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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. due.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. At the time of Newton's birth. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. astronomer. he was a small child. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. independently. and for the style of the work. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. alchemist. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. In mathematics. When Newton was three. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived.[11][12][13] . the subjects he is mainly associated with. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. published in 1687. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. and theologian. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. and contributed to the study of power series.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. mathematician. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. natural philosopher. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. In this work. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. Margery Ayscough.1 litres). His half-niece was Catherine Barton. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. 25 December 1642. He was an unorthodox Christian. he never married. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Born prematurely. Newton was also highly religious.

and Kepler. widowed by now for a second time. Luckily for Newton.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. and by October 1659. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. In 1665.[17] In June 1661. Galileo. also by British mathematicians. a fellow of our College. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. NY: Thomas Y.) Such a . attempted to make a farmer of him. Famous Men of Science.. for example. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. In 1667. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method". ordaining normally could not be dodged. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. he was admitted to Trinity College.[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. Sarah K. He hated farming. master at the King's School. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. although with very different notations. where his mother.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome. For such a significant appointment. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. and after 1820 or so. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. such as Descartes. Crowell & Co. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. and did not give a full account until 1704. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Nevertheless. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton. Newton was educated at The King's School.[23] A related subject was infinite series. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. he became the top-ranked student.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below).[15] Henry Stokes.. were adopted by continental European mathematicians. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. He was removed from school.[18] At that time. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. in a manuscript of October 1666. and very young ..

and Charles II. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. In that day. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables). This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. Because of this. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences.[32] Starting in 1699. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. However. of 1684. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. In 1691. At the time. He discovered Newton's identities. accepted this argument. and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. however.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684".[34] 4 . However. whose permission was needed. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it. valid for any exponent. but never finished it. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. Newton's method.Isaac Newton suggestion.

He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk. Props.. however. Thus. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. revived his interest in alchemy. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. it stayed the same colour. The contact with the theosophist Henry More.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. which he later expanded into his Opticks. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. 12). As a proof of the concept. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another. when Hooke."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science.) In 1704.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance. Today's quantum mechanics. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. the first known functional reflecting telescope. .13). he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.II. he might not have developed his theory of gravity. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum).[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles.[39] Building the design. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration).[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science.and may . Newton published Opticks. and the general phenomenon of diffraction. In 1671. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. across a vacuum.. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. This is known as Newton's theory of colour.[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. today known as a Newtonian telescope. John Maynard Keynes. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns. Newton lectured on optics. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work.

and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia.[49] For Newton. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. the use of multiple-prism arrays. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. i. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. but they did not so far indicate its cause. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. was at rest). prisms. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). In the same book he describes. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. Also. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. and defined the law of universal gravitation. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium.[51] Later. 8th Query). and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . via diagrams. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. wherever it was.. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". In this work. using a glass globe (Optics. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. In an article entitled "Newton.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'.e. as they did. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. and much more.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. In the same work.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679.

Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726]. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. His half-niece. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. 1st Earl of Halifax. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. a position Newton held until his death.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. when it abruptly ended. Towards the end of his life. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. With the Principia. after Sir Francis Bacon. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699. which Newton had used in his studies. until his death in 1727. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . the Astronomer Royal. Newton became internationally recognised. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. but Newton took them seriously. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. Cambridge.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. These appointments were intended as sinecures. In his position at the Royal Society. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley).[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. Catherine Barton Conduitt.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. John (1733) – were published after his death. including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. He took charge of England's great recoining.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. Unlike Aristotle's. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle.Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. Mathematically. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). this is expressed as . this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force.[102] Apple incident . . Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. the first term vanishes. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. For example. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. Before Newton. they may be at rest). in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. with time. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. named in Newton's honour. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. The SI unit of force is the newton. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass.

as well as the earth draws the apple. there must be a drawing power in matter. Grantham. he was just in the same situation. to the Moon. claims that the tree was purchased by the school.[111] . and hence named it "universal gravitation".[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. therefore the apple draws the earth. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. in an inverse-square proportion. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. had the first thought of his system of gravitation.. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. or toward the centre. it must be in proportion of its quantity. only he. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. and get good agreement. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . Cambridge. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. whose manuscript account. & myself. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees.[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. as when formerly.[107] In similar terms. he told me. amidst other discourse. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. if matter thus draws matter. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. We went into the garden. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. published in 1752.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. The King's School. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. that the earth draws it."[106] John Conduitt. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. not in any side of the earth.. the reason is." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens.

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Cornell University Press. (1975). Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists. uk/ banknotes/ denom_guide/ nonflash/ 1-SeriesD-Revised. htm). 28. Scientist and Teacher. archive. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. p. Edinburgh. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. “The emergence of Rational Dissent. The Royal Society. (1959–77). [73] Avery Cardinal Dulles. 1998. 1953. ISBN 0521560608. New Horizons [64] Wikipedia Standing on the shoulders of giants. Meier.

Isaac Newton. 265–266. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. google. 130. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator".1038/182149a0. New York: Free Press. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. Never at Rest.0017. • Christianson. ISBN 9780547336046.1098/rsnr. Pan Macmillan. p. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. John (1958). Retrieved 11 January 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2006. Bibcode 1958Natur. [107] Conduitt. org/ ). New York: Dover. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. • Levenson. "Keynes Ms. p. brogdale. org. [113] http:/ / www.182. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). ISBN 0486206300. W.1963. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). Cambridge University Press. New Scientist. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. sussex. pierre-marteau. ac. Bernard Cohen and George E. • Craig. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. John. google. 2011). and Other Myths.org. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). newscientist. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. (1980. . Smith. doi:10. ISBN 9780495557425. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. (1994). Retrieved 7 September 2011. eds. php). . Cambridge University Press.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www.W.73 [99] White 1997. Newtonproject. Mariner Books. Richard S. cam. 1998). Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www. ISBN 0521477379.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. This well documented work provides. ISBN 9780199213559. co. 6 [109] Alberto A. [98] Westfall 2007. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. Retrieved 10 January 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2012. ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". Cambridge University Press. . Retrieved 20 December 2008. • Westfall. Imperial College London. • Westfall. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. Thomas (2010). Inc. php?varietyid=1089). Richard S. Einstein's Wife. The Life of Isaac Newton. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. 18 January 2010. brogdale. Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. Cambridge University Digital Library. John (1963).. pp. ISBN 9781447204152. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. Brogdale. dlib. . pp. 337 [103] White 1997. uk/ image1. James (2009). • White. . • Stewart. 4. (2007). [108] I. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. ac. lib. Cengage Learning. p. doi:10. newtonproject. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. Richard (2011). edu/ newton/ index. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. Gale (1984). Rouse (1908). The Art of Science. indiana. p. html 17 References • Ball. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www.. in particular. Fourth Estate Limited. • Westfall. . . "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). Isaac. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. Richard S.149C. Michael (1997). valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www.

(1975). (1728). • Dampier. New York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0792310543.. the Man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. . (1959). 500 pp. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2.1098/rsnr.. London: G. Gale E. ed. Harper & Bros. London: S. • Cohen. B.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini. A. Cambridge. The Cambridge Companion to Newton.questia. The Calculus Wars: Newton. excerpt and text search (http://www. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. Isaac Newton. 150–4. New York: Harper & Row. (1996). 2001. I. The Principia: a new Translation. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. – Preface by Albert Einstein. James (2003). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. W. Knox. T. Gale (1984). Norton & Co. • Dobbs.com/dp/0521656966).com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald. 277 pp.. New York: Chanticleer Press. Richard (1931). Leibniz. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. • Hawking. "Discoveries" pp. • Newton.1988. Newton. De C. "Review of Newton's Principia". Morris H. 256 pp. Readings in the Literature of Science. The Newton Handbook. W. (1959). (1965). • de Villamil. On the Shoulders of Giants.. Bernard Cohen. edited by I. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. Rapport.D. • Craig. William C. (1965). • Shamos. • Keynes. • Halley. 1958. John Maynard (1963). New York: Free Press. Jason Socrates. Kepler. J. Newtonian Studies. M. • Koyré. Essays in Biography. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. John (1946). Isaac Newton. (2002). 147–9.amazon. England: Cambridge University Press. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". excerpt and text search (http://www.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. ISBN 0-393-00189-X. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. Newton at the Mint. George E. P. (1950). Dampier. JSTOR 531368. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Isaac. The Newtonian Revolution. ISBN 0486253465.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. N. excerpt and text search (http://www. (1687). J. • Gjertsen. Inc. Jed Z. focuses on philosophical issues only. and Cohen. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. Bernard and Smith. complete edition online (http://www. See this site (http://www.0006.amazon. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. and H. ed. W.1978. • Bardi.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. A Treasury of Science. • Christianson.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. I. Oxford University Press.amazon. Great Experiments in Physics. • Gleick. excerpt and text search (http://www. • Shapley. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. MIT Press. Harvard University Press. • Berlinski. The Background to Newton's Principia. ISBN 019530070X. Derek (1986). Springer. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. doi:10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0486428052. ISSN 0035–9149.amazon. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Wright.. New York (1972). (1980).amazon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. • Christianson. Zev (1991). B. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. eds. (1988). Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. Palmer. (2000). Bernard. Guide by I. Stephen. ISBN 0375422331. David. "Newtonia" pp. 2006. E. E. Knopf. I. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. 354 pp. • Newton. ISBN 0841430144. S. Alfred A. ISBN 0521229642. Harlow. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. H. (1946). Isaac (1642–1727). New York.

(2001). ISBN 0444196110. 1996. W. rev. • Stukeley. • Newton. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. Vol. 1730) online edition (http://books. "Isaac Newton. I. James E. Bruce. Stephen D. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. ISBN 0521077400. Ayval. R. 19 Religion • Dobbs." Osiris. H. • Newton.google. links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. 7 vols. (1959–77) . (1999). Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. 16. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. Opticks (4th ed. J. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite".com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. and Richard H. Stephen "'God of Gods. xvii + 325. Turnbull and others. 1: The Optical Lectures. Primary sources • Newton. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. S. JSTOR 3653988. Berkeley: University of California Press. (1971). London: Macdonald. W. eds. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Pp. New York: Dover Publications.google. Motte. Arianism through the Centuries. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. (1999). JSTOR 4027945. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. 1670–1672. 974 pp. Vol. (1936). Opticks. University of California Press. (1996) 214pp. doi:10. in JSTOR (http://www. (1934). pp. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. – 8 volumes • Newton. Nature. Cambridge U. I. Isaac.google. Isaac. and Influence. London: Taylor and Francis. or A Treatise of the Reflections. (1999). 2nd Series. Maurice.. Florian Cajori. Betty Jo Tetter. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. originally published in 1752) • Westfall.org/stable/4028372). • Whiteside.1017/S0007087499003751. Popkin. (edited by A.jstor. 299 pp. with chapter 4 on 18th century England.jstor. ed. (1996). 1984. 627 pp. (January 1997). argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. Isaac. The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. Archetypal Heresy. (1952). • Brackenridge. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. T. H. 2. Sydney: The Book Company. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. White.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). 342pp . The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com.Isaac Newton • Simmons. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. University of California Press. Isaac. (1991). • Wiles. Inflections & Colours of Light. tr. • Newton.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. Newton and Religion: Context. A. Refractions. • Pfizenmaier. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. J. Press. (1967–82). The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. Thomas C. D.

by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. Hall. • Newton.com/modules/historic/newton/index.edu/entries/newton/).newtonproject. (1962). Cambridge.galilean-library.ac. (1953).uk/ Biographies/Newton. • Newton.org/web/20080629021908/http://www. Nourse. Cambridge. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports.ac. com/predictions/newton.fullerton.).50. Cohen and R.stanford. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library.skepticreport. including letters of other eminent men (http://books. Parker. time.chlt.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www.. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. University of St Andrews.archive. London: Dawson.adherents.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www. and motion (http://plato.sussex.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss.htm) (via archive.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I). I.org/NYC051308/index. Edmund F. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. – Google Books • Maclaurin. in Four Books. I.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton. (1748). ed.st-andrews. Millar and J. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato. J Edleston.isaacnewton. online edition (http:/ /www.a. Sir. S.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/). Thayer. E. Robertson.google.stanford. 20 External links • Chisholm.htm) Kandaswamy.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. B. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Roger Cotes. Hugh.com/biography/Newton.html). Schofield. Anand M.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www..indiana. B.pierre-marteau.wolfram.edu/entries/newton-stm/). 1850.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web. • Newton.phaser. "Newton. John Deighton.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www.rutgers.php) • The Newton Project (http://www.questia. John J.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes.tqnyc.fmalive. Hall and M. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries. West Strand. Cambridge University Press. . "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space. (1958). eds.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page. A.mcs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. London. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. John W. Sir Isaac".org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.uk/prism. ed (1911).stanford. I. C.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ).dlib.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702). I.pbs.stanford.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www.org/snobelen. (1975). R. London: A.math.

uk/collections/newton) .ac. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www.uk/prism.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up). audio. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www.cs.cmu.ul.ndsu.earlymoderntexts. or a Treatise of the Reflections.edu/id.st-andrews. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.nodak.ca/newton/) Images.mcs.archive.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1. optics.lib. full text on archive.enlighteningscience.sussex.ac.gutenberg.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.org • Newton Papers.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts. Space. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history. at the Newton Project (http://www.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks. reception.ac.newtonproject.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy.ltrc.mcmaster.cam.math.com/).uk/Mathematicians/ Newton. Refractions. physics.ac.sussex. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.

saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. 1697 by her son. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). at the age of nineteen. the elder. Later in his life. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. in April 1642. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. and thus took him away from his school studies. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. who buried her next to his father. As his father had been a farmer. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. when Isaac was 54. He spent a year away from school on the farm. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. . Hannah's brother William. unlike her. and returned to his mother's household. He died in October 1642. James and Margery Ayscough. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. at quite a critical time in his education. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. when he was three years old. When Rev. By this time Isaac was ten years old. Lincolnshire.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer. She and Rev. Smith died in 1653. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford.

[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. not before. witty and clever. Is. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. Newton. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. However. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. half-niece of Isaac Newton.[5] . and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. Hannah Smith. the wife of John Conduitt. and baptized at Brigstock. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful.

[4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. Harliean Society. Harl Soc vol 24. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Northampton Record Office. Viscount Lymington. p195. uk/ art/ portrait. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ).Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. [5] Newton Correspondence."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. Montague. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. his nephew George Montague. 1543–1869. by then Earl of Halifax. affection and esteem. Catherine. Journal to Stella. John Wallop. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton. & previous reference. online-literature. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. Charlotte M. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. not to make a dispute over her legacies. 1689. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. entries in 1710 and 1711.sussex. King's College Cambridge. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. html).[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. born in 1721.newtonproject. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. [3] Swift. newton. ac. National Archives. 1886. near Winchester.online-literature. however. References [1] Robert Barton's will. • The Newton Project (http://www.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World.uk/prism. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130.[7] The couple had one daughter. towards the end of his life. National Archives. and their son. (1898). p349. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. Westminster Record Office. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Parish register. www. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. PROB11/546. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. PROB11/416. [9] Yonge.5.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. [7] Hants Record Office. [8] St Martin in the fields register. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. On 30 August.com. . Vol 4.php?id=15) .[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. 1715. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress.ac. I have long had for her person. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle.

Cambridge with three others. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. Catherine. then aged 38 years. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. but did not graduate. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University.[1] By 1707. Covent Garden. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. London: Dawsons. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. near Winchester. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. towards the end of his life. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. 1st ed (reprinted). but after starting. on 8 March 1688. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. The couple had one daughter. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. described herself as 32 years old.[3] . isbn 0712903305. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. he quickly stopped. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. while at Westminster. staying only two years. Early life. and his uncle by marriage. Newton: his friend. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. a whig member for Whitchurch. proposed by the president. In 1705. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. and his niece. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. Sir Isaac Newton. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. Hampshire. named after her mother. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. Covent Garden. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. 1968. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). In 1720. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. on petition. defending the government on a number of issues. (PRO. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. and was baptized at St Paul's. 161 pp. London. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c.

fo 169 [3] Yonge.ac.british-history. ac. Retrieved 23 September 2009. online-literature.cyberbeach. cam. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. uk/ report. References [1] Venn. William (1908). . J. On his death.. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". [4] Page. lib. Venn. 1st Earl of Portsmouth.online-literature.. A. (1898). Huntingdon Library. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. who died in 1739. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. Cambridge University Press. Viscount Lymington (d. and their son. was buried with him. www. Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). J. John (http:/ / venn. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. Charlotte M. His wife. british-history. " Conduitt. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. John Wallop. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. Catherine. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. 1749) in 1740. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. aspx?compid=42018#s4). underage. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.). ac. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. Retrieved 27 September 2009. vol 4. California.uk.com. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. ms 57.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. eds (1922–1958).net/~mkelly/iansarticle. .htm) .

Born prematurely. Newton was educated at The King's School. This he did at the age of eighteen. where his mother.[3] Henry Stokes. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. In June 1661. Margery Ayscough. Galileo."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. he was a small child. At the time of Newton's birth. and Kepler. achieving an admirable final report. and by October 1659. author of the Principia. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. 25 December 1642. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother. master at the King's School. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus.[4] At that time. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. In 1665. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen.[6] . attempted to make a farmer of him. He hated farming. widowed by now for a second time. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. When Newton was three.1 litre). He was removed from school. he was admitted to Trinity College. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. the English mathematician and scientist. optics and the law of gravitation.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth.

Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). Next about the moon was a Circle of white. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. its acceleration a. book ii. John Slade of Catharine Hall. in the years 1663 and 1664." . Isaac Barrow. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. there are several articles on angular sections. and red on the outside of it. and next about that the inner Crown. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. In a small commonplace book. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. and in summer 1665. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. together with observations on refraction. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). verging below farthest from the moon. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. and the applied force F is F = ma. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. near Cambridge. and. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". obs. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors. 1699. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared"." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. to two and fifty figures by the same method. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. particularly those "in affected powers. which was of a bluish green within next the white. several calculations about musical notes. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. which appear in his Optics. dated January 1664. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. I saw two such Crowns about her. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. Cambridge. many years afterwards. part iv. in Lincolnshire. and of a yellow and red without. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. It was elliptical. I being then Senior Sophister. and introduced him to higher mathematics. at night. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. and borrowed Wallis' works. February 19th. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. he was unable.

as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. which he put. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. or some other mathematical subject. mathematician. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. astronomy. Newton must have left college before August 1665. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. statics. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. and 22 June 1666. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. 29 . probably in June 1669. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire.] a mathematician of no mean order. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. and added. and who. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. There were nine vacancies. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing.A. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. and also chemicals and a furnace. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. who had a powerful genius for such matters. In March 1668 he took his M. arithmetic. and a young man. Dr Pearson. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. a fellow of our college. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. He wrote a paper. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). and signed by the master of the college. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. apparently for chemical experiments. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. dated 7 August 1665." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. but kept the name of the author a secret. [see also James Gregory. optics. geography. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. "the name of the author is Newton. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. degree. On each occasion it was agreed. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described.

that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. for I saw. which would polish as finely as glass. as I found it. Nay. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. After he explained this to the Society. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. he proceeded: "When I understood this. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. on 6 February 1672. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. when I further considered. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. I understood. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. So that. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. provided a reflecting substance could be found. bishop of Salisbury. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. than a circularly figured lens. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. were light uniform.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. because. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. as glass transmits. and I have almost thought them insuperable. and reflect as much light. so that a much . At the meeting at which Newton was elected. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. The whole is printed in No. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. it could not collect those also into the same point. the secretary of the Royal Society. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. I wondered. and finding them regular. if they continue them for any time. would cause by the unfitness of its figure." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. I left off my aforesaid glass works. But these seemed very great difficulties.

with which 'tis illustrated. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. which. you will not only find. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. which they had before they entered the composition. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. and vanish into whiteness. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. He concludes his communication with the words: This. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. as you inform me. And therefore. and that the paper. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. And this analogy twist colours. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. but not very distinctly. if any thing seem to be defective. care must be taken. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. or proportionally disagreeing in both. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. who. But it is requisite. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). that the prism and lens be placed steady. when I made the other. They have there no appropriate colour. the figure also would be corrected to the last." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. or of acknowledging my errors. but yet with this difference. so I doubt not. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. than in figuring glasses for refraction. You may also see. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. but yet most luminous in blue. that. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. And there place a clear and colourless prism. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. by such motion. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. if I have committed any. but I shall conclude with this general one. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. are taking care about it at London. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. proper for metal. Further on. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. as I said. are again dissipated and severed. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. as I imagined. I began to try. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. for. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. how the colours gradually convene. whereby. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. what might be effected in this kind. or to thwart this relation. but yet most luminous in red. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. . For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. I conceive.

refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. and he wrote on double refraction. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction." The heads. and the inflexion of light. . till after Newton's death. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". or leave to come out after me. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. who was the chancellor of the university. but was not published. or communicated to the Royal Society. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. light polarization and binocular vision. endeavored to effect a compromise which. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. and. George Villiers. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. and entered in the Regent House. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. Others criticized the experiments. and. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. I do recommend them both to be nominated. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. he says. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège).Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. and are now almost universally rejected. and many others. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. The public oratorship fell vacant. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). however. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. when a description of it was found among his papers." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. or to become a slave to defend it. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new.

He therefore was led to inquire whether. when. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. dated 23 June 1673. as several others are." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. by calculating from Kepler's laws. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. (4. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. as he was not in holy orders. a fellow of the Royal Society. Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun." (See Newton's cannonball." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. Newton. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. I desire to withdraw. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft.57 metres) in one minute. and one of Newton's intimate friends.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. owing to decay. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. he says. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675. till 1860. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth.) . I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. In one version of the story. if you have not done it already. I thank you. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. who married John Conduitt. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm.

"an ellipse". and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. i. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. In January 1684. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. the secretary. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". At Newton's birth. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. to consult Newton on the subject. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. "Why. a copy of his demonstration. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. however. By the time he died. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. made the two results. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime.Early life In November 1679.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. in the month of August 1684. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. After the latter had left Cambridge. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. put his hand upon his calculation. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Moreover. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. . Unless otherwise noted. or their views about the researches of others. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. Sir Christopher Wren. and started for Cambridge. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. Oldenburg. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem." He could not. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. I have calculated it. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. by the hand of Mr Paget. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. Newton replied promptly. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. one of the secretaries of the Society. one of the fellows of his own college.e. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. but he promised to send it to Halley. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy.

(Cambridge University Press. cam. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. 1960).). Montagu. In a letter to Newton announcing the news. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. pp.) (1960). 159. his hopes were spoiled by long delay.Early life [2] Cohen. and has not . sfu. ISBN 0521477379. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. at pp. [7] Newton. p.. A. The Life of Isaac Newton. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. google. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy.. ac. Cambridge. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. Isaac. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. afterwards Earl of Halifax. p. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu.) (1960). Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. was false to him. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. Cambridge University Press. Charles Montagu. lib. cited above. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. . ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. 11. (1970). the warden of the mint. (1994). when Montagu.B. " Newton. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. Isaac (http:/ / venn. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994.M1) [5] ed. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. Venn. Michael Hoskins (1997). Mr Overton. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. However. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". J. ac.435-440. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. Cambridge University Press. [8] http:/ / www. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46.43. cam. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. J. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. Vol 2 (1676-1687)." Newton was now 55 years old. and the esteem the king has of your merits. eds (1922–1958). Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. 16–19 [4] Michael White. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal. Later life During his residence in London. The office is the most proper for you.297-314. I. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. Richard S. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. Vol. lib. 35 References • Westfall.

A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. To this work were added two treatises. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. however. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. . a post worth between £1. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. he did not exhibit it in the results. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation.500 per annum. except to Newton and his friends. while exports were paid for in gold. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. a process that was completed in about two years. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works.200 and £1.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. Newton took it seriously. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. with an account of their properties. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. was still. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. Of this. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. the second.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. a secret." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble.

(2) to determine a curve such that. with improvements by the author. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. "tanquam. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. and. He also solved the second problem. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. making it public. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. and eight foreign associates were created. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. although Newton's solution was anonymous. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. who have solicited the. and a second edition of it. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). W. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. secretary to the Royal Society. Hartsoeker. Leibniz. In that year the Academy was remodelled. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. and joining a Scholium concerning that method." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. was published at London in 1712. and made known to some friends. and having since met with some things copied out of it. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. P2. and published by Dr Wallis. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. and he gave a method of determining it." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). obtained leave to make it public. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. I have on this occasion made it public. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. by Dr Machin. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. which was also written many years ago. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. prefixing to it an introduction. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. 's Gravesande published a tract. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics." says he. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. but he received a letter from Leibniz. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. . and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. and E.

Roger Cotes. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. the master of Trinity College. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. and of a new edition. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. they paid a visit to Cambridge. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. and discharged the duties of the post. Dr Bentley. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. of his work. but being a Whig. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. where a congregation of the senate was held. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. Rumours. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint.. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him." Newton. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. on Newton's recommendation. He held the office for 25 years." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. He was warmly supported by the residents. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. and beaten by a large majority. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. he was opposed by the non-residents. and a number of honorary degrees conferred. were heard from time to time.. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. in the first few months of 1695. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained." he said.I forget from where . "will be glad to see you in June. after speaking to Newton. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. 2002). the lunar theory would. however. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. the queen's husband. have been completely investigated. when the queen. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. The prince had offered. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. however. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature." (I have learnt . In April 1705. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. Dr Edleston. the master of Trinity. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. fellow of Trinity College. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). so far as he could do it. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . On 21 May 1709.

the following account of this new Edition. 4. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. however. In Libri primi Sect. and endeavoured to refute it. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. The Princess of Wales. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. vii. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. about midsummer 1713. for I find that I shall be examined about it. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. who translated it. 2. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. I must not see it. she requested him to give her a copy. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. 1713. At last. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. facilior redditur et amplior. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. took every opportunity of conversing with him. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. and received the royal assent. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. "If you write any further preface. Caroline of Ansbach. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. on 27 July. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. who called witnesses. and. The abbé. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. On the 31st of March 1713. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. I. an antiquary at Paris. Newton waited on Queen Anne. "28 Mar. to present her with a copy of the new edition. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. passed both Houses. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. wife of George II. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . pointing out their weak points. true in theory but difficult to execute. Newton criticized all the methods. In Libri secundi Sect. N. He mentioned four: 1. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. lent his copy to M Fréret. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. 3.

and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. and published at Paris. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. a nephew of Bentley. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret. Upon receiving a copy of this work. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. after his death. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. to suppress it".. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. he solved it later the same evening. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. This edition had many errors. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. . fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. This was done. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. Newton printed. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. who was on the way to the continent. In an earlier part of his life. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. beginning his studies before 1690. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. He therefore asked Locke. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. and though he was fatigued from work. translated into French by the observator. to have it translated into French and have it published there. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. which was published in 1728. in 1756.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. For example in 1716 Leibniz. John which was published in London in 1733. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry.

2005. ISBN 9780151012787.com. Vol V. Wise. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25.[10] Towards the end of his life. ahds. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. [6] By The King. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. OCLC 276340857. .online-literature. Richard Kleer. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. pdf) (PDF). Athol L Murray. html). urotoday.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone.1464-410X. after six years of "cock[fight]ing. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. [10] Westfall 1980. [9] Ostad.1111/j. In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. pdf). Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey. He endured great suffering. (2005). 21 September 1717. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.05242. doi:10. Gilbert J. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. ac. Sir Isaac Newton. pdf). A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. April 1842 . . php?rec=true& UID=1304). Athol L Murray.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. pierre-marteau. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. 870 [11] Yonge. measuringworth. litencyc. . Retrieved 23 September 2009.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.January 1843 (http:/ / www. PMID 15638889. who. ac. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). p. com/ php/ stopics. Retrieved 2008-05-22.. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. ahds. online-literature. In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26.and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). Edward. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. University of Regina. horse racing. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads. Charlotte M. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. Newton and the Counterfeiter. www. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident.x. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage. archive. (1898).

html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). In this sense. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702).ucsc. Bernard Cohen (Dawson. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. for example. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. superstition. the noted English scientist and mathematician. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics.edu/~michael/koll. Distinctions between science.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime. 1975). opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. Santa Fe. These occult works explored chronology. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. with a and historical introduction by I. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom.". he was the last of the magicians. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. economist John Maynard Keynes. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. alchemy. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse).

K. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. Newton is thought to have said.[8] . came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. "O Diamond. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. In the story. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. A perfectionist by nature. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life." 43 In 1936. or some other substance). At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). lead. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. with its associated nomenclature. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. In recent years. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. Arts and Humanities Research Board.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. catalogue. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. In addition. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. Newton's dog started the fire."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. and analytical chemistry. burning 20 years of research. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. National Science Foundation. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem.[2] It was for this reason. The English Crown. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. several projects have begun to gather. and perhaps to a lesser extent.S. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". made penalties for alchemy very severe. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. who throughout his life. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. Diamond. which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy.

early forms of tarot. Hieroglyphical Figures. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. though mysterious figure. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. Most notably are documents entitled. "Theatrum Chemicum". 1728. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. and occultism. In predicting this he said. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. "Nicholas Flammel. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. in a search for their occult knowledge.[10] In addition to scripture. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. Nicolas Flamel. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. In its time. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. and his "secret book". which he translated himself from the original Hebrew.[12][13] . taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". and the vegetable or the growing stone. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. "Ezechielem Explanationes". Artephius. Published London. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. "Artephius his secret Book". Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. This concept. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple.

only adding to the public interest in the temple. ” During Newton's lifetime.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". spirals. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. In addition. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. To Newton. and other harmonious constructions. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. was published posthumously in 1728.[17] In 1754. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. Psalms. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. orthographic projection. 27 years after his death. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. when deciphered. Isaac Newton's treatise. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. which was popular in its day. but also in the sacred scriptures. Around 1692. [14] Job. scholars. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. such as golden sections. . found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. .[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. In the knowledge of this philosophy. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. In 1628. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. as in Genesis. Isaiah and others. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. This immense 13-foot-high (4. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. both speculative and active. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. due to the success of Villalpando's publications. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. conic sections.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. the same was true of their architecture. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. is not only to be found in the volume of nature.

800. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. Christ comes as a thief in the night. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. evidently written by Isaac Newton. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. Furthermore. Both of these lay essential to his calculations. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. . and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. Canada's National Post. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year. part of the Yahuda collection. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060.[19] is a small letter slip.] 70. in or after 1705. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction.C. 1.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. Britain's Daily Telegraph. It may end later. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. will end A. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. The first document.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half.C. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end.[D. 7th. the period of 1260 days. Nature. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. 2060.

Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms".[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. In this entry he mentions Mephres. authors. and various other classical historians. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. . God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. but rather one in which he believed the world. Pliny. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. and available source material. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. Anatolia. and poets. an approximately 87. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Ogygia was home to Calypso. and the Levant.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. but was sunk into the Sea. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. In a separate manuscript. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. The marriage supper. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. Egypt. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. However. Homer. as he saw it. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. As such. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. It is done. Africa and Asia. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. standards. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. Plutarch. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. In fact. or possibly the same island. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. In Greek Mythology. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe.

[26] At the time of his death. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. lack of supportive publicized material. the level of their secrecy. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint.". Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself.[24][25] however. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. a recognized Knight. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. not esoteric societies. The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. and the spiritual realm. however. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. the physical universe. would seem to exclude Newton . and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. Like Newton.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. anti-Catholic. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. which they claimed to have in their possession. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. Additionally. In his library. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature.C.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. these are considered learned societies. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. and highly politicised. For its time. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized. remains unclear. Considering his esteemed social status. avowedly Christian. However. Furthermore. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos.

Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. dlib. 2010 [5] Newman. newtonproject. Rabbi Chaim. uk/ prism. Page 91. however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member.Occult studies from their membership. References [1] Keynes. 15–19 July 1946. Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. sacred geometry. 144. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. . jsp [7] http:/ / www. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. [6] http:/ / webapp1. During his own life. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. Discover Magazine. do). s-most-famous-alchemist)". Oxford University Press US. from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. templeinstitute. 1999. [10] Richman. sussex. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. p. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). christianpost. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. .[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. 19 June 2007. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. Jane Bosveld. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". . Associated Press. Pope). Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. as were many members of The Royal Society. July/August. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. ISBN 019530070X. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. pbs. ac. (2005). Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). and he never publicly identified himself as one.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. indiana. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. ac. "Newton. J. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. indiana. Temple Institute. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. (5 April 2007). "The Da Vinci Code". htm). dlib. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-08-12.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. Oxford University Press. christianpost. google. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. Temple Institute (1991-2008). htm) on 6 May 2008. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. Retrieved 2010-07-19. (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). However. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". . [11] Christianson. p. Retrieved 1 July 2008. USA: PBS.M. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. archive. Gale E. htm). edu/ newton/ about. 175. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. referring not to a medieval knight. edu/ newton/ index. huji. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. The Man". jnul. . William R. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www..

ISBN 073820143X.newtonproject. Frances A. Stephen D. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized). Retrieved 1 July 2008. html).ac. spalding-gentlemens-society. google. ac. 117. The Newton Project.niu. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. (http:/ / www. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books.newtonproject. ac. p.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www. uk/ texts/ viewtext. (http://www. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed. (http://www. bcy. f. uk/ prism.ac. "Juan Bautista Villalpando.uk)) . written at USA.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies. Book Excerpt .sussex. [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www. html). uk/ texts/ viewtext. Michael. inul. University of Sussex: The Newton Project.F. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer.jnul. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-26. newtonproject. Retrieved 2007-08-15. . php?id=74). p. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. Retrieved 2007-08-15.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. sussex. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. 31r [22] Newton. ca/ aqc/ leon.newtonproject. Alain (2007).edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando. com/ book_bauer. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 50 • White.J. .htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.faculty. htm). org). f. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A. S. ISBN 1578634040.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www.sussex. AHRC Newton Papers Project. isaac-newton.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell.newtonproject.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton.ac. 2060.ac.com/aReal/unit-fraction. f.uu. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No.).htm) • the math (http://www-groups. 496. .staff. faculty. freemasons-freemasonry. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley.3g. Michael (1999). google. newtonproject. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www." (http:/ / www. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). sussex. . Michael. Retrieved 2008-06-25. [26] White. org/ newton_2060. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7.freemasons-freemasonry. p. Retrieved 2007-08-15.ac. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www. ac. Lincoln. Holy Blood.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode.M. Isaac (5 April 2007).dlib.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. Chetwode.dcs.pbs. [23] Bauer.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando. 1997." (http:/ / www.. ISBN 1-59477-172-3.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h. .sussex. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life. htm). newtonproject. newtonproject.2a. Henry (2004). org/ ). . J. . fairfield. William (2010). & A. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).themathpage. William Stukeley 1752. ed. Originally published: London : HarperElement. Isaac. W. Laurence (2007). (1972).edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.math. [17] Newton. com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). Scott Mandelbrote.org/library/drmath/view/55191. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books.3o.from Chapter 3. sussex. ac. Rob Iliffe. [14] Gardner. Joseph..st-and. [18] Snobelen.science.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. Fairfield University. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7. .gutenberg. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. .php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. pp.com/pillar_solomon_temple. Holy Grail. [19] Yahuda MS 7.fairfield. Da Capo Press. Retrieved 20 April 2010. Delta Trade Paperbacks. [28] Baigent. the Apocalypse and A.sussex. . The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. 146.html) • unit fractions. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. 859" (http:/ / www. sussex. London: Routledge. The Newton Project.huji. 2005: Weiser.indiana. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. . .ac.D.uk/prism. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www.

"[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy. In predicting this he said. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. and he said. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. I study the Bible daily. astronomer. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. theologian and alchemist. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be. natural philosopher. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. mathematician.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . After 1690. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. written by those who were inspired. had it been made public. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. "so little understood". He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

Alternatively. place and motion. causes. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. or.[5][6] . these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".[1] Background These arguments. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. 77–82. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. in other words. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). in general. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. space.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation.

and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. Eventually. despite proximity to the pail. who contended that all motion was relative. accordingly. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. A: Central object rotates. however. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. as the cord continues to unwind. but the neighboring train. and that there is no absolute motion. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. Thus. it is not your own train moving.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . — Ernst Mach. not only with respect to the experimenter. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. the surface of the water remains flat. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. but in opposite directions. his real position was that motion is absolute. In other words. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition.[7] However. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. However. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. but also in relation to the water it contains.[9] When. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. On the other hand. it begins to spin rapidly. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. B: Outer ring rotates. p. but in opposite direction. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. C: Both rotate.

Bouquiaux in Leibniz.are altogether destitute of any real effect. 58 .. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. p. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies.. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. by the sudden action of another force.. the vessel continues for some time this motion.. as quoted by L. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them..This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. forming itself into a concave figure. but relative motions. after.. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. .. which is here directly contrary to the relative. hung by a long cord.Bucket argument If a vessel. and effectually to distinguish. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. and may be measured by this endeavour. a limitation that has not been established.. In fact. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. Principia. and while the cord is untwisting itself. And therefore. a stationary frame can be identified. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. and recede by little and little. see Rotating spheres. However. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. as before the vessel began to move. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. — Isaac Newton. Thus.. — Ernst Mach.. the surface of the water will at first be plain. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. it is whirled about in the contrary way.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies.. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. and held at rest together with the water. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. . discovers itself. not relative. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. will make it begin sensibly to revolve. is incomplete.[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string. then filled with water. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. .

see Knudsen and Hjorth. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl.. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. one might question just how rotation brings about this change. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. if at rest. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. To sum to zero.. because the element of water does not move. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface.. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. for if this were not so. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force. the water. the horizontal. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. . The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. For example. and the aim is to determine this function. the co-rotating frame. However.[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. p. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. But from the nature of a fluid.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. 127 Moreover. the sum of all three forces must be zero. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water.

the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. because all positions are equivalent in energy. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. That is. that is. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. for example. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0.) As r increases. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. That being so. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. were surface regions with lower energy available. The potential energy is useful. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. equilibrium is attained. . inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. In words. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. On the other hand. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position.

com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). editors) (2002). with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. ISBN 0521358124. Forgotten Books. Bernard Cohen & George E. . Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. If rotation is arrested. Part ii. pdf [3] René Descartes. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. 191. 43. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. p. before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. . for example through friction. google. which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. p. us. this energy is constant independent of position r. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. p. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. ISBN 0226282198. John Cottingham translator (1988). See Figures 1 and 2. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. 75. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). Cambridge University Press. archive. University of Chicago Press. google. [2] http:/ / ia310114. §25. . a concave surface represents the stable situation. As the height of water increases. Cambridge University Press. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. at a given angular rate of rotation. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. This change in shape would not be stable. google. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Principia philosophiae. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation).Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. . From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. [6] Daniel Garber (1992).M1). and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. ISBN 1606201433. Thus. To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. google. however. . [7] Robert Disalle (2006). p. Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. [5] René Descartes (1664). and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. and lowering it at smaller radius. 105. because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. Requiring the energy to be constant. The water surface is flat at first. ISBN 0521656966. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. Smith. and the more rapid the rotation. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero.M1). Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. At some small angular rate of rotation. 170. p. the more concave this surface. google.

Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. Wiley. . [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein. 5 (1975) ed. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. ISBN 0486607690. . .. p. stanford. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent.htm) see section on Space. ISBN 0521656966. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. 279–280. The Universe and the Bucket". com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. B. The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. See: • R. ISBN 0691033234. ISBN 1402086679. 143. 119. stanford. google. vol. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004).edu/l/leib-met. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books.). [16] Lawrence S. 404. Knudsen. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. Zalta. google. . edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). google. p. time.M1). see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. 79-81 [13] L.utm. . 79. google. "Chapter 2. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. In Edward N. pp. John Wiley & Sons. google. 45. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. pp. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. no. ISBN 0375412883. p. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. ISBN 0120598779.).. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. 127.com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. 104. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). Bernard Cohen. ISBN 0521621135. . ISBN 0521352541. pp. . Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. At the end of this article. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. 78–79. George Edwin Smith. google. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. 167.google. cit. ISBN 0521857902.M1) (in Proc. Jones & Bartlett. Lerner (1997). Leibniz (http:/ / books. and Motion (http://plato.M1). Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. Academic Press. ISBN 354067652X.stanford. Cambridge University Press. us.). New York: Courier Dover Publications. A A Knopf. archive. [11] Robert Disalle. Poul G. Hjorth (2000). [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884).M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. [15] Jens M. [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920).M1). Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). article by Robert Rynasiewicz. 325–348. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. • Ralph A. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1. google.edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. editor) (2008). Partridge (1995). Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. Am. p. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. Springer.M1).Bucket argument p. p. "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). Time. • D. 386–387. ISBN 0867204796.iep. op. google.M1). Weber & George B. In I. 19. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.M1). .google. . p. [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127. pp. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). Springer. p. . Lynden-Bell (1996). pdf) pp.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. Arfken (2003). . Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. [19] Hans J. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. and the texture of reality. p. Soc.google. . Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. Phil. 78. google. External links • Newton's Views on Space. Princeton University Press.

calculus. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education.[4] In the 5th century AD.[6] . more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. broadly called mathematical analysis.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. More generally. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics. Historically. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. which prefigures the concept of the limit. term by term integration. while Archimedes (c. derivatives. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. Calculations of volumes and areas. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. but the formulas are mere instructions. Calculus is the study of change. pi calculus. It has two major branches. infinite series approximations. lambda calculus. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. to calculate areas and volumes. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. variational calculus. early forms of differentiation. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. Calculus has widespread applications in science. one goal of integral calculus. and some of them are wrong. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. and join calculus. integrals. or "infinitesimal calculus". functions. with no indication as to method. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". economics. an integral test for convergence. differential calculus and integral calculus. Eudoxus (c. and infinite series. 1820 BC).[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation. A course in calculus is a gateway to other.

often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. in their differential and integral forms. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. The product rule and chain rule. but Leibniz published first. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. and the system of mathematical analysis. and James Gregory. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid." —John von Neumann In Europe. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. second and higher derivatives. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. introduced the concept of adequality. Newton derived his results first. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. including fractional and irrational powers. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. In his publications.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . Isaac Barrow. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. In other work. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. Unlike Newton. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. the notion of higher derivatives. which is its logical [7] development. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. He did not publish all these discoveries. Pierre de Fermat. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. Taylor series. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. he developed series expansions for functions. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. and providing the product rule and chain rule. the oblateness of the earth. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. By Newton's time. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus.

it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. however. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. It is Leibniz. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. In Cauchy's writing. to the detriment of English mathematics. . and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. Following the work of Weierstrass. but it would be 150 years later. who gave the new discipline its name. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. including Maclaurin. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. developed in the 1960s. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. Today. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions.Calculus Society. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. In modern mathematics. Several mathematicians. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. Robinson's approach. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently.

the slope of a curve. time. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. "infinitely small". but use the ordinary real number system. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. Persia. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers. in some sense. especially the limit and the infinite series.. and Japan. Calculus provides tools. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. which resolve the paradoxes. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. Greece. They capture small-scale behavior. just like infinitesimals. Historically. arc length. center of mass. From this point of view. In the 19th century. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. Iraq. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves.. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. 1/2. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. China. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. during the 17th century. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. However. and optimization. i. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. and less than any positive real number. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. and motion. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. . An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. and for this reason they are the standard approach. India. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. but less than any number in the sequence 1. .e. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. volume. For centuries. work.. In this treatment. and pressure. 1/3.

The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. The derivative. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. (a. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. pronounced "f prime. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. and applications of the derivative of a function. then it outputs nine. where functions usually input a number and output another number. if the doubling function is given the input three. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. If a function is linear (that is. If h is a number close to zero. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. then it outputs six. however. then a + h is a number close to a. To be concrete. let f be a function. and fix a point a in the domain of f. For example. if the graph of the function is a straight line). f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. f(a)) and (a + h. that is. properties. In mathematical jargon. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. it is the velocity of the ball. however. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. f(a + h)) is close to (a. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. If the input of the function represents time. y is the dependent variable. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. f(a + h)). then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. three is sent to nine." For instance. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. Thus.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. f(x)). the derivative of the function of f is f′. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. can take the squaring function as an input. and if the squaring function is given the input three. four is sent to sixteen. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. where x is the independent variable. it is possible to produce a new function. Given a function and a point in the domain. Therefore (a + h. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. f(a)). A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. b is the y-intercept. which is impossible. outputs a second function. the doubling function. For example.

the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. . For this reason. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. that is to say. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function.9) is 6. Here is a particular example. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function.

and applications of two related concepts. as the output. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. However. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. the inverse operation to the derivative. the indefinite integral and the definite integral. If the speed is constant. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. but if the speed changes. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. .and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. however. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. introduced by Leibniz. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. Leibniz. properties. For example: In this usage. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. called a Riemann sum. the derivative. integral calculus studies two related linear operators. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. then the speed will stay more or less the same. (This use of upper. In technical language. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". only multiplication is needed.

The symbol of integration is . f(x)=h. Call that value h. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. or antiderivative. To approximate that area. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. For each small segment." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. we can choose one value of the function f(x). defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. as an output. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. is y′ = 2x. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. . A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. the area between the axis and the curve. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. dx is not a number. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. and is not being multiplied by f(x). In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. where C is any constant. the area. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). The indefinite integral. between two points (here a and b). and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant.

This realization. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. In biology. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. slope. and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. For example. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. b). engineering. made by both Newton and Leibniz. actuarial science. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. More precisely. then Furthermore. In analytic geometry. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. statistics. the moment of inertia of objects. for every x in the interval (a. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. Physics makes particular use of calculus. the study of graphs of functions. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. medicine. computer science. economics. we use calculus to derive its path. demography. . business. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. concavity and inflection points. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. b).

Liu. ac. p. F. Sherry (2007). 28. In the realm of medicine. Chapter . 618–626. p. From Hammurapi to Legendre. 279. Copy (http:/ / books. ISBN 9810222017. Wright. 279 (http:/ / books.. Scott. Ltd. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. . T. I [3] Archimedes. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. Gottfried Wilhelm. Page 228. Examples are methods such as Newton's method. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow.. google. Dainian. google. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. htm)..). 1995. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0817645659. eds. R. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. Kenelly.. p. Reed. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. in Heywood. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. google.. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. fixed point iteration. Birkhauser Boston. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. Vol. B. 2.. Robert Sonné (1966)... Dennis G. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. Discrete Green's Theorem. google. Jones & Bartlett Learning. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. st-andrews. An approach through history. Iris B. Chapter 1. Springer.. Wright.. ed. . . in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. Cengage Learning. 180–196. google. google. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C.. p 2 (http:/ / books. Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. agnesscott. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. Cosimo. Agnes Scott College. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. Fan. Boston. J. "The Mathematician". In economics. Elif (April 1995). xxvii. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. MA. The Neumann Compedium. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. Donald R. 1984. For instance. [8] André Weil: Number theory. Warren S. For example. For example. google.. University of Chicago Press. Pte. John W.Calculus Green's Theorem. p. Cohen. World Scientific Publishing Co. In nuclear medicine. and linear approximation. pp.see also the summed area table algorithm. 1947. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. pp. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. Vámos. [9] Leibniz.. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. html [7] von Neumann. 2008. it's used to derive dosing laws. Method. . . in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . 130. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C)... p. The Works of the Mind. Biggers. Inc. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). Inc. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. Reprinted in Bródy. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. mcs. (2009).

1: The Tools of Calculus". Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. • Howard Anton. • Albers. Hafner.. Giordano (2008). Donald J. Addison-Wesley. Dover edition 1959. 2004. Donald A..ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 ." (http://mathworld. 2nd Ser. Bruce H. Calculus for a New Century. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. Maurice D.. "Calculus".. Anderson and Don O. google. (1967). • Michael Spivak. Wiley. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. • Thomas/Finney. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. The Association. ED 300 252. ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. • Mathematical Association of America. Calculus: Early Transcendentals. ed. James (2008). • Cliff Pickover.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). (1988). Stony Brook.. • Tom M.wolfram. • Edmund Landau. Thompson and Martin Gardner. (2003). "Calculus". Frank R. Press.. University Science Books. (September 1994). ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th." Annals of Mathematics. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. NY. (2003). 11th ed.Irl Bivens. 1923). Apostol. • Robert A. Carl Benjamin (1949). Mathematical Association of America No. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. Weir. Joel Hass.John Willey and Sons Pte. Publish or Perish publishing. Eric W. (1999).Calculus 73 Books • Larson. No. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. 9th ed. Not a Filter. Ron.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. (1996). ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. Edwards (2010).. 1 (Sep. Apostol. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. "The History of Notations of the Calculus. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Volume 2. American Mathematical Society. George B. 6th ed. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. Lebedev and Michael J. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. • Florian Cajori. Ltd. 1998. Loftsgaarden. pp. (1969). 1–46. • Tom M. • Weisstein. ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. 25. Wiley.2002. Ch. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5.Stephen Davis:"Calculus".. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Vol. Cambridge University Press. 7. • Leonid P. A Pump. Richard D. Volume 1. (1998).html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. Adams. Princeton Univ. • Silvanus P. Addison Wesley. ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy.

temple.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. ( listen now (http:// www. Eric W.htm (http://www. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism.wolfram. H. P.co.mit. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre . Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.com/calc/calc.ac. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.umn. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler.calculus.org: The Calculus page (http://www. (2006). (2004). (2001).math.co.html)" from MathWorld.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).understandingcalculus.html) • Mauch.com/calc/calc.wisc.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.math.pdf (http://www.mit.uiowa.ericdigests.htm) from ERICDigests. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.pdf) • Sloughter. soton.. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow.org/index.math.economics.math.com/ (http://www.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell.org/pre-9217/calculus.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus. .pdf (http://www.caltech.wolfram. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. B.com/Calculus. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus".htm (http://ocw. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw.html (http://www. (1991).htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www. URL http:// www.math.pdf) • Garrett.bbc.edu/~sean/applied_math. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www.nd. Dan (2000).edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. (2003).umn.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business). G. (2006).pdf (http://www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.math.edu/~sean/applied_math.edu/~keisler/calc. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics. lightandmatter.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.pdf) • Faraz. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.cacr. (2000). "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology.html) at PlanetMath.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus. S.bbc. H.nd.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson. "Calculus" Light and Matter.uiowa. External links • Weisstein.D.byu. K. Fullerton. (2004).org) at University of California. William V. " Calculus (http://mathworld.math. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.caltech.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.wisc. J.understandingcalculus.cacr.encyclopediaofmath. mit. Michiel Hazewinkel ed. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism.math.edu/~keisler/calc.lightandmatter.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC.htm) (HTML only) • Strang.htm) • Smith. Thompson (http://djm.

Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. 3. exams and interactive applets. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later.[1]. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials. Newton. this statement went unchallenged some years. or. at the age of 23. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death.ucdavis.Calculus Dame with activities. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684.math. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693.com/) Raymond. . 4. as noted above. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman. 2.[2]) Meanwhile. and others.html) by D. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus. minima. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. as in the 'Principia' of 1687. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1.mit. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. Newton manipulated the quarrel. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711. Newton. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. A. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention.solved-problems. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith. Moreover. 1709–1716. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's. and centers of gravity.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima.

hence Newton's conjecture was not published. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. one of which was new to him. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. however. Shortly before his death. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. In 1849. I. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. in particular power series. whereas Newton began from derivatives. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. No attempt was made to rebut #4. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. However. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. and in fact worked together on some aspects. C. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. the manuscript. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. In 1696. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. but some deny this. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. on the method of tangents. Gerhardt. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. which was not known at the time. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . For instance Leibniz came first to integration. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. It is. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected.[2] At first. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting.

finding in favor of Newton. which the author of that epistle. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess." he said. 30 years later. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. before publishing them. and that of April 8. When pressed for an explanation. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. but it appears that on more than one occasion. as it appeared to Newton's friends. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. of which many are lost. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. I have enjoyed little leisure. and when I did. 1716. had endeavoured to wrest from me. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. In accepting the denial. 1713. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. in most cases I did not keep a copy. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. dates. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. in the Charta Volans. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. in the Acta Eruditorum). which referenced all allegations. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. 77 . What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. In any event. Several points should be noted. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them.. Now that I am old. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. The report of the committee. which I could sort through only with time and patience. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. and doubts emerged.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. No such summary (with facts. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. All this casts doubt on his testimony. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans.g. dont plusiers se sont perdus. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. forty years ago. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. "I have never. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. the debate persisted for many years. Moreover.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. suspicious details. Leibniz may have minimized. Moreover. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. as if by the authority of a great judge. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. the letter of June 7.

at page 250 (http:/ / books. whose potentialities he fully understood. other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . [4] D Gjertsen (1986). [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. so making the priority row a nonsense. (1970). Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. 1696).Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. the differential and integral calculus. 2003). "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). google. (Guicciardini 2003. explaining "the method of first and last ratios". They adopted two algorithms. D.. at p.. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. at page 149. 1967). The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. especially at p. points of resemblance.. the analytical method of fluxions.. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. (Cambridge University Press. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. [5] http:/ / www. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. T. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. 120. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". at page 41 (http:/ / books. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. google.). ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. not in the German-speaking world). com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. 1968). at page 400. the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. which were translatable one into the other. maths. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different.99. of equal certainty. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). . for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. tcd. "The Newton handbook". as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). (Cambridge University Press. google. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). and the differential and integral calculus.

1988. W W Norton. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. • W. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. It continues ticking along.. • Kandaswamy. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. W. A.maths. Cambridge Uni. Canberra. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics.rutgers. or initiated by the Big Bang. as a perfect machine. A thorough scholarly discussion. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. approaching a maximum value). A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. random behaviour. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion."[1] . The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. Dated.math. • Stephen Hawking. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. Edward B. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. 1908. 4th ed. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. Rouse Ball. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. including the law of universal gravitation. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. R. 1997.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. and tends. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. Anand. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. going on without the Interposition of God.html). could explain the behaviour of the solar system. Press. 1980.tcd. • Hall.html). a prominent supporter of the theory. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes.

" Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. R. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. (http://physicalworld. ibid. Joy Manners. A Source Book in Medieval Science. the machine of the world. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. . Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. p. Pr. who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. This view of God as the creator. [2] John of Sacrbosco.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back.. cited in. Andrew Norton.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). John Bolton. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. 65. 1991. Cambridge: 1996. ed. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. God was the Prime Mover. quoted in Edward Grant. Knud Haakonssen. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. God was the master-builder.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. Ed. Richard S. 1850. This steel artwork contains moving gears. 2. Edward B. 465. Westfall. who created the perfect machine and let it run. p. In this widely popular medieval text. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. 2011. space. a working clock. Robert Lambourne. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. the Royal Society. p. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. and motion. 201. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy. and beauty. 2: 103-117. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books.google. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". Clarke quotation taken from article. On the Sphere. 1. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. Cambridge University Press. Edward. Webb. 3. References [1] Davis. 19. Harper Collins. no.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11.K. p. Alan Durrant. regularity. Edinburgh." Science and Christian Belief 3. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. Further reading • Dolnick.html) The Physical World. 1974). "The Emergence of Rational Dissent.

Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics.29-32. 1210-1219 (2004) . retaining only inertia. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. translation. 72. James Clerk Maxwell. 1931). Translation). J. Eugene. html) . Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. Particle. bartleby.: Am.whitman. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. pp. form. edited by Thomas F. and the additional concept of force. interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. pp.html) JJ Thorn et al. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. corpuscular theory of light. spatial locality.edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier.[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. time. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng.The Wave. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. the material point and force (interaction between material points). org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. and all their 'inner' qualities.com (http:/ / www. gutenberg. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. htm [2] bartleby. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. Albert Einstein. com/ 65/ li/ light. Phys.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. Torrance (1982). Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality .

[1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton showed that these laws of motion. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. first published in 1687. opposite and collinear. have no place in experimental philosophy. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis.. i. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena. or based on occult qualities. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. Newton's First and Second laws.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. in the third volume of the text. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. Third edition. Therefore. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. in Latin. General Scholium. page 943 of I. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force.[2][3][3] 2.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses. .[5] For example.e. combined with his law of universal gravitation.e. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m. 974 pages. and I do not feign hypotheses. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal.. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. F = ma. 3. whether metaphysical or physical. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. and afterwards rendered general by induction.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. and hypotheses. i.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. or mechanical. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation.

the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame.Laws of motion In their original form.e. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. independently of any particle structure. then the velocity of the object is constant. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . This is the most common. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity. Euler’s laws can. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. In the given interpretation mass. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. i. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. from this point of view. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe. Thus. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. momentum.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. That is. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. acceleration. however. In this sense.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero.

[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it. In other words. Thus.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. Thus. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration.. Galileo. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. the momentum of the body is constant. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. such is the case with uniform circular motion. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. then there is a force on it. i. otherwise it would stop moving.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. m is the mass of the body. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. even if there is no change in its magnitude.e. however. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. acceleration. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below). The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. if a body is accelerating. and a is the body's acceleration.[22] . Consistent with the first law. where F is the net force applied.

Under some conventions. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. or obliquely joined. in modern terms. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd.[23] this is understood. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body.[17] The reasoning. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. particles by definition have constant mass. M is the total mass of the system.[24] . is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. Instead. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. when they are oblique. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. known as the thrust. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. Then. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). is added to or subtracted from the former motion. a triple force triple the motion. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. a double force will generate double the motion. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. In case of a well-defined system of particles. by substituting the definition of acceleration. or gradually and successively. if the body moved before. reading: If a force generates a motion. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both.[18] In classical mechanics.

but act in opposite directions. Although the forces are equal. and directed to contrary parts. motion is Newton's name for momentum. if the road . the finger is also pressed by the stone.g. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. as the motions are equally changed. as usual. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. but act in opposite directions. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. As shown in the diagram opposite. and by its force changes the motion of the other. The changes made by these actions are equal. that is to say. as will be proved in the next scholium. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. will draw the horse as much towards the stone.[25] In the above. If a body impinges upon another. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other.. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. toward the contrary part. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. This law takes place also in attractions. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. For. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. in its own motion. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". If you press a stone with your finger. as it does the stone towards the horse. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.

and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. At speeds comparable to the speed of light. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. Newton's laws of motion. each exerting a force on the other. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. one might say.b are the forces from B acting on A. which can be stated as follows. most notably at very small scales. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt.a are the forces from A acting on B. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects.[28] however from a deeper perspective.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. So each and every force has two ends. and in quantum mechanics. . which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). Given two objects A and B. However. very high speeds (in special relativity. 87 where Fa. momentum. and not on a single object. Therefore. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. Fb. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. including general relativity and quantum field theory. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. optical properties of substances. From a mathematical point of view. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other.

Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. M. Becchi. Clifford A. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". Treatise on natural philosophy. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). This can be stated simply. . which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. ISBN 9780070084988. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. . [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. htm) [. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. google. us. see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. quantum mechanics. ISBN 097046701X. Indeed. and Tait. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). I. New York: Birkhäuser. google. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. (2003). archive. ISBN 0486462900. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). Benvenuto. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. 207. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). Halliday Browne. Newtonian Physics. and to both classical and non-classical physics. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed.Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book..]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. p. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites.. and by a modern text of the early 21st century. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04.. Tseitlin. . he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. Antonio. However. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. In modern physics. Newtonian Physics. quantum electrodynamics. pp. volume 1. pdf). • Section 242.. Dover Publications..45G. ISBN 3764314761. energy. Translations. lightandmatter. springerlink. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. the laws of conservation of momentum. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. . general relativity.Truesdell. Lubliner. etc. . (1867).).1023/A:1022632600805. McGraw-Hill Companies. since they apply to both light and matter. google. Jacob (2008).g. "Newton's First Law: Text." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century.. . doi:10. tripod.. P G. berkeley. [9] Benjamin Crowell. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. Michael E. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. ce.. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. "4. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. google.12. Edoardo (2003). action at a distance has been completely eliminated. html). com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books. W (Lord Kelvin). except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. 58. "Momentum.

the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. pages 143–185. Brooks/Cole.. 161. pp. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. (1992). [22] WJ Stronge (2004).227P. com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). John Wiley & Sons. ISSN 0923-2958. pp. (2) Stuart Pierson. 1967). Bibcode 1992PhyEd. Berkeley 1999. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). (2006). though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). p. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. p. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index.1007/BF00052611. 78–79. J. Whitman.. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). vol. . [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. A new translation by I. pages 157–207.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011.60 (2006). "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude.T. Jerry S. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. pp. 1971 [20] Raymond A. ISBN 0534997244. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. 353. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M. stanford.). Harman & Alan E. 1 (1993). See Harman and Shapiro. p.. p221. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). Special relativity (http:/ / books. doi:10. Cohen and A. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". Faughn (2006). Shapiro. Whiteside (http:/ / books. ." [17] Halliday. producing the relativistic expression for momentum. . "Newton’s third law revisited". Massachusetts: The MIT Press. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[. google. Educ. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. . [14] Thornton. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. 1. Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. 2007.. "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. "Physics". 53. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. [26] C Hellingman (1992). ISBN 1-85233-426-6." [19] Hannah. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. google. 6. ISBN 0070350485.112H. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. Pitman Paperbacks. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. Corollary III to the laws of motion . 133–134.. College Physics (http:/ / books. consists..] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. Physics. ISBN 0534408966. 24. Principia. Resnick. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used. Juan C. doi:10. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). .Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. p. p. [11] Isaac Newton. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. [. cited below. 27 (2): 112–115. ISBN 0521602890. google. Hillier..B. html#NewLawMot). Serway. . Angel R. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. is a truth that no man doubts. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. Daniel.M1). Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". Phys. is not so easily assented to. google. s. it will lie still forever. . London/Berlin: Springer. google. unless somewhat else stir it. ISBN 052189266X. (http:/ / books. Springer. [16] Plastino. p. Marion (2004). Muzzio. ISBN 0471037109.. University of California press. google. . com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false)." [28] Newton.. pages 627–658. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. 199. ISBN 0387237046. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. and (3) Bruce Pourciau. . But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. 12 ff. Robert Kolenkow (1973)." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. An Introduction to Mechanics. M J.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". The Principia. in 5.. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. [13] Beatty.27. Applied Mechanics. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. google. Perspectives on Science. Millard F. "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[.] Consequently.. . also an online discussion by G E Smith. Eds) (2002). McGraw-Hill. "'Corpore cadente.53. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole.

Newton's Second Law (http://www.lightandmatter. • Newton.motionmountain. (1999). (2011).com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www. (2011. R.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw. Light and Matter (http://www. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell.google.1).. G. volume 1.).3).. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books. 1 (2nd ed. London/Berlin: Springer.google. Isaac.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. 6.google. ISBN 0805390499.html#Section4. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw. M. The Feynman Lectures on Physics.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC).3. Sands.com/lm/). Peter W. P. R.1. Wolfram Demonstrations Project. Harcourt College Publishers.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC). Cassiday. Light and Matter).edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6. W (Lord Kelvin).com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books.M1). • Thomson. volume 2.lightandmatter.).wolfram. Benjamin. Vol. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www. (1973).com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). Stephen (1995). G.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ).google. html#Section4. Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. ISBN 0070378525. P G.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04.2. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003). Leighton. ISBN 0030973023.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny. L. • Newton. • Marion. Jerry.google. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). • Fowles. containing Book 1 (http://books. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books. ISBN 0030223172. Isaac.com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) . Newton's First Law (http://www. (2005).com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178).html#Section5.lightandmatter. volume 1. p. Newton's laws of motion (http://books.mit. and Tait. • Likins. Newton's Third Law (http://www.youtube. (1867).2). Elements of Engineering Mechanics. Section 4. google. Pearson/Addison-Wesley.lightandmatter.. and Section 5. Thornton.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). especially at Section 242. Special relativity (http://books.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05. • Feynman. Saunders College Publishing. B. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. R. especially at Section 4. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".lightandmatter.

or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. Both are inverse-square laws.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. . Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. G is the gravitational constant. m1 is the first mass. m2 is the second mass. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G. Assuming SI units. first published on 5 July 1687. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers.) In modern language. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. F is measured in newtons (N). instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below. r in meters (m). Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision.

that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present".[6] In this way arose the question what. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers". Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. if anything.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity.". and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive ." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton.. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal. and on which some points still excite some controversy. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known". "prosecuting this Inquiry"). in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. together with a principle of linear inertia... have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified".. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. that Hooke communicated his "supposition . but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it. "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat.[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration.[7] It was later on. and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent. Plagiarism dispute In 1686. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674. On the latter two aspects. that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall.e. of 24 November 1679. when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity". however. being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. but also.

that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis.[14] including Bullialdus. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance).[20] and associated sections of Book 3. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. according to Newton. Among the reasons.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1. without evidence in favor of the supposition. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1.[15] (who suggested. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death. even close up. but without demonstration. but that did not mean. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law."[14] . while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage.. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. which inclined me to try it . They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. otherwise lacking. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. supported by mathematical demonstration. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. also without demonstration. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. in all editions of the 'Principia'. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. According to Newton. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke..[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. Newton acknowledged Wren. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles. although significant. Newton did accept and acknowledge. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea. Thus Newton gave a justification.[19] In addition. Hooke. which Newton was making in the 1660s. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system.

scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. that "One must not think that this idea . cancel each other out.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies.. within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. As described above.[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. Nevertheless. as the component point masses become "infinitely small". What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system.[26][27] In the light of the background described above. taken together. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". . As a consequence.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. That is. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. on the point at r0. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). see below) over the extents of the two bodies. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated).[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. In the limit. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations. this entails integrating the force (in vector form. for example.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour. it becomes understandable how. Alexis Clairaut..

In this formula.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. G is the gravitational constant. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. further outward the gravity increases again. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines . quantities in bold represent vectors. Thus. the increase due to the additional mass is 1. and if the sphere is large enough.

g.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. For 2 objects (e. it can be seen that F12 = −F21. It is a generalization of the vector form. per unit mass. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. except that F is now a vector quantity. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . object 2 is a rocket. object 1 the Earth). which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). Also. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space. Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale.

the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model). in SI. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. this is m/s2..Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. and c is the speed of light. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. that is. i. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits.[31] For example. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. Gravitational fields are also conservative. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. . v is the velocity of the objects being studied. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. The field has units of acceleration. where φ is the gravitational potential.e. General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities.

However. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. F = ma. See the Equivalence Principle. independent of the quantities of matter involved. though hypotheses abound. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century." He never. regardless of their different inertial masses. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. decades before Newton. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. and assume a point mass for each. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. which was detected long after the life of Newton. but in the case of gravity. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. In 1692. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. you get an orbit with no precession. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717).[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. the definitive answer has yet to be found. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. However. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. In all other cases."[33] . I believe. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories.. "assigned the cause of this power". This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. Yet. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally.. especially of planet Mercury.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. in his third letter to Bentley. is to me so great an absurdity that. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". Moreover. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. and the observed precession. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. In point of fact. in his words.

Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [21] D T Whiteside. 1960). David B. Mod. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata. doi:10.. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. i (1970).. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. document #235. . [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. document #288. especially at page 13. Taylor. Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. 1960). Bruce Brackenridge.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. by I. google. [22] See J. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics.956 . pages 5-19. [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.. p. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". (Cambridge University Press.Bernard Cohen.. document #286. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. . [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. [16] Borelli. Direct link to value (http:/ / www. Springer.). 80: 633–730. Ofer Gal. General Scholium. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". 1645. 1995). com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). document #239.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". 1664-1684". [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". Vol 2 (1676-1687). because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime.Proposition 75. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). google. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). Journal for the History of Astronomy. Vol 2 (1676-1687). start at page 263 (http:/ / books. Paris. Florence.. start at page 177 (http:/ / books. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. Robert D. ISBN 3-034-60036-4.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. google. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. (2009).).633M. translators: Isaac Newton. public. for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Theorem 35: p. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false). google.I.. (University of California Press. Peter J. [8] Purrington. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false).). in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. at p. physics. Rev. pages 5-19. pdf). (Cambridge University Press. google. [17] D T Whiteside. mpg. Newell. 1960).. "Astronomia philolaica". (Cambridge University Press. already cited. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. mpiwg-berlin. htm).2. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Phys. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). pages 11-61. . google. 27 May 1686. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. Correspondence. 45 (1991). Bibcode 2008RvMP. 1666. Barry N. CUP 1989. In general relativity.).633.. google. "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [2] . The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. nist.1103/RevModPhys. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Vol 2 (1676-1687).80. 1664-1684". Vol 2 (1676-1687). at page 66 (http:/ / books. 24 November 1679. Book 3.431-448.80. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. (Cambridge University Press. In Einstein's theory. i (1970). [18] Page 436. [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". (2008). A.). [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). see particularly page 431. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. ch. the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. Journal for the History of Astronomy. (Cambridge University Press. Vol. iastate. 1960).392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729. G. 168. [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. especially at 13-20. 20 June 1686. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. 1960). nist.

de Hook diminue la gloire de M.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. in Early Science and Medicine. cited above. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. and the Earth. 10 (2005). [32] . John Archibald (1973). "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results".W. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde.com. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World.. utexas. 529-534. 1. 10 (2005). 10 (2005). 518-528. Venus. Wheeler. stanford. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. by Richard S. html) [31] Misner.. in Early Science and Medicine. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. at Introduction (section IX). "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. and it was the key force for planetary motion. New York: W. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. H. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside.. Newton". If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon.Max Born (1924). "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . Ofer Gal. M Nauenberg. Rouse Ball. 1893)..pythia. (C) 3.youtube. it will indeed leave Earth. 511-517. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. Cambridge University Press. in Early Science and Medicine. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. [27] See also G E Smith. Westfall. (E) . (D) 4. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. Charles W. it will simply fall back on Earth. (A and B) 2. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics".) [33] .The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. If the speed is low. If the speed is very high. Newton" (1759). "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M.Freeman and Company. ph. at page 69. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. Gravitation. edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. Kip S. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. Thorne.

eg. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. When the disc is rotated. net/ index.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless. net23.virginia.bucknell. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow.physics. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light. A combination of red. google.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books. the colors fade to white. Carl et al. Notes [1] Sagan.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless. php?p=2_23 . (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111).edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone.

b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. and the method can be iterated. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. Then by simple algebra we can derive . 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. for converging on the root can be easily derived. b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). Suppose ƒ : [a. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. That is Here. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. succeeded by Halley's method. f (x0)). (x1. and its derivative ƒ '. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f.

particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. essentially giving the description above. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. the better. for a zero of multiplicity 1. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. However. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. More details can be found in the analysis section below. (The closer to the zero. But. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. Furthermore. He does not compute the successive approximations . Finally. However. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. in 1740. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. In the same publication.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. Finally. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. . Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. In 1690. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence.) The method will usually converge. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. though the connection with calculus was missing. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician.

However.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. and diverge from that root. In these situations. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. However. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . if the multiplicity of the root is known. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. Specifically. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. Furthermore. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. the method may overshoot. there are some difficulties with the method. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. For situations where the method fails to converge. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero.

then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. In practice these results are local.e. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. ƒ(α) = 0.6). If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. x in a neighborhood U of α. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . given a right neighborhood U+ of α. i.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. However. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x). If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. in U+. Specifically. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . then. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations.. Exercise 1. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. then the convergence is usually only linear. α being a zero of multiplicity r.

(5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1.352836323 converges to 1. 3. For example. 2.352836327 converges to –3.Newton's method 106 That is. . 2. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2.35284172 converges to –3. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied. where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms. (b) (c) Finally.35283735 converges to 4.35287527 converges to 4. 2. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1. 2.[1] for the function . 2.

the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. since the tangent at (0. such as bisection. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. preventing convergence. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). Let and take 0 as the starting point. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. x1 will be undefined. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. In fact. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. For the following subsections. .1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. the method will converge. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. for example. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). instead of the starting point. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. In such cases a different method. The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. any iteration point is stationary. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. This can happen. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. In general. Even if the derivative is small but not zero.

which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. where its derivative is undefined (this. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. Indeed. where . does not affect the algorithm. the derivative at the root is nonzero. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. let . Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. then convergence will not be quadratic. So convergence is not quadratic. however. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. farther away than it initially was. For example. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. let then and consequently . so they do not converge in this case either. In the limiting case of (square root). f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. In fact. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. except for x = 0. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0.

So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. 0.067671976.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. the derivative is not zero at the root. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. darker means more iterations to converge. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. meaning the iterates do not converge. For example. Basins of attraction for x5 .041224176. 0. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . . Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. Indeed. 0. then convergence may fail to be quadratic. 0. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions.127507934. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has. 0. 0. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. Given .251062828. since both roots are non-real. 0.032741218. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root. and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic.1 = 0. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. For many complex functions.031642362.500250376.

The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. . One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. k variables. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. In the formulation given above. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. If the nonlinear system has no solution. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations.

We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. There are many methods of computing square roots. if one wishes to find the square root of 612. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. For example. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. which may be found via Newton's method.) .Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1.5. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. with derivative. With an initial guess of 10. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. and Newton's method is one. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x).

In particular. PPT. Vol. Vetterling. Mathcad.6 [6].4 [5]. T.). Newton's method [9] -. 2003. Cambridge University Press. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein. See especially Sections 9. C. Claudia A. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. xiv+490. • Bonnans. 2003. of translation of 1997 French ed. • P. Ortega. Maple. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. • Kaw. MR2265882. J. • J.. Egwu (2008). Claude. 35. Ypma. SA. Universitext (Second revised ed. Sagastizábal. doi:10. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. • Press. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. Lemaréchal. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. Autar. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. Matlab. ISBN 0-89871-546-6.Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. Teukolsky.Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. Berlin. SIAM Review 37 (4). 2000. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. SIAM.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. Classics in Applied Mathematics. 9. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. New York: Cambridge University Press.7 [7]. Charles. ISBN 0-521-00794-1. (2006). Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. Kalu. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. Springer.. and 9. Gilbert. WH. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . doi:10. pp. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. 112 References • Tjalling J.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. SIAM. WT. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. "Chapter 9. 1995.1137/1037125. Deuflhard. Flannery.). 531–551. 2004. W. John H. Frédéric. • C.). ISBN 3-540-35445-X. Kelley. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. J. BP (2007). illustrating the quadratic convergence. Rheinboldt. M. Eric W.

the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. In physics. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. torkian. nrbook. eng. or dot notation. com/ NewtonsMethod. maccery. com/ empanel/ index. macroeconomics and other fields. "A chaotic search for i". Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. html [9] http:/ / www. Thomas. pp. html [17] http:/ / plus. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. maths. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. p. amcgowan. January 1991. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. 1 [10] http:/ / www. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. "Cubics. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. r-project. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. eng. heroku. [3] http:/ / www. Mathematical Gazette 81. nrbook. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. com/ empanel/ index. however. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. usf. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. php [11] http:/ / math. 403-408. nrbook. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. com/ empanel/ index. fullerton. fullerton. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. [2] Strang. November 1997. Gilbert. wolfram.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. mathworks. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). edu [16] http:/ / math. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. com/ empanel/ index. nrbook. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. yihui. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. It is defined as: and so on. chaos and Newton's method". html [12] http:/ / animation. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. 6). as opposed to slope or position derivatives. html#Section4. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. springer. 3-12 (esp. html [21] http:/ / www. usf. . lightandmatter.

which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. and fittings. an early composition of speculum metal. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. being the first known successful reflecting telescope. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. For this Circle being placed here. or a little less. . than by Refraction in the Glass. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. made with a concave Eye-glass. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. mount. cam. ac. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. lib. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex. He also made all the tube. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. but be an opake Circle. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). covering the limb of the Metal round about. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. and not the spherical aberration. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times.

9783540401063. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. ufl. 1785" (http:/ / www. com/ image. page 67 (http:/ / books. Telescopes in History. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). Heath's) in Strand. ssplprints. clas. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece.6 References • Smith..M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. Wilson Published by Springer.Publication. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m. 1966. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. google. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm).[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. google. Warren J.". McGraw-Hill Inc.. google. uk/ lens. htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23. stsci.Work .A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life . [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. . google. Page 74 (http:/ / books.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671.University of Florida (http:/ / www. Modern Optical Engineering.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. Dr Robert A. They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. Retrieved 22 November 2008. p. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE . Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. Hatch .[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. co. html . google. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown. 2004 ISBN 3540401067.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. Science & Society Picture Library.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. craig-telescope. when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). by Alfred Rupert Hall. [10] http:/ / www.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4. King.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1. php?imgref=10408672).

then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope.[9][10] If this was true.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).edu/~picard/personal/Newton. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects.mit.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616.stsci. and there were many theories as to what caused it. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour.media. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build).[3] and others. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] .[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672. such as Niccolò Zucchi.

with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. mount. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. The surface also tarnished rapidly. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). cassegrains. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. leading to wider field of view. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. . Like Gregory before him. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. and fittings. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. reducing cost and adding to portability. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. it would still correct chromatic aberration.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. the primary mirror (2). He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. Because of these difficulties in construction. He also made the tube. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1).3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5.

• The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. For visual observing. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. . and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. low-power imagery. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter). with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. suffer from coma. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape).[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. For research telescopes. and can still yield beautiful wide-field.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. Visually. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up.[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. This flare is zero on-axis.

M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& . html) [3] Stargazer . html) [5] Derek Gjertsen.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. google. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. King. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. google. google. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo.Mark T. rice. page 562 (http:/ / books. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. google.By Fred Watson. VandeWettering. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . The Newton handbook. by Alfred Rupert Hall.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. google. Inc NetLibrary. org/ basics. Page 108 (http:/ / books. page 67 (http:/ / books. Page 74 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108.

"8. edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. google.. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. & David Shafer. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith. Warren J. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life". McGraw-Hill Inc. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. p.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. . net/ reflecting. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7. . . php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . [12] telescope-optics. 1966. Rolin J. Retrieved 2009-10-03. htm). Retrieved 2009-09-29. google. 116. htm) [13] amazing-space. google. com/ documents/ paracorr. "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. stsci. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). cloudynights. p.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. Vladimir (2006-07-14).. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. harvard. two. . 400 us:newtoniantelescopical . Gebelein. Wilson Published by Springer.1.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". David (2004). com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. [20] Alexius J. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. Hebra. telescope-optics. Retrieved 29 November 2010. . net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations. page 14 (http:/ / books.edu . page 258-259 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. pdf). pdf) (pdf).1. telescope-optics.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. 9783540401063. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. 77R [16] Sacek. .John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. google.stsci. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. Modern Optical Engineering. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object.and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. espacenet. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. baader-planetarium.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space.

in general. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass.Sep. . the tension). are connected by a cord. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. he says. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry.: Harvard University Press. for one.2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). floating in space. 0. (This experiment involves observation of a force. with no other clues to assess the situation. if two globes.[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. pp. Calinger. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. political thought and theology. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". measuring the amount of tension in the cord.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . 1969). . Cambridge. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. Mass.. Such determination. No. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. As an example where causes can be observed. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. causes. Also. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. 3 (Jul. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. 1974. Vol. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. 319-330" (http:/ / links. 30. jstor.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. Yehuda Elkana. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. David Hume. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". in addition to influencing philosophy. was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. Alternatively. Journal of the History of Ideas. Retrieved 2008-03-26. Ronald S. CO. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies.

only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. we might. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. which are the differences of the true motions. absolute space or fixed stars). And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. instead.[8] (Of course. — Ernst Mach. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. were revolved about their common center of gravity. partly from the apparent motions. but standing on the Earth's surface. Book 1. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. according to the preceding methods.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. then.[2][6] For me. Principia. and therefore. even in an immense vacuum. p. partly from the forces.. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur.. . pp. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation. For instance. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. according to Newton.) Below. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. no centrifugal forces are produced.Rotating spheres force). 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. centrifugal forces are produced. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. they are not rotating. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. Because of the rotation. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. as an example from Newton's time.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. Alternatively. the fixed stars. by means of a cord that connects them. for example. . as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. and if. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. Scholium To summarize this proposal. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. — Isaac Newton. from the tension of the cord. the matter is more subtle. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. have been established already as not in a state of rotation.

Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. Because of the rotation. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). they clearly see the string is under tension. In this zero-tension case. the string is placed under tension. observers say they are at rest. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. (For example. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. (See reactive centrifugal force. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. which would stretch. According to the rotating observer. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. and should require an inward force to do that. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. m is the mass of the ball. requires a centripetal force of the same size. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. the Coriolis force is:[11] . accounting for their observation.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. also shown in Figure 2. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. locating one or the other of the spheres). The other ball has the same requirement. putting the string under tension. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. but circular motion at constant speed.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. According to the article fictitious force. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. so the string should be relaxed. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. the Coriolis force. the tying string. |xB| = R. but opposite in direction. This force is directed inward.)[9] To account for this tension. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. and acts on everything they observe. pulling them apart. These two forces are provided by the string. See Figure 2. but being on the opposite end of the string. along the direction of the string. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. the string is under tension. and is called a centripetal force. To travel in a circular path. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. However. Because the balls are not moving. not just these spheres. they would say no force acts on the balls. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force.

this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. However. When ωI < ωS.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. hence. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. . the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. Therefore. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. while for a more rapidly moving frame. say ωI (I = inertial). In either case. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. In the geometry of this example. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. Full notational details are in Fictitious force. this force is not the tension in the string. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. ωS < 0. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. That is. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. |vB| = ωR.

. [8] D. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. tripod. Time and Space (http:/ / books. Bernard Cohen & George E. The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books.). Finch (1998). [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). editors) (1996). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. [9] Barry Dainton (2001). 161. Cambridge University Press. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. 233. . 43. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. John Archibald Wheeler (1995).[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. Sausalito CA: University Science . [2] Robert Disalle (I. p. . [4] Max Born (1962). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. 175. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. 167.M1). ISBN 0521656966. [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. Knudsen & Poul G. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. 79. google. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. Smith.Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. p. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . Courier Dover Publications. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books.M1). + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). google. google. Courier Dover Publications. Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). Springer. . . and I. google.[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently.M1). google. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. ISBN 0521621135. ISBN 0486607690. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. htm). Hjorth (2000). google. google. Figure 43. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. p. Freeman (1986). 324. Moreover. com/ definitions. ISBN 354067652X. Courier Dover Publications. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. . Bernard Cohen. ISBN 0521575729. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. p. [7] Max Born (1962). google. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. google. ISBN 0486652270. George Edwin Smith (2002). . ISBN 0486607690. . The Principia. . Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). pp. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. editors) (2002). 82.M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. ωS is the greater. Hand. p. google. [10] Jens M. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175.M1). p. [5] Max Born (1962).M1). . p. ISBN 0521656966. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. google. ISBN 0486607690. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. p. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. 80. New York: Courier Dover Publications. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. p. . McGill-Queen's Press. google. ISBN 0691033234. 386–387. Janet D. Retrieved 2010-05-13. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. ISBN 0773523065. Princeton University Press. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). . p. Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. p. Draza Marković. 43.M1).

Soc.M1) (in Proc. Moore (1989). Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. pp.4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. . and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). 348–349. first published in 1687. . ISBN 0521621135. google. vol. their Eq. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. Mechanics (http:/ / books. p. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. ISBN 0231066368. the theorem has been . google. ISBN 0521352541. google. 119. Partridge (1995). Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. [16] R.).Rotating spheres Books. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. and Ralph A. google.[1] Since 1997. 43. 99ff. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. he showed that the added force must be a central force. B. 325–348. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. Dennis W. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). fixed in space (the center). com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99.. .M1).). Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). See Henry Stommel.3) in Stommel and Moore. Lynden-Bell (1996). ISBN 0738206105. 167. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. Am. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. p. . but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. Henning Genz (2001). com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. In Proposition 44. 279–280. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. p. 5 (1975) ed. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. (3. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. . Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result).. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. Nothingness (http:/ / books. pp. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. In this example. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. 275. google. . p. Mechanics (http:/ / books. D. he derived a formula for the force. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. google. 55.M1). Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. no. Columbia University Press. ISBN 189138922X.M1).M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. p. In Proposition 43. . pp. ISBN 0074603159. (3. google. . Phil.M1). whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. Da Capo Press.

to first approximation. To explain the epicycles. the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. By analogy. exhibiting retrograde motion. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. However.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . According to these laws. 262 BC – ca. for planets orbiting the Sun. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). In particular. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). this rotation is known as apsidal precession. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. and so on. Apollonius of Perga (ca. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. However. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles.[5] Roughly 350 years later.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. Arguing from his laws of motion. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers".Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars.

Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. To find this approximation. However. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. However. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant. r(t) and θ1(t). afterwards. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. According to this theorem.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex.[13] However. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. that is. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions.[11] Brown.[12] and Delaunay. in particular. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r). The radial and angular motions. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. to first approximation. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. However. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession.

A GIF version of this animation is found here. In other words. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. Formally. if k2 is less than one. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). since θ2 = k θ1. Both of these coordinates. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. For example. θ1). such as r(t) and θ1(t). If k2 is greater than one. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). the path of the second particle is given by . where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. change with time t as the particle moves. By contrast. F2−F1 is a positive number. F2 − F1 is a negative number. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). thus. For example. the added inverse-cube force is attractive. If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. where k is any constant. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). rather. For this purpose. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. then. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. the angle of the second particle. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. rather.Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. r(t) and θ1(t). its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle.

i. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). the second orbit resembles the first. However. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. respectively.. if k is less than one. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. However. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. According to the conservation of angular momentum. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). . Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line..e. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. Hence. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. the orbit does not change as it precesses. F1(r) = 0. in that case. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. but not equal. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1.e. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. shown in red).Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. but revolves gradually about the center of force. to one. when the orbit is a circle. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. at a constant angular speed. In this case. where k is a constant. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. both of which are constant. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. this is true only for circular orbits.. when the distance reaches a minimum. Hence. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. in other words. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. i.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. i. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. If k is greater than one.e.

the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. 3. 3. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m). the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. Thus.0 (cyan) and 6. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces. corresponding to an attractive force (green. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. the force is attractive. which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). whereas when k is greater than one. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. the inverse-cube force is repulsive. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). as illustrated in Figure 7. Thus. Thus. 1. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity.0 (black). when k is greater than one.0 (blue). Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. L12/m. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. When k is less than one.0 (cyan) and 6. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). when k is less than one. On the other hand. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit.0 (green).5 (green). the range of allowed angles increases. 1.0 (blue). These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k.

. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. In other words. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. For illustration. However. oblateness in the attracting body. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. For example. in general. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue).. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. F = Cr. For example. Conversely. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. i.. F = C/r2. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. green orbit in Figure 10). such as Hooke's law. This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. Over time. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. i. and other effects. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. where m and n are integers. such as . Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. i. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies.e. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. An govern the motions of planets.e. the line connecting the two apses. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually. However. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. provided that k equals a rational number.e. this property is not true for other types of forces. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. general relativistic effects. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). no matter what its initial position or velocity. green orbit in Figure 9). Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5.) In such cases. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. and inverse-square forces. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4.

Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. As a final illustration. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system.e. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. using the general law θ2 = k θ1. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). the apsidal angle α is 180°. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. For the inverse-square force.[16] According to their argument. In the first two.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%).. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. where n equals 1. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. Thus.C(r) is proportional to rn.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. hence. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. in the same time. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. in general. and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. the central force is a power law. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). this implies that.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. i. one of the first appearances of such a series. Therefore. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . α equals 180°. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. As noted above. Wilson and Harper. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°. F(r) = rn−3 and.

again on the monthly time-scale.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic. of the planets. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity.e. and is noticeably more complex than that. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force .[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes.6 years. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets.[24] for comparison.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. In 1673.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes). Hipparchus and Ptolemy.85 years. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion. 18. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude. i.[23] in Newton's time.[25] First. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8.. However. the so-called Saros cycle. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.[28] Ironically. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2.0165)[26] In 1894.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier.

Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. roughly half of the observed 3.[4] As Newton did. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. However. θ2 = k θ1. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. the inverse-cube force is added.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth. but the inverse-square term is not. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1).5°. Rather. In this case. the long axis would rotate 1. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. the original force is not scaled. however. and its argument is unchanged. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. so Newton reasoned. r1 = r2. Also. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle. and estimates of A and B.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687.525°). might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. For every revolution. . Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. In contrast to Newton. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. For comparison. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). so that r1 = r2. The second term. consistent with the formula given above.

Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). specifically Propositions 43–45. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. Proposition 43. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. by Newton's Proposition 2. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). therefore. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. and also its angle θ1(t). the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. Expressed another way. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. which equals θ2 = k θ1. All three planets (red. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. Therefore. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. by Proposition 2. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. derived earlier in the Principia.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. At the apapsis and periapsis. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. Proposition 44 .[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. In an infinitesimal time dt. which equals (k−1) θ1. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest.

to offset this. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45.[36] In this Proposition. In Proposition 44 of his Principia.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r).[33] By assumption. the other in the same orbit revolving. r(t).Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. one in a fixed. specifically by the formula given above. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. by which two bodies may be made to move equally. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles.

. [30] Roseveare N (1982). [11] Hill GW (1895). "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. 83. Bibcode 1987JHA. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". "Unknown title". 198. ISBN 978-1888009088. 184. [4] Mahomed FM. Bibcode 1894AJ. Mémoires Acad. 9: 31. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). [15] Newton. Math.13018. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. Berkeley. AC (1745). [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). Mémoires Acad. Imp. pp. doi:10. [35] Chandrasekhar. pp. D.386. Soc. p. [2] Lynden-Bell.1023/A:1008317327402. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. JSTOR 2369997. Monthly Notices Roy. bnf. Propositions 43–45. Simon Newcomb.. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. 267 (Chapter 6. [12] Brown EW (1891). "Unknown title". doi:10.1098/rsnr. Mechanics (3rd ed.: 451.77W.. [20] Smith. J. 2708v1). [33] Chandrasekhar. Math. [18] Chandrasekhar. 141–147. . [27] Hall A (1894). [6] Whittaker. [7] Sundman KF (1912). Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). doi:10. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein.2307/2369997. p. "Unknown title". editor.1997. Astron. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". 52: 71. Delaunay C (1867).1111/j. pp. [29] Brown EW (1903).Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. Brown EW (1891). ISBN 978-0520065895. Reading. Book I.1007/BF02422379.. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). "Unknown title". [21] Horrocks J (1673). [32] Chandrasekhar. Proposition 2. pp. p. [5] Sugon QM. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv.. MA: Addison–Wesley.. JSTOR 2369812.245L. [10] Clairaut. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. 254. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. Am. "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". Wilson C.0016.. 183–192. [17] Cohen IB (1990). Green Lion Press. [24] Smith. 187. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196.). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". [16] Valluri SR. 147. [36] Chandrasekhar. doi:10. Vawda F (2000). "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". Book III. CA: University of California Press. Sc. Lynden-Bell RM (1997).. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. 135–147. 406. pp. pp. . p.49H. doi:10. 252. 67–70. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". p. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". doi:10. pp. section IX of Book I. In Norman Thrower. 98–106. Principia. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma.x. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. [26] Chandrasekhar.14. Am. p. Section IX. 192. Imp.. 193–194.1365-2966. [34] Chandrasekhar. Principia. problem 7). [3] Lynden-Bell D. Harper W (1997). "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". "Unknown title". [9] Cohen. Principia. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. [13] Delaunay C (1862). American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. London: G Godbit for J Martyn. [14] Newton. The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. p. Jin S (2008).. [31] Symon KR (1971). 183. p. 91–108.2008. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". p. Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. Sc. [37] Whittaker. Proposition 45.18. Oxford. Bragais S.1086/102055. [19] Cook A (2000). "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". doi:10. 339–385.2307/2369812.: 237. [25] Newton. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia". org/ abs/ 0807. esp. p.. pp. [22] Wilson C (1987)..

com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. 84–85. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. 147–148. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). translated by I. "Planetary Motion". Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). pp. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. doi:10. ISBN 9780521544030. ISBN 978-0520088160. Bristol: Adam Hilger. • Guicciardini. ISBN 0-85274-348-3. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). • Smith GE (1999). ISBN 978-0520088160.). ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). • Routh EJ (1960). pp.google. pp. CA: University of California Press. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. New York: Dover Publications. Berkeley. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. 147–148. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. "The first-order orbital equation". pp.). 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). pp.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). • Whittaker ET (1937). 246–264. ISBN 0914098896.1119/1. MM (2007). "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". 257–264. Berkeley. • Newton I (1966). translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. CA: University of California Press. • Spivak. 230–233 (sections §356–359). pp. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713). CA: University of California Press. assisted by Julia Budenz ed.). Berkeley. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. 83. ISBN 978-0520088160. Berkeley. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). Cambridge University Press. Michael (1994). • Cook A (1988).com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". Principia Vol. 246–252. ISBN 978-0520009288.2432126. 534–545. Berkeley. Bibcode 2007AmJPh.352D. pp. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. External links • Three-body problem (http://www. • Smith GE (1999). "A Guide to Newton's Principia". Macmillan and Co. New York: Dover Publications. (reprint. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. • D’Eliseo. The Motion of the Moon. John Wiley and Sons. Calculus (3rd ed. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. p.google.. pp. ISBN 978-0520088160. 56.scholarpedia. • Chandrasekhar S (1995). Publish or Perish. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. Niccolò (1999). pp. 252–257. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. CA: University of California Press.. CA: University of California Press.75.). • Pars LA (1965). Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. LCCN 64-24556. 183–200. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. Merchant Books).). Oxford University Press. • Rouse Ball WW (1893).

babson. Title page of the Arithmetica. In fact. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. without proof. and the solution of equations. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. He also offered. Written in Latin. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. published in 1865). Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. it was edited and published by William Whiston. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. arithmetic. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. and so refused to have his name appear. None of these editions credits Newton as author. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. cfm [2] http:/ / www. pdf . Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. Babson Collection. the relationship between geometry and algebra. centre. when Whiston's edition was published.

• 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. Before reaching this core subject-matter. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia.[4] as well as in Latin. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. some with corollaries. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. Only the draft has the title now used. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. (in the absence of external force. resistance is assumed nil. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. these had not been generally regarded as laws.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. (Before Newton's work.) This . After further encouragement from Halley. and its (Latin) text is available online. then for the remaining (2) propositions. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. Law 1 in the Principia.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force. Law 3 in the Principia. the distance is proportional to the square of the time. both copies are without title.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. It contains 11 propositions. but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws".

They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. and shows that for any given time-segment. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). using another geometrical limit argument. drawn from the body to the attracting center. Theorem 4 in the Principia. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. while their number increases without limit.) This theorem appears again. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. with expanded explanation. it follows that a radius vector. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. it would then depart along the tangent. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. as Proposition 1. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. of the 'Principia'. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit.) . Corollary 2 shows that. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). problems. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. labeled as theorems. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. Theorem 1. and the corollaries here reappear also. and inversely proportional to the radius. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. putting this in another way. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center.

where the center of attraction is at its center." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line.e. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. . Problem 4 then explores. that if the speed is high enough.. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse.. in the Principia. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center. speed and direction of the orbiting body. Problem 6.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP².') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse. that is.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. Lastly. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. therefore. (This material becomes Proposition 10. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. (Proposition 32 in the Principia.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. Newton points out here. . Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. Problem 5 in the Principia. square] of the distance . but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola.

Later. According to one of these reminiscences. or that they were not stated by Newton. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length).[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". in 1686. and a short correspondence developed. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse". Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. and then gave a whole list. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places.. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'.e. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time. ". as in the first edition of the Principia. and the associated uniqueness statements. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. or their views about the researches of others. using a falling body. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence.. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. and other items. Halley asked Newton. are self-evident and obvious or not. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. and both of them produced from very old memories. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. i.[15] . and as if to whet Newton's interest. that in any given setup. Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. In 'De Motu'. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true.

[12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. at pages 56 (http:/ / books. . See also D T Whiteside (1970). Page 403. about the Principia.193-200. who heard of this from Halley. org/ etext/ 28233). Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. google.56-83. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself.). especially at p. 1960). at p. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. footnote 73. and the original copy had no title: online. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. 518-528. 6 (1684-1691). Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. f. A Historian's Response".196. in Early Science and Medicine. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). 529-534. and Borelli. as far as Book 1.1 (1970).6 (1684-1691). A Historian's Response". it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books.57. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. Historia Math.). Westfall's Never at Rest.89-170. (Cambridge University Press. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. 511-517. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".193-200. (Cambridge University Press.). 10 (2005).431-448. who called it a 'petitio principii'. also D T Whiteside. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. and Bruce Pourciau. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. in Early Science and Medicine. Math. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). both in Newton's lifetime and later. Alexis Clairaut.[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli. M Nauenberg. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem.2 already cited. Ofer Gal. in "Newton's Orbit Problem. including Bullialdus. "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". in Early Science and Medicine. (Cambridge University Press. so-called. pp. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". p. [13] H W Turnbull (ed. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. vol.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. but note that the title was added by Rigaud. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. vol. pp.297. see e. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged. pp.60-70. google. gutenberg. Journal for the History of Astronomy. rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. of 1729.6. Papers vol. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). and the 1686 correspondence at pp. "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". and the first English translation. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results".195-6. vol. at pages 30 (http:/ / books.293. 6 (1970). but not Hooke. at pp. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". 38 (2007). whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. 1974). at p. 116-138.g. one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation".[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. but the point was disagreed by R.431-448. is available here (http:/ / books. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 1971. 10 (2005). to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". [14] 'Correspondence' vol. Weinstock. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. 19(1) (1992). google.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest. who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. at p. pp. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton.297-314.101. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". 10 (2005). 1960). and printed by I Bernard Cohen. Vol 2 (1676-1687). pp.120.3968. [15] H W Turnbull (ed.). in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. [11] Quoted in Richard S. google. Chapter 10.

146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. Westfall. 30–91. by R. Rouse Ball. Whiteside. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . Cambridge University Press. by D. ed. 6. at page 69.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. S.W. T. 1893). pp. Vol. Cambridge University Press. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan.

The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. I. Newton's results. Chap. Of the Empire of Egypt.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. The majority of the treatise. Chap. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. II. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. beginning with Sesostris. V. King of Egypt. III. followed by others. Of the Assyrian Empire. therefore. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. Chap. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. . is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. Chap. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. with all others being copies. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. VI. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. followed by a short advertisement. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. but since republished in mass paperback format.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. Chap. IV. Of the Empire of the Persians. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. however. and that his Temple the first ever built.

gutenberg. the Father. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. ac. 27 years after his death. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. sussex. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. still in use in the several Eastern nations. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. and some others." in support of the Trinity doctrine. Armenian.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. newtonproject. htm#chron http:/ / www."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. Ethiopia. . as far as I can hitherto determine by records". would not dissemble their knowledge". Mesopotamia. Grotius. Armenia. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. and later into the text itself. or retain it as only a marginal reading. the Word. First published in 1754. and Slavonic versions. and the argument full and strong.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. Muscovy. ac. the Word. sussex.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". newtonproject. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. as Luther. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. Syria.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. are strangers to this reading". Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. He noted that "the Æthiopic. the Father. Egypt. Erasmus. Finally. Arabic. and some others. Bullinger. Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. first as a marginal note. and what steps it has been changed.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds". Syriac.

p. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Cp. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". likely due to the political climate. by a small alteration in the Greek text. p. preached unto the Gentiles. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. biblegateway.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. aramaicpeshitta.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www.). and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. biblegateway. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. believed on in the world. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. received up into glory. justified in the Spirit. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. p. I understand not.& version=31. Scotland. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. but some place it in a footnote. was hanged at Edinburgh. References [1] http:/ / www."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages.& version=31. further legal ramifications on the second occasion. 1 [4] An Historical Account. [2] http:/ / www. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. p. aramaicpeshitta.). [3] An Historical Account. 2 [5] An Historical Account.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www.& version=31. pp. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. Cp." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. biblegateway. Newton argued that. htm) . p. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead.& version=31. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. seen of angels. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. biblegateway. p. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. knew nothing of these two texts.

The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt .sussex. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years).uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). fifty years before Newton. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. archive.google.co. although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667.newtonproject. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. The book was completed in 1671. and published in 1736. and published it in 1684.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly.ac. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673.

Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light. such as air. first reported in 1672[1] . this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. reflection. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium.[2] . covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. refractions. into another. as beam expanders. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. The first. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. on dispersion. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. That is. 1704.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. It is about optics and the refraction of light. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. Multiple-prism arrays. such as water or glass. Rather.

deal with a wide range of physical phenomena. published in 1706. First of all. especially the later ones. therefore. They are almost all posed in the negative. published in 1717/18. In the fourth edition of 1730. Rather. that number was increased in the Latin edition. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. by the use of fluxions. over the next two hundred years. the nature of chemical action. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. and even the ethical conduct of human beings." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. the possible cause of gravity.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia. there were 31 Queries. these were sixteen such Queries. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. as rhetorical questions. but the later ones became short essays. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer." Rather. electrical phenomena." the proper way to do science. filling many pages. and it was the famous "31st Query" that." In the first edition. Clearly. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. That is. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. but that it may go on for many pages. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of ." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. Second. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. and then in the revised English edition. These Queries. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. In this sense. unlike the Principia. The first set of Queries were brief. it is written in English rather than Latin." In many ways. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. or the tools of mathematics. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art.

Sound and Heat (http://cudl. J. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . Optics. [2] F. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. Papers on Hydrostatics. • Newton. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ).cam. refractions.Opticks the Principia. First edition (http://www.: Octavo. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. a treatise of the reflexions.).google. lib. and James Black.lib. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed. Piper. 303–307 (1982). . ac. Commun. Calif. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. Optics. ISBN 1-891788-04-3.org/Control/nwtopt/index. Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. Opticks or. Isaac (1998). Fourth edition (http://books. 43. Retrieved 10 January 2012.html) • Gallica.bnf. A. Isaac.com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin.rarebookroom. 153 References [1] Newton. Palo Alto. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. Duarte and J. cam.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. First edition (http://gallica. Opt.ac. "Hydrostatics.

Newton used his expression that became famous. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus. first published 5 July 1687.. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia. at least in certain respects..] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever..[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3]. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]). also Newton's law of universal gravitation.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. often referred to as simply the Principia.. Newton also published two further editions. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton . Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [.[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion. spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses.] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy.."[7] In formulating his physical theories. accurately proposed and demonstrated [. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science"."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and of the forces required to produce any motions.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'...[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium). by the end of a century after publication in 1687. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. in 1713 and 1726. Newton wrote[10] [.] .

thus offering criteria to decide. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. by observations. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge.. for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. . This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. in revised and extended form.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). De motu corporum Book 1. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. near-parabolic orbits. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters.' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media.. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy.

He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). while some contend that the Earth.[45] . Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable".[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system.[41] For Newton. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape.Newton). corollary [42]). In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. which "is acknowledg'd by all. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. De mundi systemate Book 3. modified in a somewhat modern way. especially the variation. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. Corollary 2 [44]). planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34]. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. but only a little. and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. Book 3. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. others. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. Proposition 11. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. and accounts for the tides [37]. attempts to derive the speed of sound. and that this centre "either is at rest. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. and motion in arbitrary force laws. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. especially its consequences for astronomy. and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40].

he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". In the four rules. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. or liable to exceptions. [. this was a faulty theory. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. but in philosophical discussions. assign the same causes. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. for example. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. From a Cartesian point of view. he retracted this sentence in the published version. In his notes. as far as possible. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. mathematical and common. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. we ought to step back from our senses. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum). And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. However. true and apparent.] instead of absolute places and motions. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs.. Curiously. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. However. by which they may either be made more accurate. till such time as other phenomena occur. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. . but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. and was assured about their correctness. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies..Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. we use relative ones. for today's readers. therefore. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. and consider things themselves. Instead. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia.

Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. he inferred the existence of a Lord God. of Descartes. From this textual evolution. Newton also gave theological argument.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'. . were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". concerning the qualities of bodies. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. as they did. The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. 1726). it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements.[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. From the system of the world. With these rules.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". scientists use it today. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design.) Newton's gravitational attraction. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. fires in the home and in the Sun. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. "I frame no hypotheses". but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. an invisible force able to act over vast distances.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'.

and Halley.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. Hooke and Wren. in November 1684. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. and to his project during this time. how he sometimes forgot his food.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London.. although the (lost) original may have been without title. Halley. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. and did very little else for well over a year and a half. and he normally kept dated notes of them.'. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work. The contents of 'De motu.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. but that he could not find the papers..[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). that he immediately went to visit Newton again..Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. resolved to ask Newton..[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. Newton's tract 'De motu. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. . Humphrey Newton. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. but also all the laws of planetary motion. or the state of his clothes. which he sent to Halley in late 1684. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies. assuming an inverse square law of force. Wren was unconvinced. or his sleep. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. and generalized the result to conic sections.

citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. with handwritten corrections for the second edition. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. (Newton had also communicated 'De motu.. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. it survived complete. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon. that it might be read by many". drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books.' to Flamsteed.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. not authorised by Newton's heirs). and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. making it look . Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. the tides. Liber primus'. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. and less accessible mathematical style. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. in more than one manuscript.. published by Halley at his own financial risk.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. tighter. but he largely started afresh in a new. under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. the moon. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. After Newton's death in 1727. amended to update cross-references. because in the meantime. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. and its completion has been London. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. corporum. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". and the other two books somewhat later. Liber secundus' still survives. The complete work. also in 1728. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. Liber secundus' of 1685. the solar system. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it.[59] appeared in July 1687.

as President.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). in some cases. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. In addition. among them himself. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. showing considerable diplomatic skills. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. rather than before. Samuel Pepys.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. causing some delay. .[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. To these two laws he added a third a decade later. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. including two to Leibniz. At this time. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. but Halley. licensing the book for publication.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. Rather. secondary sources based on them. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. Cambridge. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. or. 1686. a second edition (1731). The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. who hated disputes. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP. 2001).1 (1970). Journal for the History of Astronomy. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared.[104] The second full English translation. 1965. "Du systeme du monde. assembled and ed. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. E N Zalta (ed. by Andrew Motte. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". [11] http:/ / books.[2] was described by Newton scholar I. See also D T Whiteside (1970). both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. W. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. Herivel. 2 (May. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). University of Toronto. google. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut. stanford. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. in the 1729 English version). [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. lib. especially at p. [3] Newton. archive. [14] http:/ / books. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. google. Vol. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. about the 'Principia'. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers.[105] William H. google.120.392. google. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). No. 1999). and well written". into modern English.329 (according to a note on p. 116-138. MA. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. htm). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. . google. edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ).[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St.329. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. at page 19 of vol. ac. 1972. pp. tripod. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. Isaac. published in 1996. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. Oxford University Press. vol. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. google. cap. 1729 translation. p. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). The background to Newton's "Principia". at p. from 1729. 227-245. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). The first. cam. [7] G E Smith. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument.[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. 55. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I.). [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface).[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www." Author(s): Judith P.2. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. and see also J. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). often incorporating revisions. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www.

com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. vol. in H. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books. google. google. at page 233 (http:/ / books. at pp. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. google. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. at p. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 1971).2. google. 431-448. at p. W. google." (http:/ / logica.2. 33. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . Book 3 (http:/ / books.) 167 . by D. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. The Cartesian vortex theory. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books.47-142. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. 1998': A. at pp. google.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. [54] Cook. ugent. google. org/ scholium. google. 1980. Steffen.207-221. 1998. [59] Westfall. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. at pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. google. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. 1998. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). 1980. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. 151.g.2. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. google. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. google. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. Books 2 & 3. [61] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. p. [56] Cook. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. 147. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. n° 2. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. google.15. Whiteside. 406. Matter and Mind. google.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. htm). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". [47] Edelglass et al. pp. [52] 'Cook.147 and 152. [49] Snobelen. google. T. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. google. [58] Westfall. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. google. 191-2. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. Stephen. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). be/ steffen/ GS. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. google. Cambridge University Press 1980. now often known as Huygens' formula.2. google. pdf). at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. google. google. google. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. vol. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. 54. (Cambridge. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. Vol. Cook. google. google. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). pp. 1980': R S Westfall. cited above. [53] As dated e. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. [55] 'Westfall. [50] Ducheyne. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. R Taton & C Wilson. [42] http:/ / books.406. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. Oxford University Press 1998. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. 153-156. Cambridge University Press. Edmond Halley. speed and radial force. also pp. [57] Westfall. google. . google. [17] http:/ / books. . n. at p. 2A'. [29] http:/ / books. 1980. Books 2 & 3. Turnbull (ed. Retrieved 2008-05-31.. 223-274. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. at p. eds. Volume. google. 45 (1991) 11-61. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I.).404. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). google. google.

would terminate in the center C". [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. google.2 already cited. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books.297-314. edu 168 . jstor.. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. lib. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.). closed curve and spiral. 1893). but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. 1980. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). html [86] http:/ / lion. Bruce Brackenridge. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. museumoflondon. ac. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. and extract of his letter. CUP 1989. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". [65] http:/ / books. google. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". (Cambridge University Press. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. [73] H W Turnbull (ed. wm. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). google. roe. at page 433. cam. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. ch. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". Newton" (1759). Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". document #237. Bernard Cohen. see Newton to Hooke. Rouse Ball. mpg. google. vol. at pages 391-2. a resisting medium). Tycho Brahe to Newton". "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". 1664-1684". Newton". especially at 13-20.e. asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. at Introduction (section IX). fondationbodmer. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686".2 cited above. [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. se/ press/ pm.431-448.. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. with accompanying figure). 28 November 1679. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. 'Never at Rest'. see D Gjertsen.2 cited above. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. 453. ac. i (1970). 45 (1991). and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple.. (University of California Press. [80] R S Westfall. stanford. umich. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). at page 69. Never at Rest. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www.297. or even a 'blunder'. Ofer Gal. html [88] http:/ / www. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www. London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . html [89] http:/ / www. ac. mpiwg-berlin. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. google. uu. see 'Correspondence'. lib. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. Vol 2 cited above. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). 'Correspondence' vol.. p. at page 259). Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". google. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. at document #239. Vol 2 (1676-1687). (http:/ / www. though elongated. (Cambridge UP 1989). at p. and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. google. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". pages 11-61. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. [74] 'Correspondence' vol. at page 66 (http:/ / books. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. pages 5-19. at pages 304-306. Part A. [83] http:/ / www. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium .2. document #286. Journal for the History of Astronomy. cited above. 1960). [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. cam... com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. org. document #236 at page 301. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson.W. 1995).

Notes. Press.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. NY: Doubleday and Company. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Force in Newton’s physics.4. [95] Richard S. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. [100] Westfall. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. Dawsons of Pall Mall). Elsevier: 59-87.. pp. Cambridge University press 1967.4. cgi?v1=8& ti=1. Introduction to the Principia.42. 3rd edition. Westfall. wpi.. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.751–760. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. Donahue.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. p. I. [94] I Bernard Cohen. vol. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. to whom he owes more than that.A. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press.518-20. at pp. • John Herivel. Cambridge 1971. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. 2005. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. at p.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. University of California Press. [101] Westfall. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0.5. 1971). • I.699. Cambridge University press 1975. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. 1999. • Guicciardini. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. at p. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. G. pp. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. Westfall. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. c1995). com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). Bernard Cohen (1999). Burtt. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.. 2008). Clarendon Press. • S. pp. • François De Gandt. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. xv-xvi.2. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. 1999. NJ: Princeton University Press.4. 1995). and obligations to you.. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia." [98] Westfall. at pp.519. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. 1965). Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. 1971). Cambridge University press 1967. p. 29-68. • E. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. vol. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders.712–716. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". Chandrasekhar. Cambridge U. 1954). R. google. vol. • Richard S. n. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. [99] Westfall. ed. 1965). Cambridge University Press 1967. Colodny." in Grattan-Guinness.. ed. • Brian Ellis.750. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. The background to Newton’s Principia. N. "Philosophia Naturalis. Bernard Cohen. . • Andrew Janiak. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. 1965). Curtis Wilson (Princeton. vol. University of California Press.

• Partial HTML (http://gravitee. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version. in Latin) (http://books.org #1 (http://www.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2). in Latin) (http://www.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. vol.tripod. regarding online editions . Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. first edition (1687.google.html).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200). • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above).htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.net/~bjn/principia/).org (http://www.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University. largely the Motte translation of 1729. 1729.org (http://www.1 with Book 1 (http://books. interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections. • Principia (in Latin.google.1).com/toc.archive.org #2 (http://www. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. ed.gutenberg.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654.archive.cam.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte.ntnu.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books. 1713.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage). vol. Chittenden. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). • Project Gutenberg (http://www. 1726).google.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive.google. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur.lib. annotated) (http://books.google. first edition (1687. Partial • Google books. W.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1). (Book 3 starts at p..babson.archive.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica.ac.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.archive. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition.200 (http://books. • Google books. • Wikisource • Archive.

1686.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. on May 19. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. 1687 and began changing the world. which he had enlarged and completed. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. 1686." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. he says. 1686. For the influences for the second edition. to make a report thereof to the council." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. if certain." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. no step was taken towards the publication of the work." At the next meeting of the Society." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law. At the next meeting of the Society. that its truth is past dispute. on April 28.

which 172 .Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. volume. for 'tis long since they were writ. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. I shall content myself to give you. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. Indeed." acknowledging at the same time that. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society. so far as I could remember. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. you know best. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. but it being a frivolous business. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. which he engaged to do." "How much of this. "is so. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. On June 20. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. that Sir Chr. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. 1686." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton. and printing it at his own charge. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. on June 2." but. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. the heads of it in short. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. cuts and so forth. and the absence of the vice-president's. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. At the next meeting of the council." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. I am almost confident by circumstances." Halley adds. viz. so that you might act accordingly. though Newton had the notion from him. Halley in his letter of May 22. and I do not know that I have seen them since. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. and to desire his opinion as to the print.

so that a while after. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. sun and planets. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. in print. in print. and guessed it to be elliptical. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. But. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. Oscill.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. though not accurately enough. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. I designed the whole to consist of three books. so Mr Hooke. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. in compliment to sweeten my answer. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. and that's above fifteen years ago). and understood it. and drawing the cuts fairly. expected to hear no further from him. 173 . to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. which I can as well let alone. was upon other things. and so upon mistaken grounds. namely. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. sent him. the second was finished last summer being short. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. did not answer his third. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. that without my demonstrations. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. and only guessed it to be so accurately.. a copy being presented to me. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. as to the other from Kepler. Some new propositions I have since thought on. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. and earth from the sun. is expressed. And so. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. in stating this business. accused me of that ignorance. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. can know no more. "The proof you sent me I like very well. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. The third wants the theory of comets. his letters put me upon it. thought no further of philosophical matters than. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. And so. told him I had laid philosophy aside. and only wants transcribing. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. I could not but have found it now.

"Is. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. NEWTON. found out last winter. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book." On June 20. and humble servant. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. I am. I will push on the edition vigorously. In the first page. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. without the third. with her." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. and adding. and not much more charge. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. I know not. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. July 5. and then. which are much the greater number. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. 1686. ought to compose it. as might have been expected. The two first books. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. If it please you to have it so. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. The work. The third I now design to suppress. "But. 174 ." On June 30. The third book was presented to the Society. upon second thoughts. Now you approve of the character and paper. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. I found it so formerly. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. 1686. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. "If you please you may change the word to sections. and now I am no sooner come near her again. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. 1687. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. which is all at present. you ought to be considered as the inventor. and therefore I had altered it to this. What application he has made in private. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. Sir. It will help the sale of the book. as have to do. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. E. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. which he puts so much value on.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. but she gives me warning. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. as to deprive us of your third book. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. I must now again beg you. On July 14. your most affectionate humble servant. on April 6. not to let your resentments run so high. though it be not material. as I guess by what you write. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. And if in truth he knew it before you. The second book. HALLEY. I retain the former title. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. from your affectionate friend. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. It will be more convenient. Hooke and Halley. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. Sir. in the honour you do them. nor on the books of the Society. which made me afterwards return to the first book. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. which. De Motu Corporum libri duo. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. I will try how well it can be done.

Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. to take my money as they are sold. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. nor suggested a compromise. On April 27 they gave their plea. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. to be [OCR error] shillings here. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. with their case carefully prepared. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success." . for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. who was vice-chancellor. appeared before the court. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. a Benedictine monk. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. and ordered them out of court. announcing the completion of the Principia. or else at some short time. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. dated London. The following letter from Halley. On April 21 the deputation. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. and lettered. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. for ready. Mr Flamsteed. but the university showed no sign of compliance. bound in calves' leather. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. but rather. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. which I entreat you to accept. Mr Boyle. so much to your own and the nation's credit. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. as well as of profound and public speculation. The deputies. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. Mr Paget. before starting for London. that starts from town tomorrow. the master of Magdalene College. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. I intend the price of them." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. and hope it will please you. or at 5 sh. July 5. the chancellor. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. a very great part of which is extant. 1687. On May 7 it was discussed. and was dismissed.

Pepys must have heard such rumours. and for five days together not a wink. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. I got an ill habit of sleeping. I remember I wrote to you. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. In a letter dated the September 13. and keeping him shut up. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. by sleeping too often by my fire. "I have not seen him. but that "he was out of town. He is now very well. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. and I hope never will. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. Christiaan Huygens. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. dated September 26. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. which lasted eighteen months. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. replied. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. at which he was much concerned. if I may but have them quietly. added. 1693. nor have my former consistency of mind. and dated the 15th of October 1693. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. or both. which doubtless must have been very alarming. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. 1693. from the concern I have for him. 1693. to let me know the very truth of the matter. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge." . and that kept him awake for above five nights together. according to a report which was believed at the time. upon his own accord. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. and a distemper. put me farther out of order." On September 20. Newton wrote: "The last. winter. but upon his pressing consented. and since. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. namely.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. and before I had time to ask him any question. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. and beg your pardon. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. Sir. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. Let me. nor by icing James's favour. where. or mind. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. I was averse. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. beg you. before I considered what I did. therefore. or. I will give you an account of it if I can. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message." he says. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. whose mind was never at rest. but what I said of your book I remember not. in a letter dated June 8. so that when I wrote to you. as in a letter to his friend Millington. as to be put into great disorder by it. that it had actually done so." To which Leibniz. wrote to Leibniz. 1694. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. addressed to Samuel Pepys." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. which this summer has been epidemical. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton.

the day of the coronation of William and Mary.1998. Newton retained his seat only about a year. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum.. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. On February 12. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. Forbes et al. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'.) [3] Richard S. Westfall. 1689. now archaic. . Never at Rest. see Isaac Newton's later life. E. as it were.. published as #537 in Vol.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". On April 30. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member.G. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. 1997. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. and gives original spellings. ed. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor. He enclosed a form of the proclamation.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. the vice-chancellor of the university. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel.

The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. place. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. but my best friend is truth). "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. 1664. But following this he drew a line across the page. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. colour. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. These were followed by questions on violent motion. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. Aristotle is my friend. Additional information This octavo notebook. for example. and other sensations. hardness etc. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". Robert Boyle. vision. whereby every question is put to experimental test. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. Kenelm Digby. It is also definitely before December 9. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. They began with the nature of matter. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. light. The initial notes. 1661. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. at the other. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. At the other end of the book.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. Galileo's Dialogue. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. fluidity. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. in Greek. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. and others. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. Some headings were followed by vast entries. currently in the Cambridge University Library. which had . He entered notes from both ends. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. rarity. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. Following this. Thomas Hobbes. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. "Of ye Creation".

On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards .Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. others were blank. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. would look coloured. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. including his idea that it is a wave. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. on the contrary. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways.. . 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. such as when a heavy body falls. with its juxtaposition of light and dark.. Gassendi. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. Elsewhere.

additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library. Lohne. • J. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. A. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] .Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. Westfall. by Richard S. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. References • "Portsmouth Papers". Cambridge University Press. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139.

in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. In this work. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. mathematician. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. Cambridge . as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. alone.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. located in the chapel of Trinity College. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. plays.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. Newton became a scientific icon.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. Because of the resounding impact of his work. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. Many books. in 1795. In mathematics." Newton was the runner-up. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. Newton was deemed the more influential. published in 1687.[1] In 1999. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. Newton or Albert Einstein. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. natural philosopher.

It is a door within a door. Invention. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002)." "Gravity. of course..." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. 27–43. "(. you see.. there is a very different matter. • A. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. "there was also the small matter of gravity. Oxford University Press." . It was there to be discovered.. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr. "They even keep it on at weekends. pure creative invention. Routledge. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science.) Sir Isaac Newton. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. Science in Popular Culture [9]. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. ah. perspicuity and invention." "Yes. I suppose. was merely a discovery. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics.." . Greenwood Press." said Richard. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. It is a door within a door. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt. there was that as well. Though that. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. pp. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. set during the Great Recoinage. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). a . including the famous apple. "yes. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. you see. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. But the catflap .. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3. • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme..

Newton in popular culture

183

Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. 243. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. who regularly experienced spiritual visions. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. Science is the Tree of Death.[5] References [1] Townsend. org. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. 1997.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. Christopher B. pp. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. [4] Burwick.[3]. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. page 328. Foster (1988). who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. apparently at the bottom of the sea. . S. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. tate. Hanover. Walter de Gruyter. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. retrieved 10 September 2009. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days.

ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson. Joyce (ed.). William Blake: The Painter at Work.Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. 2003. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. London: Tate Publishing. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. He died in 1706.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. although open days are occasionally held."[2] Following the death of Coram.[1] Sir Charles. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. which stunk and had worms swimming in it.[1] During the Commonwealth era. Mr.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. when Young was expelled from the deanery. when he let it to Dr John Young. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. upon the lands of the lord of the manor. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. near Winchester. no doubt. who married her daughter in 1665.[5] . Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park. England. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. and Coram drew their daggers. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church.. or hay-making. So. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day. although his wife survived him until 1720..[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. reaping. Sir Thomas Clarke.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580. Pye. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". with many distinct farms and cottages. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. Mr. The house and park are not generally open to the public. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland.[2] ". At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. dean of Winchester. when it required the interference of Mr. and rode at each other through the wheat. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. Shoveller.

Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. Towards the end of his life. In 1770. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. etc.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. Newton became resident at Cranbury. but his election was declared invalid. is below. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. and within. Bt). the outermost divided into minutes.. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. In 1734. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. Harriet. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. the points alternately plain and embossed. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. then a circle marked "Watch slow. the base of a pillar.[9] The Castle. Cranbury Park. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer. Conduitt married Catherine Barton.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. remaining there until his death in 1727. In 1747. then the months divided into days. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781). He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. the estate was left to his son. all round the world. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton.[5][6] On Newton's death.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. next the hours. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. Watch fast". leaving a daughter. the owner.C.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. Catherine. which he also owned. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" . as granted to him in 1717. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras".[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. retaining that position for four years. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. Shortly after his marriage. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. John Rowley. and the arms of Mr. Nearer the centre are degrees. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774). Hampshire. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury..[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. and after his death. Conduitt. and a scaled-down gateway tower. On his death. a diagram of the compass. Thomas. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. built in 1780. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city.[5] In May 1721.

the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. In fact. In 1822. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. set in arch-headed reserves. is on the level ground at the top.[22] Writing in 1898. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. intersected by various springs. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. but his wife survived him until 1825. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights. flat as it fronts to the south. Tankerville Chamberlayne.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet. which has a circular domed ceiling. Arrow. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre. Whilst serving the town.[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. especially in the saloon on the south front. MP for Southampton. William Chamberlayne. The house. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)). and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. During the Second World War.[11] on her death.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald". The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. on that . but in the rear descending rapidly. built round a court. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. a large red brick one.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830.

Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. The Book of Sun-dials. Eden.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". is situated in the southern corner of the park. (1898). www. Retrieved 20 September 2009.com. Charlotte M. library. Winchester" (http:/ / www. www. cityofwinchester. www. [5] Yonge. (1898). com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). before joining Monks Brook. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. Hamilton (1953). 5 May 2004. british-history. 1998. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www. Charlotte M. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. online-literature. Margaret Scott. 9 October 2006. specimen trees and pinetum. Retrieved 20 September 2009. 68. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. 72 & 74. Retrieved 23 September 2009. online-literature. britannia. [6] Ford. . Retrieved 23 September 2009.online-literature. Hampshire" (http:/ / www.com. aspx?compid=42018#s4). [2] Yonge. A. Victoria County History of Leicestershire. htm#i46495). a rose garden. and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. (1898). The English Country House. and include fountains.com.com.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. com/ p4650.[26] References [1] Page. Retrieved 23 September 2009. . [9] Yonge.ac. htm). horninghold. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. Charlotte M. . Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 23 September 2009.thepeerage. Charlotte M. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. Stories of Southampton Streets. com/ p4650. 22. html). "History of Cranbury Park. www.uk. www. Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. William (1908). (1984). uk/ report. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). .online-literature. co. Facet-Headed.online-literature. .Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. close to The Castle.thepeerage. online-literature. Hansard. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). 15 May 2005." a word signifying a country dance. built from material plundered from Netley Abbey. . ISBN 0-86146-041-3. [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. parliament. [12] Leonard. and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. online-literature.K. . p. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. . A. .K F.com. . uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3. Retrieved 23 September 2009.[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. html). . pdf).com. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. [8] "The Buttercross.online-literature."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south.parliament. publications. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. www. ac. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. Retrieved 20 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. Lloyd. pp. thepeerage. [11] "Horninghold. Retrieved 24 September 2009. [14] Yonge. thepeerage. Paul Cave Publications. Retrieved 24 September 2009.online-literature.G. [4] Yonge. online-literature. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. p. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. . Eleanor. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. City of Winchester. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. www.britannia. Netley Abbey. upenn.com. htm#i46497). Michael (1999).uk. (1900). with a great deal of wall and very little glass. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. H. "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. (1898).com. html). [7] Gatty. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. . org. Charlotte M. (1898). www. www. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. [10] Thompson. "Later changes" (http:/ / www.british-history. Retrieved 23 September 2009. www. . Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Retrieved 26 September 2009. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. Christopher (Spring 2005). Matthew (2009). 1600-1840. John Buonarotti". [22] Dorothy Stroud. "Stratton Park. uk/ m35. .uk. . org.. html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE).oldmaps. The lost country houses of England.000 (us$35. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. [21] Watkin. www. . Retrieved 2009-07-12.com. Micheldever. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. 16 January 1881. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. The New York Times: 10. Retrieved 2009-07-12. in Country Life. org. chandlersfordscouts. 1741—1825. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). s. April 2004. amazon. fieldclub. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. 1995. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. noted in Howard Colvin. htm). alresford. [19] "Cranbury Park. uk/ Campsite/ index.[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. . oldmaps. Retrieved 24 September 2009. 3rd ed. Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 26 September 2009. nytimes. David (April 2004). Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. George Dance.v. com/ gst/ abstract. co. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. Charlotte M. . (1898).[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries.online-literature. htm). About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. Retrieved 26 September 2009. [23] Yonge. . matthewbeckett. hants. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. htm). which would value approximately £25. [20] Dorothy Stroud. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects.700) in late 2001's terms. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. 8 and 15 November 1956. online-literature. "Chandler’s Ford. 15 November 1956. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Architect. html). . plates 23-2. html).co. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. Retrieved 26 September 2009. [25] Currie.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. . Retrieved 24 September 2009. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. "Papworth. www. . 1971:93-95. .

uwa. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. bbc. edu.. . stm). University of Western Australia. alder). or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible. University of Western Australia. to the scientist. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". [4] Mike Alder (2004). edu. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. Mike Alder's Home Page. Retrieved 22 july 2010. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. maths. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". the question can be solved by experiment. which he describes as pure reason.pdf). but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe.[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. . He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". maths. . uwa. . amongst others. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20).Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. . and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. uwa. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". According to Alder. That is. Retrieved 22 july 2010. au/ ~mike/ ). Also available as Mike Alder (2004). org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. co. philosophynow.] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. au/ people/ mike.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now.. Alder admits however. either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. edu. .[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. BBC news. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. [3] Mike Adler. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33.

with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. Lincolnshire. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. near Grantham. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. England. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. Woolsthorpe Manor. and the old walled kitchen garden. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. once private. to the rear of the house. New areas of the house. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. being restored. taking into account modern living. were opened up to the public in 2003. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). most notably his work on light and optics. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth.

nationaltrust. org. uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ .Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www.

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