His life and influence

PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. PDF generated at: Tue, 17 Jan 2012 16:34:59 UTC

Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

mathematician. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. independently. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. He was an unorthodox Christian. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. due. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. At the time of Newton's birth. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. astronomer. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus.1 litres). fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. and for the style of the work.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. he never married. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. he was a small child. and contributed to the study of power series. In this work. When Newton was three. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Margery Ayscough. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. Newton was also highly religious. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. 25 December 1642. Born prematurely.[11][12][13] . natural philosopher. and theologian. In mathematics. alchemist. the subjects he is mainly associated with. published in 1687. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written.

and after 1820 or so. and of astronomers such as Copernicus.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. Luckily for Newton. ordaining normally could not be dodged. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton.[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton. and by October 1659.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. in a manuscript of October 1666. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. He hated farming. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. widowed by now for a second time. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. for example. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. Famous Men of Science. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. NY: Thomas Y.. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. attempted to make a farmer of him. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. and very young . the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". Newton was educated at The King's School.. he was admitted to Trinity College. where his mother.[17] In June 1661. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. he became the top-ranked student. although with very different notations. such as Descartes.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. In 1665. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". Nevertheless.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. He was removed from school. Crowell & Co.[23] A related subject was infinite series. a fellow of our College. were adopted by continental European mathematicians.[18] At that time. and Kepler. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. and did not give a full account until 1704..) Such a . (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method". In 1667.[15] Henry Stokes. Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. master at the King's School. Galileo. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. For such a significant appointment. Sarah K. also by British mathematicians.

He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula).[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. of 1684. At the time. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables).[32] Starting in 1699. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. In 1691. valid for any exponent. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. Newton's method.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier.Isaac Newton suggestion. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. however. accepted this argument. and Charles II. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). However. However. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. but never finished it. Because of this. In that day. whose permission was needed. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts.[34] 4 . Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. He discovered Newton's identities.

[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. it stayed the same colour. Props. John Maynard Keynes. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles.and may .) In 1704. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. across a vacuum. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. In 1671. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance. Newton published Opticks.II. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. today known as a Newtonian telescope. revived his interest in alchemy.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props. when Hooke.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. 12). the first known functional reflecting telescope. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another.[39] Building the design. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. and the general phenomenon of diffraction.. . appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. Thus. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration).[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). Today's quantum mechanics. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns.13).[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. which he later expanded into his Opticks. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. he might not have developed his theory of gravity. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. As a proof of the concept. Newton lectured on optics. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. however.. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles.

multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. In this work. as they did. but they did not so far indicate its cause. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness.. Also. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. was at rest). using a glass globe (Optics. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. prisms. In an article entitled "Newton. 8th Query). in the second edition of the Principia (1713). Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. and defined the law of universal gravitation. the use of multiple-prism arrays. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. i.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way.[49] For Newton. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum).[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. and much more. wherever it was. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. via diagrams. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. In the same book he describes. In the same work.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World".e.[51] Later. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science.

These appointments were intended as sinecures. 1st Earl of Halifax. In his position at the Royal Society. a position Newton held until his death. Newton became internationally recognised. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. Catherine Barton Conduitt. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). until his death in 1727. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. With the Principia. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. but Newton took them seriously. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). Cambridge. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. after Sir Francis Bacon.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. when it abruptly ended. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. John (1733) – were published after his death. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705. which Newton had used in his studies. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. He took charge of England's great recoining.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. Towards the end of his life. His half-niece. the Astronomer Royal.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726]. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. near Winchester with his niece and her husband.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. For example. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. Unlike Aristotle's. Before Newton. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. the first term vanishes. this is expressed as . with time. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. . Newton's physics is meant to be universal.[102] Apple incident . and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices.Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. Mathematically. named in Newton's honour. they may be at rest). and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. The SI unit of force is the newton. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun.

The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. the reason is. The King's School. as well as the earth draws the apple. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. and get good agreement. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. if matter thus draws matter. amidst other discourse. he was just in the same situation. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. he told me. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. or toward the centre. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. it must be in proportion of its quantity. as when formerly. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. that the earth draws it. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. Grantham.[107] In similar terms. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. Cambridge.[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. & myself. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. published in 1752. in an inverse-square proportion. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. whose manuscript account. We went into the garden. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . and hence named it "universal gravitation".[111] . only he. there must be a drawing power in matter. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance.. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). therefore the apple draws the earth. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. to the Moon. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. not in any side of the earth. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground.[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later.. had the first thought of his system of gravitation."[106] John Conduitt.

but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. Daniel S. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "Isaac Newton. p. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). Isis. org/ heretic. I.B. doi:10. Derek (1986). Moreover.M1) [19] ed. Newton. bellevuecollege.1. 84. a. (1996). Retrieved 28 March 2010. 159. google. 530–1.96. 74. 1998. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. (1983) [1980]. p. html). ac. chlt. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books. pp. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. [2] Mordechai Feingold. oxforddnb. ISBN 9780521274357. (1999). . Greenwood Publishing Group. Graham's Home Page. No. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. . James R. newton. c. By the time he died. At Newton's birth. Vol.4 [4] Gjersten. ISBN 9780521058179. [6] Snobelen. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style').1258/jrsm. The Newton Handbook. i. n. [9] Christianson. . p. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms.Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. Stephen D. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. pdf) (PDF). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. google. berkeley. Isaac. Cambridge University Press . ISBN 1-573-56256-4. [7] Burt. 2 (June. Unless otherwise noted. Bellevue College. google. html). Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. org/ stable/ 236236)". Optical Lectures. . edu/ MATH/ Newton. doi:10. 50. 315. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. Retrieved 3 February 2009. September 2004. p. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. May 2007.1017/S0007087499003751. (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. Richard S. (1970). heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. 22 [17] James. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. [14] http:/ / www. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. html). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. p. 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. 1993). org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. Isaac. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. php). Gale E. isaac-newton. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Oxford University Press. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. Barrow.36. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. p. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. (2001). jstor. Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. Ioan (January 2003). flickr. fictional. uk/ newtlife. com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). accessed 24 February 2009. . com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). [18] Michael White. [13] Newton. . in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period. Leibniz. com/ view/ article/ 1541).e. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www. Michael Hoskins (1997). "Singular scientists". Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). PMC 539373. explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. ISBN 0195092244. Vol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 8. . pp. PMID 12519805. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. 11. google.43. online edn. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv.. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. [5] Westfall. google. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. [10] Cohen.

. [51] Edelglass et al. The Man". J. vol. . King. lib. "Hydrostatics. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". ISBN 0-940262-45-2. google. DuarteOPN(2000). 356ff [34] White 1997. Retrieved 23 September 2009. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. [23] D T Whiteside (ed. www. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54).24D.. at page 233 (http:/ / books. Robert (2007) Newton.000024. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). 595 15 .5. ac.11. Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25. Retrieved 16 January 2010. doi:10. (1898). prisms. Optics. [43] Iliffe. Venn. google. p. see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books.). p. 1676–1687' ed. google. pp. 232 [55] White 1997. [41] White 1997. [59] Westfall 1980. p. 1967). opticsjournal. at pages 391–2. Page 74 (http:/ / books. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). Cambridge University Press 1960. Chapter 11. nor for his service at the Mint.317 [56] Gerard Michon. "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. cam. com/ arms/ index. " Newton. 363–4. Google Books. at p. Retrieved 10 January 2012. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. Retrieved 10 January 2012..245 [58] Yonge. Volume. 325 [39] White 1997. (2000). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes. . Cambridge University Press. Matter and Mind. p. [21] Venn. vol. at page 54 (http:/ / books. "A short account of the history of mathematics". document #235. [45] Dobbs. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. [54] White 1997.T. [31] Stewart 2009. A. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). eds (1922–1958). p. p170 [40] Hall. Henry C (2003). online-literature. [47] R S Westfall. at page 400. Alfred Rupert (1996). (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). Retrieved 16 January 2010. pages 116–138. J. J. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. at page 297. [60] Westfall 1980.com. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science. . com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. (Cambridge University Press. F. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). [49] See Curtis Wilson. John Maynard (1972). but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. [27] Clifford Truesdell. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. at page 319. Isaac (http:/ / venn. google. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908. Numericana." Westfall 1994 p. Isis 73 (4): 523. "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. Isaac. lib. pdf).. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. p. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www. p. 1696).. Isaac. [24] D Gjertsen (1986). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books.online-literature. at page 41 (http:/ / books. [25] Newton. page 67 (http:/ / books. com/ F. Charlotte M. cam. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). numericana.99. 'Never at Rest'.com. "Newton. 44. [36] Newton. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. 'Principia'. ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). 324 [38] Ball 1908. 1684–1691. J. google. 1968). 1729 English translation. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". ac. at page 149.11. Retrieved 16 January 2010. pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. 'Principia'. google. p. at page 30. [30] D T Whiteside (1970). J. [53] Westfall 1980. . [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia.Isaac Newton [20] Newton. Cambridge University Digital Library. ISBN 9780521566698. 2A'. Martin's Press. (December 1982). [37] Ball 1908. [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. especially at pages 119–120. by Alfred Rupert Hall.1086/353114. 1980.).. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. cam. . H W Turnbull. Google Books. Cambridge University Press 1974. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Bibcode 2000OptPN. vol. . [26] Newton. Cambridge University Digital Library. MacMillan St. doi:10. 54 [52] Westfall 1980. [48] D T Whiteside (ed. 151 [35] King. "Newton. letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679.2. google. p. ac. lib.2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. "The Newton handbook". p. ISBN 9780486432656. 1729 English translation.. Book 3 (1729 vol. A very short introduction. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2).6. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte. htm#newton).).107 [32] Westfall 1980.1364/OPN.1.

" in Farewell to Matters of Principle. [88] Webb. G. uk/ banknotes/ denom_guide/ nonflash/ 1-SeriesD-Revised. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. p. 1867. NY. p. com/ print. 1958 p201. firstthings. ISBN 0915134950. Robert M. ISBN 0521560608. 233. J. [93] Cassels. [85] Germain. Retrieved 30 August 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2009.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Charles (1948). U. christianpost. (1958). [90] Westfall.bbc. pp. “The emergence of Rational Dissent. org/ News. [67] Memoirs of the Life. London: Oxford UP. cited in. ed. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. 19 June 2007. provisionally judges 30 most likely. 1. org/ web/ 20070813033620/ http:/ / www. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. [65] John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. stm) [71] "Famous People & the Abbey: Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. New York: King's Crown Press. 44. The Life of Isaac Newton. co. "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. Paris. p. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. xx. pp. 29 November 1999.: Mott Media. reviewed by Jane Gleeson-White. G. html).S. le comte J. M. com/ biography/ Newton. cited in. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence.S. L. Milford. (1975). 14. Cambridge University Press. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology. vol 3. 1989. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. Michigan. 2nd Ed 1706. (1976). in Turnbull et al." Oeuvres de Lagrange I. co. ISBN 0208008438. 5 February 1676. [91] Marquard. New Haven: Yale University Press. Richard S. by Robyn Arianrhod UQP.K. [63] Letter from Isaac Newton to Robert Hooke. ISBN 0521477379. New Horizons [64] Wikipedia Standing on the shoulders of giants. H. php?type=article& year=2008& month=08& title_link=the-deist-minimum--28). p. Isaac Newton: Inventor. Wilson. In Martin Fitzpatrick ed. . The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. as transcribed in Jean-Pierre Maury (1992) Newton: Understanding the Cosmos. Book III. bankofengland. Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists. 1998. p. [84] Frankel. 10 November 2003._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. 259 [96] White 1997. Writings. News. Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings. [66] White 1997. htm) on 13 August 2007. 200. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33. A Marginal Jew. History of Science: Newton citing: Delambre. [92] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. (1997). Lagrange. and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. 65. Knud. archive. 1953. [86] Principia. p 164. [83] Haakonssen. Hafner Library of Classics. Knud Haakonssen. westminster-abbey. 1850. [76] Tiner. 42. . Retrieved 27 August 2009. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Manchester University Press. Gilbert G._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. Margaret C. [72] "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide" (http:/ / www. (1959–77). 1998. Cambridge: 1996. p. 37. p187. Edinburgh. Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. htm). uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. Meier. christianpost. Associated Press. v. Retrieved 1 August 2007. ed. 27) [68] "Einstein's Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics". htm). 11. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "The Enlightenment. bbc. [77] John P.. [79] Opticks.uk (http:/ / news. Thayer. [78] Newton to Richard Bentley 10 December 1692. . com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. . R. Alan. Cornell University Press. "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability. [62] Fred L. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. p19. [75] Pfizenmaier. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. [81] Jacob. org/ our-history/ people/ sir-isaac-newton).. Monday. [73] Avery Cardinal Dulles. p2. [74] Westfall. Westminster Abbey. p 241 [95] White 1997. 267 16 . [94] "Although it was just one of the many factors in the Enlightment. ibid. p. The Sydney Morning Herald [69] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of Royal Society scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. Query 31. politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons". [80] H. 1. 64. January 2005. the success of Newtonian physics in providing a mathematical description of an ordered world clearly played a big part in the flowering of this movement in the eighteenth century" John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. Odo. [70] Opinion poll. p. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). p. p. Richard S. [87] A Short Scheme of the True Religion.H. [82] Westfall. ISBN 0791413195. Scientist and Teacher. ISBN 0855270667.C. T. Ch. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. wolfram. (1994). [89] H.co. Manchester University Press. 28. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Newton runner-up: BBC news. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. .Isaac Newton [61] "Newton. Bank of England. The Royal Society. Wallace trans. p. p.

com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. Cengage Learning. This well documented work provides. doi:10. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. . google. . ac. eds. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. p. ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8.W. Einstein's Wife.. newtonproject. Newtonproject. p. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 20 December 2008. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. . 18 January 2010.1038/182149a0. Richard (2011). "Keynes Ms. Bibcode 1958Natur. John. Rouse (1908). Mariner Books. [113] http:/ / www. ac. [107] Conduitt. html 17 References • Ball. Cambridge University Digital Library. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. Richard S. Smith. (2007). valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. (1980. . google. (1994). Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. ISBN 9780495557425. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. Cambridge University Press. • White. Retrieved 7 September 2011. • Westfall. pp. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters".4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. . • Craig. Richard S. . Cambridge University Press. 6 [109] Alberto A. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. 265–266. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). and Other Myths. doi:10. James (2009). brogdale. John (1958). [108] I. Inc. Thomas (2010). • Westfall.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. ISBN 9781447204152. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. sussex. Imperial College London. W. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. The Art of Science. The Life of Isaac Newton.182.73 [99] White 1997. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. New York: Free Press. Fourth Estate Limited.1098/rsnr. pp. in particular.org. • Westfall. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. Pan Macmillan. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1.1963. uk/ image1. ISBN 0486206300. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. New York: Dover. Bernard Cohen and George E. php). Retrieved 10 January 2009. brogdale. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". Never at Rest. 337 [103] White 1997. Richard S. p. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. co. newscientist. org/ ).0017. ISBN 9780547336046. Retrieved 10 January 2012. indiana. • Stewart. edu/ newton/ index. Gale (1984). 4. 1998).. Isaac Newton. lib. Michael (1997). cam. Cambridge University Press. John (1963). New Scientist. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". • Christianson. Retrieved 11 January 2007. ISBN 9780199213559. dlib. Isaac. [98] Westfall 2007. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. 2011). uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ).149C. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. . Brogdale. p. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. Retrieved 30 August 2006. ISBN 0521477379. org. 130. • Levenson. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. php?varietyid=1089). pierre-marteau.

Guide by I. (2000). eds. (1950). ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. The Newton Handbook. Great Experiments in Physics. Gale E. George E.. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. • Keynes. W. • Koyré. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. • Shapley. (2002). W. – Preface by Albert Einstein. Isaac Newton. The Newtonian Revolution. Readings in the Literature of Science. Isaac Newton. Bernard. M. Bernard and Smith. See this site (http://www..1098/rsnr. B. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". E. Palmer. John (1946). The Calculus Wars: Newton. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. . T. JSTOR 531368. ISBN 0792310543. Stephen. I. (1965). John Maynard (1963). (1996). Newton. Gale (1984).1988. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.questia. excerpt and text search (http://www. I. England: Cambridge University Press. 1958. ISBN 0486253465. 150–4. Rapport. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. excerpt and text search (http://www. • Cohen. Oxford University Press. Essays in Biography. Dampier. 354 pp. "Review of Newton's Principia". Jason Socrates. New York. • Craig. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. ISBN 0486428052. 256 pp. (1959). ISBN 019530070X. Bernard Cohen.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini. A Treasury of Science. complete edition online (http://www. • Newton. • Dobbs. ISSN 0035–9149. Inc. ed. • Bardi. ISBN 0-393-00189-X. • Gleick. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Newton. • Christianson. MIT Press. W. Wright. • Christianson. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. Isaac. Knox. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Norton & Co. Isaac (1642–1727). New York: Chanticleer Press.amazon.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search.amazon. ISBN 0375422331. London: G. (1980). Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. I. J. Harvard University Press. B. ISBN 0521229642. 2001. Alfred A. New York: Harper & Row. A. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. Newtonian Studies. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. focuses on philosophical issues only. the Man. (1975). H. Cambridge. New York (1972). Knopf. 277 pp. (1946). Harper & Bros.com/read/105054986) • Cohen.D. De C. Leibniz.1978. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. 147–9. excerpt and text search (http://www. edited by I. • Dampier. (1687). ISBN 0-02-905190-8. (1988). James (2003). • Halley. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. P. Oxford: Clarendon Press. David.0006.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. excerpt and text search (http://www. and H. London: S. Morris H.amazon. (1965). "Newtonia" pp.. • de Villamil. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. On the Shoulders of Giants. The Background to Newton's Principia. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. Springer. 500 pp.amazon. William C. The Principia: a new Translation. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Harlow. (1959). Jed Z..com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald. E. 2006. and Cohen. Kepler. Derek (1986). • Gjertsen. ISBN 0841430144.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. Newton at the Mint. • Hawking. J.com/dp/0521656966). A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Zev (1991). N. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. "Discoveries" pp. doi:10. Richard (1931). ed. (1728). • Berlinski. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. New York: Free Press. • Shamos. S.amazon..

(1934). The correspondence of Isaac Newton. rev. (1999). J.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). (1999). The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. (1936).google. in JSTOR (http://www. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. R. and Richard H.google. (January 1997). The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. (edited by A. Isaac. W. links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. Pp. Popkin. James E. Sydney: The Book Company. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. I. ed.Isaac Newton • Simmons. Stephen "'God of Gods. University of California Press.jstor. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. S." Osiris. (1991). tr. (1971). doi:10. Florian Cajori. London: Macdonald. Isaac. T. Turnbull and others. 974 pp.org/stable/4028372). • Pfizenmaier. (1967–82). 1730) online edition (http://books. Thomas C. JSTOR 3653988. • Newton. • Brackenridge. D. pp. 342pp .1017/S0007087499003751.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. 1670–1672. 7 vols. 2nd Series. ISBN 0444196110. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. H. (1952). argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. Cambridge U. 2. Bruce. 1996. ISBN 0521077400. and Influence. (2001). (1996). Opticks. Vol. Ayval. • Newton. – 8 volumes • Newton. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". Maurice. "Isaac Newton. Nature. (1999). Isaac. Isaac. Opticks (4th ed. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Newton and Religion: Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vol. J. Archetypal Heresy. Inflections & Colours of Light. New York: Dover Publications. (1996) 214pp. • Stukeley. 1984.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. Primary sources • Newton. originally published in 1752) • Westfall.jstor. Stephen D. 627 pp. xvii + 325. 16. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. I. Press. • Wiles. White. Berkeley: University of California Press. • Newton. JSTOR 4027945. (1959–77) . Arianism through the Centuries. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. 19 Religion • Dobbs. Motte. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. or A Treatise of the Reflections. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. Refractions. eds. University of California Press. A. 299 pp. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. London: Taylor and Francis. Betty Jo Tetter.. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. W. H.google. 1: The Optical Lectures. • Whiteside. The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time.

An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries. Cohen and R.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. Hall and M. in Four Books. University of St Andrews. Sir. R.a. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702). 20 External links • Chisholm. I. eds. Nourse.fmalive. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. John Deighton. Anand M. Cambridge. ed (1911). Cambridge University Press.google.htm) (via archive. (1975). S.wolfram. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. – Google Books • Maclaurin.ac. Robertson. I.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www.stanford.rutgers.uk/ Biographies/Newton. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space. online edition (http:/ /www.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. B.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton.edu/entries/newton-stm/).ac.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor. I.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld.chlt. Edmund F.dlib. including letters of other eminent men (http://books. time.tqnyc.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I).stanford.fullerton. Millar and J. West Strand. London. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton.archive. I..isaacnewton.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web. John J. Thayer. • Newton.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library. com/predictions/newton. Hall.newtonproject. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. A.adherents. J Edleston.org/web/20080629021908/http://www. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato. Schofield.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton. ed. John W.pbs.htm) Kandaswamy.phaser. 1850. (1953). C.st-andrews.html). • Newton. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. "Newton.php) • The Newton Project (http://www.edu/entries/newton/).50.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www. E. • Newton.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium.stanford. Cambridge.org/NYC051308/index.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www.skepticreport.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www. London: Dawson.. and motion (http://plato.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato.galilean-library. (1958). Parker.mcs.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato. .uk/prism. Roger Cotes.questia. Sir Isaac".pierre-marteau.com/biography/Newton. (1748).).edu/entries/newton-philosophy/). by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www. (1962). "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history.sussex.indiana. B.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ). Hugh.stanford.math.org/snobelen. London: A.com/modules/historic/newton/index.

at the Newton Project (http://www.gutenberg.math. physics.sussex. Space.st-andrews.ac.cs.org • Newton Papers. audio. or a Treatise of the Reflections.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www.ndsu.cam. Refractions.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.earlymoderntexts.lib. full text on archive. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history.ac.edu/id.ltrc.uk/prism.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www.nodak.ac.mcmaster.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes.sussex. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.com/). animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy.uk/collections/newton) .uk/Mathematicians/ Newton.newtonproject.enlighteningscience.ul. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up). reception.ca/newton/) Images.ac.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.archive.cmu.mcs. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www. optics.

Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. when Isaac was 54. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. Hannah's brother William. who buried her next to his father.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. Lincolnshire. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. the elder. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. Later in his life. As his father had been a farmer. at quite a critical time in his education. . Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. 1697 by her son. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. at the age of nineteen. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. Smith died in 1653. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. She and Rev. unlike her. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer. When Rev. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. and thus took him away from his school studies. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. when he was three years old. He spent a year away from school on the farm. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. and returned to his mother's household. James and Margery Ayscough. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. By this time Isaac was ten years old. He died in October 1642. in April 1642.

I am Your loving Unkle (sic). an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. not before. although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. half-niece of Isaac Newton. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. the wife of John Conduitt.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful. witty and clever. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later. Newton.[5] . Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. and baptized at Brigstock.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. However. Is. Hannah Smith. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going.

Catherine.newtonproject. [5] Newton Correspondence. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. Parish register. I have long had for her person.com. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. Viscount Lymington. PROB11/546. p349. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. [7] Hants Record Office. Harl Soc vol 24.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. Westminster Record Office. & previous reference. John Wallop. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth.php?id=15) . [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. near Winchester. 1689.uk/prism. PROB11/416. towards the end of his life. Montague. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. References [1] Robert Barton's will. National Archives. Harliean Society. html). National Archives. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress. not to make a dispute over her legacies. 1715. and their son. Charlotte M. [3] Swift. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love.online-literature.5. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. Journal to Stella. • The Newton Project (http://www. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. King's College Cambridge. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. entries in 1710 and 1711. newton. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. affection and esteem. Vol 4. by then Earl of Halifax. his nephew George Montague. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. born in 1721. p195. . [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.[7] The couple had one daughter.sussex.ac. (1898). online-literature.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. ac. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. Retrieved 23 September 2009. uk/ art/ portrait. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. Northampton Record Office. www. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. [9] Yonge. 1543–1869. however. On 30 August. [8] St Martin in the fields register. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. 1886.

Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. (PRO. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. but after starting. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. described herself as 32 years old. named after her mother. then aged 38 years. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. isbn 0712903305. and his niece. but did not graduate. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. he quickly stopped. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. London: Dawsons. The couple had one daughter.[3] . proposed by the president. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q).[1] By 1707. Cambridge with three others. a whig member for Whitchurch. near Winchester. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. on petition. Hampshire. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. 1st ed (reprinted). Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. In 1720. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. towards the end of his life. Newton: his friend. Early life. Sir Isaac Newton. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. Covent Garden. Catherine. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. defending the government on a number of issues. staying only two years. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. In 1705. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. on 8 March 1688. Covent Garden. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. 1968. and was baptized at St Paul's. London. while at Westminster. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. and his uncle by marriage. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. 161 pp. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt.

www.htm) . Viscount Lymington (d. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". lib.cyberbeach. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. J. J. was buried with him.. John (http:/ / venn. ms 57. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Huntingdon Library. online-literature. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine.ac. A. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. and their son. On his death.online-literature. Retrieved 27 September 2009. [4] Page.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. ac. aspx?compid=42018#s4). California. References [1] Venn. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. William (1908). Retrieved 23 September 2009. who died in 1739. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. His wife.uk. " Conduitt. Charlotte M. Cambridge University Press..com. .). underage. John Wallop. vol 4. . A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. 1st Earl of Portsmouth. He was the eldest son of John Wallop.british-history. british-history. ac. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. (1898).John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. www. eds (1922–1958). Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. Catherine. fo 169 [3] Yonge. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. uk/ report. 1749) in 1740. Venn. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. cam.

the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. master at the King's School.[6] . Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. He hated farming. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. Galileo. widowed by now for a second time. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. When Newton was three. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen.1 litre).27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. achieving an admirable final report. attempted to make a farmer of him. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. and by October 1659. Born prematurely. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. In June 1661. he was a small child. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill)."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. In 1665. 25 December 1642. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. Newton was educated at The King's School. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother. author of the Principia. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. He was removed from school. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665.[4] At that time.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. optics and the law of gravitation. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. At the time of Newton's birth. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. This he did at the age of eighteen. the English mathematician and scientist. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. he was admitted to Trinity College. and Kepler. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day.[3] Henry Stokes. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. where his mother. Margery Ayscough.

found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". and introduced him to higher mathematics. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. book ii. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. Isaac Barrow. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. to two and fifty figures by the same method. In a small commonplace book. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. obs." . and in summer 1665. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. he was unable. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. its acceleration a. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). he was examined in Euclid by Dr. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. there are several articles on angular sections. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. together with observations on refraction. John Slade of Catharine Hall. particularly those "in affected powers. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. dated January 1664. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. I being then Senior Sophister. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. It was elliptical. many years afterwards. several calculations about musical notes. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). February 19th. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. and borrowed Wallis' works. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. and. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. and next about that the inner Crown. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. and red on the outside of it. verging below farthest from the moon. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. which appear in his Optics. near Cambridge. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. part iv. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. and the applied force F is F = ma. 1699. which was of a bluish green within next the white. at night. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. Cambridge. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. and of a yellow and red without. in Lincolnshire. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. I saw two such Crowns about her. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. in the years 1663 and 1664.

Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. Dr Pearson. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). mathematician. and signed by the master of the college. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. 29 . that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. and who. geography. probably in June 1669. who had a powerful genius for such matters. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. degree. arithmetic. "the name of the author is Newton. optics. a fellow of our college. apparently for chemical experiments. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. On each occasion it was agreed. Newton must have left college before August 1665. and a young man. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. or some other mathematical subject. and 22 June 1666. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. but kept the name of the author a secret. as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college.A. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672.] a mathematician of no mean order. statics. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. astronomy. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. which he put. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. In March 1668 he took his M. dated 7 August 1665. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). He wrote a paper. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. and also chemicals and a furnace. [see also James Gregory." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. and added. There were nine vacancies. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following.

But these seemed very great difficulties.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. bishop of Salisbury. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined)." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. and I have almost thought them insuperable. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. The whole is printed in No." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. on 6 February 1672. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. Nay. when I further considered. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. were light uniform. I left off my aforesaid glass works. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. if they continue them for any time. for I saw. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. it could not collect those also into the same point. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. the secretary of the Royal Society. as I found it. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. than a circularly figured lens. provided a reflecting substance could be found. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. So that. and reflect as much light. which would polish as finely as glass. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. and finding them regular. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. I wondered. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. he proceeded: "When I understood this. because. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. After he explained this to the Society. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. so that a much . Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. as glass transmits. I understood. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings.

whereby. that. But it is requisite. . I conceive. He concludes his communication with the words: This." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. care must be taken. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. how the colours gradually convene. Further on. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. by such motion. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. for. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. you will not only find. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. what might be effected in this kind. as you inform me. proper for metal. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. And this analogy twist colours. as I imagined. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. but not very distinctly. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. They have there no appropriate colour. if I have committed any. and that the paper. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. but yet most luminous in red.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. but yet with this difference. are again dissipated and severed. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. with which 'tis illustrated. who. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. and vanish into whiteness. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. if any thing seem to be defective. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. You may also see. when I made the other. or to thwart this relation. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. so I doubt not. are taking care about it at London. And there place a clear and colourless prism. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. but yet most luminous in blue. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. which. I began to try. than in figuring glasses for refraction. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. or proportionally disagreeing in both. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. the figure also would be corrected to the last. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. as I said. or of acknowledging my errors. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). but I shall conclude with this general one. that the prism and lens be placed steady. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. And therefore. which they had before they entered the composition. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London).

endeavored to effect a compromise which. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length." The heads. The public oratorship fell vacant. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. he says. and many others. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. and are now almost universally rejected. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. or leave to come out after me. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. till after Newton's death. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. when a description of it was found among his papers. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. and entered in the Regent House. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. or to become a slave to defend it. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. however. and. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. light polarization and binocular vision. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. I do recommend them both to be nominated. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. or communicated to the Royal Society. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. but was not published. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. . who was the chancellor of the university. George Villiers. and the inflexion of light." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. Others criticized the experiments. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. and. and he wrote on double refraction.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years.

(4. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. who married John Conduitt. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. till 1860." (See Newton's cannonball. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. he says. owing to decay. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. In one version of the story. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. dated 23 June 1673. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg.) . He therefore was led to inquire whether. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. I desire to withdraw. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. a fellow of the Royal Society. as he was not in holy orders. I thank you. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.57 metres) in one minute. if you have not done it already. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. and one of Newton's intimate friends." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. when. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. by calculating from Kepler's laws. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. as several others are. Newton.

Moreover. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result.Early life In November 1679. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject.e. "Why. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. In January 1684. made the two results. By the time he died. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. Oldenburg. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. At Newton's birth. one of the secretaries of the Society. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. a copy of his demonstration. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style')." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. Unless otherwise noted. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. in the month of August 1684. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. . and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685." He could not. and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. but he promised to send it to Halley.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. Sir Christopher Wren. i. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". Newton replied promptly. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. and started for Cambridge. however. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. put his hand upon his calculation. I have calculated it. After the latter had left Cambridge. to consult Newton on the subject. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. or their views about the researches of others. one of the fellows of his own college. "an ellipse". the secretary. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. by the hand of Mr Paget. and consists of four theorems and seven problems.

p. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. Venn. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. A. eds (1922–1958). Vol 2 (1676-1687). (1970).) (1960). he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. J. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. lib. cited above.435-440. 16–19 [4] Michael White. was false to him. Cambridge University Press. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton".43. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. sfu.). at pp. J. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. 159. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. 11. (1994). Michael Hoskins (1997). pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". (Cambridge University Press. cam. when Montagu. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. cam. However. Isaac.297-314. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. ISBN 0521477379. Richard S.M1) [5] ed. google. p.Early life [2] Cohen. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal.B. Montagu. " Newton. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. lib. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. The Life of Isaac Newton. [8] http:/ / www. I. ac. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. Vol.) (1960). Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. The office is the most proper for you. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. afterwards Earl of Halifax. Later life During his residence in London. and has not . .. ac. Charles Montagu. Isaac (http:/ / venn. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). In a letter to Newton announcing the news. Cambridge.. pp. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. [7] Newton. 35 References • Westfall. Mr Overton." Newton was now 55 years old. and the esteem the king has of your merits. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. the warden of the mint. 1960).

while exports were paid for in gold. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. except to Newton and his friends. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions.500 per annum. was still. however. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. he did not exhibit it in the results. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. Newton took it seriously. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum. a post worth between £1. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. .[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. Of this. with an account of their properties. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare.200 and £1. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. the second. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). a secret. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. a process that was completed in about two years. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). To this work were added two treatises.

"ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. was published at London in 1712. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. by Dr Machin. secretary to the Royal Society. and eight foreign associates were created. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). which was also written many years ago. making it public. 's Gravesande published a tract. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. (2) to determine a curve such that. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. In that year the Academy was remodelled. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. but he received a letter from Leibniz. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. . He also solved the second problem. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. with improvements by the author. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. and. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own." says he. and he gave a method of determining it. I have on this occasion made it public. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. and having since met with some things copied out of it.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. W. and made known to some friends. obtained leave to make it public. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. Leibniz. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. although Newton's solution was anonymous. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. P2. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. Hartsoeker." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. and published by Dr Wallis. prefixing to it an introduction. and E. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. "tanquam. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. and a second edition of it. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. who have solicited the.

were heard from time to time. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . On 21 May 1709. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. the queen's husband. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. they paid a visit to Cambridge." he said. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. fellow of Trinity College.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. but being a Whig. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. however. of his work." Newton.I forget from where .. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. where a congregation of the senate was held. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. the lunar theory would." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. and of a new edition. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. when the queen. after speaking to Newton. "will be glad to see you in June. Dr Edleston. Dr Bentley. and beaten by a large majority.. He was warmly supported by the residents." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. he was opposed by the non-residents. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. the master of Trinity. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley." (I have learnt . Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. the master of Trinity College. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. however. Roger Cotes. and discharged the duties of the post. He held the office for 25 years. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. The prince had offered. Rumours. on Newton's recommendation. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. in the first few months of 1695. In April 1705. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. so far as he could do it. 2002). In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. have been completely investigated. and a number of honorary degrees conferred.

1713. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. The abbé. an antiquary at Paris. for I find that I shall be examined about it. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. however. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. "If you write any further preface.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. 2. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. In Libri secundi Sect. and received the royal assent. N. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. to present her with a copy of the new edition. and. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. and endeavoured to refute it. vii. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. who translated it. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. took every opportunity of conversing with him. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. on 27 July. she requested him to give her a copy. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. facilior redditur et amplior. who called witnesses. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. passed both Houses. true in theory but difficult to execute. lent his copy to M Fréret. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. pointing out their weak points. the following account of this new Edition. Newton waited on Queen Anne." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. He mentioned four: 1. 3. On the 31st of March 1713. At last. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. 4. Newton criticized all the methods. I. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. The Princess of Wales. about midsummer 1713. Caroline of Ansbach. I must not see it. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. "28 Mar. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . wife of George II. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. In Libri primi Sect. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers.

Later life M le Chevallier Newton. John which was published in London in 1733. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. This was done. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. In an earlier part of his life. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. beginning his studies before 1690. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. and published at Paris. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. in a letter to the Abbe Conti." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. For example in 1716 Leibniz. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. This edition had many errors. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. and though he was fatigued from work. .. to suppress it". to have it translated into French and have it published there. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. which was published in 1728. a nephew of Bentley. He therefore asked Locke. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. translated into French by the observator. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. Newton printed. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. he solved it later the same evening. who was on the way to the continent. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. Upon receiving a copy of this work. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. in 1756. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. after his death. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity.

three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). . In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. .and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads.1111/j. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. ac. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward.x. Retrieved 23 September 2009.. urotoday. Charlotte M.com. [10] Westfall 1980. Athol L Murray. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. litencyc. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey.January 1843 (http:/ / www. [6] By The King. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. pdf). (1898). BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. OCLC 276340857. measuringworth. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. online-literature. Sir Isaac Newton. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25.05242. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Vol V. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. Retrieved 2008-05-22. doi:10. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. com/ php/ stopics. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. ahds. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. ac. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). after six years of "cock[fight]ing. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. horse racing. www. 21 September 1717. 870 [11] Yonge. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. Edward. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. Athol L Murray. pdf) (PDF). p.1464-410X. Gilbert J. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. University of Regina. php?rec=true& UID=1304). ahds. who. Newton and the Counterfeiter. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society.online-literature. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pierre-marteau.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. . pdf). (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). (2005).[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. Wise. In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington.[10] Towards the end of his life. He endured great suffering. ISBN 9780151012787. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. April 1842 . [9] Ostad. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey.2005. PMID 15638889. archive. Richard Kleer. html). 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage.

superstition. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. In this sense. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. with a and historical introduction by I. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. the noted English scientist and mathematician. he was the last of the magicians. economist John Maynard Keynes.ucsc.edu/~michael/koll. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). Santa Fe.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. alchemy.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. These occult works explored chronology.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime. Bernard Cohen (Dawson. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). 1975). Distinctions between science.". an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science. for example.

" 43 In 1936. and perhaps to a lesser extent.S.[2] It was for this reason.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. Newton is thought to have said. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. with its associated nomenclature. and analytical chemistry. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. Diamond. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. The English Crown. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. or some other substance). collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. In recent years. which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. Arts and Humanities Research Board. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts.[8] . An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. catalogue. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. who throughout his life. made penalties for alchemy very severe.K. A perfectionist by nature.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. burning 20 years of research. In addition. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. "O Diamond. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. National Science Foundation. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. lead. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. In the story. several projects have begun to gather. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. Newton's dog started the fire. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704.

And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. "Nicholas Flammel. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. and his "secret book". The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple. Published London. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. Most notably are documents entitled. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. in a search for their occult knowledge. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. Nicolas Flamel. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". "Ezechielem Explanationes". Artephius. In predicting this he said. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. and the vegetable or the growing stone. "Artephius his secret Book"."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando.[12][13] . Hieroglyphical Figures. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". though mysterious figure. 1728. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. "Theatrum Chemicum". Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. In its time. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. early forms of tarot. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled.[10] In addition to scripture. This concept.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. and occultism. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms.

In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. Isaiah and others. when deciphered. Around 1692. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. which was popular in its day. In addition. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. was published posthumously in 1728. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. but also in the sacred scriptures. Isaac Newton's treatise. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. scholars. ” During Newton's lifetime. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. both speculative and active. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. 27 years after his death. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. conic sections. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. orthographic projection. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation.Occult studies As a Bible scholar.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". . believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". . Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". This immense 13-foot-high (4.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. spirals. In 1628. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. [14] Job. only adding to the public interest in the temple. and other harmonious constructions. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". such as golden sections. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. Psalms. In the knowledge of this philosophy. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. To Newton. the same was true of their architecture. due to the success of Villalpando's publications. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world.[17] In 1754. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. is not only to be found in the volume of nature. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. as in Genesis.

Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. will end A. part of the Yahuda collection. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. The first document. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. in or after 1705.] 70. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. .[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. Furthermore. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture. 800. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. Nature.C. 2060. It may end later. Britain's Daily Telegraph. the period of 1260 days. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. Canada's National Post. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. Christ comes as a thief in the night. Both of these lay essential to his calculations. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. 7th.[D.C. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life.[19] is a small letter slip. 1. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. evidently written by Isaac Newton. but I see no reason for its ending sooner.

and the Levant. Pliny. but was sunk into the Sea. The marriage supper. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. authors. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. and poets. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. However. or possibly the same island. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. an approximately 87. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. In this entry he mentions Mephres. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". It is done. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. In Greek Mythology. Ogygia was home to Calypso. Plutarch.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. and various other classical historians. Africa and Asia. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. standards. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. . In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). Anatolia.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. As such. Homer. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. but rather one in which he believed the world. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. In a separate manuscript.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. Egypt. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. In fact. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. and available source material. as he saw it. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband.

The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. However. not esoteric societies. For its time. the physical universe. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought.[26] At the time of his death. a recognized Knight. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. Furthermore. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them. and the spiritual realm. which they claimed to have in their possession. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. and highly politicised. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. however. these are considered learned societies. Additionally. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). would seem to exclude Newton . it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. In his library. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed).Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone. anti-Catholic. Considering his esteemed social status. lack of supportive publicized material. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature.C. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. the level of their secrecy. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. Like Newton.[24][25] however.". Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. remains unclear. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. avowedly Christian. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order.

175. newtonproject. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. The Man". uk/ prism. [10] Richman. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 19 June 2007. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. p. indiana. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. huji. USA: PBS._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. William R. 2010 [5] Newman. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". jnul. [6] http:/ / webapp1. and he never publicly identified himself as one. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. "Newton. Oxford University Press. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. 15–19 July 1946. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. dlib. google. References [1] Keynes. do).[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England.M. 144. ac. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. archive. Jane Bosveld. [11] Christianson. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. ISBN 019530070X. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. . Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. However. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. . and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. "The Da Vinci Code". Rabbi Chaim. indiana. ac. christianpost. as were many members of The Royal Society. edu/ newton/ about. Oxford University Press US. Temple Institute. . Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. . (5 April 2007). Retrieved 1 July 2008. Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. Retrieved 2007-08-12. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). . It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. Associated Press. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. sussex. During his own life. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. templeinstitute. dlib.Occult studies from their membership. p. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. Pope). from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. edu/ newton/ index. Gale E..[28] Despite this lack of evidence. pbs. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. J. htm). htm) on 6 May 2008. jsp [7] http:/ / www. (2005). christianpost. Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). Page 91. Discover Magazine. Temple Institute (1991-2008). (http:/ / www.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. htm). referring not to a medieval knight. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). Retrieved 2010-07-19. July/August. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. 1999. s-most-famous-alchemist)". there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. sacred geometry.

pp. [26] White. newtonproject.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum." (http:/ / www. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Henry (2004). . bcy. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). Retrieved 2007-08-19. Fairfield University. html). Isaac.sussex.ac. google. org/ ). [14] Gardner. f. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. 1997. 31r [22] Newton. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. Retrieved 20 April 2010..edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. ac. London: Routledge. com/ book_bauer.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h.uu. sussex.org/library/drmath/view/55191.sussex. p. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. Holy Grail. 146. University of Sussex: The Newton Project. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A. . ac. Chetwode. William (2010). newtonproject. [18] Snobelen. ISBN 1578634040. php?id=74). .php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-15. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. Frances A.3o. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www. W. 117. com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). Rob Iliffe. Michael. newtonproject. J.htm) • the math (http://www-groups. Retrieved 1 July 2008. the Apocalypse and A. ISBN 073820143X. .fairfield.html) • unit fractions. Scott Mandelbrote. 50 • White.2a.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell.sussex. AHRC Newton Papers Project. Delta Trade Paperbacks.science. ISBN 1-59477-172-3. Stephen D.J.newtonproject.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. p. The Newton Project.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode. [19] Yahuda MS 7. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www. .). com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).jnul. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life. Retrieved 2007-08-15.st-and. Michael (1999). ca/ aqc/ leon. freemasons-freemasonry. & A. org/ newton_2060. [28] Baigent.ac. .faculty. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. uk/ texts/ viewtext. The Newton Project. (http://www.F.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL.htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.3g. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7.uk)) . Michael. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley. Holy Blood.from Chapter 3.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando. ac.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory.ac. Originally published: London : HarperElement.ac. htm). 496.ac. sussex. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando.D. sussex. 5 April 2007.sussex. 859" (http:/ / www. sussex.com/aReal/unit-fraction. Joseph. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. .indiana. "Juan Bautista Villalpando. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books. (1972). spalding-gentlemens-society.niu. William Stukeley 1752. fairfield. html). The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. ac. Book Excerpt . ed. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions.newtonproject. . . p.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www.dcs." (http:/ / www. . [17] Newton. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books.com/pillar_solomon_temple.pbs. Retrieved 2007-08-15. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. htm).M.uk/prism. Retrieved 2008-06-25.gutenberg. 2060. f. Da Capo Press.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized). org).uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www. uk/ texts/ viewtext.themathpage. (http://www. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7.math. faculty. google. Laurence (2007).dlib. . written at USA. Lincoln. isaac-newton. Isaac (5 April 2007).edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. Retrieved 2008-06-26.staff.. [23] Bauer.newtonproject.ac. S. Alain (2007).huji.newtonproject. uk/ prism. . uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed. 2005: Weiser.freemasons-freemasonry.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www. inul. newtonproject. f. (http:/ / www.

[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. written by those who were inspired. theologian and alchemist. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. astronomer. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy. "so little understood".[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used .[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. natural philosopher. In predicting this he said. and he said. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. I study the Bible daily. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. After 1690. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. had it been made public. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. mathematician. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

[1] Background These arguments. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. space. causes. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. in other words. Alternatively. in general. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes.[5][6] . any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. or. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. place and motion. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. 77–82.

despite proximity to the pail. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. In other words. his real position was that motion is absolute. but also in relation to the water it contains. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. as the cord continues to unwind. Eventually. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. accordingly. p. but in opposite direction. C: Both rotate. it is not your own train moving. Thus. who contended that all motion was relative. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. B: Outer ring rotates. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition.[9] When. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". it begins to spin rapidly. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. however. but the neighboring train. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. — Ernst Mach. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. However. A: Central object rotates. not only with respect to the experimenter. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. the surface of the water remains flat.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . On the other hand. and that there is no absolute motion.[7] However. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. but in opposite directions. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord.

will make it begin sensibly to revolve. — Isaac Newton. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. it is whirled about in the contrary way. and may be measured by this endeavour. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer.are altogether destitute of any real effect. In fact. see Rotating spheres. and recede by little and little. And therefore. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. by the sudden action of another force.. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted.. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it. not relative.. Thus. and while the cord is untwisting itself.. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. then filled with water. discovers itself.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. hung by a long cord. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water... which is here directly contrary to the relative..Bucket argument If a vessel. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. the vessel continues for some time this motion. . and held at rest together with the water..[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string. as quoted by L... as before the vessel began to move. but relative motions. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. . a stationary frame can be identified. p. However. and effectually to distinguish..This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. the surface of the water will at first be plain. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. is incomplete. 58 . forming itself into a concave figure. . Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. after. a limitation that has not been established. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. Principia. — Ernst Mach.

because the element of water does not move. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. the sum of all three forces must be zero. To sum to zero. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface.[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. the co-rotating frame. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. But from the nature of a fluid.. for if this were not so. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. For example. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω. and the aim is to determine this function. the horizontal.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course.. . one might question just how rotation brings about this change. However. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. the water.. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. see Knudsen and Hjorth. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. p. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. if at rest. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. 127 Moreover. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket.

inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. On the other hand. were surface regions with lower energy available. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame.) As r increases. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. because all positions are equivalent in energy.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. That is. . Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. In words. for example. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. that is. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. equilibrium is attained. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. That being so. The potential energy is useful. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0.

Requiring the energy to be constant. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. google. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43.Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. however. . a concave surface represents the stable situation. google.M1). 75. us. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. p. Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. Forgotten Books. google. Cambridge University Press. and the more rapid the rotation. editors) (2002). p. because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. pdf [3] René Descartes. p. Cambridge University Press. To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. Part ii. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). . com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). for example through friction. [2] http:/ / ia310114. archive. at a given angular rate of rotation. ISBN 0226282198. The water surface is flat at first. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). 191. Principia philosophiae. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. As the height of water increases. 170. 105. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. Thus. ISBN 0521656966.M1). . To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. Cambridge University Press. which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. ISBN 1606201433. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. At some small angular rate of rotation. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. University of Chicago Press. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). the more concave this surface. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. google. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. . p. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. and lowering it at smaller radius. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. If rotation is arrested. . John Cottingham translator (1988). See Figures 1 and 2. 43. google. This change in shape would not be stable. p. ISBN 0521358124. §25. Bernard Cohen & George E. this energy is constant independent of position r. before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Smith. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. [5] René Descartes (1664).

no.. . com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle").edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. and Motion (http://plato. ISBN 0867204796.htm) see section on Space. Lerner (1997). google. The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. . p.stanford. "Chapter 2. google. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. External links • Newton's Views on Space.com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. . 19. Soc. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). . com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78.). Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. op. google. B. [16] Lawrence S. Wiley. 167. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1.M1) (in Proc.). George Edwin Smith.M1). org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. . Time. [11] Robert Disalle. Zalta. p. p. ISBN 0120598779. Partridge (1995). . 78. 5 (1975) ed. archive. 79. ISBN 0521857902.utm.google. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. John Archibald Wheeler (1995).Bucket argument p. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books.google. ISBN 0486607690. . . Academic Press. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). p. stanford. Princeton University Press. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein. pp. google. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. ISBN 0521621135. See: • R. google. Phil. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. . [15] Jens M. Springer. . Cambridge University Press. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. Hjorth (2000). 45. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate.M1). Am. Weber & George B. google. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. stanford. us. Poul G. google. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. pp. ISBN 1402086679. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. In Edward N. google.M1). 404. ISBN 0521656966. Lynden-Bell (1996). 143.edu/l/leib-met. p. [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). 279–280. google. . vol. ISBN 0691033234. ISBN 0375412883. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. pp. • D. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. time. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127. pp. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78.M1). New York: Courier Dover Publications.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). 78–79. Leibniz (http:/ / books. Bernard Cohen. Arfken (2003). [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). 79-81 [13] L. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. ISBN 0521352541.. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). • Ralph A. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. In I. editor) (2008). and the texture of reality. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. pdf) pp. cit.iep. p. 104. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). ISBN 354067652X. 127.google. article by Robert Rynasiewicz. p.M1).). [19] Hans J. . The Universe and the Bucket". The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. Springer. Jones & Bartlett. Knudsen.M1).com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. 386–387. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. p. 325–348. A A Knopf. John Wiley & Sons. [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). At the end of this article. 119.

Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. term by term integration. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. one goal of integral calculus. More generally. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. It has two major branches. early forms of differentiation. 1820 BC). and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. infinite series approximations. Calculus is the study of change. calculus. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. and join calculus. but the formulas are mere instructions.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. Eudoxus (c.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation.[6] . more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. and some of them are wrong. functions. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. with no indication as to method. Historically. variational calculus. which prefigures the concept of the limit. Calculus has widespread applications in science.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics. economics. integrals. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. Calculations of volumes and areas. derivatives. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. broadly called mathematical analysis. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. or "infinitesimal calculus". an integral test for convergence. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. to calculate areas and volumes.[4] In the 5th century AD. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. lambda calculus. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. pi calculus. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. differential calculus and integral calculus. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. and infinite series. while Archimedes (c. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus.

replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). the notion of higher derivatives. which is its logical [7] development. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. but Leibniz published first. Newton derived his results first. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. introduced the concept of adequality. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. In other work. By Newton's time. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. the oblateness of the earth. and providing the product rule and chain rule.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. Unlike Newton. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. he developed series expansions for functions.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. and James Gregory. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. and the system of mathematical analysis. He did not publish all these discoveries. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. including fractional and irrational powers. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. in their differential and integral forms. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. second and higher derivatives. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics." —John von Neumann In Europe. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. Pierre de Fermat. Isaac Barrow. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. The product rule and chain rule. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. In his publications.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. Taylor series.

most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. including Maclaurin. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. Following the work of Weierstrass. but it would be 150 years later. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. It is Leibniz. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. to the detriment of English mathematics. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. Robinson's approach. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. however. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. Several mathematicians.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. who gave the new discipline its name. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. . the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. Today.Calculus Society. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. In Cauchy's writing. developed in the 1960s. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. In modern mathematics. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently.

Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. and pressure. Calculus provides tools. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. but less than any number in the sequence 1. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. Iraq. Historically. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. center of mass. In the 19th century. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers. . Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. especially the limit and the infinite series. during the 17th century. and motion. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. time. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space.. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. work. but use the ordinary real number system. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. 1/3. and less than any positive real number. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. They capture small-scale behavior.. In this treatment. volume. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. For centuries. Persia. From this point of view. 1/2. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. Greece. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. However. and Japan. China.. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. and for this reason they are the standard approach. and optimization. which resolve the paradoxes. the slope of a curve. just like infinitesimals. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input.e. .Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. arc length. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. in some sense. i. "infinitely small". mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. India.

f(a + h)) is close to (a. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. Thus. properties. Given a function and a point in the domain. f(a)) and (a + h. f(a + h)). can take the squaring function as an input. then the derivative represents change with respect to time." For instance. four is sent to sixteen. outputs a second function. Therefore (a + h. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. y is the dependent variable. If h is a number close to zero. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. For example. however. let f be a function. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. if the doubling function is given the input three. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. The derivative. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. For example.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. the derivative of the function of f is f′. then a + h is a number close to a. then it outputs nine. that is. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. then it outputs six. if the graph of the function is a straight line). To be concrete. and fix a point a in the domain of f. it is possible to produce a new function. however. (a. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. If the input of the function represents time. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. If a function is linear (that is. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. the doubling function. In mathematical jargon. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. pronounced "f prime. three is sent to nine. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. which is impossible. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. where x is the independent variable. b is the y-intercept. where functions usually input a number and output another number. and if the squaring function is given the input three. f(x)). By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. it is the velocity of the ball. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. and applications of the derivative of a function. f(a)). (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function.

The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. . −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. For this reason. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function.9) is 6. Here is a particular example. that is to say. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different.

the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. however. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. . as the output. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. the inverse operation to the derivative. (This use of upper. but if the speed changes. the indefinite integral and the definite integral. only multiplication is needed. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. In technical language. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. For example: In this usage. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. Leibniz. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. However. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. and applications of two related concepts. introduced by Leibniz. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. then the speed will stay more or less the same. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. called a Riemann sum. If the speed is constant. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. properties. the derivative. integral calculus studies two related linear operators. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance.

For each small segment. the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. between two points (here a and b).Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. as an output. but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. is y′ = 2x. where C is any constant. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. and is not being multiplied by f(x)." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). the area between the axis and the curve. Call that value h. or antiderivative. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. dx is not a number. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. we can choose one value of the function f(x). f(x)=h. the area. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. . To approximate that area. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. The symbol of integration is . The indefinite integral. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x.

for every x in the interval (a. slope. statistics. business. medicine. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. actuarial science. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. the moment of inertia of objects. b). was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. the study of graphs of functions. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. For example. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. This realization. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. made by both Newton and Leibniz. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. economics. computer science. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. In biology. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. More precisely. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. then Furthermore. In analytic geometry. . engineering. demography. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. Physics makes particular use of calculus. we use calculus to derive its path. concavity and inflection points. b).

Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. Method. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. . fixed point iteration. 2. An approach through history. p. ac. p.. Pte. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. (2009)... pp. google. st-andrews. 279 (http:/ / books. Biggers. Dainian.. Springer. htm)... p. . Reprinted in Bródy. Copy (http:/ / books.Calculus Green's Theorem. Inc. Sherry (2007). 1984. mcs. Cohen. Cosimo. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. google. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. 180–196. "The Mathematician". Inc. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. John W. Elif (April 1995). Liu. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. In the realm of medicine. p. I [3] Archimedes.. google. T. Warren S. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. Chapter 1. . Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. Page 228. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications.. Fan. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). Examples are methods such as Newton's method. Scott. Dennis G.. [8] André Weil: Number theory. MA. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing.). in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. Reed. ed. J. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. google. For example. p. Ltd. pp. in Heywood. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. Vol.. 618–626. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. Wright. 28. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. html [7] von Neumann. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. 130. The Neumann Compedium. Agnes Scott College. p 2 (http:/ / books. Discrete Green's Theorem. ISBN 9810222017.. F. Robert Sonné (1966). com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. In nuclear medicine. Donald R. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill.. University of Chicago Press. R. Jones & Bartlett Learning. 1947.see also the summed area table algorithm. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. ISBN 0817645659.. 279. Gottfried Wilhelm. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). agnesscott. The Works of the Mind. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . google. Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. Iris B. For instance. . Wright. and linear approximation. it's used to derive dosing laws. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. google. For example. World Scientific Publishing Co. eds.. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. B. From Hammurapi to Legendre. Boston. 2008. Cengage Learning. Vámos. Birkhauser Boston. xxvii. Kenelly. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. Chapter .. In economics. google. 1995. [9] Leibniz. . A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books.

No. Frank R. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. Ch. The Association.. ED 300 252. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. Hafner. Adams. University Science Books. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. • Weisstein." (http://mathworld. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. Anderson and Don O. • Michael Spivak. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications.Stephen Davis:"Calculus".ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . (1998). Richard D. 7. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. 1 (Sep. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. ed. 25. Lebedev and Michael J. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. Dover edition 1959.2002. Publish or Perish publishing.. Apostol. Edwards (2010). • Mathematical Association of America. Cambridge University Press.. James (2008). Donald J. Maurice D. (1999). Apostol. "Calculus".. Stony Brook. Volume 2. (September 1994).Irl Bivens. Carl Benjamin (1949). ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. • Silvanus P. • Howard Anton.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. Princeton Univ. ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. Thompson and Martin Gardner. Ltd.wolfram. (2003). Bruce H. 1: The Tools of Calculus". George B. American Mathematical Society. Joel Hass. ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. pp. • Leonid P.. Calculus for a New Century. (1996). Loftsgaarden. Calculus: Early Transcendentals. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. Addison-Wesley. Press. A Pump. Eric W. • Florian Cajori. 2004.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover).. Mathematical Association of America No. 6th ed. 2nd Ser. Addison Wesley. 11th ed. 1923). NY. • Albers. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. Giordano (2008). ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. (2003).. Not a Filter. • Cliff Pickover. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. • Tom M. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. (1988).John Willey and Sons Pte. Ron. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. Donald A. • Robert A. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. (1969). 1998. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. google. Vol. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. Wiley. • Tom M. 9th ed. Weir. • Edmund Landau. "Calculus". (1967). Volume 1. • Thomas/Finney. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. "The History of Notations of the Calculus. ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th." Annals of Mathematics. 1–46. Wiley.html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource..

cacr.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.math.economics.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw.html) • Mauch.wolfram.uiowa.htm) from ERICDigests.math.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC.umn. Michiel Hazewinkel ed.edu/~sean/applied_math.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.encyclopediaofmath.mit. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www.. lightandmatter. External links • Weisstein.math.bbc.temple.wisc.edu/~sean/applied_math.math.com/ (http://www. (1991). " Calculus (http://mathworld.umn. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.html)" from MathWorld. Dan (2000). Eric W.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism.co. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.D.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology.math. G. (2006).bbc.nd. .byu.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson. H.co. S.org) at University of California. Fullerton.understandingcalculus. (2000). J.mit.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler.math. B. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus. mit. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus".org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan.org/pre-9217/calculus.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. (2006).pdf) • Faraz. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.pdf) • Sloughter.math.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.caltech.uiowa.org/index.html) at PlanetMath. K.understandingcalculus.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www. H. (2004). "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre .edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota. Thompson (http://djm.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. soton.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.htm) • Smith.ericdigests.com/Calculus. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow.pdf) • Garrett. P. William V.edu/~keisler/calc. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell.pdf (http://www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism. "Calculus" Light and Matter.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.math. URL http:// www. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P.com/calc/calc.ac.pdf (http://www.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes. (2001). ( listen now (http:// www.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business).html (http://www.caltech.com/calc/calc. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. (2004). "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals.pdf (http://www.htm (http://ocw. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics.org: The Calculus page (http://www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.htm) (HTML only) • Strang.lightandmatter.calculus.wolfram.wisc.nd.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).cacr.edu/~keisler/calc.htm (http://www. (2003).

He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus.com/) Raymond. this statement went unchallenged some years. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". Newton manipulated the quarrel. minima. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. as noted above. as in the 'Principia' of 1687. or. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. 1709–1716. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions.math. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675.html) by D. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. Moreover." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's.ucdavis. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus. .edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman. and others.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. 2. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. Newton. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. A. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith. Newton.Calculus Dame with activities.solved-problems. at the age of 23.[1]. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus.mit. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. 3. exams and interactive applets. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word. 4.[2]) Meanwhile. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. and centers of gravity.

whereas Newton began from derivatives. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. It is. however. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. on the method of tangents. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. In 1849. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. Gerhardt. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important.[2] At first. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. and in fact worked together on some aspects. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. I. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. in particular power series. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). but Fatio was not a person of consequence. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. the manuscript. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. In 1696. Shortly before his death. which was not known at the time. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. However. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . but some deny this. one of which was new to him. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. C. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. No attempt was made to rebut #4. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti.

as it appeared to Newton's friends." he said. forty years ago. had endeavoured to wrest from me. In any event. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. All this casts doubt on his testimony. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. Leibniz may have minimized. 1713. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. the debate persisted for many years. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. in most cases I did not keep a copy. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. the letter of June 7. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. When pressed for an explanation. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. and doubts emerged. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. before publishing them. "I have never. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. but it appears that on more than one occasion. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. which referenced all allegations. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. which I could sort through only with time and patience. In accepting the denial. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. Moreover. dates. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. of which many are lost.. Moreover. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. 77 . finding in favor of Newton. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. No such summary (with facts. The report of the committee. Now that I am old.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. Several points should be noted. and that of April 8. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. and when I did. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. in the Acta Eruditorum).g. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. 30 years later. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. in the Charta Volans. I have enjoyed little leisure. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. which the author of that epistle. as if by the authority of a great judge. suspicious details. dont plusiers se sont perdus. 1716. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention.

(Cambridge University Press. and the differential and integral calculus. 120. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). so making the priority row a nonsense. T. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz.. at page 149. of equal certainty. the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. at page 400. at page 250 (http:/ / books. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. 1968). 1696). "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". [5] http:/ / www. (Guicciardini 2003. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986).. 2003). com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin.. for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. 1967). part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". whose potentialities he fully understood. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. . the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. They adopted two algorithms.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. google. other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . not in the German-speaking world). which were translatable one into the other. D. at page 41 (http:/ / books. google. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. (1970). "The Newton handbook". google. [4] D Gjertsen (1986). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. tcd. especially at p. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. the differential and integral calculus.). points of resemblance.99. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". the analytical method of fluxions. at p. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century.. maths. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. explaining "the method of first and last ratios". a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. (Cambridge University Press.

Rouse Ball. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. Canberra. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. going on without the Interposition of God. • Kandaswamy. random behaviour. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. Anand. and tends. approaching a maximum value). in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences.tcd. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. 1908. • Stephen Hawking.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. 1988. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. It continues ticking along. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. A.math. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. a prominent supporter of the theory. A thorough scholarly discussion.. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon.html).rutgers.maths. or initiated by the Big Bang. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker.html). as a perfect machine. W W Norton. 1980.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. Dated. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Press. including the law of universal gravitation. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. 1997. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. Edward B. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. W. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. R. • Hall. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. 4th ed. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. • W."[1] . Cambridge Uni. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory.

and beauty. cited in. 65. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. Knud Haakonssen. Richard S. Clarke quotation taken from article. A Source Book in Medieval Science.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. Westfall. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”." Science and Christian Belief 3. [2] John of Sacrbosco. ed. 2: 103-117. and motion. John Bolton. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. Ed. 19. Cambridge: 1996. ibid. In this widely popular medieval text. R. Webb. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. Robert Lambourne. Edinburgh. 201. Alan Durrant. 3. 1974)." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. Andrew Norton.html) The Physical World. no. 465. p. 1991. God was the Prime Mover. quoted in Edward Grant. the Royal Society. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy. 1. the machine of the world. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. This view of God as the creator.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. On the Sphere. References [1] Davis. . to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. a working clock. (http://physicalworld. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". Further reading • Dolnick. This steel artwork contains moving gears. 2011. p. Edward.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. space. God was the master-builder. p.google.. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". p. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. 1850. regularity. Harper Collins. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. Pr.K. who created the perfect machine and let it run. Edward B.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). 2. who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. Cambridge University Press. Joy Manners. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books.

1210-1219 (2004) . 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. spatial locality. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. gutenberg. form. pp. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. Particle. the material point and force (interaction between material points). Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. Phys.edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. translation. time. James Clerk Maxwell. Albert Einstein.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics. html) . 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory.html) JJ Thorn et al. corpuscular theory of light. bartleby. partly because of Newton’s great prestige.[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. retaining only inertia. edited by Thomas F.whitman. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h.29-32. 72. Eugene. 1931). and all their 'inner' qualities.: Am. Translation).The Wave. J. htm [2] bartleby. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865).com (http:/ / www. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. and the additional concept of force. Torrance (1982). pp. com/ 65/ li/ light.

For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. first published in 1687. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. i.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m. in Latin. . i. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. and afterwards rendered general by induction. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. Newton's First and Second laws. or based on occult qualities. Newton showed that these laws of motion. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. opposite and collinear.[5] For example. or mechanical. have no place in experimental philosophy. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis.e. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. 974 pages. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). whether metaphysical or physical. and hypotheses..[2][3][3] 2. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.e. 3. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal. page 943 of I. and I do not feign hypotheses. Third edition. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. in the third volume of the text. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. General Scholium. combined with his law of universal gravitation. F = ma.. Therefore. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena.

The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. however. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. That is. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities.e. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. Euler’s laws can. This is the most common. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. In this sense. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. independently of any particle structure. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. i. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe.Laws of motion In their original form. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. from this point of view. momentum. acceleration. then the velocity of the object is constant. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. In the given interpretation mass. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. Thus. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion.

Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. Thus. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below).e. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. such is the case with uniform circular motion. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. Thus. m is the mass of the body.. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. otherwise it would stop moving. In other words. then there is a force on it. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. Consistent with the first law. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. where F is the net force applied. Galileo. if a body is accelerating.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. even if there is no change in its magnitude. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. acceleration. however. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. the momentum of the body is constant. and a is the body's acceleration. i.[22] .

and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system.[17] The reasoning. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion.[18] In classical mechanics. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. known as the thrust. M is the total mass of the system. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. reading: If a force generates a motion. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases.[23] this is understood. Under some conventions. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. Instead. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. in modern terms. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. or obliquely joined.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. when they are oblique. Then. if the body moved before.[24] . along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. particles by definition have constant mass. In case of a well-defined system of particles. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. a double force will generate double the motion. a triple force triple the motion. by substituting the definition of acceleration. or gradually and successively. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology.

with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself.g. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. the finger is also pressed by the stone. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. If a body impinges upon another. as the motions are equally changed. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. The changes made by these actions are equal. and directed to contrary parts. If you press a stone with your finger. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. This law takes place also in attractions. as will be proved in the next scholium. For. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. as it does the stone towards the horse. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. and by its force changes the motion of the other. that is to say. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. but act in opposite directions. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. As shown in the diagram opposite. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. toward the contrary part. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. if the road . in its own motion.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. but act in opposite directions.. Although the forces are equal. as usual. motion is Newton's name for momentum.[25] In the above.

Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. one might say. and in quantum mechanics. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. 87 where Fa. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. Fb. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. Given two objects A and B. each exerting a force on the other. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. very high speeds (in special relativity. So each and every force has two ends. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years.[28] however from a deeper perspective.a are the forces from A acting on B. . Newton's laws of motion. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. and not on a single object. From a mathematical point of view. which can be stated as follows. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. Therefore. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor.b are the forces from B acting on A. optical properties of substances. including general relativity and quantum field theory. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. most notably at very small scales. However. momentum. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. At speeds comparable to the speed of light.

Jacob (2008). lightandmatter. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. etc. google.]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. Indeed.Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. . W (Lord Kelvin).. ISBN 9780070084988. (1867).1023/A:1022632600805. New York: Birkhäuser. us.). In modern physics. Halliday Browne.. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. [9] Benjamin Crowell. Becchi.g. McGraw-Hill Companies. action at a distance has been completely eliminated.. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). However. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. ISBN 3764314761. and by a modern text of the early 21st century. quantum electrodynamics. html). • Section 242. the laws of conservation of momentum. doi:10. 207. google. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". 58. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). volume 1. ce. except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books.. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. Clifford A. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). "Momentum. pp. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. berkeley. Treatise on natural philosophy. (2003). and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". Michael E. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series).. google. ISBN 097046701X. . Lubliner. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. Newtonian Physics. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. "4. . Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles." Because force is the time derivative of momentum.. and to both classical and non-classical physics. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation.45G. Edoardo (2003). archive. M. p.Truesdell. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws.12. pdf). energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. htm) [. . and Tait. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. since they apply to both light and matter. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. Translations. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). Benvenuto. google. ISBN 0486462900. Tseitlin. quantum mechanics. Dover Publications.. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. I. springerlink. Newtonian Physics. P G. Antonio. energy. see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. This can be stated simply. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. tripod. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books. . "Newton's First Law: Text. . general relativity..

google. 353. p. pp. . [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). p. 2007.). 161. Pitman Paperbacks. The Principia. pages 627–658. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest.M1). Juan C. Principia. [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. doi:10. [14] Thornton. it will lie still forever. vol. google. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. is not so easily assented to. [11] Isaac Newton. McGraw-Hill.. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself).. stanford. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity.. Bibcode 1992PhyEd. google. [22] WJ Stronge (2004).] Consequently. p." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. Marion (2004)." [19] Hannah. (2) Stuart Pierson.53.60 (2006). . An Introduction to Mechanics. Muzzio.. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". m would be treated as the relativistic mass. Berkeley 1999. 133–134. J. Eds) (2002). . But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. 1 (1993). com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M. s. (2006). html#NewLawMot). "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". Millard F.227P. "'Corpore cadente. 199. consists. pp. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. Corollary III to the laws of motion . ISBN 0534997244. pp. is a truth that no man doubts.1007/BF00052611. pages 157–207. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). University of California press. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. M J.. Perspectives on Science. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. . Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together.. google.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. ISBN 0471037109. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves.. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. Phys. Educ. Angel R. A new translation by I. unless somewhat else stir it. pages 143–185. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". . John Wiley & Sons. Resnick. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. google. Hillier. Applied Mechanics. Robert Kolenkow (1973). (1992). com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). [. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. 53.T. [13] Beatty. College Physics (http:/ / books. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 1967). p. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009).27. also an online discussion by G E Smith. 6. p. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. p. 1971 [20] Raymond A. doi:10. See Harman and Shapiro. 1. p221. "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. Springer. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only." [17] Halliday.." [28] Newton. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D.112H. . google. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). ISBN 0534408966. .B. Serway. ISBN 0521602890. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. "Physics". 27 (2): 112–115. producing the relativistic expression for momentum. Shapiro. ISBN 0070350485. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. ISBN 052189266X. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. Jerry S. [16] Plastino. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. cited below. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation.. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). (http:/ / books. Faughn (2006). .5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. Cohen and A. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". 24. Physics. ISBN 0387237046. in 5. 12 ff. and (3) Bruce Pourciau. Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. Special relativity (http:/ / books.. Whitman. . google. [26] C Hellingman (1992). .. "Newton’s third law revisited". Whiteside (http:/ / books. London/Berlin: Springer. Harman & Alan E. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[. Brooks/Cole. 78–79. Daniel. ISSN 0923-2958. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used.

mit. ISBN 0070378525. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). 1 (2nd ed. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Light and Matter).youtube. Jerry. (1867). (2011). W (Lord Kelvin).3). Newton's First Law (http://www. especially at Section 242. Vol.com/lm/).google.motionmountain.lightandmatter. Saunders College Publishing. ISBN 0805390499. • Thomson.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. Light and Matter (http://www.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny. London/Berlin: Springer. and Section 5. R.com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) .lightandmatter.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). Elements of Engineering Mechanics. Newton's Second Law (http://www. containing Book 1 (http://books. R.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. P G. (1973). ISBN 0030223172. • Newton.lightandmatter.google. and Tait.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Leighton. html#Section4. P. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books. 6.1).edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6. • Feynman. L.google.). • Newton. Special relativity (http://books. Peter W.google.lightandmatter.3. (1999).com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). M. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books. Isaac. Thornton. google.. p. • Likins. (2011.. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. especially at Section 4. volume 2.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books. Cassiday. G.google.com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www.html#Section4. Wolfram Demonstrations Project.1. Newton's Third Law (http://www. Stephen (1995). • NMJ Woodhouse (2003).2. ISBN 0030973023.lightandmatter. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw.2). Pearson/Addison-Wesley. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ).). • Marion.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04. B.wolfram. Harcourt College Publishers. R.M1).Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell. Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. Newton's laws of motion (http://books. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy".com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC).com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178). G. • Fowles. Sands. volume 1.html#Section5. volume 1. Benjamin. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC). (2005). Section 4. Isaac.

[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia").) In modern language. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. F is measured in newtons (N). Both are inverse-square laws. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. m2 is the second mass.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . m1 is the first mass. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. Assuming SI units. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects. first published on 5 July 1687.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G. r in meters (m). and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. G is the gravitational constant. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. . Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society.

of 24 November 1679. On the latter two aspects. "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat. have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known".. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674. and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society. being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". together with a principle of linear inertia. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers".e. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. Plagiarism dispute In 1686.. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity. and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions. if anything. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive .. in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. and on which some points still excite some controversy. that Hooke communicated his "supposition ..Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity". Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified"."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". "prosecuting this Inquiry"). till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent.[7] It was later on. however. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". but also. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle".[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".".[6] In this way arose the question what.

as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. also without demonstration. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. Thus Newton gave a justification. otherwise lacking. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. although significant.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1."[14] . could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses).[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law.[15] (who suggested. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. Hooke. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. According to Newton. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. Among the reasons.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. supported by mathematical demonstration. even close up. without evidence in favor of the supposition. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. according to Newton.[14] including Bullialdus. which Newton was making in the 1660s.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death.. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge.. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. in all editions of the 'Principia'. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. but that did not mean. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage. which inclined me to try it . but without demonstration. Newton did accept and acknowledge. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding.[19] In addition.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view.[20] and associated sections of Book 3. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. Newton acknowledged Wren.

this entails integrating the force (in vector form. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). for example. . In the limit. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. As described above. Alexis Clairaut. taken together. cancel each other out. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). as the component point masses become "infinitely small".[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. on the point at r0. within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). that "One must not think that this idea .[26][27] In the light of the background described above. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies.. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center.. gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. As a consequence. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. That is. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. Nevertheless.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. it becomes understandable how. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour.

if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. and if the sphere is large enough. the increase due to the additional mass is 1. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines .5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. further outward the gravity increases again. quantities in bold represent vectors. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. G is the gravitational constant. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. In this formula. Thus.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore.

For 2 objects (e. object 2 is a rocket. object 1 the Earth). Also. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. It is a generalization of the vector form.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. except that F is now a vector quantity. per unit mass.g. Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . it can be seen that F12 = −F21.

Gravitational fields are also conservative. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. i. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved.[31] For example.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. where φ is the gravitational potential. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. and c is the speed of light.e. this is m/s2. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model). the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. in SI. The field has units of acceleration. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one.. that is. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). . General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large.

he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. especially of planet Mercury. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century.. is to me so great an absurdity that. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. and assume a point mass for each. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. In all other cases." He never. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. you get an orbit with no precession. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. In 1692. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. which was detected long after the life of Newton. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. the experiments of Galileo Galilei.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. In point of fact. regardless of their different inertial masses. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. the definitive answer has yet to be found. However. decades before Newton. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass."[33] . in his words. See the Equivalence Principle. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. independent of the quantities of matter involved. Yet. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. in his third letter to Bentley. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. I believe. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies.. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally. but in the case of gravity. "assigned the cause of this power". and the observed precession. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". However. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. though hypotheses abound. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. Moreover. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. F = ma. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays.

google. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.633. Vol 2 (1676-1687). start at page 263 (http:/ / books. pdf). nist. In general relativity. pages 11-61. by I. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Newell. (2009). "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". 20 June 1686. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. start at page 177 (http:/ / books.I.. especially at 13-20. 1664-1684". i (1970). (Cambridge University Press. public.392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729. 1664-1684". General Scholium. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. document #235. [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. "Astronomia philolaica". (Cambridge University Press.). [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. Vol 2 (1676-1687). David B. google. 1960). . The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). iastate.). google. [21] D T Whiteside. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). Correspondence of Isaac Newton.. mpg. Springer. at p. google. ch. [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. [2] . . [22] See J. translators: Isaac Newton. 1960).. CUP 1989. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). 1995). Correspondence. Peter J. at page 66 (http:/ / books. document #239. In Einstein's theory. Journal for the History of Astronomy. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. Mod. Book 3. document #288. Theorem 35: p. Robert D. pages 5-19. Barry N.80..1103/RevModPhys. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg).). (Cambridge University Press.Bernard Cohen. Bibcode 2008RvMP. Paris. google.. 24 November 1679. Vol. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata. Direct link to value (http:/ / www. 27 May 1686.956 . [8] Purrington. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. (Cambridge University Press. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. especially at page 13. [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 1645. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". 1666. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false).).80. G. . (University of California Press. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false).. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Phys. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". A. 1960). (Cambridge University Press.Proposition 75. see particularly page 431. (2008). [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Ofer Gal. Vol 2 (1676-1687). nist. htm). google..431-448. Rev. 1960). 45 (1991).2. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. [17] D T Whiteside. p. [16] Borelli. 168. Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. physics. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime. [18] Page 436. 1960). 80: 633–730.). "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. doi:10.633M. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Bruce Brackenridge.. google. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". mpiwg-berlin. Taylor. already cited. i (1970). pages 5-19. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. Journal for the History of Astronomy. [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. Florence. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. document #286. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books.

. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. Newton" (1759). in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. Westfall. 10 (2005).com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. Wheeler. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition.. Kip S. [32] . Charles W.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. ph. in Early Science and Medicine. 529-534. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results".. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". (C) 3. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. If the speed is very high. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. 511-517. Rouse Ball. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. in Early Science and Medicine.Freeman and Company. M Nauenberg. Thorne.youtube.Max Born (1924). (E) . stanford. 1893). Gravitation. Venus.com. 10 (2005). 518-528. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. it will indeed leave Earth. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. at page 69. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . utexas. (D) 4. cited above.W. Newton". If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon.The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. Ofer Gal. If the speed is low. and it was the key force for planetary motion.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. 1. H. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. New York: W. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. it will simply fall back on Earth. John Archibald (1973). [27] See also G E Smith.. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. in Early Science and Medicine. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World. 10 (2005). "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics".) [33] . "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. Cambridge University Press. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. (A and B) 2.pythia. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. html) [31] Misner. and the Earth. at Introduction (section IX). edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). by Richard S.

but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111).edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless. When the disc is rotated. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result. eg. Notes [1] Sagan.physics. New York: Random House. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light. Carl et al. the colors fade to white.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books. net/ index.bucknell. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. php?p=2_23 . External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone. google.virginia. A combination of red. net23.

The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. for converging on the root can be easily derived. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. and the method can be iterated. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. Then by simple algebra we can derive . named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. (x1.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. Suppose ƒ : [a. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. That is Here. f (x0)). and its derivative ƒ '. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). succeeded by Halley's method. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root.

Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. In 1690.) The method will usually converge. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). In the same publication. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. However. However. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. But. He does not compute the successive approximations . . Furthermore. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. though the connection with calculus was missing. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. in 1740. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. More details can be found in the analysis section below. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). Finally. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. essentially giving the description above. Finally. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. for a zero of multiplicity 1. the better. (The closer to the zero. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end.

Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. and diverge from that root. However. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. there are some difficulties with the method. However. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . Furthermore. the method may overshoot. In these situations. For situations where the method fails to converge. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. one should review the assumptions made in the proof.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. Specifically. if the multiplicity of the root is known. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root.

the sequence {xn} will converge to α. In practice these results are local. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. in U+. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. α being a zero of multiplicity r. x in a neighborhood U of α. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. i. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. Exercise 1. However. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers.. Specifically. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance.6). the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then the convergence is usually only linear. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . then. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α.e. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. ƒ(α) = 0. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x). (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that .

For example. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied.352836323 converges to 1. 2. 2. 2.35283735 converges to 4. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1. 3. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1. .35284172 converges to –3. 2. (b) (c) Finally. 2.352836327 converges to –3. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2.35287527 converges to 4. where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small.[1] for the function .Newton's method 106 That is. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms.

since the tangent at (0. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. the method will converge. For the following subsections. This can happen. x1 will be undefined. any iteration point is stationary. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). instead of the starting point. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. for example. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. In fact. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. Let and take 0 as the starting point. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. such as bisection. In general. In such cases a different method. . Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. preventing convergence. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function).

Indeed. where its derivative is undefined (this. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. farther away than it initially was. For example. except for x = 0. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. In fact. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. In the limiting case of (square root). where . Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. So convergence is not quadratic. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. let then and consequently . even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). the derivative at the root is nonzero. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0. so they do not converge in this case either. however. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. then convergence will not be quadratic. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. let . does not affect the algorithm. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method.

then convergence may fail to be quadratic. darker means more iterations to converge.127507934. Basins of attraction for x5 . So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. For many complex functions. 0. 0. For example.500250376. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root. . meaning the iterates do not converge.067671976. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. the derivative is not zero at the root.251062828.041224176.032741218.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. 0. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has. Indeed. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. Given . In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. 0. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root.031642362.1 = 0. since both roots are non-real. 0. 0. 0.

convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. In the formulation given above. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. If the nonlinear system has no solution. . Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). k variables. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations.

Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. with derivative. There are many methods of computing square roots. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. which may be found via Newton's method. if one wishes to find the square root of 612. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. and Newton's method is one. With an initial guess of 10. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x).Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1.5.) . For example.

Berlin.6 [6]. New York: Cambridge University Press. Universitext (Second revised ed. 1995. 112 References • Tjalling J. • Kaw. Ypma. 35. T. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. J. M. Gilbert. 2004. Teukolsky. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . Classics in Applied Mathematics. Ortega. PPT. WT. Rheinboldt. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Frédéric. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. Claude. C. See especially Sections 9. BP (2007). SIAM. Cambridge University Press. SIAM Review 37 (4). • Endre Süli and David Mayers. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]..). 9.). "Chapter 9. Kalu. W. SIAM. 2003. John H. 531–551. Autar. Maple. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. MR2265882. pp. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein. Claudia A. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. doi:10.. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. • Press. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. • C. • J. Kelley.4 [5].1007/978-3-540-35447-5. Springer.7 [7].Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . Deuflhard. Vetterling. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. In particular. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. Flannery. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. ISBN 0-521-00794-1.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof.). of translation of 1997 French ed. • P. Newton's method [9] -. doi:10. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. Eric W. Matlab. Sagastizábal. Vol. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. Mathcad. Lemaréchal. xiv+490. SA. WH.Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. and 9. • Bonnans. J.1137/1037125. 2003. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. Charles. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. 2000. (2006). illustrating the quadratic convergence. Egwu (2008).

''The College Mathematics Journal 22. maccery. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. eng. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. . Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. maths. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. com/ NewtonsMethod. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. com/ empanel/ index. usf. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. 6). springer. html [21] http:/ / www. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. nrbook. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. yihui. nrbook. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. html [12] http:/ / animation. amcgowan. "A chaotic search for i". eng. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. Gilbert. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. html [17] http:/ / plus. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. com/ empanel/ index. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. com/ empanel/ index. chaos and Newton's method". html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. fullerton. r-project. com/ empanel/ index. Mathematical Gazette 81. torkian. wolfram. [3] http:/ / www. html#Section4. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. nrbook. nrbook. 1 [10] http:/ / www. pp. 3-12 (esp. usf. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. fullerton. however. p. macroeconomics and other fields. "Cubics. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. Thomas. It is defined as: and so on. heroku. html [9] http:/ / www. November 1997. [2] Strang. 403-408. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. January 1991. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. or dot notation. php [11] http:/ / math. In physics. mathworks. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. edu [16] http:/ / math. lightandmatter.

and not the spherical aberration. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. . The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. an early composition of speculum metal. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. lib. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). or a little less. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. For this Circle being placed here. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. but be an opake Circle. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. ac. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. mount. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. covering the limb of the Metal round about. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. He also made all the tube. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. than by Refraction in the Glass. and fittings. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. cam. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. made with a concave Eye-glass. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. being the first known successful reflecting telescope.

com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. Warren J. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. King. google. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. google. uk/ lens. Modern Optical Engineering. McGraw-Hill Inc. stsci. Wilson Published by Springer. google. php?imgref=10408672).[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE . when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m. 2004 ISBN 3540401067.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. craig-telescope. htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope..A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life .Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1. html . Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books.Work . Retrieved 22 November 2008.. . The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. by Alfred Rupert Hall. google.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown. 1966.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. page 67 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. clas. They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. 1785" (http:/ / www. google. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. Page 74 (http:/ / books. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). com/ image. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. Hatch . Dr Robert A.Publication. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. 9783540401063.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. Science & Society Picture Library. [10] http:/ / www.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). ufl.6 References • Smith. p.University of Florida (http:/ / www.". ssplprints. Heath's) in Strand. Telescopes in History. co.

such as Niccolò Zucchi.[9][10] If this was true. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] . During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build). then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope.[3] and others. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with.edu/~picard/personal/Newton. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space. and there were many theories as to what caused it.mit. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616.media.[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors.stsci. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects.

the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types. The surface also tarnished rapidly. the primary mirror (2). overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. Like Gregory before him. He also made the tube.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). .[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. leading to wider field of view. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). it would still correct chromatic aberration. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. and fittings. reducing cost and adding to portability. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. cassegrains.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. mount.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). Because of these difficulties in construction.

A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. For research telescopes.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. Visually.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. .[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. For visual observing. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. low-power imagery. This flare is zero on-axis. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use.[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter). most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. suffer from coma. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors.

page 67 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . google. org/ basics. google. Page 74 (http:/ / books. page 562 (http:/ / books. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi.M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. Page 108 (http:/ / books. google. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. VandeWettering. google.By Fred Watson. html) [3] Stargazer . by Alfred Rupert Hall. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. rice. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. The Newton handbook. King.Mark T.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. Inc NetLibrary. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& .M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C.

[20] Alexius J. two. Gebelein. p. harvard. htm) [13] amazing-space. . published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. . htm). google.stsci. . com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. Vladimir (2006-07-14). pdf). so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. & David Shafer. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. 1966. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. . David (2004). google.and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. telescope-optics. "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. google. .edu . google. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations.1. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley. 116. baader-planetarium. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life".net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian. com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. [12] telescope-optics. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. com/ documents/ paracorr. pdf) (pdf). edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. 77R [16] Sacek.. Modern Optical Engineering. stsci. telescope-optics. page 14 (http:/ / books. net/ reflecting. Hebra. McGraw-Hill Inc. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical .. espacenet. 9783540401063. cloudynights.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. Retrieved 2009-09-29. . Rolin J. p. Wilson Published by Springer. "8. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index.1. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036).John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. Retrieved 29 November 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-03."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. Warren J.

Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. 0. for one. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. 3 (Jul. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. in addition to influencing philosophy. he says. CO. political thought and theology. pp. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton.Sep. 1974.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects.. No. David Hume. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). Mass. . forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). Vol. the tension). The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. 1969). Retrieved 2008-03-26. Calinger. Cambridge. jstor. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . 30. with no other clues to assess the situation. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres.: Harvard University Press. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. As an example where causes can be observed. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. floating in space. in general.2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage).[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. 319-330" (http:/ / links. measuring the amount of tension in the cord. are connected by a cord. (This experiment involves observation of a force. if two globes. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. Also. . causes. Such determination. Yehuda Elkana. Journal of the History of Ideas. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". Ronald S. 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. Alternatively. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy.

387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. the matter is more subtle. we might. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation.[2][6] For me. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. — Ernst Mach. Scholium To summarize this proposal. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. but standing on the Earth's surface. for example. no centrifugal forces are produced. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. partly from the apparent motions.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. according to Newton. partly from the forces. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. the fixed stars. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. — Isaac Newton. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. then. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. . even in an immense vacuum. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other.. . instead. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. they are not rotating. from the tension of the cord. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. as an example from Newton's time. p. pp.) Below. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. were revolved about their common center of gravity. Book 1..[8] (Of course. which are the differences of the true motions. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. For instance. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. and therefore. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. Alternatively. Because of the rotation. by means of a cord that connects them. Principia.Rotating spheres force). absolute space or fixed stars). according to the preceding methods. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. and if. centrifugal forces are produced.

and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. See Figure 2. but being on the opposite end of the string. observers say they are at rest. The other ball has the same requirement. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. which would stretch. and should require an inward force to do that. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. To travel in a circular path. (For example. However. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. and is called a centripetal force. they would say no force acts on the balls. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. but circular motion at constant speed.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. Because the balls are not moving. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). According to the article fictitious force. they clearly see the string is under tension. These two forces are provided by the string. the string is placed under tension. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. locating one or the other of the spheres). and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. m is the mass of the ball. Because of the rotation. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. along the direction of the string. requires a centripetal force of the same size. putting the string under tension. accounting for their observation.)[9] To account for this tension. the tying string. In this zero-tension case. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. This force is directed inward. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. |xB| = R. and acts on everything they observe. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. the Coriolis force is:[11] . Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. not just these spheres.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. According to the rotating observer. but opposite in direction. pulling them apart. also shown in Figure 2. (See reactive centrifugal force. the string is under tension. the Coriolis force. so the string should be relaxed.

and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. hence. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward).Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. When ωI < ωS. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. while for a more rapidly moving frame. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. Full notational details are in Fictitious force. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. ωS < 0. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. this force is not the tension in the string. say ωI (I = inertial). . General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. Therefore. |vB| = ωR. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). That is. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. However. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. In the geometry of this example. In either case. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However.

M1).M1). 79. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. editors) (1996). google. Hjorth (2000). google. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. google. Cambridge University Press. The Principia. 233. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). . 386–387. ISBN 0486607690. McGill-Queen's Press. google.M1). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Knudsen & Poul G. google. . Freeman (1986). google. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. ISBN 0691033234. ISBN 0486652270. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). p. [2] Robert Disalle (I. Retrieved 2010-05-13. Figure 43. com/ definitions. p. ISBN 0486607690.M1). Cambridge University Press. p. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ .M1). the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521621135. . p. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). Sausalito CA: University Science . pp. . Moreover. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521656966. [5] Max Born (1962). George Edwin Smith (2002). p. Courier Dover Publications. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. and I. Springer. ISBN 0486607690. [9] Barry Dainton (2001). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. . ISBN 0521575729. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. Hand. google. . editors) (2002). ISBN 354067652X. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. Cambridge University Press. Finch (1998). google. p. Bernard Cohen. Courier Dover Publications. google. [4] Max Born (1962). Courier Dover Publications. htm). Smith. ISBN 0521656966. . google. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). p. 175. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. ωS is the greater.Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. google. . . [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. 324. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. 161. Draza Marković. . com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. [8] D. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA).[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. Princeton University Press. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). tripod. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. 167. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. google. [7] Max Born (1962).[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. [10] Jens M. p. . com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). 80.).M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. 43. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. 82. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. New York: Courier Dover Publications. . ISBN 0773523065. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. p. 43. p. Janet D. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. Time and Space (http:/ / books.M1). Bernard Cohen & George E. p.

Partridge (1995). 348–349. p. p. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. he showed that the added force must be a central force. (3. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.). ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. Cambridge University Press. 99ff. 167. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. google. fixed in space (the center). Nothingness (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. Henning Genz (2001). B. Am. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. the theorem has been . The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same.M1). com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. 5 (1975) ed. . ISBN 0521621135. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. their Eq. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. See Henry Stommel. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). one that varies as the inverse cube of r. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. . he derived a formula for the force. Moore (1989). Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. Phil. 55.). ISBN 0231066368. first published in 1687. In this example. p.3) in Stommel and Moore. [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279.Rotating spheres Books.M1). Dennis W. p. whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. Columbia University Press. Mechanics (http:/ / books.M1). Soc. Da Capo Press. .M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. pp. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. . google. . com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. In Proposition 44.[1] Since 1997. 325–348. and Ralph A. 119.. pp. google.. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. . pp. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). . google. Mechanics (http:/ / books. . google. In Proposition 43. ISBN 0074603159. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. [16] R. google. An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. p. vol. Lynden-Bell (1996). Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007).4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. ISBN 189138922X. ISBN 0738206105. but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. google. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). 275. 43. no. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324.M1) (in Proc. D. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. (3. ISBN 0521352541.M1). Draza Marković (Editors) ed. 279–280.

Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion.Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. Arguing from his laws of motion.[5] Roughly 350 years later. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. Apollonius of Perga (ca. to first approximation. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. In particular. By analogy. exhibiting retrograde motion. and so on. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. According to these laws. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. To explain the epicycles. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . To describe this forward-and-backward motion. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. for planets orbiting the Sun. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687).[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. 262 BC – ca.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. However. However. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars.

Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. To find this approximation. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. However.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. The radial and angular motions.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. However. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant. to first approximation. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. However. that is.[11] Brown. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex.[12] and Delaunay. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. afterwards. According to this theorem. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r). After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. r(t) and θ1(t). the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun.[13] However. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. in particular.

the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. the added inverse-cube force is attractive. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). For this purpose. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. Both of these coordinates. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. then. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. For example. In other words. θ1). F2 − F1 is a negative number. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. If k2 is greater than one. For example. If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). where k is any constant. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. A GIF version of this animation is found here. the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. such as r(t) and θ1(t). thus. if k2 is less than one. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). rather. the path of the second particle is given by . Formally. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t).Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. rather. F2−F1 is a positive number. since θ2 = k θ1. its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. change with time t as the particle moves. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. the angle of the second particle. r(t) and θ1(t). and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. By contrast. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°.

in that case.Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. at a constant angular speed. when the orbit is a circle. where k is a constant. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. shown in red). the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. If k is greater than one. However. . If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r.. respectively. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant.. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. According to the conservation of angular momentum. i. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0).e. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). the second orbit resembles the first. i.e. to one. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. the orbit does not change as it precesses. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. if k is less than one.e. Hence. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). both of which are constant. i. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. this is true only for circular orbits. However. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). but revolves gradually about the center of force.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. Hence. in other words. In this case. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). when the distance reaches a minimum. but not equal. F1(r) = 0.. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1.

L12/m.0 (blue). Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces. the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . the range of allowed angles increases. 1. corresponding to an attractive force (green. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. On the other hand.0 (cyan) and 6. Thus. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral.0 (green). When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit.0 (blue). 3. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red).Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m).5 (green). and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). the inverse-cube force is repulsive. the force is attractive. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity.0 (black). whereas when k is greater than one. 3. when k is less than one. which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m.0 (cyan) and 6. When k is less than one. Thus. as illustrated in Figure 7. Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. 1. Thus. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. when k is greater than one.

where m and n are integers. this property is not true for other types of forces.e. green orbit in Figure 10).e. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. An govern the motions of planets. For illustration. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit.) In such cases. such as Hooke's law. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. F = Cr. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. Conversely. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. in general. i. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. general relativistic effects. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. For example. Over time. However. provided that k equals a rational number. oblateness in the attracting body.e. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. i. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. the line connecting the two apses. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). no matter what its initial position or velocity..[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. i. However. such as . 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property.. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. green orbit in Figure 9). the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. and other effects. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. and inverse-square forces. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5.. For example. F = C/r2. In other words.

Wilson and Harper.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. Therefore. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%.. there is no angular scaling (k = 1).Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. As a final illustration. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n.e. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). F(r) = rn−3 and. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. hence. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. Thus. and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. where n equals 1. For the inverse-square force. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. using the general law θ2 = k θ1.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. α equals 180°. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. this implies that. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). the apsidal angle α is 180°. the central force is a power law. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. As noted above. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. one of the first appearances of such a series.[16] According to their argument. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε.C(r) is proportional to rn. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°. i. In the first two. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. in general. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. in the same time. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω.

[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force . the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes).[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity.[28] Ironically.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2. and is noticeably more complex than that.[24] for comparison. In 1673.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes. again on the monthly time-scale. of the planets. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time.e. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit. the so-called Saros cycle. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.6 years.[25] First. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion. Hipparchus and Ptolemy.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes.85 years. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit. i. 18. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale..[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic.[23] in Newton's time. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets.0165)[26] In 1894.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude. However.

the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. For every revolution.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. but the inverse-square term is not. The second term.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1).[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. the inverse-cube force is added. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. In this case. However. Also.5°. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth. θ2 = k θ1. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. consistent with the formula given above. In contrast to Newton. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. For comparison. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. r1 = r2. roughly half of the observed 3. and its argument is unchanged. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. the original force is not scaled. .76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. Rather. and estimates of A and B.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. the long axis would rotate 1. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle.[4] As Newton did. so Newton reasoned. however. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. so that r1 = r2.525°). Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same.

Expressed another way. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. Therefore. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. and also its angle θ1(t). the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest. In an infinitesimal time dt. Proposition 44 . therefore. Proposition 43.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. All three planets (red. At the apapsis and periapsis. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). which equals θ2 = k θ1. derived earlier in the Principia. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. by Proposition 2. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. by Newton's Proposition 2. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. specifically Propositions 43–45. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. which equals (k−1) θ1. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows.

to offset this. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time.[36] In this Proposition. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. r(t). Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws.Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. In Proposition 44 of his Principia. by which two bodies may be made to move equally. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r).[33] By assumption. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. one in a fixed. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. the other in the same orbit revolving. specifically by the formula given above. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration.

J. Book I. p..: 237. [5] Sugon QM. [2] Lynden-Bell.: 451.1365-2966. "Unknown title".1007/BF02422379. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv.13018. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. Bibcode 1987JHA.. Reading. AC (1745). [26] Chandrasekhar. Soc.77W. org/ abs/ 0807. doi:10. 135–147.18. Proposition 45. [34] Chandrasekhar. [22] Wilson C (1987).245L. [37] Whittaker. problem 7). "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". Principia. 83. Berkeley. p. pp.2307/2369812. p. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. .14. "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. doi:10. 141–147. Sc. p. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. Sc. [29] Brown EW (1903). "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps".49H. p. CA: University of California Press. 9: 31. Mémoires Acad. [16] Valluri SR. pp.. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". Mechanics (3rd ed. ISBN 978-1888009088. ISBN 978-0520065895. "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. Bibcode 1894AJ.. [10] Clairaut. [7] Sundman KF (1912). 192. doi:10. Brown EW (1891). 187.2008. pp. Book III. Section IX. 254.Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar.2307/2369997. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. doi:10.. Math. pp. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". Green Lion Press. esp.1997. 91–108.1111/j. 406. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. [9] Cohen. Bragais S. Jin S (2008). [33] Chandrasekhar. [20] Smith. doi:10. 267 (Chapter 6. [25] Newton. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". MA: Addison–Wesley. [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911).. In Norman Thrower. [32] Chandrasekhar. [3] Lynden-Bell D. fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). .1086/102055.. doi:10. 198. Imp. p. "Unknown title". pp. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia". 184. Astron.. Delaunay C (1867). Principia. [30] Roseveare N (1982).. "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". Math. pp.. p. [19] Cook A (2000). [11] Hill GW (1895). 252. [36] Chandrasekhar.1098/rsnr. Monthly Notices Roy. [24] Smith. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. [35] Chandrasekhar. 339–385. Mémoires Acad. [12] Brown EW (1891). Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". Am. pp. Wilson C.386. bnf. [4] Mahomed FM. 2708v1). Lynden-Bell RM (1997). Principia. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859)..x. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. [31] Symon KR (1971). 183. 52: 71. London: G Godbit for J Martyn. [15] Newton. Simon Newcomb. pp. "Unknown title". Am. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. Imp. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. [17] Cohen IB (1990). 98–106. Vawda F (2000). editor. p. "Unknown title". JSTOR 2369997. D. section IX of Book I. Propositions 43–45. Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. 183–192. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. p. JSTOR 2369812. [14] Newton. 193–194.0016. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. Harper W (1997). [27] Hall A (1894). "Unknown title". Oxford. [21] Horrocks J (1673). doi:10.1023/A:1008317327402. p.). [6] Whittaker. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. [18] Chandrasekhar. [13] Delaunay C (1862). Proposition 2.. 147. 67–70.

• Smith GE (1999). Bibcode 2007AmJPh. ISBN 978-0520009288.2432126. New York: Dover Publications. • Chandrasekhar S (1995).scholarpedia. (reprint. 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. ISBN 9780521544030. • Routh EJ (1960).com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). "Planetary Motion". 84–85. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. • Spivak. External links • Three-body problem (http://www. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). pp. • Guicciardini. 230–233 (sections §356–359). translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. pp. • Rouse Ball WW (1893). Publish or Perish. 257–264. • Whittaker ET (1937). pp. ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. pp. pp. ISBN 978-0520088160. Oxford University Press.google. LCCN 64-24556. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. pp.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). Merchant Books). 252–257. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. 56. • Newton I (1966). John Wiley and Sons. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press. • Pars LA (1965). ISBN 978-0520088160. CA: University of California Press. Calculus (3rd ed. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe".). pp. MM (2007). 246–264. Cambridge University Press.). 147–148. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713). ISBN 978-0520088160. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). 83. Berkeley. Berkeley. Principia Vol. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". assisted by Julia Budenz ed. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. translated by I. pp.google.352D. doi:10.).). ISBN 978-0520088160. • Smith GE (1999).). CA: University of California Press. 246–252. Berkeley. "The first-order orbital equation". Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. 534–545. 147–148. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. CA: University of California Press. Michael (1994). Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. • D’Eliseo. Niccolò (1999). New York: Dover Publications.. p. Berkeley. Macmillan and Co. ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press).75. 183–200. ISBN 0-85274-348-3.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. "A Guide to Newton's Principia".. • Cook A (1988).1119/1. pp. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. The Motion of the Moon. ISBN 0914098896. Bristol: Adam Hilger. CA: University of California Press.

pdf . published in 1865). when Whiston's edition was published. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. In fact. He also offered. and the solution of equations. Babson Collection. and so refused to have his name appear. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. arithmetic. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. None of these editions credits Newton as author. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. centre. babson. it was edited and published by William Whiston. without proof. cfm [2] http:/ / www. Written in Latin. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. the relationship between geometry and algebra. Title page of the Arithmetica. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707.

)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect. then for the remaining (2) propositions. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. Law 3 in the Principia. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. Only the draft has the title now used.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. (Before Newton's work. Law 1 in the Principia.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. and its (Latin) text is available online. resistance is assumed nil.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. which are two contemporary copies and a draft.[4] as well as in Latin. After further encouragement from Halley. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. (in the absence of external force. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. the distance is proportional to the square of the time. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors.) This . This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. some with corollaries. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short. Before reaching this core subject-matter. both copies are without title. but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws". and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. these had not been generally regarded as laws. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. It contains 11 propositions.

Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. while their number increases without limit. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. and inversely proportional to the radius. putting this in another way. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. of the 'Principia'.) This theorem appears again.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. Corollary 2 shows that. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. it follows that a radius vector. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. and the corollaries here reappear also. and shows that for any given time-segment. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. Theorem 4 in the Principia. Theorem 1.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R.) . A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. using another geometrical limit argument. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. it would then depart along the tangent. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. with expanded explanation. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. as Proposition 1. drawn from the body to the attracting center. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. problems. labeled as theorems. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors.

Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. Problem 6. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun. Problem 4 then explores. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. Problem 5 in the Principia.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others.. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP². .') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. that is. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line. (This material becomes Proposition 10. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. in the Principia. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit. Newton points out here. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. therefore. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. speed and direction of the orbiting body. where the center of attraction is at its center. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. Lastly. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. . based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1.. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center.e. that if the speed is high enough. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. square] of the distance .De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse.

but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. as in the first edition of the Principia. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time.e. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse". Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. and both of them produced from very old memories. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. that in any given setup."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. Later. ".[15] . Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. and then gave a whole list. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. and the associated uniqueness statements. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places. According to one of these reminiscences. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13. i. and other items.. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. In 'De Motu'. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. or their views about the researches of others. Halley asked Newton. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. or that they were not stated by Newton. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. in 1686.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. using a falling body. are self-evident and obvious or not.. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". and a short correspondence developed. and as if to whet Newton's interest. Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence.

giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp.297. at pp. gutenberg. and printed by I Bernard Cohen. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report.293. who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. M Nauenberg. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. google. pp. A Historian's Response". Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. 10 (2005). that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims.120. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". f. google. but not Hooke. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". 529-534. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). google. pp. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged. especially at p. in Early Science and Medicine.56-83. vol. in "Newton's Orbit Problem.297-314. and the original copy had no title: online. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica".57. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.2 already cited.[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest. to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. who called it a 'petitio principii'. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. Papers vol.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. (Cambridge University Press. . [15] H W Turnbull (ed. 1971. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. 116-138. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. 1960). p. google. [11] Quoted in Richard S. Vol 2 (1676-1687).431-448. including Bullialdus. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences.g. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). Vol 2 (1676-1687). both in Newton's lifetime and later. but note that the title was added by Rigaud. 10 (2005). [13] H W Turnbull (ed.[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. 6 (1970). so-called. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Alexis Clairaut. of 1729. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. about the Principia. as far as Book 1.6. Math. 1960). 511-517. vol. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. is available here (http:/ / books. 38 (2007). [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. A Historian's Response".1 (1970). and the 1686 correspondence at pp. at p. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results".431-448. also D T Whiteside.193-200. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. Historia Math. one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies.60-70.89-170. 10 (2005). or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli.193-200. 1974). at p. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.). Chapter 10. and Bruce Pourciau. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). footnote 73. 6 (1684-1691).).6 (1684-1691). [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". pp. but the point was disagreed by R.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton.196. (Cambridge University Press.101.3968. "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". org/ etext/ 28233). it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. in Early Science and Medicine. See also D T Whiteside (1970). Page 403. Weinstock.).). who heard of this from Halley. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". 518-528. vol. pp. [14] 'Correspondence' vol. see e. 19(1) (1992). Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. pp. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. (Cambridge University Press. at pages 56 (http:/ / books. Ofer Gal. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". Westfall's Never at Rest. and the first English translation. and Borelli.195-6. but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. at p. in Early Science and Medicine. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). [7] See D T Whiteside (ed.

T. Rouse Ball. 30–91. 1893). Westfall. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. 6. by D. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press. ed. Cambridge University Press. by R. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . Vol. Whiteside.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. at page 69. S. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.W. pp.

. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. Newton's results. The majority of the treatise. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. Of the Assyrian Empire. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. Chap. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. and that his Temple the first ever built. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. Chap. Chap. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. I. however. therefore. Of the Empire of the Persians. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. followed by a short advertisement.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. II. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. with all others being copies. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. King of Egypt. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. but since republished in mass paperback format. Of the Empire of Egypt. V. IV. Chap. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. VI. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. III. followed by others. Chap. beginning with Sesostris. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply.

Armenian. Finally. still in use in the several Eastern nations. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it." in support of the Trinity doctrine. 27 years after his death. Erasmus. the Word. He noted that "the Æthiopic. newtonproject. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. or retain it as only a marginal reading. Syriac. Arabic. and some others. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. the Father. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. and what steps it has been changed. newtonproject. as Luther. Muscovy. would not dissemble their knowledge". First published in 1754. ac.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". and Slavonic versions. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. Egypt.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. Grotius. Ethiopia. and the argument full and strong. . He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. Syria. and some others. Mesopotamia."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. the Father. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds". gutenberg. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. are strangers to this reading". the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. and later into the text itself. sussex. the Word. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. htm#chron http:/ / www. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. Bullinger. sussex. Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. first as a marginal note. Armenia.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. ac. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages.

aramaicpeshitta. p.& version=31. knew nothing of these two texts. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. by a small alteration in the Greek text. biblegateway. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. but some place it in a footnote. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. [3] An Historical Account. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. biblegateway.& version=31.& version=31. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". p. htm) . Cp. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. biblegateway. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. further legal ramifications on the second occasion. pp. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. [2] http:/ / www. I understand not. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. preached unto the Gentiles. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. Scotland. p." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16. References [1] http:/ / www. biblegateway. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. likely due to the political climate. justified in the Spirit. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. p. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. believed on in the world. was hanged at Edinburgh. Newton argued that. received up into glory. 1 [4] An Historical Account."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account. 2 [5] An Historical Account. aramaicpeshitta. Cp.& version=31. p.).An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7.). seen of angels. p.

org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt . archive. The book was completed in 1671. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. fifty years before Newton.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. and published it in 1684. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099).co. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz. and published in 1736.ac.newtonproject. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus).uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).sussex.google. although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years).

the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. on dispersion. reflection. It is about optics and the refraction of light. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. first reported in 1672[1] . such as air.[2] . became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. 1704. That is. such as water or glass. as beam expanders. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. Rather. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. The first. refractions. into another. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. Multiple-prism arrays.

It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. there were 31 Queries. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. In this sense. published in 1706. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. and then in the revised English edition. They are almost all posed in the negative. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). these were sixteen such Queries. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. electrical phenomena. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. First of all. that number was increased in the Latin edition. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments." In the first edition. unlike the Principia.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. by the use of fluxions. The first set of Queries were brief. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena. the nature of chemical action. or the tools of mathematics. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art." In many ways. Clearly. but the later ones became short essays. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. over the next two hundred years. especially the later ones." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. In the fourth edition of 1730. Rather." Rather. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. therefore. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. That is. Second. it is written in English rather than Latin. These Queries." the proper way to do science. the possible cause of gravity. but that it may go on for many pages. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. filling many pages. published in 1717/18. as rhetorical questions. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer.

• Newton. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ).Opticks the Principia. J. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures.html) • Gallica.ac. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin. Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl.google.lib. Papers on Hydrostatics. Isaac. 303–307 (1982). Optics. Isaac (1998). cam.com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. and James Black.rarebookroom. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. First edition (http://gallica. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed. Sound and Heat (http://cudl. ac. [2] F. Palo Alto. lib. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. a treatise of the reflexions.). Opticks or. Optics.org/Control/nwtopt/index.: Octavo. Calif. First edition (http://www.cam. 43. . External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. A. Piper. 153 References [1] Newton. refractions. Fourth edition (http://books. Commun. "Hydrostatics. Opt. Duarte and J.bnf. Retrieved 10 January 2012.

is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics.] . in 1713 and 1726. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. often referred to as simply the Principia.[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus.. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia. by the end of a century after publication in 1687. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton . Newton wrote[10] [. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science"..] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy. first published 5 July 1687. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium).. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. Newton used his expression that became famous. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]).. at least in certain respects.. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature.. Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that.[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3]. accurately proposed and demonstrated [."[7] In formulating his physical theories.. also Newton's law of universal gravitation.] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [. and of the forces required to produce any motions.. Newton also published two further editions.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'.

It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu.. in revised and extended form. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). near-parabolic orbits. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. thus offering criteria to decide. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter.. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. De motu corporum Book 1. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. . by observations. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion.' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus.

attempts to derive the speed of sound. Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. corollary [42]). which "is acknowledg'd by all. and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40].[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. while some contend that the Earth. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34]. and that this centre "either is at rest. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. Proposition 11. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. De mundi systemate Book 3. This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". but only a little.[41] For Newton. and motion in arbitrary force laws. modified in a somewhat modern way.Newton). and accounts for the tides [37]. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). Book 3. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. others. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. especially the variation. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. especially its consequences for astronomy. Corollary 2 [44]). "the common centre of gravity of the Earth.[45] . since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation.

for example. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. In his notes. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity.. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. till such time as other phenomena occur. [. for today's readers. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. However. . Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. but in philosophical discussions. In the four rules. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. we ought to step back from our senses. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. mathematical and common. true and apparent. and consider things themselves. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum). Instead. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. this was a faulty theory. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. From a Cartesian point of view. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. therefore. and was assured about their correctness. However. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. he retracted this sentence in the published version. assign the same causes.. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. Curiously.] instead of absolute places and motions. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". by which they may either be made more accurate. we use relative ones. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. as far as possible. or liable to exceptions. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects.

concerning the qualities of bodies. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. Newton also gave theological argument. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. as they did.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'.[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. he inferred the existence of a Lord God. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". scientists use it today. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. "I frame no hypotheses". of Descartes. With these rules. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. 1726). Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. fires in the home and in the Sun.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'.) Newton's gravitational attraction. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. From this textual evolution. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. From the system of the world. .

. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. Halley.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. but also all the laws of planetary motion.. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. Newton's tract 'De motu. that he immediately went to visit Newton again. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work. and generalized the result to conic sections. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. and Halley. resolved to ask Newton.. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. The contents of 'De motu. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject..[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley. Humphrey Newton. although the (lost) original may have been without title. Hooke and Wren.[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. assuming an inverse square law of force. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy).[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. and did very little else for well over a year and a half. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. or the state of his clothes. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. how he sometimes forgot his food. and he normally kept dated notes of them. but that he could not find the papers. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. .Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London. which he sent to Halley in late 1684. in November 1684. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. Wren was unconvinced. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work. or his sleep. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. and to his project during this time. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk).'.

under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. the solar system. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. Liber secundus' still survives. but he largely started afresh in a new.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. and less accessible mathematical style. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". making it look . and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. After Newton's death in 1727. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. because in the meantime. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. in more than one manuscript. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. Liber secundus' of 1685. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. published by Halley at his own financial risk. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'.' to Flamsteed. not authorised by Newton's heirs).[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. The complete work. the tides. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. (Newton had also communicated 'De motu. the moon. tighter. with handwritten corrections for the second edition. Liber primus'. and its completion has been London. it survived complete.. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents..[59] appeared in July 1687. amended to update cross-references. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. corporum. also in 1728. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63].) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. and the other two books somewhat later. that it might be read by many". mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only.

his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. as President. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. showing considerable diplomatic skills. among them himself. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. secondary sources based on them. a second edition (1731). Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. or. who hated disputes. Samuel Pepys. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. licensing the book for publication. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. in some cases. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. . During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. 1686. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. Rather. but Halley. In addition. Newton's role Newton had studied these books.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. rather than before. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. Cambridge. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. At this time. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. causing some delay. To these two laws he added a third a decade later. including two to Leibniz. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

162

**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

163

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

164

Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

. 55. by Andrew Motte. at page 19 of vol. 2001). lib. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. especially at p.[104] The second full English translation. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". google. vol. 2 (May. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. See also D T Whiteside (1970).2. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. [14] http:/ / books. which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). in the 1729 English version).120.). No. Oxford University Press.1 (1970). whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. University of Toronto. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. Journal for the History of Astronomy. E N Zalta (ed. google. cam. "Du systeme du monde. into modern English. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul').1 (1729) (http:/ / books. Herivel. [7] G E Smith.392. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. [3] Newton. The background to Newton's "Principia".329. assembled and ed. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. Vol.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". The first. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP.[2] was described by Newton scholar I. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. google. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. 1999). but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). and see also J. htm). both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. MA. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. [11] http:/ / books. 1729 translation. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). at p. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. 1965. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. tripod. cap. stanford. from 1729.329 (according to a note on p. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I." Author(s): Judith P. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. Isaac. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). pp. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica".[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface).[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. google. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. 1972. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. W. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ).[105] William H. often incorporating revisions. published in 1996. Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. about the 'Principia'. ac. google. and well written". p. 116-138. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). 227-245. archive.

com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. [47] Edelglass et al. 1980.). pdf). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books.2. google. vol. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-940262-45-2.47-142. now often known as Huygens' formula. R Taton & C Wilson. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. Book 3 (http:/ / books. 33. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. google. at page 233 (http:/ / books. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton.2. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. at p. at p. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. google. 153-156. google.406. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. cited above. at pp. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. Matter and Mind. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. pp. htm). google. google. n. google. . Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. W. google. in H. 54. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. at p. [50] Ducheyne. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. 191-2. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton.g. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). 223-274.2. 1998. google.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. eds. google. [58] Westfall.404. T. Books 2 & 3. . 1998. Whiteside. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy".147 and 152. google. [54] Cook. [56] Cook. [17] http:/ / books.. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. 2A'. be/ steffen/ GS. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. [42] http:/ / books. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. speed and radial force. 147. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. at p. at p. ugent. 151. Turnbull (ed. 45 (1991) 11-61. Retrieved 2008-11-19. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. Vol. [59] Westfall. Cambridge University Press. The Cartesian vortex theory. Books 2 & 3. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). 1980': R S Westfall. Cambridge University Press 1980.2. google. google. [52] 'Cook. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. [57] Westfall. google. org/ scholium. Volume. also pp. google. google. 1980. p. Steffen. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books.207-221. [55] 'Westfall. n° 2. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. 1998': A. vol. by D. google. at pp. Cook. Oxford University Press 1998. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. google. (Cambridge. google. google. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books.) 167 .15. google. [49] Snobelen. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. 1971). google. Stephen. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. 431-448.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. 1980. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books. [29] http:/ / books. at pp." (http:/ / logica. [61] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. google. google. pp. google. 406. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. [53] As dated e. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. Retrieved 2008-05-31. Edmond Halley. google.

with accompanying figure). [73] H W Turnbull (ed. 453.2.297. html [89] http:/ / www. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. though elongated. see Newton to Hooke. at pages 304-306. lib. jstor.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. Newton" (1759). at page 433. and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. [80] R S Westfall. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. cam. 1995).2 already cited.297-314. wm. google. at document #239. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. museumoflondon. (Cambridge University Press. but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul.). ch. edu 168 . has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . stanford.W. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). 28 November 1679. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside.431-448. at page 66 (http:/ / books. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. or even a 'blunder'.. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. Tycho Brahe to Newton". page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . Never at Rest. se/ press/ pm. 1893). ac.e. at p. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). document #237. Journal for the History of Astronomy.2 cited above. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp. i (1970). google. ac. 'Never at Rest'. pages 5-19. Bernard Cohen. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. a resisting medium). document #236 at page 301. Bruce Brackenridge. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. at page 259). de Hook diminue la gloire de M. umich. Newton". 1960). asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. (University of California Press. org. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. google. 1980. html [88] http:/ / www. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). uu. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. html [86] http:/ / lion. google. at Introduction (section IX). chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. Vol 2 cited above.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. document #286. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. google. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. would terminate in the center C". ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple.2 cited above. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false).. roe. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". cited above. at pages 391-2.. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. (http:/ / www. see 'Correspondence'. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. CUP 1989. closed curve and spiral. and extract of his letter. Ofer Gal. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. 1664-1684". google. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". google. ac. [83] http:/ / www. p. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium .. pages 11-61. (Cambridge UP 1989). lib. see D Gjertsen. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". vol. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". especially at 13-20. London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. mpg. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Rouse Ball. mpiwg-berlin. cam. at page 69.. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. 'Correspondence' vol. [65] http:/ / books.. 45 (1991). Part A. fondationbodmer. [74] 'Correspondence' vol. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is".

Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. wpi. ed. University of California Press. "Philosophia Naturalis. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. I.712–716. [99] Westfall.4. .A. p. [100] Westfall. [95] Richard S..518-20. Donahue. 2005. cgi?v1=8& ti=1. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. vol. google. • S. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. • François De Gandt. • Andrew Janiak.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. N. vol. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. at p. Bernard Cohen (1999). ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0.4." [98] Westfall. University of California Press. 2008).750. Curtis Wilson (Princeton. • Guicciardini. R.42.5. [101] Westfall. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7.. n. 29-68.519.." in Grattan-Guinness. Chandrasekhar. Notes. to whom he owes more than that. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. Clarendon Press. ed. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University press 1975. Burtt. • Richard S. G. Cambridge University press 1967. • I. Westfall. [94] I Bernard Cohen. Force in Newton’s physics.. 1965). "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation. • Brian Ellis. pp. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. p. • E. Colodny.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia. at p.. 3rd edition. • John Herivel. Cambridge U. Cambridge University Press 1967. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. NY: Doubleday and Company. vol.2. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. Dawsons of Pall Mall). Press. 1971). Cambridge 1971. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. The background to Newton’s Principia.751–760. 1999. pp. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. 1954).699. Introduction to the Principia. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press.4. 1965). at pp. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. c1995). published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". xv-xvi. 1971). 1965). pp. Westfall. NJ: Princeton University Press. and obligations to you. vol. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. at pp. 1995). Cambridge University press 1967. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. 1999. Bernard Cohen. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. Elsevier: 59-87. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.

200 (http://books.google. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy. in Latin) (http://books. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur. (Book 3 starts at p.archive.archive. 1713. • Google books. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.1).org (http://www.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist. vol. first edition (1687. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). Chittenden.com/toc.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol.1 with Book 1 (http://books.google. annotated) (http://books. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version.tripod.archive. • Project Gutenberg (http://www.babson. Partial • Google books.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2). • Wikisource • Archive.google..google.org #2 (http://www.htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200). vol. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.gutenberg. in Latin) (http://www.ntnu.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1). first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource. 1729.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte. largely the Motte translation of 1729.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive.org (http://www. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above).org #1 (http://www.archive. • Principia (in Latin. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books. ed. 1726).org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive. interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica. regarding online editions .net/~bjn/principia/).cam.html).google.ac. W. first edition (1687.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage).lib. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3.

1686. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. that its truth is past dispute." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. he says. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes)." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. on April 28. At the next meeting of the Society. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. 1687 and began changing the world." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. 1686. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. 1686. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. on May 19. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples." At the next meeting of the Society. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. For the influences for the second edition. which he had enlarged and completed. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. if certain. to make a report thereof to the council.

but I thought it my duty to let you know it. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. and printing it at his own charge." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. Indeed. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. viz. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. so far as I could remember. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. though Newton had the notion from him. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. for 'tis long since they were writ. I shall content myself to give you. but it being a frivolous business." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. and the absence of the vice-president's." Halley adds. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause." acknowledging at the same time that. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. you know best." "How much of this. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. On June 20. the heads of it in short. so that you might act accordingly. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. whom the good weather had drawn out of town"." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. on June 2. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. At the next meeting of the council. cuts and so forth. and I do not know that I have seen them since. "is so. volume." but. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. which 172 . and to desire his opinion as to the print. which he engaged to do. 1686. that Sir Chr. I am almost confident by circumstances. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. Halley in his letter of May 22. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way.

and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. "The proof you sent me I like very well. accused me of that ignorance. which I can as well let alone. in print. Some new propositions I have since thought on. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. and that's above fifteen years ago). I designed the whole to consist of three books. and drawing the cuts fairly. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. sent him. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. though not accurately enough. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. I could not but have found it now. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. and understood it. But. as to the other from Kepler. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. Oscill.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. and earth from the sun. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. expected to hear no further from him. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. The third wants the theory of comets. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. And so. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare.. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. And so. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. a copy being presented to me. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. 173 . in print. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. namely. thought no further of philosophical matters than. so Mr Hooke. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). his letters put me upon it. and guessed it to be elliptical. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. did not answer his third. can know no more. that without my demonstrations. the second was finished last summer being short. is expressed. in stating this business. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. so that a while after. and only wants transcribing. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. and so upon mistaken grounds. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. in compliment to sweeten my answer. and only guessed it to be so accurately. was upon other things. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. told him I had laid philosophy aside. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. sun and planets. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion.

will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. upon second thoughts. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. 1687. I am. on April 6. but she gives me warning. which made me afterwards return to the first book. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. In the first page. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. And if in truth he knew it before you. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. as have to do. On July 14. Sir. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. though it be not material. as to deprive us of your third book. The third I now design to suppress. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. What application he has made in private. Sir. and not much more charge. It will be more convenient. "Is. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. which is all at present. NEWTON." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. and then.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. I will try how well it can be done. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. in the honour you do them. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. The third book was presented to the Society. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. I must now again beg you. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. as might have been expected. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. "But. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. and therefore I had altered it to this. which. without the third. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. "If you please you may change the word to sections." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. De Motu Corporum libri duo. I found it so formerly. found out last winter. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. Now you approve of the character and paper. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. E. I retain the former title. you ought to be considered as the inventor. and adding. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you." On June 30. HALLEY. 174 . and now I am no sooner come near her again. 1686. Hooke and Halley. July 5. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. The two first books. The work. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. and humble servant. I know not. as I guess by what you write. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. If it please you to have it so. nor on the books of the Society. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. The second book. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. ought to compose it. from your affectionate friend. which are much the greater number." On June 20. your most affectionate humble servant. I will push on the edition vigorously. not to let your resentments run so high. It will help the sale of the book. 1686. which he puts so much value on. with her.

and hope it will please you. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. who was vice-chancellor. 1687. but the university showed no sign of compliance. which I entreat you to accept. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. the master of Magdalene College. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. but rather. On April 21 the deputation. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. Mr Flamsteed. appeared before the court. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. On April 27 they gave their plea. to take my money as they are sold. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. announcing the completion of the Principia. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. Mr Paget. with their case carefully prepared. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. so much to your own and the nation's credit. On May 7 it was discussed.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. Mr Boyle. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. and lettered. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. to be [OCR error] shillings here. the chancellor. a Benedictine monk. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle." . for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. dated London. and was dismissed. that starts from town tomorrow." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. a very great part of which is extant. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. and ordered them out of court. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. The following letter from Halley. as well as of profound and public speculation. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. before starting for London. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. July 5. The deputies. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. or at 5 sh. for ready. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. nor suggested a compromise. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. I intend the price of them. bound in calves' leather. or else at some short time.

he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. that it had actually done so. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. In a letter dated the September 13. which doubtless must have been very alarming. 1693. and for five days together not a wink. therefore. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. Christiaan Huygens. according to a report which was believed at the time. whose mind was never at rest. Let me." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. I got an ill habit of sleeping. before I considered what I did. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. where. but that "he was out of town. beg you. namely. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. I will give you an account of it if I can." . If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. so that when I wrote to you. and dated the 15th of October 1693. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. dated September 26." To which Leibniz." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. and I hope never will. and beg your pardon. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. Newton wrote: "The last. but upon his pressing consented." On September 20. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. or mind. Pepys must have heard such rumours. put me farther out of order." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. added. and since. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. upon his own accord. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. winter. in a letter dated June 8. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter." he says. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. addressed to Samuel Pepys. to let me know the very truth of the matter. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. I was averse. if I may but have them quietly. or both.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. wrote to Leibniz. and before I had time to ask him any question. or. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. 1693. which lasted eighteen months. at which he was much concerned. which this summer has been epidemical. Sir. and keeping him shut up. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. as in a letter to his friend Millington. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. 1694. "I have not seen him. as to be put into great disorder by it. but what I said of your book I remember not. from the concern I have for him. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. and a distemper. nor by icing James's favour. nor have my former consistency of mind. by sleeping too often by my fire. He is now very well. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way. I remember I wrote to you. 1693. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. replied. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together.

[2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). the vice-chancellor of the university. . see Isaac Newton's later life. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. 1997. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. E. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. 1689. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes.) [3] Richard S. as it were. On April 30. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes. published as #537 in Vol.G. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time. Westfall. On February 12. and gives original spellings. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House.1998.. Newton retained his seat only about a year. now archaic. Never at Rest. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. Forbes et al. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members. ed. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel..Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university.

"Of ye Creation". vision. currently in the Cambridge University Library. It is also definitely before December 9. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. and other sensations. which had . but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. light. whereby every question is put to experimental test. place. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. Thomas Hobbes. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. But following this he drew a line across the page. Kenelm Digby. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. Some headings were followed by vast entries. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. They began with the nature of matter. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. The initial notes. hardness etc. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. Aristotle is my friend. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. 1661. colour. but my best friend is truth). These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. for example. and others. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. Robert Boyle. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. 1664. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. fluidity. He entered notes from both ends. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. Following this. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. rarity. Galileo's Dialogue. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. Additional information This octavo notebook. at the other. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c".Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. in Greek. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. At the other end of the book. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. These were followed by questions on violent motion. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College.

would look coloured. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. including his idea that it is a wave. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. Elsewhere. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. such as when a heavy body falls. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. . Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. others were blank.. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. Gassendi. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym.. on the contrary. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. with its juxtaposition of light and dark.

References • "Portsmouth Papers". • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. • J. additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library. Cambridge University Press. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. Westfall. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. A. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] .Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. Lohne. by Richard S.

alone. located in the chapel of Trinity College. plays.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. natural philosopher. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. mathematician. In mathematics.[1] In 1999.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. Newton or Albert Einstein. Because of the resounding impact of his work. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. published in 1687. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. in 1795. In this work. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. Cambridge . God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. Newton became a scientific icon." Newton was the runner-up. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. Newton was deemed the more influential. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. Many books. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device.

Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies.." "Gravity. pure creative invention. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002).. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. I suppose. including the famous apple. Oxford University Press. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects." "Yes. Routledge. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. perspicuity and invention." . • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987).) Sir Isaac Newton. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. Greenwood Press. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. set during the Great Recoinage. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. "They even keep it on at weekends. It is a door within a door. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr. But the catflap .. was merely a discovery. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007).. there is a very different matter. of course. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter. Invention. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. pp. there was that as well. you see. • A.. you see. Though that." .. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. It is a door within a door. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt. 27–43. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. a . Science in Popular Culture [9]. "yes." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. "there was also the small matter of gravity. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent. ah. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics. "(.." said Richard. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. It was there to be discovered. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson.

Newton in popular culture

183

Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

pp. . retrieved 10 September 2009. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. Hanover. [4] Burwick. S. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. tate. Science is the Tree of Death. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. page 328. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. Walter de Gruyter. 243. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. 1997. who regularly experienced spiritual visions. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae.[5] References [1] Townsend. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted. org. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. Christopher B. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision.[3].[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. Foster (1988). 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. apparently at the bottom of the sea.

Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. 2003. Joyce (ed. London: Tate Publishing. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 .). ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson. William Blake: The Painter at Work.Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

He died in 1706.[2] ".189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon.. and rode at each other through the wheat. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. dean of Winchester. The house and park are not generally open to the public. when he let it to Dr John Young. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. reaping. Shoveller.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580. and Coram drew their daggers. Sir Thomas Clarke. although open days are occasionally held. who married her daughter in 1665. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day.[1] Sir Charles. with many distinct farms and cottages. when Young was expelled from the deanery. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France".upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. upon the lands of the lord of the manor.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward."[2] Following the death of Coram. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. near Winchester.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. Pye.. no doubt. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church.[1] During the Commonwealth era.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. although his wife survived him until 1720. when it required the interference of Mr. Mr. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park. So. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. which stunk and had worms swimming in it. England. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland.[5] .[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. Mr.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon. or hay-making.

the estate was left to his son. retaining that position for four years.[5] In May 1721."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards.[5][6] On Newton's death.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. the base of a pillar. as granted to him in 1717. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow.. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" . Conduitt married Catherine Barton. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. then the months divided into days. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. Towards the end of his life. Nearer the centre are degrees. the owner. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. a diagram of the compass. which he also owned. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday. Thomas. On his death. Cranbury Park. Hampshire. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. Conduitt.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. and within. Newton became resident at Cranbury. Bt). and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. and the arms of Mr. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774).[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. is below. Watch fast". The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. Shortly after his marriage. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras". Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate. and a scaled-down gateway tower. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). John Rowley. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park. and after his death. etc. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer.[9] The Castle. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s.C. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . the points alternately plain and embossed.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house.. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781). but his election was declared invalid. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. the outermost divided into minutes. In 1770.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. next the hours. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. Harriet. leaving a daughter. he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. built in 1780. remaining there until his death in 1727. then a circle marked "Watch slow. Catherine. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. In 1734. In 1747. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. all round the world.

[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. set in arch-headed reserves. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851. The house. During the Second World War. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. built round a court. Arrow. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter. a large red brick one. which has a circular domed ceiling. on that .[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings. but in the rear descending rapidly. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. MP for Southampton. William Chamberlayne. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht.[22] Writing in 1898. especially in the saloon on the south front.[11] on her death. so that it looks low in proportion to its width.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. intersected by various springs. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel. but his wife survived him until 1825. Whilst serving the town. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. Tankerville Chamberlayne. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald".Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom. is on the level ground at the top. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. In 1822. In fact.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)). flat as it fronts to the south.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne.

Retrieved 20 September 2009. htm#i46497). www. Retrieved 20 September 2009."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. www. . html). [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. online-literature.com.K. co. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. (1900). . Retrieved 24 September 2009.[26] References [1] Page. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. (1898). Eleanor. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102.online-literature. (1898). [5] Yonge. online-literature. . and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides.[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. City of Winchester. . and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. thepeerage. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. A.online-literature.K F. Victoria County History of Leicestershire. Retrieved 20 September 2009. [6] Ford. Facet-Headed. [12] Leonard. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www.com. Hansard. Charlotte M. Charlotte M. Retrieved 23 September 2009. britannia. Retrieved 24 September 2009. [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. a rose garden. . . htm). The English Country House.com. . (1898). com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.parliament. online-literature.com. www." a word signifying a country dance. online-literature.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ).ac. [14] Yonge.uk. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Eden.com. (1898). "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. . built from material plundered from Netley Abbey.uk. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. com/ p4650.Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. . upenn. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. org.com. A. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. [10] Thompson. (1984). 15 May 2005.british-history. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. aspx?compid=42018#s4).G. horninghold. [4] Yonge. british-history. Paul Cave Publications. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. www. 1998. Retrieved 23 September 2009. H. The Book of Sun-dials. . "Later changes" (http:/ / www. www. htm#i46495). "Chapter VII: Cylindrical.online-literature. Margaret Scott. Netley Abbey. Charlotte M. www. (1898).online-literature.online-literature. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. Hampshire" (http:/ / www.com. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. 68. www. [2] Yonge. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). parliament.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". 22. cityofwinchester. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. Charlotte M. uk/ report. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3. Charlotte M. Stories of Southampton Streets. specimen trees and pinetum. [11] "Horninghold. William (1908). publications. www. pp. [7] Gatty. . . library. close to The Castle. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. ISBN 0-86146-041-3. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. p. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago.com. 5 May 2004. html). before joining Monks Brook. Retrieved 23 September 2009. p. www. is situated in the southern corner of the park. and include fountains. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). pdf). A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. Lloyd. . Winchester" (http:/ / www. Hamilton (1953). Retrieved 23 September 2009. . 72 & 74. html). ac. Michael (1999). online-literature. "History of Cranbury Park.thepeerage. com/ p4650. [9] Yonge. 9 October 2006. [8] "The Buttercross.britannia. Retrieved 23 September 2009. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. www. thepeerage.thepeerage.

Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. Micheldever.v. 1995. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby.000 (us$35. "Stratton Park. org. alresford. The New York Times: 10. Retrieved 26 September 2009. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). in Country Life. Charlotte M. uk/ m35. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. "Papworth. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. April 2004.[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. David (April 2004). [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury.700) in late 2001's terms. Retrieved 24 September 2009. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. "Chandler’s Ford. which would value approximately £25. amazon. . . George Dance. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. html).[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. uk/ Campsite/ index.co. Retrieved 26 September 2009. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects. . 1600-1840. 8 and 15 November 1956. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. htm). 15 November 1956. .online-literature. com/ gst/ abstract. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. plates 23-2.oldmaps. Retrieved 26 September 2009. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. htm). hants. nytimes. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. s. htm). matthewbeckett. The lost country houses of England. . chandlersfordscouts. (1898). www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). [21] Watkin. 1741—1825. 1971:93-95. www. Retrieved 26 September 2009. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). fieldclub.com. . [22] Dorothy Stroud. [25] Currie. 16 January 1881. see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. online-literature. oldmaps. Christopher (Spring 2005). org. Matthew (2009). co. html). [20] Dorothy Stroud. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3. noted in Howard Colvin. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14.uk. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query.. html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). [23] Yonge. 3rd ed.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. . . Retrieved 2009-07-12. [19] "Cranbury Park. Retrieved 2009-07-12. Retrieved 24 September 2009. . John Buonarotti". . Architect.

[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. . . Alder admits however.Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. uwa. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. Retrieved 22 july 2010. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. BBC news. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". University of Western Australia. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. . that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. alder). such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. Also available as Mike Alder (2004). either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). . or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible. au/ people/ mike. [3] Mike Adler. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news.pdf). He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. the question can be solved by experiment. . The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. uwa.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. edu. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). amongst others. That is. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". According to Alder. co.] undoubtedly cuts out the crap.. maths.[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. edu. [4] Mike Alder (2004). to the scientist. uwa. au/ ~mike/ ). bbc. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. University of Western Australia. Retrieved 22 july 2010. and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". [2] Clive James (2007-07-20). Mike Alder's Home Page. stm). edu.. philosophynow. . which he describes as pure reason. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. maths.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed.

taking into account modern living. were opened up to the public in 2003. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. New areas of the house. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. and the old walled kitchen garden. England. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. most notably his work on light and optics. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. being restored. Lincolnshire. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. to the rear of the house. Woolsthorpe Manor. once private. inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. near Grantham.

uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ . nationaltrust.Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. org.

Hustle&Flow15. Donfbreed. John254. Jonathunder. RHaworth. JSM. Mbennett555. Rmky87. Tantek. Phgao. Funnybunny. Ianmacm. Kkm010. Dsp13. Khoikhoi. Mike in Aus. Blueknightuk. Inwind. Kappa. LexCorp. Philopedia. Celebrei. Kraxler. Mr Stephen. Hemanshu. Emeraldcityserendipity. Pmanderson. fiend. Meshach. 2fort5r. 0dd1.Article Sources and Contributors 197 Article Sources and Contributors Isaac Newton Source: http://en. Hugh2414. Kuru. Jumbuck. Mpatel. Robert P. Bcartolo. Nevilley. Pascal666. Sgt Pinback. Mayumashu. Knarf-bz. Aristotle16. Oliver Pereira. Chrislk02. Givern. MarkS. Samuel Blanning. GreatGatsby. Aldis90. Eleizer. Pseudoanonymous. B. Monleyconstals. DimTsi. Rudjek. Limegreenrere. Bschoner. Andycjp. Brianfedirko. Batman2005. Jewbask. Ashnard. Chrono1084. Coemgenus. SpencerWilson. Elementality75. QaBobAllah. Dr. Cabe6403. Frank.39. Reaper Eternal. Nareek. SebastianHelm. Akajune. Cmk5b. Mav. Moonriddengirl.maoret. Pawyilee. Sampi. Kdkeller. Sonett72. Briaboru. Bobo192. Evercat. Anteriorlobe. Luk. Poetaris. Cybergoth. Pgk. Out of Phase User. Llort. Backburner001. Markan. Condem. Muntuwandi. Rociru. Blastwizard. Blowski. Michael L. Nhyty. Popadopolis. Iloveeuler. Ricky81682. Edward321. Erwin. Pgecaj. Bwithh. ResearchRave. R. Lord Emsworth. Matt Crypto. Felixaldonso. Morgan Leigh. Plau. JoanneB. DuncanHill. Gene Nygaard. Gauss. JHP. Nickhit2. Borisblue. AVIosad. Acetic Acid. MilborneOne. Darguz Parsilvan. Sanchosdog93. DropShadow. Jonnabuz. Lankiveil. Smithpith. AdilKarabora. Nutster. TSP. Chouffe. Estel. AnnaFrance. Mordicai.php?oldid=471652670 Contributors: (Didie).wilson. Robdurbar. Casper2k3.sathyaseelan. Galwhaa. ASSHOLE. EEMIV. Maclaine. Arzel. One with Him. Sdedeo. Mxreb0. Rudy Mitchell. Blackjack48. Paul August. Kragen. Mickey gfss2007. Lusardi. David Shay. Jose77. Palthrow. Jose24. Derek Ross. Beland. Davidfraser. Icemuon. Bejnar. Specter01010. Dicklyon. Draicone. Jason Quinn. Ligulem. Digitalgabeg. Skyring. DHN. PhySusie. Jlpspinto. PatrickA. SJP. Bryan Derksen. An Siarach. RS1900. Banes. Mets501. Kwamikagami. FlagSteward. Rodneysmall. Jitse Niesen. MantaRay. Geni. Nivix. Erockrph. Dmanning. Lightmouse. Modernist. Kaufman. Allen Jesus. Mike92591. Master Jay. Godfrey of Bouillon. Portillo. Arcadie. PBRgirl93. Demmy. Jacek Kendysz. RJB. R. Mark Musante. Lestrade.msc. Fubar Obfusco. Bbrown8370. ICE77. Frankortmann. Shreevatsa. RoyBoy. Sfan00 IMG. Gatorman08. ScNewcastle. JoeBlogsDord. Pierre Frederico. Romanm. Rantaro. Nousernamesleft. Baby123gurl. Clarityfiend. John Carter. RedWolf. Pigsonthewing. Emurphy42. JohnAlbertRigali. Bhadani. Koavf. ShaunES. Cathcart. Mexcellent. Dane 1981. Tamfang. Dual Freq. JohnWheater. Gary D. Edwy. Calltech. Snalwibma. Ben-Zin. Dfrg. Looxix. Mhym. NormalGoddess. Savidan. Gilliam. Smokizzy. Sardanaphalus. Nasnema. Reedkickball. Misza13.powers. Mikaey. CharlesMartel. Elvarg. Alexthe5th. SilverSurfer314. Sango123. Katzmik. JayZ. Hephaestos. DeadEyeArrow. Daniel Quinlan. Eloquence. Iluvcapra. Jeff G. Rursus. Norman.n-irl. Markbri16. Andrew Levine. Mephistophelian. Mindmatrix. D-Day. Mandarax. Mickeyklein. Azucar. TGilmour. Ta bu shi da yu. Brutannica. Ashmoo. Rory096. Jojit fb. RobertG. Cmdrjameson. Jondice. Lajsikonik. Knucmo2. FUNKYMONKEY11. Ermeyers. SureFire. Cyan. Allen234. Jonahtrainer. Glw22. Fvw.C. Daniel Earwicker. Porqin. Gioto.. Krich. Hasek is the best. Ryan Reich. Freshacconci. Maxw41. GravityIsForSuckers. Speermeister. Ian Dunster. Misortie. ChrisGlew. Musicpvm. Railsmart. Bonus Onus. Mwng. Gwernol. Lightdarkness. Slushy1289. Opelio. Larsobrien. Michael Hardy. JHMM13. Estudiarme. Javascholar. Stirling Newberry. Nedim Ardoğa. Mayblossom 89. SWAdair. Kapibara72. Mal4mac. CharlieRCD. Merope. Kalaisan. Maycontainpeanuts. Piotrus. Chocolateboy. Shanes. Nk. Mwilso24. Fuscob. JYOuyang.. Hakufu Sonsaku. Cool1Username. Azeira. FreplySpang. Str1977. Raylu. Nixdorf. Generalqueef. DaveJ7. Java7837. Streety. Jasperdoomen. Emerson7. Strait. Spondoolicks. Merovingian. JoshuaZ. LotR. Adamrce. Peterson. Fgnievinski. McVities.. AndrewTJ31. O'Shea. Philip Baird Shearer. Soir. Adam Grenberg. Byates5637. Patchouli. NGC6254. Rnt20. KnightRider. Rjm656s. Firefly322. Schmerguls. Jacoplane. Bunchofgrapes. Brad7777. John. Danny lost. Mikenorton. Novacatz. C12H22O11. Eskimo-. PDH. Danny. Taraborn. DevastatorIIC. Subcomandante. Syvanen. Lepidus16. Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington. Furrykef. Salsa Shark. Reddi. Mais oui!. Leolee2010. Me u. PaddyLeahy. Doitdumont1128. Elonka. Jnestorius. IanWills. Frin. Harryzilber. Eubulides. Lupo. Dream out loud. Rdsmith4. Ptolemy Caesarion. MichaelBillington. Ec5618. InterruptorJones.O. ShizuokaSensei. Ed Poor. GRBerry. Groundsquirrel13. Betty Logan. Sankalpdravid. Disavian. MarkGallagher. Onebyone. Mackensen. Chun-hian. Stubblyhead. Drutt. Rettetast. Gerbrant. DavidStern. Hagerman. Rmosler2100. Jagged 85. J5236. David Newton. RexNL. Lucyin. Isentropiclift. 345Kai. Carolin. Dbachmann. Edgrainger. Rorytinker2009. Anlace. MiLo28. Gimboid13. Candorwien. Antonrojo. Ayla. Jordain. AmiDaniel. Donarreiskoffer. MessinaRagazza. FJPB. . Lampica. Ankitsingh83. Snoyes. Haaqfun. Lotje. Hanse. Flammingo. Pupster21. Lolhistory. Mahanga. Snagglepuss. David Schaich. Bfigura. MacTire02. Griffgruff. EricR. Bilby. Dpeters11. Redvers. Fahadsadah. Bobblewik. Emre D. Gonif. Auréola. PaperConfessional. Angrymansr. Bookofjude. Kevinazite. General Wesc. Srpnor. Blainster. Dcoetzee. Pavel Vozenilek. Andrewpmk. Daemonic Kangaroo. Senordingdong. AxelBoldt. Docu. Alrasheedan. JusticeGuy. Brandmeister. PhilHibbs. Astrochemist. Ancheta Wis. Moataz is wrong. Srleffler. Sendtobo. AKGhetto. Ciphergoth. Dodiad. Smm11235. Srikeit. Fountains of Bryn Mawr. Kjoonlee. Scott14. Delldot. Dhollm. Kateshortforbob.marc. Jcw69. Ravik. Arne List. Bastique. DerHexer. Mauron. Sysrpl. Berland. Belovedfreak.delanoy. No Guru. Heron.M. Ericbg05. Courtf. Soccer baker. Omphaloscope. Langdon341.. ECeDee. Rossnixon. Keith D. Basilicofresco. RJHall. Anthony. Harthacnut. Adam1213. Dina. Royboycrashfan. Modest Genius. CES1596. Splash. Nev1. Fyver528. Agile. K. Devatipan. Subhamrony. Symane. JB82. Lir. Boneheadmx. Andre Engels. Alphachimp. Neelix. DESiegel. Krsmith. Kitty the Random. AndrewHowse. Courcelles. Hgilbert. Sam Korn. Lung salad. Hinrik. NawlinWiki. Samivel. Eneg0403. Gboweswhitton. Littlexeleri. Niroht. Michael C Price. Chris Brennan. Leithp. Delta x. Lleux. Bubzyz. Pakaran. Gamegaz. Spinorbit. SamuelTheGhost. Suisui. FayssalF. Science4sail. Riddley. Magister Mathematicae. MaxEnt. Causesobad. Bogdangiusca. Baronjonas. Demasiado. Phaedriel. QWerk. Kiyabg. It's-is-not-a-genitive. Ralph-Michael Tengler. Maximus Rex.b. Rgmmortimore. Obarskyr. A. Jpbowen. KnowledgeOfSelf. Jondel. Hawker07. Stevenj. Peruvianllama. JediSoldier. Digitalme. Luna Santin. Nakon. Richard L. Moofinluvr. FiveRupees. Daniel5127. Jmorgan. Lockesdonkey. Coren. Silencedeafensme. Charlie Eppes. Gregbard. Everyking. Liftarn. Lentower. Leibniz. ERcheck. SHadowkillaz. Henrygb. Asav. Editor at Large. Henry Flower. Phil Sandifer. Gugumigi. JW1805. Acc60. Pilotguy. EoGuy. Nick. BillC. Elwikipedista. Obli. Shoaler. Myasuda. ShakingSpirit. Afuhz. Anthon. DagErlingSmørgrav. Alan Liefting. KillerChihuahua.hoop. ChaNy123. Dureo. Lester knome. Gekritzl. Matusz. Mr. Gregfitzy. DJ Clayworth. Dan100. El C. Oxymoron83. PFHLai. GSESbudd. Captaincoffee. Lectonar. Coffeeluvvinskoolgrl. Mgar. Crazynas. JesseHogan. Mailer diablo. I3chaos. Paul Drye. DrKiernan.253. FranksValli. Hello32020.. Drbreznjev. Morwen. Bbatsell. Imaninjapirate. Icairns. Ozob. Sciurinæ. Geoff. Someguy6. CambridgeBayWeather. Charles Nguyen. Blongblong. Rocksolid15. Chairboy. Antidote. Incredio. RunOrDie. Major Danby. KamuiShirou. RockMFR. Qwertyus. J matula. Cpl Syx. SmokeyTheCat. Dppowell. Rallyeye. LittleOldMe old. Basho. Aristophanes68. ElfQrin. Aksi great. Monegasque. Brighterorange. Giftiger wunsch. Smaddock. Ben davison. Nloder177. Hadal. Nick123. Pyrospirit. Sir Isaac Newton. Matthew Fennell. Midgette. GreatWhiteNortherner. Boreas231. Hfarmer. Ragesoss. Avalokitesvara. Kiesewetter. Kevin Hayes. Poor Yorick. Rrpbgeek. Adamk. Plm209. Jossi. Malo. Notyourbroom. Slakr. Kushal one. Doyley. Natelewis. Ansell. Nolo451. Blueboy814. JeremyA. Dale Arnett. SNIyer12. Pizza Puzzle. Conny. Giftlite. Lachatdelarue. Sandro. Levineps. Lairor. Christian List. Chicheley. Qxz. Samuelsen. MastCell.trampe. Gabbe. Irishguy. Cygnis insignis. Psychless. Half-Blood Auror. AdamSmithee. Pvosta. Mbenjamin5. DabMachine. Krellis. Colbuckshot. Latka. Deb. FF2010. Pablo X. Kevinalewis. AJR. Magnus Manske. LJosil. Rbha7. Sir Richardson. Lykitzkc. Dlohcierekim. Jognet. Palaeovia. ChristopherWillis. Barrettmagic. Talrias. Akrabbim. Shimgray. R. Pianoshootist. J. SandyGeorgia. Gareth Jones. Martin S Taylor. DRTllbrg. Jahiegel. Robchurch. Ali K. Cryptic. DanielNuyu. Cyktsui. MisfitToys. Nikhilk1.xxx. Slackingest. CBDunkerson. Falcorian. MikeVitale. Sjakkalle. RxS. Aetheling. Doceddi. Brendanconway. Barbara Shack. MarcusMaximus. Dysprosia. Stephen B Streater. Royalguard11. Askiser. MONGO. Cactus. Konstable. Kungming2. Omicronpersei8. Kukini. Killdevil. Gracenotes. Skippy le Grand Gourou. Maralia. Cnbrb. Joseaperez. Closedmouth. Loadmaster. Mb nl. Hyad. Joe123456789101112131415. SuperGirl. Hankwang. Lbeaumont. Steeev. Speedoflight. Portnadler. Mel Etitis. KDesk. Ewan1999. Olorin28. Monz. Johnleemk. Nihil novi. Fayenatic london. Nine9s. BlueGuy213. Formulax. 478jjjz. Dr who1975. Numericana. Spleak2021. Elocute. Q0. 123Steben456. Grover cleveland. Daddy Kindsoul. Corrigendas. Charm quark. LibLord. OMGsplosion. Andreita933. Insainiac3. Lesnail. Supercoop. Alistair032. BSTemple. DragonflySixtyseven. Kraken5665. Glitter man. Dirac1933. Cyp. John Vandenberg. Chowbok.. SpNeo. Smeira. Jprw. Aecis. Smallweed. Leafyplant. Brion VIBBER. Jourdy288. Jayboy-23. Fishiehelper2. Agutie. Gimmemoretime. Eptin. JPat. Gruepig. Pcpcpc. Spasemunki. Nilfanion. Rj. Curps. Olv 26. Malwinder25. Dmalveaux. Andie142105. InShaneee. Professorblunt. Fjarlq. Mr magnolias. Aldy. Eb. RMFan1. MichaelMaggs. Alfvaen. RandomCritic. Ryulong. clown will eat me. ManiF. O18. GateKeeper. Acjelen. J8079s. Katieh5584. Andrejj. Fabulous Creature. AQUIMISMO. Antandrus. Perceval. Possum. Rtrac3y. Maurreen. Gyre. Onefive15. Gilisa. Jerzy. Cyfan726. PinchasC. Fashionslide. ReyBrujo. Gdm. PBS-AWB. Krscal. Jacobko. Careless hx. Conversion script. Gwern. Pfhorrest. GregorB. Ali1986.C. Skinnyweed. TJRC. Husond. Shanel. OwenX. Gregsinclair. Tangotango. Pasteman. Mapletip. Eleassar. D-Notice. Rrburke. Hgytm1. SupaStarGirl. Chetvorno. Hex-1-ene. Bostonian Mike. Numbo3. All Is One. Mets. DanielCD. Bcrowell. Akamad. Mormegil. GraemeL. Homagetocatalonia. GnuDoyng. Francs2000. Jonman777. RogDel. Ragz5. Kaisershatner. Rjwilmsi. Demophon. Guy M. Duncharris. Autodidactyl. Smartone027. Frymaster. Bobadeba. BorgQueen. SilverStar. Bob Burkhardt. Michael Daly. A. Rjensen. Miradre. Randoley. Db099221. Proteus. Ian13. Cutler. Soccit 99. Kungfuadam. Christopherwood. QueenAdelaide. Dhp1080. AstroNomer. Super-Magician. Gurch. RyanTaylor1987. Black Kite. Bigturtle. Mike1949mercury. Purgatory Fubar. Od Mishehu. BorzouBarzegar. Iridescent. Greg.fi. Avicennasis. BoomBarmes. Netean. Craigy144. Freakofnurture. Frecklefoot. Shushruth. ESkog. Pepsidrinka. NovellaGirl. Ballz4kidz. Chris1584. Frozenport. Elakhna. Aston martin-jacko. O'Barend. Adib Khaled. Sam Li. Dabomb87. Blue520. Lemonade100. Dealtthrice. Raul654. NuclearWarfare. Randy Johnston. George Sampson. Brookie. CIS. Algorithme.Eff. Paine Ellsworth. Rjstott. Raven4x4x. Meursault2004. Canadian-Bacon. Crossbyname. Sahilm. Fallout boy. Benhealy. RattleMan. Aschnack. di M. Saravan p. Aladue. Grstain. Dcandeto.. Mwanner. Ripleyscool. Python eggs. Arturo 7. QuagulusOctavius. Andy Marchbanks. Maarten van Emden. Dharmabum420. Bishonen. Chenyu. Jendeyoung. Autonova. Private Butcher. Peterkingiron. Djordjes. Fram. Lumos3. Leoadec. LamontCranston. Rreagan007. Jack Upland. AtticusX. B. Aquillion. All 4 Jesus is 1. Allthingstoallpeople. JoeBruno. Cp111. Collaborativeatila. T-1. Builderman. Eugene-elgato. HappyApple. Gandalf61. Gene Ward Smith. Fredrik. Renpei. InvictaHOG. Aris Katsaris. Lupogun. Queenmelanie23. M a s. Subramanian. Claidheamhmor. Szajci. Deor. OmegaXmutantX. Remulazz. Ncfoley. . Brendenhull. GraemeLeggett. KrakatoaKatie. Dannytee. A bit iffy. King Vegita. Singlephoton. Legaleagle86. Mxn. Chsbcgs. AgentPeppermint. Halibutt. Balloonthesixth. SpookyMulder. Kbh3rd. DrBob. Masterpiece2000. Stevenmitchell. Irishm. Jaxl. Lomn. James Adam Kell. Phoe. Rich Farmbrough. Freddytheteapot. Straw Cat. Deli nk. Lowellian. Apyule. Phil Boswell. Evil saltine. Ixfd64. Dthomsen8. Sforzanda. Robth. Electron9. Constantine Gorov. Knotnic. MD87. Hut 8. Drengor. Patstuart. Bongwarrior. Kvn8907. Fluffkomix. EdFalzer. GregAsche. Danlevy100. Qwer13. Bencoland. Fayte. Nigholith. Aprock. Atlant. John. Goldenlane. Binarypower. R'n'B.wikipedia. Juzeris. Cynicism addict. Benbest. Christopher Parham. JFreeman.org/w/index. Garion96. Ltrcadd. Hatashe. Fuzheado. English Bobby. Shoofy. SimonP. Geogre. Comodor. Bryan Truitt. Kozuch. Amaraiel. Anglius. Gruß Tom. Sailor for life. Jon Awbrey. NormanGray.e. Selket. Jack of ages. Philip Trueman. MZMcBride. R Calvete. Josh Parris. I1cDcet. SpringSummerAutumn. 1pezguy. Sadi Carnot. Petero9. Colonel Warden. Reywas92. Exidor. Nick81. Aslapnatickle. Petrouchka. Nunh-huh. Dan Gan. Apothecia. Jonghyunchung.loutsenko. Jfbennett. CheesyPOOF5. Smilingman. Arkachatterjea. Calle Widmann. Biot. Fourthords. Capitalistroadster. Lost tourist. JCSantos. Harrymanman. Dcrosby. Edivorce. Michael Devore. Gscshoyru. Qujohn. Majorly. Pklolkyle. Jaredwf. FeanorStar7. Ht686rg90. JackofOz. DinkAndWenis. Skylarkk. Galoubet. DGX. DubaiTerminator. SkerHawx. Spangineer. KingPie01. Gaius Cornelius. Bogey97. Fred Bauder. NJW494. Nayvik. Nielsen. Pwnage2142. Jibbajabba. Shibboleth. Olaf Simons. Pigman. Ahmed91981. Fotaun. EchetusXe. Lancevortex. Rufus786. Goldengl. Dinosaur puppy. Preacher King of Mao. Matthead. Mike Lewis08. AMCKen. Mcspazatron. Joshuapaquin. SteveMcCluskey. Bubba hotep. Keilana. Arthursimms. Ohconfucius. Dcljr. Myanw. MottyGlix. Nevit. Charles01. Mpfiz. CanadianCaesar. DVdm. Kzollman. Sicamous. P0lyglut. Sjf. Ollie. 213. BadgerBadger. Corvus cornix. Bevo. Ackatsis. Harald88. Howzat11. Melongrower. SqueakBox. Roozbeh. Canderson7. Schwnj. Phabian. HighKing. Edcolins. LittleOldMe. MFago. Concerned cynic. Lunty222. Cassan. Roy Brumback. Moletrouser. AxiomShell. John Maynard Friedman. Rick Block. Peter. Josh a brewer. Gtxfrance. DiverDave. Alan Canon. Dyknowsore. ReCkLeSs X. Ralesk. Petrvs. Richi. Maestrosync. Johann Wolfgang. Fabartus. Binksternet. Cimon Avaro. Oda Mari. Etale. Saruha. JustWong. Alison. Adashiel. Edgar181. LiniShu. Myleslong. Basharh. Doc emmett brown. Destro. Scientizzle. Abdallak. Solipsist. Guessing Game. Rahul93 reddy. Aesopos. Programmar. 1929Depression. Midnight Green. N. Charles Matthews. Mcorazao. Headbomb. Angmering. Lookingforgroup. Gabrielleitao. Brisvegas. Mussermaster. Fizzackerly. Bletchley. Outriggr. Ackees.kodama. Sbluen.5. Can't sleep. Ahoerstemeier. Stephenb. Cocapiggies. Dust Filter.man. EronMain. MER-C. Casey Abell. DVD R W. Bunzil. Meelar. Kasparov. A. Jimmi Hugh.

Michael C Price. Emc2. Conversion script. Wiki alf. Damian Yerrick. Danielsteinbock. Inwind. Camw. Choess. Twice25. DragonflySixtyseven. Cframp. Tycho. Icemuon. Oliver Pereira.HG.php?oldid=471644971 Contributors: ***Ria777. B. Sj. Washington irving. Cmwslw. Jaraalbe. Tonyrex. Walgamanus. Editor2020. CWii. Emily Jensen. Harald88. WarthogDemon. Oop. Trev M. Xavier james. PokeYourHeadOff. RogDel. Joseph Solis in Australia. DeadEyeArrow. DMacks. Vanished895703. RockJohny. Fiedorow. Whkoh. The Gnome. Penfold. Biggerdude. Casey Abell. Kubigula. Yougeeaw. DVdm. Zarcadia. Dimimimon7. JoJan. Mick gold. Peterkingiron. Ninly. Gabriel Kielland. Christopherwood. GorillaWarfare.php?oldid=471644908 Contributors: Afghana. BD2412. Thebeez. JW1805. Laur. 4twenty42o. Whouk. Wikipelli. El C. Daemonic Kangaroo. Charles Matthews. Osprey9713. Seth66. Yah. Luna Santin. Asjafari. Feinstein. Thedoj. BSTemple. Hydrogen Iodide. Gracenotes.xxx. DopefishJustin. Radon210. James smells. Phil Bridger. Comrademikhail. Cyborg Ninja. Thunderboltz. Andre Engels. 30 anonymous edits Calculus Source: http://en. DHN. Bfesser. Arthena. Angry bee. Bobblewik. Davep. Russell SH Newton. Kusma. Wmahan. Fephisto. Gregbard. Roy Brumback. BlueDevil. Goocanfly.xxx. Twinmokey. Yellowpurplezebra. Headbomb. JustWong. VolatileChemical. Burris. Ahy1.wikipedia. Genius101. Siriaeve. Zhaladshar. George94. Rrburke. Pharos.O. Dekisugi. The wub. Editorofthewiki. Brews ohare. Codingmasters. Firsfron. VanishedUser314159. Daemonic Kangaroo. Beerad34. Hadal. Varlaam.org/w/index. Blainster. Dar-Ape.wikipedia.252. Themistofkeys.wikipedia. Marie Poise. Luk. Specs112. TheKMan. Bellas118. Arcadian. Bsroiaadn. Abrech. DavidCBryant. TheGrimReaper NS. Jambobambo. Swamptortoise. Carso32. Nunh-huh.174. Drywallandoswald. Fys. Cessator. Dionyziz. CIreland. AppleRaven. Arthur Rubin. Smb1001. FluffyWhiteCat. Colonies Chris. Bkell. Zaphod Beeblebrox. Zerbey. The Duke of Waltham. APH.132. WGoldfarb. Catchpole. Eduardoporcher. Yah. Amazoniscool2. Pharos. RedWolf. Rich Farmbrough. Torricelli01.R. Binksternet. Tinss. Synergy. Cronholm144.wikipedia. Allansteel.wikipedia. Diletante. David Newton. Dmerrill. Feezo. Bcherkas. Bobblewik. Urzeitlich. D6. Chiefmanzzz. Jleon. Hamtechperson. Nick81. Template namespace initialisation script. Owen. Riddley.wikipedia. Oerjan. Titanium Dragon.org. Turlo Lomon. Jase212007. Gary D. Samwb123. Bethnim. Courcelles. Andycjp. KawaiiDragoness. Tony1. Leivick. ESkog. Trippz. Someone42. Josiah Rowe. Chuunen Baka. Flobberty. Gilliam. Xiahou. Fryed-peach. Zaslav. Rjwilmsi. Skwisgaar skwigelf45. Aaronbrick. The Anome. Smiloid. Haymaker. Portillo. Xndr. Dtgm. Ideal gas equation. Thorsten Wiesmann. Yamamushi. Cimon Avaro. Hello moto 111. Jujutacular. MapsMan. Download. Cdthedude. Dontwerryaboutit. OpenToppedBus. Goodwisher. Eman2129. Banno. DW Adnimistrator. CBM. Petur Runolfsson. TurabianNights. Grokmoo. Bento00. Patstuart. Yamamoto Ichiro. Davewild. Tpbradbury. Walor. Dicklyon. Pigman. Tbo 157. Gonefishingforgood. Nedrutland. Allen4names. The Anome. Francs2000. The flying pasty. Vahid83. BryanHolland. Tlogmer. Foxtrotman. Andrewpmk. Długosz. Tbtkorg. Aitias. Icairns. CanadianLinuxUser. Cobaltcigs. Reaper Eternal. Edcolins. Coffee2theorems. SkyWalker. Robert P. Chimin 07.php?oldid=471672240 Contributors: Achfro. Xezbeth. Apteva. Algorithme. Fuzzypeg. Delbert Grady. Conversion script. Novangelis. Warrior4321. Tothebarricades. RJHall. Farnhamian. Lenthe. TypoBoy. Greudin. Viriditas. Ahoerstemeier. Bingbong555. DO'Neil. Ali. BradBeattie. Guy M. Tweeder55. Yossarian. Vanished User 0001. James500. Wjhonson. Cunard. Daniel Arteaga. Cremepuff222. Zangar. Awh. Buillon sexycat800. Cassowary. Michael Hardy. Abmax. Astropithicus. Tim Starling. Avoided. Blueboar. Wegesrand. Venny85. Favonian. Epbr123. Dirac1933. IsaacNewton17. Xhile. Boznia. TheMindsEye.xxx. Kdkeller. Chris857. GregorB. Thesevenseas.org/w/index. Johnbibby. Havermayer. Thomehr. CardinalDan. SebastianHelm. Some jerk on the Internet. Giftlite. Aranherunar. Stardust8212. JonHarder. 440 anonymous edits Later life Source: http://en. Gwguffey. BiT. Caltas.delanoy. PSWG1920. Utternutter. Trippz. Edward321. Email4mobile. Graham87. Xe0n2007. Buckner 1986. Rekleov. Themisbalan. TheMadBaron. Empty Buffer. Groundling. CL8.org/w/index.org/w/index.. Xezbeth. Chillowack. UberScienceNerd. Ksadilla. Dannery4. Treisijs. Hobx.5. Vulpesinculta51. PaddyLeahy. Calqulus. The twizz. Zachausa. Charles Matthews. PIL1987. TheWindshield. Gr8white. JaGa. Yahooiscool2. Cipher 101. Tiptoety. Sluzzelin. Bongwarrior. Xiamcitizen. Thinking Stone. Tkuvho. Æthelwold. SuperHamster. Coemgenus. Neoherulian. Atallcostsky. Calton. Tide rolls. Kozuch. Can't sleep. CommonModeNoise. The Rambling Man. Aurumvorax. Hack-Man. Eisnel. Trevor MacInnis. Sam Korn. Hut 8. Glane23. Adamantios. Rklawton. Icairns. Chriszim. Cygnis insignis. Cmarkides. Matt Deres. Dmarquard. Egil. Wintered. Carcharoth. Conor Collins. The High Commander. Child. 1exec1.org/w/index. Cygnis insignis. Sheridan. EMessina92. Alansohn. Animum. Str1977. The chris. Terry0051. Brion VIBBER. Visualerror. Zefrog.tk. Yamamoto Ichiro. Mwazzap. Warpflyght. Zartregu. 68 anonymous edits Catherine Barton Source: http://en.77. Wavelength. Argotechnica. Voyagerfan5761. Michael C Price.tampieri. TheMadBaron. Auric. Portillo. Fountains of Bryn Mawr. Top. Ugen64. Wienwei. Hmains. VivaEmilyDavies. Edmoil. 80 anonymous edits Occult studies Source: http://en. Alpha Omicron. Eliyak. Michael Devore. Mashford.org/w/index. Z. Avenue. Goeagles4321. Yamamoto Ichiro. CIATylor. Batmanand. Diddlefart. Traroth. Vapour. Cyborg Ninja. HiDrNick. Deb. Css2002. Wereon. Viriditas. LotR. TheMathemagician. Threadnecromancer. Emann74. Joeseth. Catgut. WereSpielChequers. ESkog. Sapphic. Michael C Price. William Allen Simpson. Tyomitch. Angr. Cleonis. Ckatz. Zanimum. Headbomb. Antonio Lopez. Michael Hardy. Dysprosia. Wik. Trick. Guanaco. 4. DivineAlpha. Ayscough3000. ABCD. 6birc. Sjakkalle. FDT. O'Shea. Anthony. Antandrus.php?oldid=471205200 Contributors: 3:21:14:20: is key. Keith D. Crusoe8181. Sophie means wisdom. Gurch. Elementaro. Evil saltine. Wikiman02. Gaopeng. Da Gingerbread Man. Acroterion. Spyke12324. HiddenTreasures06. Yamara. Neil Craig. Neelix. DerHexer. Snori. Bethpage89. Crusoe8181. Kehrbykid. Fetchcomms. Lumos3. Capricorn42. Ewan1999. EvelinaB. Gfoley4. Who. Efko-005. Emperorbma. NickF. Dzhim. Frazzydee. DerHexer. Vulcanstar6. CART fan.83. Aktsu. Vgent. Lethesl. NewEnglandYankee. MishaPan. Sliper. R'n'B. MoonMan. Theresa knott. Thingg. DraeScholar. Xmarquez. Gop 24fan. Erutuon. Lawrence King. Izno. Timc. Timrollpickering. Atif. DVdm. Tim!. JW1805. Olleicua. Footballfan190. Plucas58. Twelsh30. Inwind. BSTemple. Daemonic Kangaroo. Drilnoth. Brad7777. Ekotkie. Arno. CSTAR. Jackol. Patrick0Moran. Cthompson. Musica e Gatti. Deb. AuthorityTam.229. Man vyi. UpstateNYer. Daniel Arteaga. Woohookitty. WikiDao. AmeliaElizabeth. Castro92. Daxfire. Τασουλα. Big Bob the Finder. FinalRapture. Texture.xxx. Stbalbach. Daniel J. Lahiru k. Vwilmot. Template namespace initialisation script. Db099221. Crotalus horridus. Zsinj. TigerShark. Cimon Avaro. Myasuda. Egmontaz. Ace Frahm.Squark. CIS.wilton.php?oldid=471781644 Contributors: Algorithme. John. Faithlessthewonderboy.org/w/index. Wapcaplet. Gaelen S. Habhab38. Eyu100. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Mayblossom 89. SimonP. Badagnani. Prezbo. Hugh2414. Cabhan. W2ch00.206. Avaya1. Commander Keane. DVdm. Cyan. Kzollman. Andorphin. Ragesoss. WhatamIdoing. Qwfp.wikipedia. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Antandrus. FrozenPurpleCube. Marudubshinki. MER-C. Pastorjack777. Diginity. Muad.org/w/index. Wizzy. Vanished 6551232. Terence. For An Angel. Daniel Hughes 88. UncleDouggie. Edsanville. HexaChord. Caesar1313. Keith D. Dullfig. Furrykef. Mattbr. Gzuckier. Kukini. 129. Wingedsubmariner. IW. Fredrik. Doctormatt. Thumbelina. WhiteCat. Matthew. Abcdwxyzsh. Gamer416. Carasora. Cfarsi3. Edward. Fabrictramp. Yanksox. Ballz4kidz. Alansohn. Quantumobserver. Guoguo12. Reaper Eternal. Icairns. Teri Garnet. WingkeeLEE. Thue. Iorsh. Occultations. Rbwik. Choster. Bobo192. Postdlf. Arthena. Alpha Beta Epsilon. Michael Daly. Timneu22. Einsteins37. Airproofing. Svick. Loren. BenB4. 14chuck7. Bevo. CommunistSquirrel. Dino. Xuy. R'n'B. The PNM. Chris the speller. Sanfranman59. Arthursimms. Gene Ward Smith. Ziusudra. Plasticspork. Finn-Zoltan. Bkessler23. Guiltyspark. Cxbrx. Magister Mathematicae. Wjhonson. Titoxd. Tomruen. Giros. Savidan.67. Everyking. CathySc. Finell. GT5162. Netheril96. J. Algorithme. Zeyn1. Fotaun. Dsp13. Kingpin13. Bevo. Tobias Conradi. XtXer. Ap. DanielDeibler. Thunderbird2. TheIncredibleEdibleOompaLoompa. Hetar. JephthahsDaughter. CarlBBoyer. Bryan Derksen. Falcorian. Bookmarks4life. Sa. FilipeS. Marek69. Allen Moore. Flightx52. Tripledot. Bevo. Binary TSO. Ale jrb. Calculuschicken. Glaringduck. JamesBWatson. Flashinpon.t2. Epbr123. Wkdewey. BSTemple. Jerzy. Gurchzilla. Rklawton. Mordgier.E. Angela. NCurse. Edward. Fuzzform. Kilo-Lima. TommyB7973. Cometstyles. Meklanh.org/w/index. Dycedarg. Vojvodaen. Meepoo.2. Siddharthdhami. Mcorazao. AltGrendel. The Thing That Should Not Be. KnowledgeOfSelf. Woofboy. Elkman. Domthedude001. SiameseTurtle. Billymac00. Rklawton. Colibri37. Amandajm. Graeme Bartlett. 207. Tschild. Wudup. AndHab. Acepectif.52. AnOddName. Courtneylynn45. Bonadea. Storm Rider. Treharne. 07fan. Brograve. Glenn. Daniel Quinlan. Callmebill. Daryl Williams. Viktor-viking. Chun-hian. Jan1nad. Engranaje. WikiCrisis. Martg76. Michael Hardy.21.php?oldid=465845291 Contributors: 64. Jj137. EJF. Geometry guy. DShamen. Goplat. Dv82matt. BlueDevil. Barneca. Rror. Terry0051. Tim bates. StradivariusTV. Pgecaj. Wavelength. Zedla. Filippowiki. Googl. Javaweb. Fumitol. Epbr123. XJamRastafire. SimonP. Michael Hardy. Escape Orbit. 106 anonymous edits Bucket argument Source: http://en. JW1805. Kbdank71. Theodore7. Gesslein. Daniele. Wenteng. Gogo Dodo. Docu. 153 anonymous edits Religious views Source: http://en. Ost316. Think Fast. Diverman. Wknight94. Trent. 18 anonymous edits John Conduitt Source: http://en. Viskonsas. Headbomb. Avicennasis. Tpbradbury. WisJohnson. 4 anonymous edits Early life Source: http://en. Bevo. Bryan Derksen. Victor Gijsbers. Bcrowell. Landfish7. Sifaka. Brenont. Black Kite.php?oldid=433904025 Contributors: Acather96. Ais523. Charles Matthews. FruitMonkey. Hajhouse. Debator of mathematics. Curps. Walabio. TheNewAuk. Ironhabit12. Orphan Wiki. Coldsquid. CBM. Mindmatrix. Iamunknown. Cabalamat. BOARshevik. AlexiusHoratius. Bhoeble. Stevenmitchell. Rjwilmsi. Headbomb. Yworo. Cymon. Stern. 198 . Excirial. Bookmaker. Johnpacklambert.. Dbach. Giftlite. Vodex. David0811. Wgungfu. JoeBruno.W. Freakinadrian. Morgan Leigh. Vsmith. Calvin 1998. Fubar Obfusco. Vikaszt. Armbrust. Eloquence. DreamGuy. Blahdeeblaj. Edcar11. Keith D. Yjo. Xevi. Dysepsion. Darth Panda. Frymaster. EdH. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Alksentrs. Russell SH Newton. Elen of the Roads. AbsolutDan. Headbomb. Dyknowsore. The Random Editor. GoldenGoose100. Beit Or. Snowolf. BlackieChanMan. Wayward. The Thing That Should Not Be. Vanished user 47736712. Estel. Marek69. Bobo192. Vary. Mary473. Free Bear. ElfQrin. Blueknightuk. Dfe6543. Estel. SDJ. Astrochemist.php?oldid=470418466 Contributors: Acc60. Iridescent. Dmharvey. Stencil. Allen3. Christofurio. AustinKnight. Graham87. SteveMcCluskey.wikipedia. Denisarona. Trippz.xxx. CDutcher. Shlomke. CIreland. Tomoko1296. Tartarus117. Gene Nygaard. Koavf. Ww2censor. Eric-Wester. TomViza. Quoth nevermore. Gilliam. Allen 124. Wikibob. Babomb. Bgpaulus. Heron. Tronno. Drdonzi. Theda. Zzuuzz..php?oldid=470711834 Contributors: 01001. Barek. BRPXQZME. Danski14. Langdell. Gwernol. Keith D. Ptolemy Caesarion. Kwh. Tim Starling. Scales. Headbomb. Dominus. Edcolins.wikipedia. Icairns. Vanish2. Daven200520. Akrabbim. Appropo. Gnat. Rich Farmbrough. Gofeel. Bazookacidal. Antodav2007. Edgar181. TimBentley. LouI. DMG413. Sj. Ziggit. Rjwilmsi. Iamunknown. Farquaadhnchmn. Gadfium. Homagetocatalonia. MapsMan. Charles Matthews. Obankston. Stbalbach. DinosaursLoveExistence. AxelBoldt. Arcfrk. Wilkey925. Foobar333. AshishG. Espressobongo. SimonP. Spontini. Beanybean. Zchris87v. Petermjacks. Blainster. Cygnis insignis. Golezan. Bobo192. Asyndeton. Ehouk1. Penguinwithin. Geaugagrrl. G. Yamara. Fish and karate. AndyZ. Timdownie. Vespristiano.vakilian. Four Dog Night. Rjwilmsi. 2814 anonymous edits Hannah Ayscough Source: http://en. Strait. Cntras. Carmichael95. Gabrielleitao. Gscshoyru. Charles Matthews. C S. Willking1979. Andrewlp1991. Laurinavicius. Damicatz. Shawn81. Borisblue. Dtjohnso. Shawnc. Vulturell. Tree Biting Conspiracy. T. Rktect. Black Falcon. Daniel5127. Kdau. Geoking66. Bogey97. Antoni Barau. Wikicontribute. WaysToEscape. Wikidudeman. Fixthatspelling. Chibitoaster. Tiberious726. Neelix. Open2universe. Gaff. Neckro. Nothingofwater. clown will eat me. Speedoflight. WikkPhil. Berndt. Mhym. Accident4. Meekywiki. Weyes. Flutefreek. Studerby. Happysailor. Dev920. Groovybill. Hadal. ViolinGirl.xxx. Vsmith. Rjensen. V2Blast. CptCutLess. Possum. 24. Husond. Wimt. Thivierr. WhiteCat. Shoaler. Terjepetersen. Leightonmowbray. Fintler. Fowler&fowler. Hobartimus. Andonic. Existentialistcowboy. Berek. Cheeser1. Sicamous. Srpnor. Ahoerstemeier. Woofboy. Sparten. Anna Frodesiak. Ionescuac. G026r. Scottmarlowe. Captain Virtue. UAwiki. Wadewitz. Shreevatsa. Bmk. Brian Everlasting. Logan. Baronnet. Flex. Emmett.Article Sources and Contributors Tawker. Transfat. Trevor MacInnis. Nedrutland. Gwen Gale. Gaius Cornelius. JW1805. Unionhawk. Malleus Fatuorum. Ventanator. Cap'n Refsmmat.44. The Original Wildbear. Thomasmeeks. Amiruchka. 64. Dylan Lake. Deeptrivia. VolatileChemical. Ronark. Utcursch. Brianga. Discospinster. Cenarium. C quest000. Tumb.

Ulcph. AlexiusHoratius. Becritical. JCSantos. Djr32. Lmhjulian. Mauler90. Jhud89. Tbonnie. Jfiling. Razimantv. Melos Antropon. Headbomb. 963kickemall. Sepiraph. Ioscius. JamesM123. Mankar Camoran. LittleDan. Icrosson. Loelin. Wraithdart. RHaworth. Killdevil. Peter Grey. FloNight. Arakunem. Dolphin51. PurpleRain. Donarreiskoffer. Nufy8. Jacek Kendysz. Widdma. Sjforman. Falcon8765. Rtyq2. Euchiasmus. JForget. Stickee. CWii. R'n'B. JoeBlogsDord. Tony Fox. Lir.msc. Wayward. Peer. Egsan Bacon. Nickkid5. Omicronpersei8. Zchenyu.php?oldid=464237449 Contributors: ***Ria777. MarcoAurelio. Aelyn. Krich. CoyoteG. JJL. Matthew Stannard. Megastar. Jimothy 46. Totallykool. Sp00n. Thomasmeeks. Pomakis. Krazyklink. Vrenator. Difu Wu. The Transhumanist (AWB). JFreeman. Iridescent. James R. Frankenpuppy. Kalathalan. JTB01. Ale jrb. Piano non troppo. J. Make91. KaiMartin. Newton890. Trovatore. JoeSmack. PhotoBox. Srkris. Ketsuekigata. Anna Lincoln. Jyril. Inquisitus. Qertis. Pattymayonaise. Itinerant1. Deutschgirl. Darklilac. RekishiEJ. SpLoT. Junglecat. Jjacobsmeyer. Neethis. KrakatoaKatie. C'est moi. Nohup. Elauminri. Ward.ﻣﺎﻧﻔﯽ 143 anonymous edits Clockwork universe theory Source: http://en. GnuDoyng. Jasongallagher. Mjpurses. 21655. Aksi great. Tgeorgescu. Ezelenyv. Laurapr. MER-C. Tawker. Freddicus. JohnCD. Dark Dragon Master1337. Fredrik. Pieburningbateater. Mdale. Husond. Roy Brumback. I'm the Cavalry. Kaisershatner. Addihockey10. Djsolie. Kuru. Swegei. John Kershaw. Pmanderson. Writ Keeper. Headbomb. Joke dst. Fangfufu. EJF. Mav. Kukini. Mariewoestman. Lightmouse. Jake Wartenberg.H. Hu12. Revolver. Stumps. Adambro. A-Hrafn. Rokfaith. Owlgorithm. EternamenteAprendiz. LizardJr8. Wwoods. Yute. Tkuvho. Blackangel25. Thenub314. NewEnglandYankee. E2eamon. Pcap. Hellonelly. Gautampratapsingh1993. D. J. DeltaQuad. Physprob. Bovineone. 16 anonymous edits Laws of motion Source: http://en. Bdesham. Xrchz. Natl1. Avono. IAcre. J8079s. Mashford. Shanel. Igiffin. Eliz81. Mokakeiche. Timo Honkasalo. Avatar 06349. Modulatum.hansen. Ryan Postlethwaite. Brian0918. RJHall. Lethe. Mmeijeri. Fæ. AtticusX. IronGargoyle. Al pope. Mgummess. Red Winged Duck. A3RO. Hydrogen Iodide. Lectonar. L Kensington. AndrewDressel. CardinalDan. Meisterkoch. Terry0051. Nbrothers. JRSpriggs. Nousernamesleft. SpK. Scottydude. Gandalf61. DJ Clayworth. Paul Foxworthy. Madchester. MuZemike. Extransit. Cardamon. Bcrowell. Mchhabria. SFC9394. Dbfirs. Loom91. Mr. Smoken Flames. Smithpith. Rustysrfbrds99. Cuckooman4. Jagged 85. M. Headbomb. Trusilver. MacGyverMagic. Anterior1. Template namespace initialisation script. SmilesALot. Chase me ladies. BertSen. Citicat. Hike395. The wub.in. Closedmouth. HappyCamper. Orange Suede Sofa. Goku9821. Lisamh. Tiga-Now. Katzmik. Quintote. Abc518. Zaraki. LittleOldMe. Heyyal77. Fram. Aremith. ShelfSkewed. M1ss1ontomars2k4. Penguinpwrdbox. Ieremias. Petri Krohn. Jacobolus. Lordgilman. Knackers1. Jitse Niesen. Angelus Delapsus. Maaru. Hector2138. JamieS93. Lisonje. BanditBubbles. Silly rabbit. Ryulong. Cb77305. Aaronsclee. Animum. Trebor. Flowerpotman. BenFrantzDale. Lradrama. Ragesoss. Wafulz. Jovianeye. Nakon. Brad7777. Katanaofdoom. Capricorn42. Xantharius. Armaetin. Yosri. Grandpsykick. StaticGull. Mpatel. Truth100. El C. Nolefan3000.delanoy. Matthias Heiler. Iosef. D. Feezo. Pjacobi. Firebat08.Brunthaler. Oreo Priest. JoJan. Explicit.au. Ilyushka88. Manishearth. VasilievVV. Brian the Editor. KathrynLybarger. JamesAM. Kbdank71. Wikicontribute. Conversion script. Jedi062. Harryboyles. Taxman. JWillFiji. MagneticFlux. Courcelles. Brianjd. AstroNomer. Le coq d'or. Tarret. Whitecorp. Royboycrashfan. Ajraddatz. Nahum Reduta. Jclemens. Muhends.org/w/index. Wikipedian2. Lunchscale. Mutinus. Ilevanat. Jusdafax. If I Am Blocked I Will Cry. Letterwing. Rjwilmsi. Tanzad. Aleksas. DavidCary. Soltras. Jacob Nathaniel Richardson.wikipedia. Maclean25. HEL. James086. B44H. Nuttyskin. Cdouglas0906. Math. Faradayplank. X!. Gerhard. Candy12324. Hawkhkylax26.). V10. Kjkl. Kyle Barbour. Pizza Puzzle. Hadal. Kragen. Caiaffa. Merube 89. Michael Hardy.tk. Michael Hardy. MSGJ. Karl Dickman. Ehabkost. Themfromspace. La Pianista. Antimatter33. Docu. StradivariusTV. Proberton. Yazaq. Hellojoshhowareyou. Wikipelli.j. Mastercampbell. Christian75. Mandarax. OpheliaO. Gak500. Tikiwont. Grafen. Haonhien. Roylee. Imgoş. Jon Cates. Mwtoews. PinchasC. Immunize. SkerHawx. Minestrone Soup. Zondor. Hdt83. Nbauman. Bender235. Hwefhasvs. Hakufu Sonsaku. Yamamoto Ichiro. Wikiklrsc. Pluppy. Qwertyus. Mikeo. Law200000. Karthikndr. TBadger. MarkSweep. Andrevan. Afasmit. NCurse. Johnnybfat. LeaveSleaves. Kryic83. Can't sleep. Pinethicket. TedE. Nick Garvey. Thunderboltz. A bit iffy. 5IIHoova. Dranorter. Farosdaughter. Guoguo12. Puchiko. Modernage. Armaghanwahid. Reconsider the static. Skydot. Orlady. NawlinWiki. Alexandria37. Hbent. Hebrides.. JForget. Madmath789. Crystallina. LGSlayer1127. Richard Arthur Norton (1958. EdBever. Helvetius. Luna Santin. Anaraug. Nixeagle. Chairmclee. Isaac Dupree. Koyos. A. Rettetast.delanoy. Cellorau. Egmontaz. BorgQueen. Melchoir. Ed-dg. Mygerardromance. Bartledan. Misza13. Izzy007. MapsMan. IsaacNewton17. J04n. Ihope127. Tothebarricades. Iiar. Kushal one. RobHar.org/w/index. Padvi. Cybercobra. Y Strings 9 The Bar. Andonic. MONGO. Jason Lynn Carter. Dodiad. Graham77. Shreevatsa. Pfold. MC10. Dreadstar. Anskas. Syncategoremata. The Evil IP address. Marvinfreeman. דניאל בanonymous edits Calculus controversy Source: http://en. Mato. Hwp1964. PhySusie. JimVC3. Ms2ger. Xod. Markus Krötzsch. Karada. Pranathi. Hamsterlopithecus. Reepnorp. Olop4444. SlickWillyLovesSex.hayek. Keenan Pepper. Stwalkerster. Gerbrant. Ancheta Wis. Immunize. Abdullah Köroğlu. KRS. Mazca. Igiffin. Quantumobserver. RodC. Hayabusa future. Reach Out to the Truth. Leszek Jańczuk. Mlm42. Aymatth2. Arbitrarily0. King of Hearts. Looxix. Jorgenumata.php?oldid=469616743 Contributors: Abyssus. MASQUERAID. Joshkb01. Curps. Captain-tucker. The Anome. Haein45. Darkmaster333. Mr Poo. Kesac. NuclearWarfare. Mani1. Srleffler. MER-C. Michael Hardy. Stizz. Andres. Rpg9000. Dsp13. Yacht. Glane23. YellowMonkey. Youandme. IDX. Ramin325. Alana Shirley. RedWolf. Marcushdaniel. GregorB. Wjejskenewr. Infinity0. Helios Entity 2.edu. Kerotan. FF2010. Ilya. Sankalpdravid. Aïki. Pascal. Ilikepie2221. Addshore. StaticGull. Van helsing. Mxn. Nancy. Zachorious. Narcissus. Mithaca. Bth. Hesacon.wikipedia. Tangent747. Heracles31. Dave6. Spreadthechaos. LedgendGamer. Ashman512. Malerin. Sjakkalle. Magnus. Kainino. Tanweer Morshed. Aktsu. Agge1000. Dspradau. Watsonksuplayer. Erik9. HazeNZ. Wa2ise. Rdsmith4. Cisca Harrison. Bobo192. Jay. DavidRF. Obey. Salix alba. Bdodo1992. Heron. Koavf. Fetofs.edu. Hanse. Betterusername. Geometry guy. Owlgorithm. Dodiad. Natural Philosopher. Meisterkoch. Travisc. Jzenksta. SamuelMeyer. Hsonesson. Natalie Erin. Ictlogist. BlackJeebus. Nandesuka. Jshane04. Helix84. AeonicOmega. Maxstr9. Noctibus. Siafu. Kimse. 26 anonymous edits Corpuscular theory of light Source: http://en. Rjwilmsi. Sephiroth BCR. JeffPla. Jagz. Jj137. HJ Mitchell.j. Rich Farmbrough. Canadian-Bacon. Nigel5. Tetracube. Ike9898. Af648. Johnuniq. M1ss1ontomars2k4. Puck is awesome. Dekimasu.php?oldid=469897402 Contributors: 1812ahill. Laky68. Jp347. VDWI. Interrobang². Cpastern. Bubla. Ceilidh lj. Irish Souffle. Rick Norwood. Cpl Syx. Ian13. Manuel Trujillo Berges. Light current. di M. Quangbao. WPIsFlawed. Bogey97. ElTchanggo. Dilip rajeev. clown will eat me. Kamrama.org/w/index. Viriditas. Mct mht. Joao Xavier. Kasyapa. RDBury. Joseph Solis in Australia. James. MarcusMaximus. Jujuchatter. Hermitage17. Kuru.wikipedia. Yeungchunk. Piano non troppo. LeaveSleaves. Spkid64. Enormousdude. Wimt. Vicenarian. Kbdank71. Nbarth. Muspilli. Lord Chamberlain. Siddhant. Burntmonkey5. Gene Ward Smith. BokicaK. JohnBlackburne. Pakula. M a s. Mdsats. JimR. ThuranX. Tide rolls. Falard. DeadEyeArrow. Miskin. Flame1009. BrettAllen. Torvik. Slightsmile. Jack1002009. High Elf. Aitias. FreplySpang. Stevertigo. Bonadea. Joshuac333. CanadianLinuxUser. Σ. Half-Blood Auror. KChiu7. Connelly. AdjustShift. Keithdizon. Specs112. FlamingSilmaril. MrOllie. Michael Hardy. Elockid. TakuyaMurata. L Kensington. J04n. Hawthorn. Matthewrbowker. D-Notice. Homerguy. Splash. SeoMac. Daniel Case. Kartano. ArglebargleIV. Mike Rosoft. Snigbrook. Hut 8. Terence. Paul August. Sciurinæ. Alansohn. Killfire72. Pilif12p. Stephan Schulz. PaddyLeahy. Jwoodger. Kubigula. TrigWorks. Kribbeh. Lorynote. Cbgermany. The Transhumanist. Skater. Brews ohare. Apollo. Karol Langner. TheMidnighters. NeilN. Leuko. Cethegus. Kliao93. Michael Patrick Wilson. Proffie. Someones life. Jeff G. Elmer Clark. Xornok. Bender235. Rickieee.Nut.2 ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺃﺱ . Wiki alf. Poison ivy boy. Ncmvocalist. Doradus.Tesson. Hongooi. Tcncv. Minish man. Storeye. Gene Nygaard. Neverquick. OverlordQ. Routeh. Harry. Favonian. Farquaadhnchmn. Ironman104. Mgmei. Pyrospirit. Dkasak. Spacecadet222. Programmar. David. Creektheleftcheeksneak. Kocher2006. OSJ1961. Skal. Arod125. LaFoiblesse. Rpchase. DeistCosmos. Edgar181. WikiZorro. Smashville. Pdcook. BEWBS. Insanity Incarnate. JodyB. Bh3u4m. Pokemon1989. MichaelBillington. Philip Trueman. WasNo. Neokamek. Qxz. Reaperman. Tarek j. Suyashmanjul. WikipedianMarlith. Mrdempsey. AtticusX. Radagast83. Homestarmy. II MusLiM HyBRiD II. Control-alt-delete. Arniep. Nucleusboy. Snotchstar!. Mayank Abhishek.perna. Mspraveen. Nepenthes. Charles Matthews. Pmeisel. Kool11. Wik. Army1987. Thumperward. Bucephalus. Ling. Stammer. Gilliam. Ahoerstemeier. Moink. MithrandirAgain. Dycedarg. Hippasus. Decltype. Pabix. CanOfWorms. Elm-39. That1dude35. InverseHypercube. Cryptic. Kevinsam. Josh Parris. Jagged 85. Oliver202. Avono. Jak86. I dream of horses. Magioladitis. Betterworld. Xxanthippe. Stephenb. Zenohockey. OwenX. Obradovic Goran. Nutfortuna.. Heron. Willardsimmons. 28421u2232nfenfcenc. Slawekb.wikipedia.delanoy. Flyguy649. Myasuda. Justinep. Hfarmer. Mboverload. Katherine. Keilana. Rossami. Musicman69123. The Thing That Should Not Be. IslandHopper973.Wolfe@unsw. Tualha. Caca pop. Captain Wikify. Carmichael95. IncognitoErgoSum. Nathanwlee. Eric119. DoubleBlue. Hgetnet. Rrenner. Hqb. Oceras. Elassint.org/w/index. Anskas. Smeira. LAAFan. Ben pcc. Likebox. Luna Santin. NuclearWinner. SheepNotGoats. Kornfan71. Deor. Babygene52. Razorflame. Kzollman. Ramblagir. Quantumobserver. Kai Hillmann. Enviroboy. Wowz00r. Killiondude. Koavf. AJKING182. Axy. Maurreen. Pedro. Jcrook1987. Dallas84. Yamamoto Ichiro. Robertgreer. 9671 . Haham hanuka. Shunpiker. Alexjohnc3. Lseixas. 34 anonymous edits Hypotheses non fingo Source: http://en. Biopresto. Hatashe. Simetrical. Fil21. Visik. Lahiru k. Ninly. Maurice Carbonaro. Dekisugi. DerHexer.de. Nikai. Isheden. Minimac. Renato Caniatti. Salsb. Bomac. AxelBoldt. Narom. Hfballrouse. Mecanismo. Timwi. Savidan. Hotstreets. Leinad-Z. Calvin 1998. Knakts. J Di. Maxim. Gabrielleitao. Jóna Þórunn.H. Ndkl. Limideen. Leo44.org/w/index. Foxtrotman. Edgar181. Headhold. Cress Arvein. N. Meile. Mrboh. Heimstern. Mr Stephen. IronGargoyle. PericlesofAthens. Avenged Eightfold. MrSomeone. Kemiv. Rutuparn. Quispiam.hillshafer. Htim. Smithbcs.au. TutterMouse. Clayboskie. Rorro. Jgmakin. Chcknwnm. McVities. Jtle515. Kristinadam. Rklawton. Rl. Nabla. Underrated1 17. Joodeak. Yongtze28. DivineAlpha. @pple. EconoPhysicist. Jandjabel. Dodo von den Bergen. Lollerskates. Roastytoast. Krea. Jfilloy. SoSaysChappy. J. Mayumashu. AnonGuy. Welsh. Pramboy. Jimp. Seanahan. Rxc. Kipton. Lupo. JDPhD. Danski14. Bongwarrior. Cohamill. DMacks. Dougluce. Mets501. Petter Strandmark. Dfrg. The Utahraptor. Telempe. Slon02.geek3. LonelyBeacon. Giftlite. Jfkdklsjf. Mentifisto. NJA. Kabton14. Matt 888. Wikilibrarian. Orinthe. Firefly322. Jason Quinn. Mrbond69. Jenssss. Isis. Aushulz.5. Idk my bff jill.murthy. VMS Mosaic. Alansohn. Idealitem. Ideyal. Michaelh09. Jxg. Daigaku2051. Crazycomputers. Icairns. Korandder. Collabi. Symane. JaimenKing. Mike2vil. Schneelocke. Ral315. Berl95. Xharze. the Renowned. Gary2863. Fieldday-sunday. Kingpin13. Bronzie. Headbomb. Jwpurple. Yerpo. Fashionslide. MapsMan. April to August. Stevenmattern. Knutux. JaGa. Hulten. Loremaster. Lir. Frdayeen. Nneonneo. Moondyne. Lpug21. Jman9 91. Jan1nad. Sivsub123. Baa. G9615111. Mrhurtin. Mysid. Kukooo.Article Sources and Contributors Hannes Eder. HolIgor. LAX. Tosha. Durtysouthgurl. Orphic. Shinjiman. KRLS. Gimmetrow. Jengirl1988. Mindmatrix. Trd89.1415926. Shizhao. Wapcaplet. Carewolf. Długosz. Everyking. MarkMarek. Savidan. Filll. Heron. NewEnglandYankee. BigJim707. NinSmartSpasms. Peruvianllama. SpecOp Macavity. Imlost20. Crypticfortune. J8079s. Recognizance. Sdornan. Fuzbaby. Miked2009. LiDaobing. Imjustmatthew. Cimex. Neurolysis. Tedjn. Jj137. Crowsnest. Kunkerlund. Gogobera. Tfeeney65. Wknight94. Jpo. SpuriousQ. Kotiwalo. Support. Conrad. Ikiroid. 199 . Pvjthomas.Irwin. Tribaal. Brews ohare. Terminaterjohn. William felton. Jagged 85. Nnedass. Redsquirrel118. Chaseyoung1500. InverseHypercube. Spartan-James. Matt Deres. Antandrus. J. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Skiasaurus. J. Cholmes75. Kid A. YourBrain. Oleg Alexandrov. Fvw. Decumanus. Eeekster.php?oldid=450466511 Contributors: Ancheta Wis. Worrydoes. Recentchanges. 7. AzaToth. Peter Greenwell. Infrogmation. Rich Farmbrough.בן גרשון. Mortense. Azuris. Thecheesykid. Tpbradbury. Lee J Haywood. Tbsmith. Lilchicklet007. Theking17825. AceMyth. Jackbaird. Tobby72. Visualerror. Matusz. Concerned cynic. KnowledgeOfSelf. Tzf. Maxis ftw. Graham87. Alfredsimpson. PrezHubbard97. Manubaba11. IceBlade710. WaveEtherSniffer. ERcheck. HaLoGuY007. Xnuala. Marek69. Sin un nomine. VanishedUser314159. Sadi Carnot. Coldacid. Jakeghost. Wolfrock. . Wheely Guy.Wolfe@unsw. Headbomb. Laurascudder. NawlinWiki. Jimp. Salix alba. Celebere. Idont Havaname. Pascal yuiop. JensenDied. Phil Bastian. PierreAbbat. John254. Dogah. Lambiam. Luka666. Cool3. Sheeana.and. Hexagon70. Devnullnor. Jeff3000. John254. Avoided.Defend. Malatesta. Lightdarkness.wikipedia. Bender2k14. Rotem Dan. HorsePunchKid. Thunderboltz. Ambassador Quan.. Hankston. Digmaster. Sfngan. Littleyoda20. Chris the speller. Ketsuekigata. Pgunnels. Nacho123456789987654321. Sr1111. Kman229. L33tweasley. Thatguyflint. Epbr123. Ken Kuniyuki. Minimac. Saupreissen. Lotje. LightAnkh. Otheus. MarSch. Johnflux. Terry0051. Professor Fiendish. Rbb l181. D. Lifung. LLcopp. Ixfd64. Jok2000. Ozob. Edderso. Mikenorton. CART fan. Pnzrfaust. Mentifisto. Robertvan1.php?oldid=466869130 Contributors: 4C. Wikiklrsc. JinJian. Gurch. A More Perfect Onion. Hydrogen Iodide. Denimadept. Bardnick187. Kourosch44. Lincoln Josh. Ukexpat. Usrnme h8er. Flewis.. Jersey Devil. HalfShadow.

Tnxman307. Mdd. Patrick. Arithmonic. Kongkokhaw. Tron78. Can't sleep. Mìthrandir. Mogzig. Baccyak4H. Redmarkviolinist. Proud Muslim. Sharonlees. D. Ashik. Seddon. Sadi Carnot. 4 anonymous edits Newton's reflector Source: http://en. Katydidit. Charles Matthews. Michael Hardy. Amakuha. Pit. IceUnshattered. 17 anonymous edits Newton disc Source: http://en. Wolfkeeper.wikipedia. Kidburla. Silviawarftman. Pizza Puzzle. Vgm3985. Yecril. Peterlin. Garde. Donteras. පසිඳු කාවින්ද. Totlmstr. Salsa Shark. J0z777. Spaceman85. Bhny. Ashmoo. VashiDonsk. Mike Rosoft. Grstain.Wolfowitz. Jackzhp. InverseHypercube. Newone. My76Strat. Frau Holle. Sheliak. Daniel55423. Shanes. Fotaun. JohnnyB256. Cbustapeck. Duckysmokton. Uncle Dick. Specter01010. Johncolton. Evil saltine. Ancheta Wis.php?oldid=423957009 Contributors: Attilios. 老 陳. The wub. MarkGallagher. Sjö. Yoyoyow. Jauhienij. Nipper211. Nsaa. Anskas. Sergay. Prezbo. Zhou Yu. Tombomp. Zzyzx11. Xaven.wikipedia.php?oldid=471507146 Contributors: 678right.dL. SteveBaker. Codee240. Scizor55. 165 anonymous edits Newtonianism Source: http://en. Ospalh. LGSlayer1127. Rolo Tamasi. WilliamKF. Baley. Shizhao. Snowmanmelting. Nishkid64. Jaredwf. Some jerk on the Internet. WillowW. Davidhorman. NinjaKid. Formulax. E2eamon. Coredesat. Viatoro. Wiki alf. Tameradly. CnkALTDS. Tyomitch. Cgranade. Pizza Puzzle. Smjg. RUL3R. Bucketsofg.php?oldid=404209091 Contributors: Brews ohare. Reaper Eternal. Laurentius. Venfranc. DVdm. Gadget850. Iohannes Animosus. HJ Mitchell. Glenn L. Infringement153. Danski14. Hike395. Pichai Asokan. Klaus Hünig. 5 anonymous edits De motu corporum in gyrum Source: http://en. Shirulashem. Richard0612. Dulcamara. Griffgruff. Sunilbajpai. Vjga. Smack. Peregrine Fisher. Khazar. Trilobitealive. Rotovia. Vanished user 47736712. Rami radwan.org/w/index. NewEnglandYankee. TStein. Fintor. Teressa Keiner. Ketsuekigata. Angusmclellan. Melaen. Yuksing. Cleduc. Mynah901. Draconx. Escape Orbit. Carmichael95.org/w/index. Dysprosia. AxelBoldt. Wesino. Mellery. Steve Quinn. Oda Mari. Pedro1557. Rafael Sepulveda. Plrk. Tesspub. Sethmiester. Jon Awbrey. Pac72. Masgatotkaca. Little Mountain 5. Jehochman. Dmharvey.dL. Donarreiskoffer. Fluffernutter. LilHelpa. BishopOcelot. WereSpielChequers. RJaguar3. Rogper. Snowmanradio. Palthrow. RebornX. Jarry1250. Yzha519. Snowolf. Rs2. Goingstuckey. Dawn Bard. Aaron Rotenberg. GrapeSmuckers. Flowerpotman. UrsaFoot. Ali. Puchiko. John of Reading. Miguel. Jimbryho. Script Cat. Pmlineditor. Oleg Alexandrov. Marquez. Pianoplonkers. Shastra. Redfarmer. គីមស៊្រុន. MisfitToys. Enochlau. Sj.php?oldid=430612714 Contributors: Advise35. Ninly. Giftlite. Kung foo masta. Zzyzx11.belk. Spinningspark. Inoodat. Clh288. Chrisgolden. Xykon. Shearyears394. Saravask. Jim. Steve Quinn. Bppubjr. Ems57fcva. Paul venter. Salt Yeung. Protonk. Mikael Häggström. Invitatious. FisherQueen. Ninetyone. Cyp. Maurice Carbonaro. 老 陳. Decrease789. Robdurbar. Kubigula. SoWhy. Klemen Kocjancic. Triface. RoyBoy.php?oldid=469886647 Contributors: 123Mike456Winston789. Piperh. Seanlacroosed. Sbyrnes321. Bhoeble. Aa35te. Madkayaker. Kurt Eichenberger. Hmains. Howard nyc. Howcheng. Darkwarlord95. RadioFan. Maxw41. Gex999. SoCalSuperEagle.php?oldid=471491228 Contributors: AhMedRMaaty. I change stuff ha. Proofreader77. Nicop (Usurp). Genesiswinter. Nishkid64. Vipinhari. Dogah. Stwalkerster. Gco. T-borg. Yevgeny Kats. Headbomb. Casey Abell. PrimeCupEevee. Pele' boy. Jalbro. Nae'blis. StaticGull. Lambiam. Spaceneil8. Stefano85. Wikipelli. Philip Trueman. Headbomb. Exir Kamalabadi. Rracecarr. 2 anonymous edits Arithmetica Universalis Source: http://en. Zephyr9. Proofreader77. Fuhghettaboutit. Kjkolb. Oxymoron83. StradivariusTV. Sanpaz. SpookyMulder. Ligulem.wikipedia. Neilc. Antandrus. Iskander32. Borisblue. EmadIV. Glass Sword. Andyjsmith. Good Olfactory. Saros136. ElizabethFong.ﻣﺎﻧﻲმოცარტი. di M.ehsaan. Richard75. Redrocketboy. Vipinhari. Sj. KSmrq. Danim. Wilowisp. Stuhacking. SebastianHelm. Dcoetzee. GHJmover. Novangelis. Christina Silverman. Capricorn42. Psymun747. Tommy2010. Erebus Morgaine.org/w/index. Slakr. Пика Пика. Lestrade. Noah Salzman. Firefly322. R. Galoisgroupie. Rich Farmbrough. Asuffield. KHamsun. Syncategoremata. Yuyudevil. Gombang. Capricorn42. Jitse Niesen. Yevgeny Kats. TutterMouse. SuperHamster. RexNL. Shoy. Caltrop. Jeh. Dminnaar. Vina. Toxic Spade. Quantumavik. John of Reading. Shreevatsa. Rudjek. PrincessofLlyr. Alfie66. Headbomb. Axiomsofchoice.delanoy. Obli. Jasondet. ArchonMagnus. Thingg. Dennis Kwaria. L Kensington. Marek69. 6 anonymous edits Rotating spheres Source: http://en. Kenkenko. Duk. Wsvlqc. Pmetzger. Tim!. Protonk. Rickproser. Pleasantville. Quantumobserver. Sjö. CBoeckle. Yamaguchi先 生. Pepper. FT2. Roo60. Susan118. Wtshymanski. Quantanew. Geometry guy. Deeplogic. Contact '97. Falcon8765. Michael Hardy. Kiefer. S Schaffter. Paul August. AssistantX. Piels. Pwjb. Krellis. Zhou Yu. South Bay. Stroppolo. Hajatvrc. Kbk. Klemen Kocjancic.wormer. Complexica. PlantTrees. EconoPhysicist. Zegod. Dicklyon. GraemeL. VanishedUser314159. Mpatel. Koavf. Estudiarme. Michael Hardy. Vsmith. Acroterion. Rnt20. BigJohnHenry. Gabbe. The Thing That Should Not Be. Headbomb. Pkbharti. Doulos Christos. Willking1979. Astroorgy. NOrbeck. Ancheta Wis. CanOfWorms.wikipedia. Enormousdude. OrbitOne. Rudolf. 7 anonymous edits Newtonian telescope Source: http://en. Spoladore. Epbr123. Ubiq. TheJesterLaugh. Yossiea. Angrysockhop. MagneticFlux. Alex Yuwen. Berland. RDBury. Iamunknown. P. WikiParker. Polluxian. TheObtuseAngleOfDoom. MinorContributor. Thranduil. Xcxcxc5k. Headbomb. Tide rolls. Philip Trueman. Eric Le Bigot. PianoSpleen. Aude. Gaius Cornelius. Neyshan. Sibusiso Mabaso. Chetvorno. Spinachwrangler. J. Elvek. Crispmuncher. Rjwilmsi. PaddyLeahy. Opelio. Anonymous Dissident. Denisarona. Ronhjones. JRSpriggs. KSmrq. Slon02. Wikieditor06. Wolfkeeper. Dreamofthedolphin. WarthogDemon. CanadianLinuxUser. 1exec1. Shotwell. Transcendence. KMic. Onionmon. YellowMonkey. Raven in Orbit. SimonP.org/w/index. Sam Korn. BillFlis. Sam Hocevar. NOrbeck. Richard L. Funnybunny. Headbomb. Sword. A. Rich Farmbrough. Larryisgood. Traxs7. Scigatt. Jagged 85. Random user 39849958. Abdullah Köroğlu. JonesMI. Yurik. Wikipedia is Nazism.. Jakezing. JerrySteal.Article Sources and Contributors Newton890. Mgarraha.org/w/index. Roadrunner. Chas zzz brown. HJ Mitchell. Conversion script. Theda. Filpaul. EdFalzer. RFerreira.php?oldid=470600100 Contributors: Acc60. Pinethicket. Tofutwitch11.org/w/index. Silly rabbit. Nedunuri. Trusilver. IdreamofJeanie. Nneonneo. Db099221. Skier Dude. Robinh. Magmait. Taneli HUUSKONEN. Quantumor. Schlongboymega. Homo logos. 200 . Sdornan. White Shadows. The Evil IP address. Moooo1234. Hirzel. Sanpaz. Nihiltres. Simetrical. Staxringold. WhiteHatLurker. Alansohn. Adam majewski. Michael Hardy. Vivers. Ejrh. Captain Yankee. Ter890. H. Peeceepeh. Gryphn. DFRussia.wikipedia. Stamcose. ABF. Wolfkeeper. Nonagonal Spider. Wwoods. Jeodesic.. Jay-Sebastos. Nicholeeeeo. Sigma 7. RayAYang. Wj32. Sverdrup. Drbreznjev. Gunnar Berlin. JW1805.H. Wing7990. Kyle. Tagishsimon. K. Patrick. IjrmoneyI.menin. Gfoley4. Guoguo12. Heimdallen. Earlh. RG2. Gombang. The Thing That Should Not Be. Maccers. Beland. Laug. Slaniel. RJFJR. Tranxodox. Jusdafax. RandomXYZb. Eyu100. WWStone. Matt Deres. CarlosPatiño. MrFloatingIP. JamesBWatson. Closedmouth. Sowelilitokiemu. Rracecarr. R'n'B. Elpiades. Chris D'Amato. Matilda.. John254.org/w/index. Minesweeper. SpikeToronto. ClarkSims. Baseball-bob. Wragge. Stevertigo. Puneetbahri 82. The Anome.wikipedia. Brian S. GuidoGer.org/w/index.b. Wenli. Wysprgr2005. Novakyu. M1ss1ontomars2k4. Gene Nygaard.. Shambolic Entity. Headbomb. Tkuvho. Tide rolls. RMFan1.bedi. Nilfanion. Rishi. Swerty. Stephenb. HamburgerRadio. Mild Bill Hiccup. T prev. Fountains of Bryn Mawr. Myanw. Latka. RoyBoy. Travi1994. LilHelpa. Tmoore. Ckamas. Stannered. Qwertyqwertyqwertyy. Chemical Engineer. PDH. Eyrryds. MrOllie. Northumbrian. Pomona17. Tblaxland.org/w/index. Wesino. Fuzzform. Yngvadottir. Tom. Nhandler. LilHelpa. Henning Makholm. Borisblue. Nobar. CWenger. IrishFilmBuff. Philip Trueman. Raziaex. SpaceFlight89. Sokane. Christian75. Karenjc. Danyoung. SperryTS. Zsinj. Fredrik. Oleg Alexandrov. Sl. Sciurinæ. Leofric1. Charles Matthews. Terry0051. Versus22. Psinu. Urmammasfat. Rokfaith. Subheight640. Dcljr. Coemgenus. Piotrus. Tohd8BohaithuGh1. Stewartadcock. Tiddly Tom. Pegua. Blotwell. Shadowjams. Appraiser. Tempodivalse. Torokun. Ched Davis. JRHorse. TheOtherSiguy. Drostie. Timboyk12. DerHexer. Phearson. Spoon!. Kawautar. LutzL. Sceptre. Notalex. No Guru.delanoy. Man with two legs. Tide rolls. Yurigerhard. SteveMcCluskey.wikipedia. CPMartin. Chimin 07. BirdValiant. Olegalexandrov. Paolo. Martin Hedegaard.wikipedia. Pewwer42. Fotaun. PhySusie.org/w/index. VolatileChemical. Sam Hocevar. Thljcl. Bryan Derksen. Smarchesini. LtNOWIS. Tygrrr. Wimt. Info4sina. Trevor MacInnis. Windrixx. KnowledgeOfSelf. Duoduoduo. Tim!. UberScienceNerd. Katzmik. 30 anonymous edits Newton's method Source: http://en. Wavelength. Nthitz. Annne furanku. Rjwilmsi. Phinnaeus. ICAPTCHA. Maymay. Jeltz. Tiger42653. RainbowOfLight. Titolatif. Orfen. Gwernol. Tannkrem. Elliott. Splash. Holycow958. Solipsist. D c weber. Xiutwel. PrincessofLlyr. Cardamon. Alpinwolf. Canaima. Cecole. Glacialfox. Pasteman. Patrick. Dekisugi. Kutulu. Jaraalbe.php?oldid=408409868 Contributors: BD2412. Tbsmith. Nicholasnice. Sven Manguard. Tianxiaozhang. Uppland.wikipedia. Ataleh. CielProfond. Toumajk. Sonia62585. Pfalstad. Drmies. Science4sail. Zginder. Solitude. Xxanthippe. Everyking. Radon210. Jpginn. Loisel. Stickee. Gregbard. Mmeijeri. LOL. Birge. Truthnlove. Suffusion of Yellow. Unmerklich. GraemeL. Feinstein. Vrenator. Tom Lougheed. Scuchina. Michael Hardy. Tej karani. Dominus. Robin Patterson. Metaprimer. Thecheesykid. Dna-webmaster. Cbk DTX. Tiptoety. Cronholm144. Ocvailes. Avicennasis. Prezbo. Rbonvall. . Zundark. Chris857. Patrick. Pingveno. XL2D. Travelbird. Xieyihui. Yamamoto Ichiro.hellmuth. TheEditrix2. Trevor Marron. Bluefist. PRABHAT PINGREJA. Prestonmag. Ben pcc. GregorB. Thepossumdance. Headbomb. AznBurger. Thumperward. Jeff G. Rokkyo13. Valandil211. Cquan. Voyajer. 3 anonymous edits Theorem of revolving orbits Source: http://en. Halfblue. Nk. 297 anonymous edits Newton's notation Source: http://en. Millermk90. Shanes. Hqb.org/w/index. SpeedyGonsales. XJamRastafire. Res2216firestar.wikipedia.ﻣﺤﺒﻮﺏ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ . clown will eat me. Sionus. AdamRetchless. Jan1nad. ESkog. McVities. X42bn6. Pedro. MarkSweep. Ricky81682. ConMan. JRSpriggs. Mthsmith. Make91. ActivExpression. Quantumsilverfish.php?oldid=467758211 Contributors: 84user. The Rambling Man. Mr Stephen. Ozob. Lee Daniel Crocker. Jaimeastorga2000. Nk. Red Act. Zenzic. Poor Yorick. Synchronism. Dlazesz. Geniac. S3000. SirGrant. Deagle AP. Rror. Wienwei. Jim. Giftlite. Urhixidur. Karshan. Shuipzv3. Ronhjones. FyzixFighter. Sarregouset. Robert K S. Tim Starling. Hyju. Paul August. AaronSw. Reconsider the static. Bobo192. Bambaiah. J. 728 anonymous edits Newton's cannonball Source: http://en. Zbvhs. Ptrpro. Headbomb. Rifleman 82. Discospinster. Trilobitealive. Barak Sh. Saxum. Earth.drerup. FearDark. Kevin. SHCarter. Mets501. Rubicon. Illegal604. 2379 anonymous edits Law of universal gravitation Source: http://en. XXx xD LeGeNd MoJo xXx. Nishadpotdar. Shultzc. StradivariusTV. Billtubbs. Basilicofresco. Causesobad. Passamaquoddy boi. Luna Santin. Linas. Wimt. JimJast. R. Hugo999. Clerks. Nickpowerz. Krich. NYKevin. MattieTK. Yiya91. RG2. Schipperke22. Lookang. EricJamesStone. Epbr123. Gurch.org/w/index. Ohnoitsjamie.php?oldid=448951434 Contributors: Alatius. Snigbrook. Bomazi. Bdiscoe. Terry0051. Vsmith. Shockkorea. Sean William. Sakapraia. Siyuwj. Allen McC. Pitel. Kingdon. Sailsbystars. Duae Quartunciae. JohnBlackburne. Baa. Rje. Smokizzy. Jared Preston. Vishahu. MakeRocketGoNow. Oleg Alexandrov. Tide rolls. Alias Flood. Marquez. Looxix. Favonian. Stephenb. Kbdank71. Tomisti. Danlevy100. Ealdgyth. Grim23. Tamasflex. Brad7777. Headbomb. Jackfork.wikipedia. Pbroks13.collver. Wayne Slam. Ahoerstemeier. Orphan Wiki. Catslash. AgadaUrbanit. Rama's Arrow. Shaverc. Waggers.wikipedia. Michael Hardy. Michael Hardy. Smalljim. Gian-2. Tcncv. JabberWok. DNA Games. Paxsimius. Stui. Dafkaosaa. Greg. Jrockley. Mpatel. Salix alba. Pizza Puzzle. Paolo. Samwb123. CRGreathouse. Melchoir. Quibik. Terry0051. PMDrive1061. Wknight94. GnuDoyng. Ancheta Wis. Perfgeek. Nommonomanac. Headbomb. Siddhant. Pevarnj. Haham hanuka. Fountains of Bryn Mawr. Sarregouset. Jacob1207. MadameBouvier. Charles Matthews. Giftlite. Prashanthns. Sodium. WegianWarrior. Persian Poet Gal. Falcon8765. SFC9394. Rjwilmsi. Viriditas. William Avery. Susanwangrules.php?oldid=449189768 Contributors: Biscuittin. User A1. Mike Peel.e. BenFrantzDale.php?oldid=467780964 Contributors: Angusmclellan. Halil1. Eweinber. Arthena. Plastikspork. Nyirenda. Rmadridfan07. Jfmantis. Pplshero54. Zadeez. Cyfal. Tseulik. Hellbus. Possum. ThaddeusB. David Cooke. Point-set topologist. Pt. JohnOwens. Oolongy. Chris the speller. Simon123.belk. Obvioustrollisobvious. Rrburke. Tom Lougheed. Juliancolton. Peterson. Firetrap9254. Seaphoto. Sjsharksfan. E David Moyer. VI. Thingg. Rfl. RHB100. Oysta. Newsaholic.

Headbomb. Thepossumdance.php?oldid=457045088 Contributors: Crystallina. Tim!. Charles Matthews. Gamer416. 8 anonymous edits Woolsthorpe Manor Source: http://en. Kinema. Tizio. Chris the speller. AxelBoldt. Edgar181. Solipsist. Alansohn. SimonMeacham.php?oldid=395250695 Contributors: APH. clown will eat me. Estéban. Omar77. RekishiEJ. Ericoides. Kevinalewis. Jaraalbe. Casey Abell. Pizza Puzzle. Anikingos. Gary King. Saga City. Bobschops. Gregjgrose. 15 anonymous edits 201 .org/w/index. Hugo999. Freiddie. Looxix. Gebjon. Varlaam. Celebrei. Qwfp. MakeRocketGoNow. Entropy1963. Renata. Wetman. Evercat. Headbomb.H. The Thing That Should Not Be. Scholium. D. Johnflux. Dicklyon. Straw Cat. Headbomb. Ptolemy Caesarion. JoanneB.wikipedia. TimVickers. Maximus Rex. Gregbard. Otzi1.org/w/index. Vibhijain. Can't sleep. Mrh30. Keenan Pepper. Zenwabi. JayC. Duncan. MapsMan. Anneyh. John Vandenberg. Mais oui!.delanoy. Contado83ll. Lambiam. Savidan. AdRock. Libb Thims. RobSiddall. Transportabelle. Julesd. Skapur. Diremarc. JKeck. 32 anonymous edits Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Source: http://en. Slon02. Pohick2. Jaraalbe. Trivialist. Superm401. JorgeGG. Po8crg. Nkocharh. Jpbowen. Trippz. ShaunMacPherson. Piledhigheranddeeper. Sjakkalle. Sj. Retrev. Gfbs. Nonagonal Spider. Knight of BAAWA. Rayan1992. Hurricane111. Bobo192. Kusunose. 37 anonymous edits Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Source: http://en. Hugo999. Teles. Mrw7. Woofboy. Fabartus. Roarshocker. Idaltu. NatusRoma. Koavf. Piotrus. CLW. Wwoods. Pipedreamergrey. Rich Farmbrough. The Rambling Man. Tim!. Mysdaao. Landemor.e. Acc60. Oop. ChrisG. BaldBoris. Vmenkov.php?oldid=459368167 Contributors: AtilimGunesBaydin.org/w/index. Oliver Chettle. Ubermission. Janderie. CBM.php?oldid=444652377 Contributors: Acabashi. Lestrade. GrahamHardy. Ospalh. God'sKing'sServant. Hermzz. Bevo. Sadi Carnot. Pedaub. Matthew Desjardins. Quadratic. Risk one. Hersfold. Srleffler. Headbomb. Corrigendas. Flowersofnight. Dbachmann. Evil saltine. GTBacchus. Puffin10. Fjarlq. Sneakums. Headbomb. Laughing100. Tafinucane. MaximvsDecimvs. Bryan Derksen. Str1977. MortimerCat. Onesweettart. Ormi. Leszek Jańczuk. Ewlyahoocom. Yworo. Jaraalbe. Nicke Lilltroll.H. AsianAstronaut. DragonflySixtyseven.org/w/index. Xezbeth. Yamara. Crunchy Numbers. Bearian. Mirokado. Arcadian. Ajjusoni. Pegship. Ulric1313. Acc60. Woohookitty. UnHoly. Bambaiah. Ancheta Wis. Savidan. Felix Folio Secundus. Gimmemoretime. Ohconfucius. Jose Ramos. Headbomb. RockMagnetist. Chzz.php?oldid=444132638 Contributors: Daemonic Kangaroo. Kbdank71.wikipedia. Palthrow. TheMathematician. AVand.php?oldid=433744774 Contributors: Algorithme. MoonMan. 39 anonymous edits Method of Fluxions Source: http://en. Fram. Pigetrational. Xdamr. Jpbowen. Tomisti. Mschlindwein. Qwertyus. Marek69. Hqb. Suisui. Mikaey. Solipsist. Gboweswhitton. Shimgray. Pmanderson. Killerfox. JW1805. Bunich. Skizzik. Lectonar. Michael Hardy. Xdamr. RobertG. Johnbod. SimonP. Jackol. JohnWarnock. Hiro Miyake. AtticusX. Matt Crypto. Finnrind. King Lopez. JoaoRicardo. LaMenta3. Headbomb.php?oldid=471851154 Contributors: A Man In Black. Mandarax. Scoop100. Mandarax. Neddyseagoon. Jpittman. Srleffler. Snowmanradio. Woohookitty. Petropoxy (Lithoderm Proxy). Delta x. Danscottgraham. WithSelet.org/w/index. Hu Totya. Amitchell125. RJP. Cutler. Carlaude.france. Donmac. Rhtcmu. Altmany.wikipedia. SU Linguist. JohnWarnock. Steinsky. MikeWazowski. 7kingis. Alpha Quadrant (alt). SimonP. DavidWBrooks. Kocio. Ikip. Zoicon5. Gandalf61.wikipedia. Garrison. Grayfell. Charles Matthews. Mic. MaxEspinho. Disdero. Warofdreams. Harald88. Lestrade. Warisstarted. Lestrade. Damiantgordon. SMasters. Good Olfactory. CiaranG. Noon. James500.php?oldid=471713264 Contributors: 100110100. Almit39. SummerPhD. Smetanahue. Michael Hardy. Flockmeal. Ser Amantio di Nicolao. DFS454. Palnot.org/w/index. NotAnonymous0. CommonsDelinker. Dougsim. Jimfbleak. Hqb. Wikipelli. Newone. Sneakums. Paine Ellsworth. WillOakland. JW1805. Axiomsofchoice. Zundark. Alsandro. Tnoamen. Tim!. Bevo. NBeale. Joshfriel. Eumolpo. TheFarix.php?oldid=417451540 Contributors: Ceoil. J. SimonP. 308 anonymous edits Writing of Principia Mathematica Source: http://en. Rparle. Benc. Markcymru. Netean. DaveGorman. Gareth E Kegg. ChrisG. Bencherlite. Jensboot. Iridescent. Saga City. 1 anonymous edits Isaac Newton's tooth Source: http://en. Northryde. Miquonranger03. LeCire. R. Wavelength. A Nobody. 7 anonymous edits The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Source: http://en. Andrew c. Diatarn_iv.php?oldid=375771258 Contributors: Albmont. Headbomb. Wars. Siebengang. Pcpcpc. Andemora. CES1596.org/w/index. MER-C. BD2412. FreeRangeFrog. Lord Voldemort. Zzuuzz. CapitalR. TakuyaMurata. Novangelis. Beland. Richerman. Klundarr. Bdesham.php?oldid=462796176 Contributors: April to August. Alan Liefting. Gurch. Dlockew. Cra0422. Fritzbruno.org/w/index. Andrew c. Seaphoto. BobLoblaw. Theroachman. Lucobrat. Cheesphht. Ronhjones. Borgx.php?oldid=470624553 Contributors: Acc60. Languagehat. Giraffedata. Theon. Montrealais. SimonP. Knowledge Examiner.wikipedia. Jllm06. Editor2020. Sonitus. Kwiki. Bwwm. Bobo192. Merovingian. Timrollpickering. SimonP.wikipedia. Casey Abell. Kwamikagami. Jaimeastorga2000. GrahamHardy. TalphaLyra. Leonard^Bloom. Smallman12q. MakeRocketGoNow. Pcpcpc. Thomasmeeks. Borisblue. Supotmails. Ser Amantio di Nicolao. Heycos. Cleonis. Skippy le Grand Gourou. Kingpin13. 6 anonymous edits Newton in popular culture Source: http://en. Cavrdg. Stuartyeates. Materialscientist. DMichael6. Uxorion. FDuffy. Alnokta. JW1805. Headbomb. Jaraalbe. Tkuvho. Machine Elf 1735. Bongwarrior. Iridescent. Rl. Bryan Derksen. Dgies. Headbomb. Curps. Keenan Pepper. David Fuchs. KConWiki. Qwertyus. Farnhamian. Chuunen Baka. DaveGorman.wikipedia. Isaacnewton333. Eric119. Calstan7. Jean-Jacques Georges. Winterstein. Paul A. Icairns.org/w/index. Jcwaldensian. Rich Farmbrough.php?oldid=465014777 Contributors: Algorithme. DoostdarWKP. Headbomb. Rjwilmsi. Mais oui!. Auréola. Gwern. Giftlite. Good Olfactory. Mpatel. Nocturnalsleeper. Waacstats. Emperor. Hugo999.org/w/index. Dogah. SpringSummerAutumn. StuffOfInterest. Antandrus. M a s. Kappa. Kusluj. Tim!. Charles Matthews. EdJohnston. Rich Farmbrough. D. Blainster. Keith D. Opticks1704. Geometry guy. Spobmur. Bambaiah. Revgraves. Mav. Zhaladshar. Kbdank71. RandomCritic. Rjwilmsi. Dirac1933. Ancheta Wis.wikipedia.wikipedia. Ancheta Wis. 19 anonymous edits Opticks Source: http://en. TStein.org/w/index. BillFlis. Dger. 2 anonymous edits An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Source: http://en. Brews ohare. Johnrpenner. LittleDan. Marmite disaster. NaturalPhilos. Tim!. Danlevy100. Favonian. Rmosler2100. Farnhamian. Template namespace initialisation script. William Avery. Nick Number. Melchoir. Aldis90. Michael Hardy. Algorithme. J7. MakeRocketGoNow. 5 anonymous edits Newton (monotype) Source: http://en.org/w/index. SGBailey. 18 anonymous edits Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Source: http://en. Casey Abell. Redragon104.php?oldid=471111502 Contributors: AED.. Klantry01.b. Flopy.org/w/index. APH. Taksen. Dantheox. Tim!. Mortene. Rigadoun.wikipedia. Ancheta Wis. JackofOz. Beanyk. JamesAM. Wikiklaas. Bitjungle.wikipedia.org/w/index. Charles Matthews. Splat. MaximvsDecimvs. Terry0051.wikipedia. Lowellian. Headbomb. Bratsche. Z10x. Vhsatheeshkumar. 1 anonymous edits Cranbury Park Source: http://en. Joonasl.wikipedia. Appleseed. Woodshed Newton's flaming laser sword Source: http://en. Mevami. Rantaro. Betterusername. SimonP. Epbr123. Saperaud. Edchilvers.Article Sources and Contributors Tim!. Michael Hardy. Jcf139er. Diannaa. Jmundo. Johnmarkh. Nwbeeson. AlbertSM. Grstain. Maximus Rex. Gary King. Thedoj. Terry0051. TheMadBaron. Keith D.wikipedia. Headbomb. Heron. GregorB.

PNG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.php?title=File:Catherinebarton.gif Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en.0 Generic Contributors: Acc60.org/w/index.jpg Source: http://en. Jan Arkesteijn. JackyR. Guillom. Botanic Gardens.org/w/index.php?title=File:GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689.wikipedia.org/w/index.svg Source: http://en. JMCC1. Infrogmation.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Benjamin Crowell (Wikipedia user bcrowell) Image:Isaacnewton.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en. Schaengel89.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index.gif Source: http://en. Wknight94. Sanao.arboit.org/w/index.0 Unported Contributors: 4C File:NautilusCutawayLogarithmicSpiral. Shizhao. Beyond My Ken.wikipedia.php?title=File:Integral_as_region_under_curve.wikipedia. Aushulz.wikipedia.wikipedia. Sparkit. Xocoyote.org/w/index.0 Generic Contributors: Basilicofresco.wikipedia. 12 anonymous edits Image:Hw-newton.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Matthew Trump Image:ForceDiagram.Monniaux.wikipedia.php?title=File:Newton's_tree.wikipedia.wikipedia.wikipedia.gif License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: OSJ1961 File:Integral as region under curve.org/w/index. Xocoyote.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index.svg Source: http://en. Original uploader was Trippz at en.php?title=File:Newton_25.php?title=File:Newtons_laws_in_latin. Wst. Madmedea.jpg Source: http://en.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Algorithme.org/w/index. Beyond My Ken. Germany File:Isaacnewton. Svdmolen.org/w/index.org/w/index. Thomas Gun. Licenses and Contributors 202 Image Sources.org/w/index.wikipedia. Grenavitar. Luestling.org/w/index.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index.org/w/index. Eoghanacht. Müller.svg Source: http://en. Grenavitar.png Source: http://en. Porao. Thomas Gun._Cambridge. Wst.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Sir Isaac Newton Image:GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689. Bjankuloski06en. JMCC1. Mattes.jpg License: unknown Contributors: David.jpg Source: http://en.0 Contributors: Brews ohare File:Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. Red devil 666. Jahobr.svg Source: http://en. Shakko.png Source: http://en. Eoghanacht. Plindenbaum.wikipedia. G.org/w/index.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Chris 73 File:Clockwork universe by Tim Wetherell.wikipedia.Image Sources.org/w/index.gif Source: http://en.5 Contributors: Earth-G-force.org/w/index. Zaphod. Lamiot.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia. Gene.Monniaux. Wst.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Shizhao File:ENG COA Newton.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Andrew Gray File:Isaac Newton grave in Westminster Abbey. Ecummenic. Karelj. Kelson.php?title=File:Bolton-newton.gif Source: http://en. Wst File:Tangent derivative calculusdia. 12 anonymous edits File:NewtonsPrincipia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dcoetzee File:Bolton-newton.php?title=File:Gravityroom. Solipsist. Kilom691. Fabian Commons.jpg Source: http://en. Germany File:Newton-WilliamBlake.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.wikipedia.org/w/index. Beyond My Ken.org/w/index. DrJunge.org/w/index. Saperaud.svg Source: http://en.org/w/index.php?title=File:Newtons_apple. Cambridge.wikipedia. Semnoz.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Gamaliel.org/w/index.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Tomisti.php?title=File:NewtonsLawOfUniversalGravitation. Jmabel. Sanao.0 Contributors: User:Lookang File:Field lines mass 24 lines.0 Unported Contributors: User:Stannered . Makthorpe. Anarkman.wikipedia. 3 anonymous edits File:Newton 25.0 Generic Contributors: Basilicofresco.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:NewtonsTelescopeReplica.jpg Source: http://en. Mdd. Aunuki. Siebrand.php?title=File:ENG_COA_Newton.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Barosaul. Solipsist.jpg Source: http://en. Madmedea.org/w/index.wikipedia File:catherinebarton.wikipedia.0 Contributors: User:Lookang Image:Gravitymacroscopic.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Darapti. DrJunge. Jan Arkesteijn. JdH.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.wikipedia. Jahobr.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tangent_derivative_calculusdia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: David.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gravity_field_is_arbitrary.wikipedia.0 Contributors: User:Dna-Dennis Image:Earth-G-force.org/w/index.wikipedia.php?title=File:Isaac_Newton_grave_in_Westminster_Abbey.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Minestrone Soup File:Sec2tan.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.svg Source: http://en.0 Unported Contributors: User:Stannered File:Gravity field is arbitrary.wikipedia File:Isaac Newton's Temple of Solomon. Ecummenic.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown. 4 anonymous edits Image:Mach bucket.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2. Tttrung.php?title=File:Gravitymacroscopic.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.php?title=File:Clockwork_universe_by_Tim_Wetherell. Wst. Saperaud. Karelj.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.wikipedia.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.svg Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en. Fabian Commons. Bt. Sparkit.0 Contributors: OpheliaO Image:Newtons laws in latin.svg Source: http://en. Frank C. Porao. 5 anonymous edits File:Maria Gaetana Agnesi. HHahn. Materialscientist.org/w/index. 1 anonymous edits File:Isaac Newton Labratory Fire.php?title=File:Gravity_field_near_earth.php?title=File:Sir_Isaac_Newton_by_Sir_Godfrey_Kneller.php?title=File:Field_lines_mass_24_lines. Saperaud.org/w/index.wikipedia.php?title=File:NewtonsPrincipia.php?title=File:Newton-WilliamBlake.org/w/index.wikipedia. Kilom691. Matanya (usurped).wikipedia. 4 anonymous edits Image:Skaters showing newtons third law.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.png: derivative work: KronicTOOL (talk) File:Gravity field near earth. Davidlud. Infrogmation. Wst Image:Isaac Newton grave in Westminster Abbey.jpg Source: http://en.0 Contributors: User:Lookang Image:Gravityroom.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: derivative work: Pbroks13 (talk) Isaac_Newton_signature. Plindenbaum Image:Newton's tree. Gabor.jpg Source: http://en. Petropoxy (Lithoderm Proxy). Man vyi.php?title=File:Isaac_Newton_grave_in_Westminster_Abbey.JPG Source: http://en.org/w/index. 1 anonymous edits Image:NewtonsLawOfUniversalGravitation.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia. 4 anonymous edits File:Isaac Newton signature. Semnoz.php?title=File:Isaacnewton.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maria_Gaetana_Agnesi.php?title=File:Hw-newton. Thuresson.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.wikipedia.wikipedia.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukk.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia. Jacklee.org/w/index.jpg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Isaac_Newton_signature. Piero. Thomas Gun.org/w/index.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Bcartolo at en. Plindenbaum.wikipedia.wikipedia. Aristeas.wikipedia. Thuresson.jpg Source: http://en.php?title=File:ForceDiagram.wikipedia.php?title=File:Earth-G-force.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Morel.0 Contributors: Avalokitesvara File:Isaac Newton statue.php?title=File:Skaters_showing_newtons_third_law.php?title=File:Isaac_Newton_statue.dallorto. Mattes.php?title=File:NewtonsTelescopeReplica.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Beria.org/w/index. Madmedea. Licenses and Contributors File:GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689.php?title=File:Sec2tan.jpg Source: http://en.PNG Source: http://en.org/w/index.php?title=File:Isaac_Newton's_Temple_of_Solomon.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.jpg Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en._Bt.0 Contributors: Patrick Edwin Moran File:Coriolis effect11. Ephraim33. Svencb.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bestiasonica. Duesentrieb.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2. Jeremiahpatrick.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukk. Lombroso.php?title=File:Gottfried_Wilhelm_von_Leibniz.wikipedia. HHahn.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Azeira Image:Newtons apple. Solipsist. Zaphod.php?title=File:GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689. dates from the 18th century. FalconL.wikipedia.php?title=File:Isaac_Newton_Labratory_Fire. Saperaud. Factumquintus.wikipedia. Siebrand. Bjankuloski06en.php?title=File:Coriolis_effect11. Thomas Gun.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Klaus-Dieter Keller._Botanic_Gardens.php?title=File:Mach_bucket.php?title=File:Isaacnewton. Wst File:NewtonsTelescopeReplica. Wknight94.wikipedia.php?title=File:NautilusCutawayLogarithmicSpiral.png: Isaac Newton File:Sir Isaac Newton by Sir Godfrey Kneller.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Algorithme. Eusebius. Wst.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Klaus-Dieter Keller. Wst. Kelson. Image:NewtonsTelescopeReplica.

php?title=File:Newton_revolving_orbit_e0.jpg Source: http://en.0 Contributors: WillowW Image:Impact parameter straight line.png Source: http://en.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.wikipedia.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Zhaladshar at en.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.wikipedia.php?title=File:NewtonIteration_Ani.php?title=File:150mm_Texereau_telescope_n1. Bkmd. Svdmolen. Merchbow.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: User:Hel-hama 203 .0 Contributors: WillowW Image:Epi half spirals. Ephraim33.php?title=File:Newton_Opticks_titlepage.org/w/index.0 Unported Contributors: SvonHalenbach File:Lanature1873 telescope lassel.wikipedia.svg Source: http://en.png License: GNU General Public License Contributors: D-Kuru. Rovnet.org/w/index.wikipedia.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.2.wikipedia.php?title=File:Astroscan.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.JPG Source: http://en. 1 anonymous edits File:Newtonian_reflector.png Source: http://en.php?title=File:Newton_revolving_orbits_1_inv2_inv3.wikipedia.php?title=File:Arithmetica.2.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.Image Sources.php?title=File:Impact_parameter_straight_line.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Kurpfalzbilder.org/w/index.0 Contributors: WillowW Image:Newton revolving orbits 1 2 3 6. Mdd.wikipedia.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.org/w/index.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: ALE!.wikipedia.svg Source: http://en.org/w/index.wikisource Image:NewtonsPrincipia.php?title=File:Rotating-sphere_forces.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index. Wst. Norro File:Newton-Teleskop.php?title=File:Epi_half_spirals.png Source: http://en.PNG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Porao.0 Generic Contributors: Peter Facey File:Woolsthorpe Manor.org/w/index. Solipsist.5.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.php?title=File:Poinsot_half_spirals.0 Unported Contributors: Brian Brondel.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index.wikipedia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia. Xocoyote.php?title=File:Woolsthorpe_Manor.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: AndrewBuck File:Newton01.wikipedia.wikipedia.php?title=File:Newtonianscope-inside. Borisblue File:Opticks.org/w/index.org/w/index.wikipedia. Aushulz.jpg Source: http://en.svg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Opticks. JackyR.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.wikipedia.wikipedia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.php?title=File:Lanature1873_telescope_lassel.wikipedia.php?title=File:Cranbury_Park_Hampshire_Morris_edited.PNG Source: http://en.0 Contributors: Brews ohare Image:Rotating-sphere forces.wikipedia.1.svg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Newton_revolving_orbits_1_2_3_6.ogg Source: http://en.org/w/index.0 Contributors: WillowW image:arithmetica.wikipedia.php?title=File:NewtonsPrincipia.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.svg Source: http://en.0 Contributors: Szőcs Tamás Tamasflex Image:Rotating spheres.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Unported Contributors: KSmrq Image:Newton revolving orbits 1 inv2 inv3.php?title=File:Newtroot_1_0_0_0_0_m1.1.org/w/index.wikipedia.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index.jpg Source: http://en.gif Source: http://en.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:ArtMechanic File:Newtonianscope-inside. Aristeas.0 Contributors: Brews ohare Image:Newton revolving orbits.0 Unported Contributors: user:ECeDee File:Newtonianscope-overview. Welbeck File:Cranbury Park 01.php?title=File:Principia_Page_1726.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Isaac Newton Image:StatueOfIsaacNewton.2.wikipedia.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.jpg Source: http://en.png Source: http://en.org/w/index.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia. Licenses and Contributors File:Gravitational field.org/w/index.php?title=File:StatueOfIsaacNewton.php?title=File:Cranbury_House.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Isaac Newton Image:Prinicipia-title.0 Contributors: Szőcs TamásTamasflex File:Newtontelescope.org/w/index.wikipedia. Solipsist. Borisblue.0.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia. Duesentrieb.png Source: http://en.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Fountains of Bryn Mawr. Maksim. Mdd.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cranbury_Park_03.php?title=File:Newton_revolving_orbits.org/w/index.php?title=File:UniversalArithmetick.0 Contributors: Dminnaar File:Telescope trailer 22.jpg Source: http://en.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Bkmd.6_3rd_subharmonic.php?title=File:Newton01.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Generic Contributors: Geoff Barker File:Cranbury Park 03.svg Source: http://en.org/w/index.org/w/index.5 Contributors: Gil-Estel File:Astroscan.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en.PNG Source: http://en.PNG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.org/w/index.0 Generic Contributors: Acc60.wikipedia.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AtonX.bjb.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index.wikipedia.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Generic Contributors: Peter Facey File:Cranbury House.wikipedia.php?title=File:Newton_Cannon.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3. TommyBee.php?title=File:Cranbury_Park_01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.php?title=File:Newton_revolving_orbit_diagram.0 Unported Contributors: user:Brian Brondel File:Disque newton.org/w/index.bjb.php?title=File:Gravitational_field.gif Source: http://en.php?title=File:Dobson_truss.php?title=File:Newton-Teleskop.wikipedia.2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.wikipedia.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.ogg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.org/w/index.0 Contributors: Paul Hermans Image:Principia Page 1726.org/w/index.wikipedia.org/w/index.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en. 3 anonymous edits File:Manchester John Rylands Library Isaac Newton 16-10-2009 13-54-26.wikipedia. Xenophon image:UniversalArithmetick. LutzL.php?title=File:NewtonsMethodConvergenceFailure.php?title=File:Newtontelescope.org/w/index.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Halfblue Image:Dobson truss.de.0 Generic Contributors: Jacklee.php?title=File:Manchester_John_Rylands_Library_Isaac_Newton_16-10-2009_13-54-26.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: user:ECeDee File:Dobson class. Aunuki.org/w/index. JMCC1.org/w/index.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Disque_newton.0.0 Contributors: User:Lookang Image:Newton Cannon.5. Wst.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.php?title=File:Newtonian_reflector.jpg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Lunar_libration_with_phase2.wikipedia.0 Contributors: WillowW Image:Retrograde Motion.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Aaron Rotenberg image:newtroot 1 0 0 0 0 m1.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.wikipedia. 1 anonymous edits File:Newton revolving orbit e0.jpg Source: http://en.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.0.gif License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Ralf Pfeifer Image:NewtonsMethodConvergenceFailure.php?title=File:Rotating_spheres.0. Zundark File:Cranbury Park Hampshire Morris edited.org/w/index.0 Unported Contributors: KSmrq Image:Lunar libration with phase2.php?title=File:Newtonianscope-overview.png Source: http://en.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.jpg Source: http://en. WolfgangRieger.0 Unported Contributors: SvonHalenbach File:150mm Texereau telescope n1. Anarkman. Aushulz. Piero.php?title=File:Telescope_trailer_22.org/w/index.org/w/index.php?title=File:Retrograde_Motion.6 3rd subharmonic.0 Contributors: Cyrille BERNIZET Image:NewtonIteration Ani.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Xocoyote File:Newton_Opticks_titlepage.org/w/index.0 Contributors: WillowW Image:Poinsot half spirals.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.svg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Dobson_class.org/w/index. Titpost.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia. Dbc334. Thuresson.org/w/index.php?title=File:Prinicipia-title.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Tomruen Image:Newton revolving orbit diagram.jpg Source: http://en.

org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ .0 Unported //creativecommons.License 204 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.