:/ / books.). Retrieved 2010-05-13. 82. McGill-Queen's Press. Draza Marković. p. google. 43. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. Hand. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324).M1). Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. google. 233. 79. ISBN 0486607690. 161. 324. p. . Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). Freeman (1986). . google. google.M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. Bernard Cohen & George E. Courier Dover Publications. [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee.[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. 167. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. google. ISBN 0521656966.[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. google. ISBN 0773523065. The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. . 80. [10] Jens M. Bernard Cohen. . Sausalito CA: University Science . com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books).M1). ωS is the greater. 175. google. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. p. p. Smith. Knudsen & Poul G. p. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. New York: Courier Dover Publications. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. editors) (2002). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. [2] Robert Disalle (I. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). p. google. Cambridge University Press. p. and I. [4] Max Born (1962). Princeton University Press. p. . google. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. . being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). ISBN 0486607690. Figure 43. google. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. ISBN 0486607690. ISBN 0521621135. ISBN 0521656966. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). Janet D. Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). ISBN 354067652X. Finch (1998). Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. [8] D.M1). com/ definitions. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. editors) (1996). Moreover. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books.M1). . google. ISBN 0486652270. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. . John Archibald Wheeler (1995). com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. p.M1). ISBN 0691033234. p.M1). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Hjorth (2000). . htm). 386–387. Springer. George Edwin Smith (2002). Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. . pp. Cambridge University Press. 43. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. tripod. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ .

Soc. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. ISBN 0738206105. google. google. . In Proposition 44. Moore (1989). Mechanics (http:/ / books. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. p. google. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. . google. 43. (3. Phil.M1). Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. their Eq. p. Lynden-Bell (1996).M1). Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. pp. In this example. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. p. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. ISBN 0521621135. and Ralph A. Dennis W. pp. 55. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books.3) in Stommel and Moore. (3. Cambridge University Press.[1] Since 1997. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. Partridge (1995). Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. 99ff. he showed that the added force must be a central force. vol.M1). [15] This result can be compared with Eq. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. 5 (1975) ed.). 348–349. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. .M1).4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. Da Capo Press. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. ISBN 0074603159. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. 119. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. ISBN 0521352541. but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. google. 275. .M1) (in Proc. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. . p.). showing that it was an inverse-cube force. Columbia University Press. D. he derived a formula for the force. In Proposition 43. google. 167. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. Draza Marković (Editors) ed.Rotating spheres Books. [16] R. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. Nothingness (http:/ / books. . Am. See Henry Stommel.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). pp. the theorem has been . They obtain the equation and where in their notation. 279–280. first published in 1687. B. Mechanics (http:/ / books. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. 325–348. . ISBN 0231066368.. p. fixed in space (the center).. . com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. no. Henning Genz (2001). google. Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. ISBN 189138922X. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books.

the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. Apollonius of Perga (ca. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. By analogy.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. However.[5] Roughly 350 years later. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . According to these laws. to first approximation. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth).Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. To explain the epicycles. exhibiting retrograde motion. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. In particular. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. However. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. 262 BC – ca. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. for planets orbiting the Sun. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". the presence of the other planets can be ignored.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. and so on. Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. Arguing from his laws of motion. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). To describe this forward-and-backward motion. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). always maintaining the same relative positions to one another.

the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex. However. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r). that is. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. r(t) and θ1(t). whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. The radial and angular motions. to first approximation. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. To find this approximation.[11] Brown. in particular.[12] and Delaunay. However. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. However. According to this theorem. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant.[13] However. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. afterwards.

Both of these coordinates. since θ2 = k θ1. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. For example. For this purpose. F2−F1 is a positive number. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. where k is any constant. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. If k2 is greater than one. such as r(t) and θ1(t). Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). In other words. the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. rather. its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. thus. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. change with time t as the particle moves. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. if k2 is less than one. the added inverse-cube force is attractive. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). r(t) and θ1(t). if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. F2 − F1 is a negative number. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. A GIF version of this animation is found here. For example. θ1). Formally. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5.Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. the path of the second particle is given by . as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. then. By contrast. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. the angle of the second particle. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. rather. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k).

Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. if k is less than one. Hence. shown in red). θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). i. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω. when the orbit is a circle. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3).e. at a constant angular speed. the second orbit resembles the first. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added.. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. in other words. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. If k is greater than one. respectively. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. when the distance reaches a minimum. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). i. Hence.. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. to one. in that case. this is true only for circular orbits. but not equal. where k is a constant. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. . both of which are constant. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. In this case. the orbit does not change as it precesses.. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. However. F1(r) = 0.e. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. According to the conservation of angular momentum. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. but revolves gradually about the center of force. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. i. However. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω.e.

as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. 1. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m). Thus. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. as illustrated in Figure 7. When k is less than one. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m. On the other hand. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). corresponding to an attractive force (green. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity.0 (green). Thus.0 (blue). L12/m.0 (black). the range of allowed angles increases. the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. the force is attractive. the inverse-cube force is repulsive. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals.0 (cyan) and 6. Thus. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). 3. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . when k is greater than one. 1. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. when k is less than one. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity.0 (blue). 3.5 (green).0 (cyan) and 6. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces. whereas when k is greater than one.

Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. oblateness in the attracting body. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity.. However. such as Hooke's law. where m and n are integers. An govern the motions of planets. Over time. For illustration. F = C/r2. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle.. no matter what its initial position or velocity. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n.. green orbit in Figure 10). This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. F = Cr. such as .) In such cases. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). For example. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. Conversely. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. For example. i. in general. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. i. and inverse-square forces. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. the line connecting the two apses. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. However. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). green orbit in Figure 9).e. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. In other words. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. provided that k equals a rational number. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. and other effects. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. this property is not true for other types of forces. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely.e. Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property.e. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. general relativistic effects. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. i.

the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. Thus. As noted above. the central force is a power law. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. this implies that. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. using the general law θ2 = k θ1. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. For the inverse-square force.C(r) is proportional to rn. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. F(r) = rn−3 and. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. the apsidal angle α is 180°. As a final illustration. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3).[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. In the first two. α equals 180°. i. in general. one of the first appearances of such a series. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). there is no angular scaling (k = 1). a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. Therefore. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor .. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. in the same time. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. where n equals 1.e.[16] According to their argument. Wilson and Harper. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). hence.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω.

These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8. In 1673.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. 18. However. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury.85 years.[25] First.6 years. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. and is noticeably more complex than that. Hipparchus and Ptolemy. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately. i.0165)[26] In 1894. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time.[24] for comparison. of the planets. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon.e. again on the monthly time-scale. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force . the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes).[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes.[23] in Newton's time.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude.[28] Ironically. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic. the so-called Saros cycle. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion..

Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. For every revolution. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle. and its argument is unchanged.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. so that r1 = r2. .[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1). so Newton reasoned. however. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument.[4] As Newton did. roughly half of the observed 3. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. Rather. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. the inverse-cube force is added. and estimates of A and B. r1 = r2. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. θ2 = k θ1. consistent with the formula given above. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. the long axis would rotate 1.525°). In this case. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth.5°. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. Also. The second term. but the inverse-square term is not. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. the original force is not scaled. In contrast to Newton. However. For comparison.

At the apapsis and periapsis. by Newton's Proposition 2. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. All three planets (red.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. which equals θ2 = k θ1. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. which equals (k−1) θ1. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. derived earlier in the Principia. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. In an infinitesimal time dt. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). by Proposition 2. Therefore. Proposition 44 . and also its angle θ1(t). Expressed another way. Proposition 43. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. specifically Propositions 43–45. therefore.

the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities.[33] By assumption. In Proposition 44 of his Principia. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995).Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r). by which two bodies may be made to move equally. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. one in a fixed. r(t). the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force.[36] In this Proposition. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. the other in the same orbit revolving. specifically by the formula given above. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. to offset this.

Berkeley. [36] Chandrasekhar. Principia.. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. problem 7). "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". 98–106. MA: Addison–Wesley. p. [6] Whittaker.. [26] Chandrasekhar. Wilson C. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. [24] Smith. [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). [2] Lynden-Bell. pp. 91–108. [3] Lynden-Bell D. Am. . Bibcode 1894AJ. "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". Delaunay C (1867). "Unknown title". pp. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". "Unknown title". [15] Newton. Math. Mémoires Acad. Mémoires Acad. p. esp. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". ISBN 978-1888009088. Monthly Notices Roy. pp. Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. Sc. Proposition 45.Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. p. Reading. section IX of Book I. [9] Cohen. CA: University of California Press. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1111/j. doi:10. "Unknown title". [10] Clairaut.: 451. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia". 52: 71. JSTOR 2369997. 184. [35] Chandrasekhar. [14] Newton. [32] Chandrasekhar. Am.1365-2966. [21] Horrocks J (1673). [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). bnf.14. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. 183.49H. [34] Chandrasekhar. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. Simon Newcomb. [17] Cohen IB (1990). Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. pp. 147. Harper W (1997).. doi:10. doi:10. pp.18. 135–147. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. 9: 31. "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. [29] Brown EW (1903). 83.386. pp. org/ abs/ 0807. Book III. 406.2008.1007/BF02422379. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". J. ISBN 978-0520065895. [16] Valluri SR. p. 252. p. D. 183–192.1023/A:1008317327402. Sc. 339–385. JSTOR 2369812. Propositions 43–45. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". London: G Godbit for J Martyn. Brown EW (1891)... doi:10. fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. p.: 237. [11] Hill GW (1895). "Unknown title". Green Lion Press. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". Imp. [27] Hall A (1894). Math. American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". [25] Newton. [13] Delaunay C (1862).245L. Bibcode 1987JHA. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. Jin S (2008). [12] Brown EW (1891).. AC (1745). 193–194. "Unknown title". Bragais S. p. [7] Sundman KF (1912). p. [22] Wilson C (1987). Astron. In Norman Thrower. 192. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27...1086/102055. 141–147.. [33] Chandrasekhar. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. doi:10. [4] Mahomed FM. 2708v1). Soc. 67–70. Principia.. 254.0016.1997.77W.).. p. Lynden-Bell RM (1997). editor.x. Proposition 2. The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. 267 (Chapter 6. Vawda F (2000). Principia. 187. Section IX. pp. 198. Imp. [37] Whittaker. [30] Roseveare N (1982). [18] Chandrasekhar. [19] Cook A (2000). [20] Smith. doi:10.2307/2369997. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". . Oxford. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". pp. p. Mechanics (3rd ed. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198.. [31] Symon KR (1971).13018. Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. [5] Sugon QM. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude.2307/2369812. Book I.

246–252. MM (2007).352D. "Planetary Motion". CA: University of California Press.1119/1. Principia Vol. Calculus (3rd ed.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . • Chandrasekhar S (1995). translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. External links • Three-body problem (http://www. Bibcode 2007AmJPh.). American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. 147–148. pp. • Whittaker ET (1937). A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. CA: University of California Press. Berkeley. (reprint.).com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. translated by I. ISBN 0-85274-348-3.2432126. pp. Merchant Books). Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. Berkeley. pp. Berkeley. Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). • Routh EJ (1960). "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe".). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). pp.. "The first-order orbital equation". LCCN 64-24556. Michael (1994). ISBN 978-0520088160. • Cook A (1988). • Guicciardini.). 246–264. 257–264. 147–148. ISBN 978-0520088160. • D’Eliseo. • Newton I (1966). 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). New York: Dover Publications. Berkeley. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. p. Cambridge University Press.google. New York: Dover Publications. CA: University of California Press. The Motion of the Moon. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. ISBN 978-0520088160. Macmillan and Co. ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. ISBN 978-0520088160. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). 534–545. 183–200. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3.google.. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman.). Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. pp. ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). ISBN 9780521544030. Berkeley. 230–233 (sections §356–359). • Smith GE (1999).scholarpedia. ISBN 978-0520009288. 83. • Rouse Ball WW (1893). • Spivak. John Wiley and Sons. Publish or Perish. 84–85. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". CA: University of California Press. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. • Pars LA (1965). 252–257. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. pp. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). "A Guide to Newton's Principia". pp. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint).75. pp. CA: University of California Press. assisted by Julia Budenz ed.com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). Bristol: Adam Hilger. Niccolò (1999). doi:10. ISBN 0914098896. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. pp. 56. • Smith GE (1999). Oxford University Press. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713).

including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. In fact. Babson Collection. pdf . It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. centre. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. and the solution of equations. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. babson. Title page of the Arithmetica. without proof. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. arithmetic. He also offered. Written in Latin. published in 1865). Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. the relationship between geometry and algebra. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. it was edited and published by William Whiston. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. when Whiston's edition was published. cfm [2] http:/ / www. and so refused to have his name appear. None of these editions credits Newton as author.

It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. It contains 11 propositions. Law 3 in the Principia. and its (Latin) text is available online. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. (in the absence of external force. Law 1 in the Principia. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws". (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. Before reaching this core subject-matter.[4] as well as in Latin.) This . Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. both copies are without title. these had not been generally regarded as laws. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. Only the draft has the title now used. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. (Before Newton's work.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. the distance is proportional to the square of the time. then for the remaining (2) propositions. some with corollaries. resistance is assumed nil.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia. After further encouragement from Halley.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short.

corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. it follows that a radius vector.) . Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. Theorem 1. of the 'Principia'. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. drawn from the body to the attracting center. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. and the corollaries here reappear also. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. problems. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. it would then depart along the tangent.) This theorem appears again. with expanded explanation. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. and inversely proportional to the radius. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. Theorem 4 in the Principia. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. labeled as theorems. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. while their number increases without limit. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. and shows that for any given time-segment. Corollary 2 shows that. putting this in another way. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. using another geometrical limit argument. as Proposition 1. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1.

(Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. .e. that is. square] of the distance . Problem 4 then explores. speed and direction of the orbiting body.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. Problem 6. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP². and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector... for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. Problem 5 in the Principia. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1. (This material becomes Proposition 10. in the Principia. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. Newton points out here.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. Lastly. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. that if the speed is high enough. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). . and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. where the center of attraction is at its center.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. therefore. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse.

using a falling body. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time.[15] . he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. that in any given setup. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. ". it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. or that they were not stated by Newton. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places.. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. i. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. In 'De Motu'. Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. and as if to whet Newton's interest. in 1686. and then gave a whole list. or their views about the researches of others. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. According to one of these reminiscences.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. as in the first edition of the Principia. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse". are self-evident and obvious or not. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. and other items. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. and a short correspondence developed. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. Later. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not. Halley asked Newton.e.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. and both of them produced from very old memories.. and the associated uniqueness statements. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move.

so-called. see e. but note that the title was added by Rigaud. pp. also D T Whiteside.193-200. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. 529-534. [11] Quoted in Richard S. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". about the Principia. Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172.3968. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". who called it a 'petitio principii'. at pages 56 (http:/ / books. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Alexis Clairaut. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. org/ etext/ 28233).).431-448. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 6 (1970). [15] H W Turnbull (ed. but the point was disagreed by R. f.101. 511-517. in Early Science and Medicine. Math. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. 10 (2005). . pp. Weinstock. A Historian's Response". Journal for the History of Astronomy. gutenberg. Vol 2 (1676-1687). [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. pp. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital.57. "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". [7] See D T Whiteside (ed.297. (Cambridge University Press.60-70. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. is available here (http:/ / books. vol. google. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". 10 (2005). both in Newton's lifetime and later. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3).[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. 1971. [14] 'Correspondence' vol. Ofer Gal. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". google. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. Page 403. footnote 73. and the original copy had no title: online. at p. google. rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. as far as Book 1. of 1729. and the first English translation. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged.56-83. and printed by I Bernard Cohen.293. (Cambridge University Press.297-314. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. especially at p.g. M Nauenberg.2 already cited. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. vol. vol. [13] H W Turnbull (ed. 518-528. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. in Early Science and Medicine. 6 (1684-1691). pp. (Cambridge University Press. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton. including Bullialdus. at pp. 1960).[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. at p. Papers vol.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. p. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'".89-170. 38 (2007). "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica".). 19(1) (1992). Historia Math.).[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. but not Hooke. Westfall's Never at Rest.195-6.120. See also D T Whiteside (1970).431-448. in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. 1974). College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". google.). but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. who heard of this from Halley. and the 1686 correspondence at pp. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. 10 (2005).193-200. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. 116-138. A Historian's Response". in "Newton's Orbit Problem. at p. pp.1 (1970). Chapter 10. 1960).6. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli. and Borelli.6 (1684-1691).196. and Bruce Pourciau. in Early Science and Medicine.

"An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. by R. 6. S. at page 69. ed.W. by D. pp. Westfall. 1893). Rouse Ball. Cambridge University Press. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Whiteside. 30–91. T.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. Vol. Cambridge University Press. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] .

The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. Chap. Chap. Newton's results. III. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. beginning with Sesostris. with all others being copies.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. Of the Assyrian Empire. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. King of Egypt. Of the Empire of the Persians. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. I. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. Chap. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. but since republished in mass paperback format. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. therefore. V. II. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. followed by a short advertisement. Chap. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. IV. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. VI. . Of the Empire of Egypt. and that his Temple the first ever built. Chap. however. The majority of the treatise. followed by others. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. diverge widely from presently accepted dates.

He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. Armenian. Syria. Muscovy. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. newtonproject. the Word. first as a marginal note. and some others. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". Arabic. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. Bullinger. sussex."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. Mesopotamia.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds".The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. Egypt. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton. as Luther. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. and later into the text itself. 27 years after his death. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. Grotius. He noted that "the Æthiopic. gutenberg. Ethiopia. sussex. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. still in use in the several Eastern nations. Syriac. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. . the Father. ac. the Word. and the argument full and strong. Finally. and what steps it has been changed. Armenia. Erasmus. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. or retain it as only a marginal reading. htm#chron http:/ / www. newtonproject. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture".[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. and some others. First published in 1754. are strangers to this reading". would not dissemble their knowledge". Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men." in support of the Trinity doctrine. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. and Slavonic versions. ac. the Father. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www.

why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. by a small alteration in the Greek text. biblegateway.& version=31. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. aramaicpeshitta. Newton argued that. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. References [1] http:/ / www. further legal ramifications on the second occasion. p. htm) ." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage.). an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. p. [3] An Historical Account. biblegateway.& version=31. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. Cp. p. aramaicpeshitta. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. biblegateway. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711.& version=31. biblegateway.).[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. p. 2 [5] An Historical Account. preached unto the Gentiles. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www.& version=31. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. believed on in the world. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. pp. was hanged at Edinburgh. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. knew nothing of these two texts. 1 [4] An Historical Account. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. p." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Scotland. justified in the Spirit. received up into glory. Cp. p. but some place it in a footnote. I understand not. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. seen of angels. [2] http:/ / www.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". likely due to the political climate. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture.

although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt .co. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years). External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. and published in 1736. but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions.ac. The book was completed in 1671. archive. fifty years before Newton.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. and published it in 1684.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).google. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz.sussex.newtonproject.

The first.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. such as air. 1704. That is. reflection. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. such as water or glass. into another. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. first reported in 1672[1] . refractions. It is about optics and the refraction of light. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light. Multiple-prism arrays.[2] . Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. Rather. as beam expanders. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. on dispersion. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia.

They are almost all posed in the negative. filling many pages. In this sense." In the first edition. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. unlike the Principia. These Queries." In many ways. The first set of Queries were brief. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. or the tools of mathematics. it is written in English rather than Latin. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. published in 1706. Second. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. electrical phenomena. over the next two hundred years. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). deal with a wide range of physical phenomena." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. and then in the revised English edition. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . these were sixteen such Queries. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. by the use of fluxions." Rather. there were 31 Queries. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer. First of all. published in 1717/18. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. Rather." the proper way to do science.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. the possible cause of gravity. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. Clearly. therefore. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. In the fourth edition of 1730. that number was increased in the Latin edition. especially the later ones. but that it may go on for many pages. as rhetorical questions. That is. but the later ones became short essays. the nature of chemical action. and even the ethical conduct of human beings.

303–307 (1982). Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin.Opticks the Principia.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. J. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ).com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. A.org/Control/nwtopt/index.cam. lib.lib. Commun. Retrieved 10 January 2012. refractions. Opticks or. and James Black. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . Fourth edition (http://books. Optics. Papers on Hydrostatics. Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. Piper. cam. 153 References [1] Newton. Optics.bnf. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Calif. Duarte and J. Opt. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed.rarebookroom. . Palo Alto.). "Hydrostatics. Isaac (1998).ac. ac. Isaac. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. Sound and Heat (http://cudl. 43. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. [2] F. First edition (http://www. First edition (http://gallica. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom.: Octavo.google.html) • Gallica. • Newton. a treatise of the reflexions.

. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia.."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate.[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3].] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science". and of the forces required to produce any motions... Newton used his expression that became famous. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses.] . Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. Newton also published two further editions. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. at least in certain respects. by the end of a century after publication in 1687. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'. also Newton's law of universal gravitation.. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]).[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium). Newton wrote[10] [.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. accurately proposed and demonstrated [. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. first published 5 July 1687... Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy.[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton ."[7] In formulating his physical theories. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that. often referred to as simply the Principia. in 1713 and 1726. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia.. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [.

It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force..' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters. even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. near-parabolic orbits. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). by observations. . Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter.. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. thus offering criteria to decide. in revised and extended form. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. De motu corporum Book 1. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem.

to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. especially its consequences for astronomy.[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. and motion in arbitrary force laws. but only a little. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. others. while some contend that the Earth. attempts to derive the speed of sound.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. especially the variation. starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34]. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them.Newton). Book 3. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. Corollary 2 [44]). and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. De mundi systemate Book 3. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre".[41] For Newton. Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). which "is acknowledg'd by all. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. and accounts for the tides [37]. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. Proposition 11. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. and that this centre "either is at rest. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -.[45] . since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). corollary [42]). modified in a somewhat modern way. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable".

till such time as other phenomena occur. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. for example. or liable to exceptions. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. However. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. by which they may either be made more accurate. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. this was a faulty theory. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances.. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. assign the same causes. he retracted this sentence in the published version. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. However. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. mathematical and common.] instead of absolute places and motions.. for today's readers. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. In his notes. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. [. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. and was assured about their correctness. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. but in philosophical discussions.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. true and apparent. Curiously. . The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum). we use relative ones. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. therefore. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. as far as possible. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. In the four rules. From a Cartesian point of view. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. we ought to step back from our senses. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. and consider things themselves. Instead. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude.

1726). but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle. scientists use it today. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. of Descartes. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. Newton also gave theological argument. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. . that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. concerning the qualities of bodies. 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". as they did. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. With these rules. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently".[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. From this textual evolution.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. he inferred the existence of a Lord God. fires in the home and in the Sun. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. "I frame no hypotheses".[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). From the system of the world. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena.) Newton's gravitational attraction. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements. an invisible force able to act over vast distances.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time.

Humphrey Newton.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684.. that he immediately went to visit Newton again.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. and generalized the result to conic sections. and he normally kept dated notes of them. . (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). how he sometimes forgot his food. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work. and to his project during this time. Hooke and Wren. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. Halley. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. but also all the laws of planetary motion. and did very little else for well over a year and a half. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. and Halley.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory..[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. which he sent to Halley in late 1684.'..[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. Wren was unconvinced. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. or his sleep. The contents of 'De motu. or the state of his clothes. resolved to ask Newton. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period.[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. Newton's tract 'De motu.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies. although the (lost) original may have been without title. assuming an inverse square law of force..[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. in November 1684. but that he could not find the papers.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments.

who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". Liber secundus' of 1685. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. making it look . in more than one manuscript. Liber primus'. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. tighter. amended to update cross-references. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia.. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. and the other two books somewhat later. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. the moon. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. but he largely started afresh in a new. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books.[59] appeared in July 1687. with handwritten corrections for the second edition. and less accessible mathematical style. After Newton's death in 1727. and its completion has been London.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. also in 1728. published by Halley at his own financial risk. that it might be read by many". but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". especially about the theory of the motions of comets. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. the solar system. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession.' to Flamsteed..[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. Liber secundus' still survives. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. The complete work. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. because in the meantime. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. the tides. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. (Newton had also communicated 'De motu.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. it survived complete. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. corporum. not authorised by Newton's heirs).

but Halley. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. rather than before. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. Rather. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. 1686. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. Cambridge. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. Samuel Pepys. including two to Leibniz. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). To these two laws he added a third a decade later. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. causing some delay. In addition. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. secondary sources based on them. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. in some cases. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. a second edition (1731). setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. who hated disputes. licensing the book for publication. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world).[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. showing considerable diplomatic skills. or. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. At this time. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. . among them himself. as President. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. tripod. [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). No. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). lib. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. archive. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. from 1729. 1999). vol. both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726.[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. [14] http:/ / books. Isaac. at p. htm). about the 'Principia'." Author(s): Judith P. by Andrew Motte. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. "Du systeme du monde. [3] Newton.2. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. in the 1729 English version). google. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation".329. Journal for the History of Astronomy. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). pp.). com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). google. Vol. into modern English. often incorporating revisions.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. and see also J. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. [11] http:/ / books. at page 19 of vol. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. cap. ac. The background to Newton's "Principia". University of Toronto. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. 227-245. . The first. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition).120. especially at p. 2 (May. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. E N Zalta (ed. 1729 translation. [7] G E Smith.329 (according to a note on p. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. p. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. Oxford University Press. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. 55. W. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". and well written". Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members.[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . 1972. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. google. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. Herivel. assembled and ed. google. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. google. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. cam. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. published in 1996.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. google. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut.392.[105] William H.[104] The second full English translation. 2001).1 (1729) (http:/ / books. 1965. 116-138. See also D T Whiteside (1970).1 (1970). edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). MA.[2] was described by Newton scholar I. stanford. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www.

[53] As dated e. Oxford University Press 1998. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. vol. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". Steffen. google. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. R Taton & C Wilson. 223-274. google. 1998.2. 2A'. google.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. google. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books.2. 191-2. T. cited above. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. [55] 'Westfall. [47] Edelglass et al. at p." (http:/ / logica. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. [56] Cook. 406. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. Edmond Halley. 1971). Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. google. 33. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. [57] Westfall. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. at page 233 (http:/ / books. be/ steffen/ GS. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. [49] Snobelen. 1998': A.2. [50] Ducheyne. [42] http:/ / books. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. 1980': R S Westfall. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. Books 2 & 3. W. google. Whiteside. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. [58] Westfall. google. google..47-142. pp. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. 431-448. google. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. [17] http:/ / books. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . 54. Vol. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. Cook. Stephen. google.406. at pp. google. google.207-221. at pp. eds. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. google. vol. by D. [61] http:/ / books. google. The Cartesian vortex theory. google. google.404. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). 1980. Books 2 & 3. Cambridge University Press. google. now often known as Huygens' formula. also pp. . com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. google.15. Book 3 (http:/ / books. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books.147 and 152. google. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. Retrieved 2008-05-31. pdf). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. [59] Westfall. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. Retrieved 2008-11-19. google.2. n° 2. google. google. (Cambridge. google. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. . 1980. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. 151. 45 (1991) 11-61. google.).g. 147. at p.) 167 . org/ scholium. Volume. in H. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. n. ugent. [29] http:/ / books. google. 1980. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. Matter and Mind. Turnbull (ed. htm). starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. p. pp. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. Cambridge University Press 1980. 153-156. google. [54] Cook. speed and radial force. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. google. at pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. 1998. [52] 'Cook.

W. Part A.2 cited above. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). mpg. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. Journal for the History of Astronomy. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. 'Correspondence' vol. at page 66 (http:/ / books. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. Ofer Gal. lib. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". see Newton to Hooke. Vol 2 cited above. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was.. ac. pages 5-19.. google.e. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. (University of California Press. and extract of his letter. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. [65] http:/ / books. [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. Newton" (1759). especially at 13-20. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). museumoflondon. see D Gjertsen. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www.2. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. at document #239. though elongated. cam. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. a resisting medium).). also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. or even a 'blunder'. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. Never at Rest. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. 1980. has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. org. document #286. 45 (1991). umich. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66).13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". 1960). html [89] http:/ / www.. at page 259). 28 November 1679. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969.431-448. google. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths.. but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. stanford. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google. cam.. google. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. at page 433. [73] H W Turnbull (ed.297. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. google. see 'Correspondence'. 1893). "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. document #237. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. ac. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". (Cambridge University Press. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. i (1970). Tycho Brahe to Newton". (http:/ / www. google. fondationbodmer. cited above. Vol 2 (1676-1687). ch. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. vol. document #236 at page 301. wm. 453. html [88] http:/ / www. pages 11-61. at p. roe. at pages 304-306. Rouse Ball. p. [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". google. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". mpiwg-berlin. at Introduction (section IX). and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. closed curve and spiral. uu. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". [80] R S Westfall. jstor. [74] 'Correspondence' vol. CUP 1989.. ac. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo.297-314. would terminate in the center C". 'Never at Rest'. lib.2 already cited. at pages 391-2. 1995). [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.2 cited above. [83] http:/ / www. at page 69. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. Bruce Brackenridge. Bernard Cohen. se/ press/ pm. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. 1664-1684". et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). with accompanying figure). html [86] http:/ / lion. Newton". (Cambridge UP 1989). [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. edu 168 . [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www.

" [98] Westfall. Cambridge U. Bernard Cohen.519. 1965). edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon.518-20. The background to Newton’s Principia. G.. at pp. • John Herivel. Press. vol. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton.A.. • François De Gandt.4. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. • Brian Ellis. NY: Doubleday and Company. wpi. pp. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia. Cambridge University Press 1967. cgi?v1=8& ti=1.42. Cambridge University press 1967. google. N.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. p.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). I. Donahue. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. 29-68. 1999. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. to whom he owes more than that. • Andrew Janiak. [101] Westfall. Cambridge University press 1967. 1995). • Guicciardini.4. vol. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. University of California Press. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. Westfall. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. Chandrasekhar.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. ed. Curtis Wilson (Princeton. 1965). 2005. NJ: Princeton University Press. Cambridge University press 1975. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. [95] Richard S. • I. p. "A Guide to Newton's Principia".. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. . 3rd edition.4.750. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. at p. Westfall. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. at pp. [94] I Bernard Cohen.699.712–716. n. Bernard Cohen (1999). 1965). Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Introduction to the Principia. Cambridge 1971. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you. 1954). University of California Press. c1995). 1971). pp. • S. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. [99] Westfall. [100] Westfall. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation. R. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7." in Grattan-Guinness. Elsevier: 59-87. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall.. Burtt. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. Dawsons of Pall Mall). 1971). ed. pp. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. and obligations to you.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. vol. [104] See pages 29-37 in I.5. at p. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. Notes. vol. Colodny. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. 2008). "Philosophia Naturalis. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968)..751–760. xv-xvi.2. • Richard S. Force in Newton’s physics. 1999. Clarendon Press. • E.

. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource.html).babson. • Wikisource • Archive.1 with Book 1 (http://books.tripod. largely the Motte translation of 1729. • Principia (in Latin.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.google.org (http://www. Chittenden. W. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition. ed.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive. vol.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. (Book 3 starts at p.google. • Google books.cam.google.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654. 1729.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2).org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist.200 (http://books. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above). first edition (1687. 1713.net/~bjn/principia/).com/toc. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.archive.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica.archive.google. vol.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage). in Latin) (http://www.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687.gutenberg.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version.1).htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.archive. annotated) (http://books. regarding online editions .org #1 (http://www.archive.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte. Partial • Google books. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee. in Latin) (http://books. interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1).org #2 (http://www.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol.ntnu.google.lib.org (http://www. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. first edition (1687.ac. 1726).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200). • Project Gutenberg (http://www. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy.

that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. that its truth is past dispute." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. 1686. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. 1686. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law. to make a report thereof to the council. At the next meeting of the Society. which he had enlarged and completed. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn." At the next meeting of the Society. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. on April 28. he says. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. For the influences for the second edition." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. if certain. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. 1687 and began changing the world. 1686. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. on May 19.

it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens." "How much of this. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. I shall content myself to give you. that Sir Chr. the heads of it in short." Halley adds. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. you know best. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. I am almost confident by circumstances. On June 20." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation." but. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. which 172 . but it being a frivolous business. and the absence of the vice-president's. viz. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. At the next meeting of the council. volume. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. Indeed. on June 2. 1686. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. for 'tis long since they were writ. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty." acknowledging at the same time that. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. though Newton had the notion from him. and to desire his opinion as to the print. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. Halley in his letter of May 22. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. which he engaged to do. so far as I could remember. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. and I do not know that I have seen them since. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. and printing it at his own charge. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. cuts and so forth. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. so that you might act accordingly. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. "is so. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society.

and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. his letters put me upon it. sent him. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. though not accurately enough. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. so Mr Hooke. a copy being presented to me. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. expected to hear no further from him. thought no further of philosophical matters than. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. and only wants transcribing. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. I designed the whole to consist of three books. so that a while after. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. 173 . That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. in print. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. and guessed it to be elliptical. which I can as well let alone. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. that without my demonstrations. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. and drawing the cuts fairly. and earth from the sun. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. I could not but have found it now. and only guessed it to be so accurately. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. is expressed. "The proof you sent me I like very well. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. namely. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. Some new propositions I have since thought on. Oscill. did not answer his third. can know no more. was upon other things. But. the second was finished last summer being short.. in print. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. and so upon mistaken grounds. And so. as to the other from Kepler. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. accused me of that ignorance. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. The third wants the theory of comets. and that's above fifteen years ago). sun and planets. And so. in compliment to sweeten my answer. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. and understood it. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. in stating this business. told him I had laid philosophy aside.

was not sent to the printers until March 1687. I am." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. and humble servant. If it please you to have it so. ought to compose it. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. July 5. and not much more charge. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. on April 6. found out last winter. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. which. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. Sir. 1686. without the third. On July 14. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. The two first books. What application he has made in private. The work. NEWTON. I retain the former title. Now you approve of the character and paper. I know not. 174 . as to deprive us of your third book. though it be not material. HALLEY. 1686. upon second thoughts. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". which made me afterwards return to the first book. E. not to let your resentments run so high. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. And if in truth he knew it before you. but she gives me warning. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. In the first page. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. "But. and then. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. I must now again beg you. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. as might have been expected. The third book was presented to the Society. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. as I guess by what you write. I will try how well it can be done. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. 1687. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. as have to do. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. nor on the books of the Society. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. and now I am no sooner come near her again. which are much the greater number. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery." On June 30." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. "Is. "If you please you may change the word to sections. It will be more convenient. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. The third I now design to suppress. which he puts so much value on. Sir. De Motu Corporum libri duo. Hooke and Halley. I found it so formerly." On June 20. you ought to be considered as the inventor. The second book. and therefore I had altered it to this. with her. your most affectionate humble servant. which is all at present. in the honour you do them. It will help the sale of the book. from your affectionate friend. I will push on the edition vigorously. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. and adding.

Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor." . James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. I intend the price of them. announcing the completion of the Principia. On April 21 the deputation. Mr Flamsteed. On May 7 it was discussed. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. before starting for London. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. the chancellor. On April 27 they gave their plea. a Benedictine monk. July 5. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. to take my money as they are sold. for ready. as well as of profound and public speculation. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. that starts from town tomorrow. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. 1687. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. but the university showed no sign of compliance. appeared before the court. the master of Magdalene College. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. and ordered them out of court. Mr Boyle. with their case carefully prepared. so much to your own and the nation's credit. to be [OCR error] shillings here. but rather. nor suggested a compromise. and hope it will please you. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. or else at some short time. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. or at 5 sh. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. The deputies. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. and was dismissed. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. who was vice-chancellor. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. which I entreat you to accept. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. The following letter from Halley. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. and lettered. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. Mr Paget. a very great part of which is extant. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. bound in calves' leather. dated London.

"I have not seen him. wrote to Leibniz. I got an ill habit of sleeping. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. or. but upon his pressing consented. upon his own accord. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. winter. 1694. put me farther out of order. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. from the concern I have for him. He is now very well. before I considered what I did. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. which lasted eighteen months. and a distemper. I will give you an account of it if I can." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament." . but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. beg you. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. whose mind was never at rest. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. and for five days together not a wink. Christiaan Huygens. 1693. added. I remember I wrote to you. as in a letter to his friend Millington. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. in a letter dated June 8. nor by icing James's favour. In a letter dated the September 13. and dated the 15th of October 1693. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. I was averse. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. which doubtless must have been very alarming. 1693. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. Sir. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. and since. and keeping him shut up. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. but what I said of your book I remember not. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. nor have my former consistency of mind." he says. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. therefore. or both. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. dated September 26. Pepys must have heard such rumours. replied." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. by sleeping too often by my fire. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. that it had actually done so. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way." To which Leibniz. addressed to Samuel Pepys. where. as to be put into great disorder by it. which this summer has been epidemical. and I hope never will. Newton wrote: "The last." On September 20. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. at which he was much concerned. 1693. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. if I may but have them quietly. Let me.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. and beg your pardon." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. or mind. but that "he was out of town. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. namely. so that when I wrote to you. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. and before I had time to ask him any question. to let me know the very truth of the matter. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. according to a report which was believed at the time.

The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. as it were. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. now archaic. . which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. the vice-chancellor of the university. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. On April 30. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. published as #537 in Vol. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. and gives original spellings. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel.1998. Forbes et al. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes. see Isaac Newton's later life. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. ed. Newton retained his seat only about a year. Westfall. E. 1689. On February 12. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members..G. 1997. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor.) [3] Richard S. Never at Rest..2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed".

1661. He entered notes from both ends. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. light. Robert Boyle. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. fluidity. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. rarity. colour. but my best friend is truth). These were followed by questions on violent motion. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. "Of ye Creation". Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". Kenelm Digby. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. Some headings were followed by vast entries. Following this.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. place. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. vision. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. At the other end of the book. Aristotle is my friend. for example. It is also definitely before December 9. Additional information This octavo notebook. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. currently in the Cambridge University Library. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. whereby every question is put to experimental test. Galileo's Dialogue. Thomas Hobbes. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. and other sensations. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". and others. They began with the nature of matter. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. which had . in Greek. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. 1664. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. hardness etc. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. The initial notes. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. at the other. But following this he drew a line across the page.

. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. Elsewhere. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. . would look coloured. Gassendi. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. others were blank. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. including his idea that it is a wave. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. on the contrary. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. such as when a heavy body falls. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo.. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light.

A. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library. Cambridge University Press. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. Lohne. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. References • "Portsmouth Papers". • J. by Richard S. Westfall. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] .

is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. Cambridge . Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. alone. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude." Newton was the runner-up. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. Many books. plays. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. Newton was deemed the more influential. Because of the resounding impact of his work. In this work. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. In mathematics.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night.[1] In 1999. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. located in the chapel of Trinity College. mathematician. natural philosopher. published in 1687. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. Newton or Albert Einstein. Newton became a scientific icon. in 1795.

ah. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. you see. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. there is a very different matter." . of course. set during the Great Recoinage. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. was merely a discovery. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. 27–43. "Newton as a national hero" [8]." said Richard. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. It was there to be discovered.. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002). "They even keep it on at weekends.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies.. Routledge. perspicuity and invention. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5.) Sir Isaac Newton. • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). Greenwood Press. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. "there was also the small matter of gravity. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. But the catflap . Science in Popular Culture [9]. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter. I suppose. pure creative invention. there was that as well. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. • Mordechai Feingold (2004)." "Yes. Oxford University Press. including the famous apple. It is a door within a door. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr.. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion.. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. "(. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3.. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007).. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. Invention. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. pp.. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. you see." . and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. • A. a ." "Gravity. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. Though that. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. It is a door within a door. "yes. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1.

Newton in popular culture

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Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. Hanover. [4] Burwick. Science is the Tree of Death. tate. . who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. Foster (1988). 243. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. page 328. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795.[3]."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. 1997. pp. Walter de Gruyter. S. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. who regularly experienced spiritual visions.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. apparently at the bottom of the sea. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser.[5] References [1] Townsend. retrieved 10 September 2009. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. Christopher B. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. org.

2003. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press.). ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . William Blake: The Painter at Work. ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson. Joyce (ed. Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend.Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. London: Tate Publishing.

when Young was expelled from the deanery. So. and Coram drew their daggers. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward.. Sir Thomas Clarke. He died in 1706. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. no doubt. dean of Winchester.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley. or hay-making. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. near Winchester. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights".[1] Sir Charles. Pye.[1] During the Commonwealth era. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work. upon the lands of the lord of the manor. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. The house and park are not generally open to the public. which stunk and had worms swimming in it.[5] .[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580."[2] Following the death of Coram. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. although his wife survived him until 1720. with many distinct farms and cottages.. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. when it required the interference of Mr. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. who married her daughter in 1665.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". when he let it to Dr John Young.[2] ". England. Shoveller. reaping. Mr. Mr.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. although open days are occasionally held. and rode at each other through the wheat.

Conduitt. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. built in 1780. Thomas.[9] The Castle. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. the owner. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). On his death. the base of a pillar. In 1734. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task. Bt). the outermost divided into minutes. but his election was declared invalid. and a scaled-down gateway tower.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. In 1770. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. John Rowley. and the arms of Mr. and after his death. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow.C. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. the estate was left to his son.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. Watch fast". Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. etc. is below.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name.. then the months divided into days. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. a diagram of the compass. the points alternately plain and embossed. as granted to him in 1717. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774)."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. Catherine. then a circle marked "Watch slow. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch.[5] In May 1721.[5][6] On Newton's death. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. In 1747. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. Cranbury Park..[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass. Nearer the centre are degrees. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday. which he also owned. next the hours. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras".[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. Shortly after his marriage. Hampshire. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. retaining that position for four years.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" .[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. Newton became resident at Cranbury. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer. Harriet. Towards the end of his life. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781). which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. all round the world. leaving a daughter. remaining there until his death in 1727. and within.

when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald". and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. William Chamberlayne. Arrow. a large red brick one. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. on that . framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. intersected by various springs. but in the rear descending rapidly. flat as it fronts to the south. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch. In fact. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England.[22] Writing in 1898.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. MP for Southampton. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer. built round a court. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)).[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre. which has a circular domed ceiling.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings. set in arch-headed reserves. especially in the saloon on the south front.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet. Whilst serving the town. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill.[11] on her death.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. In 1822.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. is on the level ground at the top. The house. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht. Tankerville Chamberlayne. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. During the Second World War. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. but his wife survived him until 1825. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811.

. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. 1998. Charlotte M. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. htm#i46497). (1898).com. Retrieved 23 September 2009. and include fountains.thepeerage. publications. Retrieved 20 September 2009.K F.britannia.com. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. . and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. Winchester" (http:/ / www. Charlotte M. 15 May 2005. www. "History of Cranbury Park. . Netley Abbey. [9] Yonge. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). [2] Yonge. . online-literature. thepeerage. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. Eleanor. p. close to The Castle.uk. City of Winchester. William (1908). html). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. Lloyd. Charlotte M. Retrieved 24 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. "Later changes" (http:/ / www. [7] Gatty. Retrieved 23 September 2009. aspx?compid=42018#s4).[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. [4] Yonge. [8] "The Buttercross.K. (1984). pdf). Retrieved 24 September 2009. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. Facet-Headed. Hampshire" (http:/ / www. A. is situated in the southern corner of the park. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. Hansard. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. Paul Cave Publications. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8.com.com. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries." a word signifying a country dance. built from material plundered from Netley Abbey. Eden.com. ac. org.com. Globe Cross and Star-Shaped.com. Stories of Southampton Streets. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3. Charlotte M. . . Retrieved 23 September 2009. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3.thepeerage. html). 22. . com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). the lakeside walk and the fern walk. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. www. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www.parliament. com/ p4650. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ).online-literature.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". A. (1898). ISBN 0-86146-041-3.[26] References [1] Page. 68.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital.online-literature. . and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). online-literature. [5] Yonge. 72 & 74. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. www. www. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102. htm). . a rose garden. Retrieved 23 September 2009. . Hamilton (1953). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. www. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. online-literature. (1898).G. (1898). htm#i46495).Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. www. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www.online-literature. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. 5 May 2004. online-literature. . [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 20 September 2009.british-history. [11] "Horninghold. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. horninghold. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. Victoria County History of Leicestershire.online-literature. com/ p4650. britannia. p. "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. html). . co. [12] Leonard. parliament. before joining Monks Brook. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ).com. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. Retrieved 20 September 2009. www. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. (1898). "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www.online-literature.ac. Retrieved 23 September 2009. british-history. The English Country House. H. www. library. . thepeerage. online-literature.uk."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. specimen trees and pinetum. [10] Thompson. Retrieved 23 September 2009. uk/ report. The Book of Sun-dials. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Margaret Scott. cityofwinchester. . 9 October 2006. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. pp. upenn. Michael (1999). (1900). Charlotte M. [6] Ford. [14] Yonge.

Retrieved 2009-07-12. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. chandlersfordscouts. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. "A Survey" (http:/ / www.com. Micheldever. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3. "Chandler’s Ford. htm). Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. Retrieved 26 September 2009. 1971:93-95. [19] "Cranbury Park. noted in Howard Colvin. Architect. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. .Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. s. www. . html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). .633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. 1600-1840.. [25] Currie. 1741—1825. Retrieved 24 September 2009. uk/ m35. 3rd ed. "Papworth. . co. uk/ Campsite/ index. org. . Matthew (2009). [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. org.oldmaps. April 2004. (1898).700) in late 2001's terms. Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. online-literature. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). Retrieved 26 September 2009.online-literature. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. www. Christopher (Spring 2005). plates 23-2. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. hants. Retrieved 26 September 2009. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. . . The New York Times: 10. [22] Dorothy Stroud. alresford. 8 and 15 November 1956.[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. matthewbeckett. The lost country houses of England. oldmaps. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). Retrieved 26 September 2009. George Dance.v. 15 November 1956. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. html). htm). David (April 2004). 1995. . fieldclub. Charlotte M. htm).[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. Retrieved 2009-07-12. Retrieved 26 September 2009.uk. [20] Dorothy Stroud. nytimes. in Country Life. 16 January 1881.000 (us$35. amazon. . com/ gst/ abstract. "Stratton Park. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. . Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. Retrieved 24 September 2009. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. [23] Yonge. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects. which would value approximately £25. [21] Watkin. John Buonarotti".co. html).

au/ ~mike/ ). Retrieved 22 july 2010. University of Western Australia. the question can be solved by experiment. That is. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. . amongst others. either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). [4] Mike Alder (2004). The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. co. edu. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. . the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. edu. uwa. bbc. maths. to the scientist. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. stm). Also available as Mike Alder (2004). "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. [3] Mike Adler.] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. alder). Retrieved 22 july 2010. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword).. au/ people/ mike. . So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. .[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. maths. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword. edu. Alder admits however. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20).[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. uwa.. .[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating".Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism".[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. philosophynow.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. BBC news. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". . uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. which he describes as pure reason.pdf). University of Western Australia. Mike Alder's Home Page. He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. According to Alder.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. uwa. or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible.

the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. England. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. were opened up to the public in 2003. near Grantham.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. and the old walled kitchen garden. inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. New areas of the house. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. taking into account modern living. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. Woolsthorpe Manor. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . to the rear of the house. once private. being restored. Lincolnshire. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. most notably his work on light and optics. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family.

uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ . org.Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. nationaltrust.

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