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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. Born prematurely. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written.1 litres). alchemist. 25 December 1642. and contributed to the study of power series. In mathematics.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. In this work. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. Margery Ayscough. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. natural philosopher. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. He was an unorthodox Christian. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. When Newton was three. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation.[11][12][13] . and for the style of the work. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. astronomer. independently. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. he was a small child. due. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. and theologian. published in 1687. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. mathematician. At the time of Newton's birth. the subjects he is mainly associated with."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. he never married. Newton was also highly religious. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.

nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton. Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. he was admitted to Trinity College. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below).[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. Famous Men of Science. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role.. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method".[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome. Luckily for Newton.. In 1665. Newton was educated at The King's School. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. In 1667.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below).[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests. Sarah K. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. Galileo. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. ordaining normally could not be dodged.[18] At that time.[23] A related subject was infinite series. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. he became the top-ranked student.. for example. such as Descartes. and Kepler. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. He hated farming. NY: Thomas Y. and after 1820 or so.[15] Henry Stokes. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton. Crowell & Co. where his mother. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". and did not give a full account until 1704. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14].) Such a .[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. also by British mathematicians. Nevertheless.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. although with very different notations. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. a fellow of our College. attempted to make a farmer of him. in a manuscript of October 1666.[17] In June 1661. and by October 1659. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. master at the King's School. were adopted by continental European mathematicians. He was removed from school. and very young . For such a significant appointment. widowed by now for a second time.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus.

other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. Newton's method. However. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. In 1691.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier.[32] Starting in 1699. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory.[34] 4 . the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables). Because of this.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. valid for any exponent. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. whose permission was needed. and Charles II. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. However. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". but never finished it. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. however. Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. accepted this argument. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. He discovered Newton's identities. At the time. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. of 1684. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. In that day. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism.Isaac Newton suggestion. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences.

the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. the first known functional reflecting telescope. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. John Maynard Keynes. when Hooke. Newton lectured on optics. . he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props. revived his interest in alchemy. across a vacuum. which he later expanded into his Opticks. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. he might not have developed his theory of gravity. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns. Thus. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. and the general phenomenon of diffraction. In 1671. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration). he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem.) In 1704.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions.. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate.. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. it stayed the same colour. 12).) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work.II.and may .13). however. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. today known as a Newtonian telescope. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies.[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. As a proof of the concept. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.[39] Building the design. Newton published Opticks. Today's quantum mechanics. Props. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles.

In an article entitled "Newton.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest.[51] Later. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. i. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. In this work.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence.e. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. the use of multiple-prism arrays. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. via diagrams. In the same book he describes. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". but they did not so far indicate its cause. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. wherever it was. and much more.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers.[49] For Newton. using a glass globe (Optics. was at rest). accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth.. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. prisms. In the same work. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'. 8th Query). Also. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . as they did. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. and defined the law of universal gravitation. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way.

portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. after Sir Francis Bacon. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. His half-niece. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). Newton became internationally recognised. John (1733) – were published after his death. until his death in 1727. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. when it abruptly ended. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. Cambridge. but Newton took them seriously. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above).[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. the Astronomer Royal. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726].[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. These appointments were intended as sinecures. 1st Earl of Halifax. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. He took charge of England's great recoining. Towards the end of his life. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. In his position at the Royal Society. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. which Newton had used in his studies. Catherine Barton Conduitt. With the Principia. a position Newton held until his death. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. Unlike Aristotle's. named in Newton's honour. .Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. Mathematically. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.[102] Apple incident . Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. The SI unit of force is the newton. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. with time. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. Before Newton. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. they may be at rest). For example. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. the first term vanishes. this is expressed as .

"Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. the reason is. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. as well as the earth draws the apple. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. therefore the apple draws the earth. whose manuscript account. only he. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head."[106] John Conduitt.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. had the first thought of his system of gravitation." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. & myself. amidst other discourse. it must be in proportion of its quantity.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. there must be a drawing power in matter. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. and get good agreement. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. Cambridge.. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. as when formerly. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. not in any side of the earth. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. if matter thus draws matter. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). or toward the centre. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: .[107] In similar terms. that the earth draws it. and hence named it "universal gravitation". & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. published in 1752.. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. to the Moon. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees.[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. he told me. he was just in the same situation. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth.[111] . Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. Grantham. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. in an inverse-square proportion. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. The King's School. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. We went into the garden.[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period.

At Newton's birth. 22 [17] James. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. .1. flickr. n. . org/ stable/ 236236)". pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period. uk/ newtlife.e. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. Isaac. "Isaac Newton. p. [2] Mordechai Feingold. Derek (1986). a.96. explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. (1996). fictional. php). May 2007. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. Leibniz. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 28 March 2010. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www.. . i. org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 530–1. Barrow. [6] Snobelen. isaac-newton. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. doi:10. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. James R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 84. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Oxford University Press. (2001). "Singular scientists". New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. (1970). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. PMID 12519805. Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). p. oxforddnb. . (1999). in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. . Daniel S. 315. ISBN 9780521274357. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. [9] Christianson. Michael Hoskins (1997). Vol. edu/ MATH/ Newton. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar.4 [4] Gjersten. Vol. I. p. jstor. google. No. [14] http:/ / www. c. 11.43. newton. 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www. Oxford University Press. Isis. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. Greenwood Publishing Group. PMC 539373. org/ heretic. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. doi:10. google. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. html). [18] Michael White. p. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. . . [13] Newton. 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. 159. Graham's Home Page. Ioan (January 2003). Bellevue College. [5] Westfall. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). Retrieved 28 March 2010. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. p. html). pp. By the time he died. Optical Lectures. 2 (June. Stephen D. (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. 1993). pp.B. ISBN 9780521058179. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www.1017/S0007087499003751. September 2004. Cambridge University Press . Retrieved 3 February 2009. Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books.36. ISBN 0195092244. ac. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books.Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. com/ view/ article/ 1541). google. p. Newton. Unless otherwise noted. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. [7] Burt. 50. 1998. Retrieved 28 March 2010. accessed 24 February 2009. (1983) [1980].1258/jrsm. ISBN 1-573-56256-4. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day.M1) [19] ed. berkeley. bellevuecollege. Gale E. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Richard S. html). com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). google. chlt. 8. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. Isaac. Moreover. heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). 74. online edn. com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). The Newton Handbook. google. [10] Cohen.

99. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. J. 232 [55] White 1997.. [27] Clifford Truesdell. [54] White 1997. 44. 'Principia'.1364/OPN. document #235. vol.). Retrieved 16 January 2010. [36] Newton. "Newton. cam. 1729 English translation. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". Cambridge University Digital Library. . com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54). cam.. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). [21] Venn. prisms. Isis 73 (4): 523.com. [25] Newton. "Hydrostatics. Cambridge University Digital Library.245 [58] Yonge. p170 [40] Hall. p. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www..000024. at pages 391–2. [51] Edelglass et al. J. DuarteOPN(2000). "The Newton handbook". 'Never at Rest'. p. Henry C (2003). . [59] Westfall 1980.11. F. com/ F. Google Books. J. 595 15 . Book 3 (1729 vol. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400).). [23] D T Whiteside (ed. google. Isaac.1. [48] D T Whiteside (ed. p. King. . J. (Cambridge University Press. "Newton. google. doi:10. [30] D T Whiteside (1970). uk/ cgi-bin/ search. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Volume. htm#newton). Retrieved 10 January 2012. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). H W Turnbull. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). Retrieved 16 January 2010. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. [41] White 1997. [60] Westfall 1980. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". (1898). at page 149. p. pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. pdf). p. at page 297. Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes.online-literature. p. by Alfred Rupert Hall.T. 324 [38] Ball 1908. . pages 116–138. 325 [39] White 1997. 151 [35] King. especially at pages 119–120. Cambridge University Press 1960.). [49] See Curtis Wilson. John Maynard (1972). (2000). com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). Alfred Rupert (1996). [45] Dobbs. Numericana. A. eds (1922–1958). 1968). [53] Westfall 1980. Cambridge University Press. google. '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679. ISBN 9780486432656. [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia. numericana.317 [56] Gerard Michon. 54 [52] Westfall 1980. com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). nor for his service at the Mint. Isaac. at page 319. [47] R S Westfall.. 'Principia'.com. at page 30. vol. see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). 1729 English translation. an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science. ac. (December 1982). 1684–1691. at page 41 (http:/ / books. google.107 [32] Westfall 1980. Google Books. 1980. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. at p." Westfall 1994 p. A very short introduction. " Newton. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. Bibcode 2000OptPN. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. cam. Matter and Mind. 356ff [34] White 1997. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. p. MacMillan St.2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. Page 74 (http:/ / books.. [26] Newton. ISBN 9780521566698. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte. 1696). 2A'. doi:10. "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. Isaac (http:/ / venn. . pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". Retrieved 23 September 2009. . opticsjournal. lib. google. lib. Cambridge University Press 1974. at page 54 (http:/ / books. lib.1086/353114. Robert (2007) Newton. [31] Stewart 2009. [24] D Gjertsen (1986). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). Martin's Press. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908. p. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). . com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). Retrieved 16 January 2010.. p. google. 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. com/ arms/ index. [37] Ball 1908. page 67 (http:/ / books. [43] Iliffe. p. google.2. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. at page 400.5. Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. vol. ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233).11. ac. 1676–1687' ed. Chapter 11. at page 233 (http:/ / books. 363–4. Charlotte M. online-literature.Isaac Newton [20] Newton. Retrieved 10 January 2012.6. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. J. Venn. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2). The Man". "A short account of the history of mathematics". 1967). Optics.24D. google. ac. pp.

Book III. R. htm). Thayer. p. p. G. Ch. p 164. p. Paris. p. U. Query 31. 2nd Ed 1706. 65. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [90] Westfall. cited in. Richard S. uk/ banknotes/ denom_guide/ nonflash/ 1-SeriesD-Revised. [75] Pfizenmaier. [82] Westfall. [83] Haakonssen. Wallace trans. v. 1867. Retrieved 27 August 2009. Associated Press. p. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. as transcribed in Jean-Pierre Maury (1992) Newton: Understanding the Cosmos. pp. com/ print. . . le comte J. Retrieved 1 August 2007. News. Milford. p. New Horizons [64] Wikipedia Standing on the shoulders of giants. 259 [96] White 1997. (1994). christianpost. Robert M. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Scientist and Teacher. 42. politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons"." in Farewell to Matters of Principle. bankofengland. ed. com/ biography/ Newton. [74] Westfall. London: Oxford UP. [84] Frankel._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. org/ News. 1850. [62] Fred L. A Marginal Jew. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. 1. . Retrieved 30 August 2006. 1989. p19. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain.: Mott Media. htm) on 13 August 2007. [86] Principia. 29 November 1999. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. (1958). 1953. the success of Newtonian physics in providing a mathematical description of an ordered world clearly played a big part in the flowering of this movement in the eighteenth century" John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. ISBN 0208008438. [70] Opinion poll.Isaac Newton [61] "Newton. [76] Tiner.H. Cambridge University Press. Alan.uk (http:/ / news. p. Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists. ISBN 0521477379. p. firstthings. (1959–77). pp. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33. ISBN 0791413195. [87] A Short Scheme of the True Religion. L. Charles (1948). stm) [71] "Famous People & the Abbey: Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. Edinburgh. [93] Cassels. New Haven: Yale University Press. wolfram. co. [66] White 1997. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Monday. Hafner Library of Classics. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. p. [88] Webb. [72] "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide" (http:/ / www. [85] Germain. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. by Robyn Arianrhod UQP. p187. Westminster Abbey. 5 February 1676. [92] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. org/ web/ 20070813033620/ http:/ / www.. vol 3. Knud Haakonssen.C. Wilson. cited in. Lagrange. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. [67] Memoirs of the Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 11. 37. reviewed by Jane Gleeson-White. 267 16 . p. Meier. [81] Jacob. org/ our-history/ people/ sir-isaac-newton). . bbc. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. Richard S. The Life of Isaac Newton. 64. htm). Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. p2. [65] John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. Bank of England. Knud. Retrieved 13 November 2009. Gilbert G. Odo. xx. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. The Sydney Morning Herald [69] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of Royal Society scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. T. "The Enlightenment. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology. 28. 1958 p201. NY. Michigan. 200.bbc. Margaret C. Isaac Newton: Inventor. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. provisionally judges 30 most likely. New York: King's Crown Press. 10 November 2003. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Manchester University Press. php?type=article& year=2008& month=08& title_link=the-deist-minimum--28). Cambridge: 1996. January 2005. archive. html). (1997). p 241 [95] White 1997. ISBN 0521560608. Newton runner-up: BBC news. 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Manchester University Press. 233. christianpost. [94] "Although it was just one of the many factors in the Enlightment. [78] Newton to Richard Bentley 10 December 1692. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. G. 1998. M. [91] Marquard. p.S. Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings. 44.co. ISBN 0855270667.K. Writings. p.

org. . Cambridge University Press. This well documented work provides. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). James (2009). • Westfall. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports.1963. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. p. Richard S. ISBN 9780495557425. . co. 2011). • White. • Stewart. 1998). Brogdale.149C. • Westfall. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. John (1963). p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. • Christianson. New York: Free Press. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). Retrieved 20 December 2008. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780199213559. 6 [109] Alberto A. Richard S. Retrieved 10 January 2012. Inc. valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. Richard S. newscientist. p. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. • Westfall. Retrieved 7 September 2011. doi:10. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. ISBN 9781447204152. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. • Levenson. google. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. 18 January 2010. Smith. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. newtonproject. Isaac Newton. 4. html 17 References • Ball. [107] Conduitt. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. W. Newtonproject. . Retrieved 10 January 2009.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. Thomas (2010). ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. [98] Westfall 2007. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". ISBN 0521477379. New York: Dover. indiana. (1994). Imperial College London. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. "Keynes Ms. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. (2007). . Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". php). [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. Richard (2011). ISBN 0486206300. Bernard Cohen and George E. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). ac. p. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. Mariner Books.org.. ac.W. Retrieved 30 August 2006. ISBN 0-521-27435-4.182. pp. cam. John (1958). uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books.0017. google. . Rouse (1908). uk/ image1.73 [99] White 1997.1098/rsnr. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www. Michael (1997). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. O'Reilly Media. edu/ newton/ index. Fourth Estate Limited. dlib. ISBN 9780547336046. [108] I. p. Never at Rest. 337 [103] White 1997. php?varietyid=1089). [113] http:/ / www. • Craig.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. eds. Retrieved 11 January 2007. brogdale. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". Cambridge University Digital Library. brogdale. The Life of Isaac Newton. sussex. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. pp. The Art of Science. doi:10. Einstein's Wife. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. Bibcode 1958Natur. New Scientist. 130.. lib. Cambridge University Press. in particular.1038/182149a0. Cengage Learning. and Other Myths. pierre-marteau. org/ ). 265–266. Isaac. . . p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. John. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. (1980. Pan Macmillan. Gale (1984).

The Newton Handbook. A Treasury of Science.questia. Morris H.. (1950). Isaac Newton. I. E. 500 pp. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. excerpt and text search (http://www.1098/rsnr.amazon. J. • Halley. Newton at the Mint. Newton. (1965). Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation.D. ISBN 0792310543. 256 pp. (2000). New York.. and H.. eds. 1958. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. edited by I. Knopf. . • Shamos. • Cohen. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0841430144. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84.amazon. N. Rapport.amazon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. MIT Press. ISBN 0375422331. 2001. John (1946). "Review of Newton's Principia". – Preface by Albert Einstein. 147–9. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. The Principia: a new Translation. W. B. Great Experiments in Physics. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. ISBN 0521229642. ed. ISSN 0035–9149. The Newtonian Revolution. (2002). • Newton. excerpt and text search (http://www. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. doi:10. "Discoveries" pp. 354 pp. Bernard.1978. and Cohen. Alfred A. Bernard Cohen. Bernard and Smith. Wright. Essays in Biography. JSTOR 531368.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. • Dampier. focuses on philosophical issues only. (1946). Readings in the Literature of Science. • Keynes. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. (1728). Isaac. New York: Chanticleer Press. P. Gale E. Newtonian Studies. David. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. (1687). "Newtonia" pp. Inc. London: S. Isaac (1642–1727). Leibniz. H. London: G. ISBN 0486253465. (1996). Harlow. I. ISBN 0486428052. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (1959). (1965). Springer. Oxford University Press. • Shapley. (1980). and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. Harvard University Press. J. • Gleick. M. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1988.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. 2006. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. excerpt and text search (http://www. W. De C. Zev (1991). (1988). Jed Z. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. Palmer. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-00189-X. The Calculus Wars: Newton.com/dp/0521656966). James (2003). • Gjertsen. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. Isaac Newton. • Berlinski. Kepler.amazon. A. I. Gale (1984). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald. S. E. complete edition online (http://www. Cambridge. New York (1972). Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. Richard (1931). A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. • Bardi. 150–4. T. 277 pp.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. Stephen. (1975).amazon. Knox. New York: Henry Holt and Company. • Christianson. • Christianson. (1959).. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. • Dobbs. • Hawking. George E. Harper & Bros. • Newton. the Man. William C. Oxford: Clarendon Press. England: Cambridge University Press. W. • de Villamil. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". ed. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". Jason Socrates. On the Shoulders of Giants. Dampier. • Koyré. John Maynard (1963). ISBN 019530070X. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. The Background to Newton's Principia. See this site (http://www.. Derek (1986). B. Guide by I. • Craig.0006. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. excerpt and text search (http://www.

• Stukeley. W. Primary sources • Newton. Maurice. London: Taylor and Francis. rev. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. in JSTOR (http://www. tr. (1967–82). A. 299 pp. or A Treatise of the Reflections.google. ed.1017/S0007087499003751. R.. Cambridge U. 7 vols. Isaac. Isaac.org/stable/4028372). 16. Newton and Religion: Context. H. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. JSTOR 4027945. (1999). Nature. Arianism through the Centuries. Florian Cajori. London: Macdonald. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. (2001). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. (January 1997). • Brackenridge. (1959–77) . Bruce. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". (1952). 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. 342pp . Archetypal Heresy. I. • Newton. (edited by A. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. Ayval. D. Motte. eds. 19 Religion • Dobbs. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. University of California Press. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. (1999).microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. originally published in 1752) • Westfall. 2nd Series. 1: The Optical Lectures. S. Pp. • Pfizenmaier. • Wiles. White. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. • Whiteside. • Newton. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. Inflections & Colours of Light. Press. Opticks. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.Isaac Newton • Simmons. Isaac. Betty Jo Tetter. The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. ISBN 0444196110. Sydney: The Book Company.jstor. xvii + 325. (1999).google. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. Refractions. T. Vol. argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. ISBN 0521077400. New York: Dover Publications. 1670–1672. J. and Richard H. 627 pp. Popkin. J. Berkeley: University of California Press. "Isaac Newton.google.jstor. University of California Press. 974 pp." Osiris. – 8 volumes • Newton. 1984. Isaac. doi:10. (1996) 214pp. • Newton. Stephen D. (1991).org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. Thomas C. JSTOR 3653988. 1996. James E. (1996). pp. Stephen "'God of Gods. Vol. H. W. I. 2.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. Turnbull and others. 1730) online edition (http://books. (1971). links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. (1934). Opticks (4th ed. (1936). and Influence.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www.

stanford. • Newton. 20 External links • Chisholm. C.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. London: A.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports. Hall. com/predictions/newton. B. Cambridge University Press. London: Dawson.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I). Sir. John J. Millar and J.isaacnewton. Sir Isaac".edu/entries/newton/). (1748).rutgers. A. I.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton.org/web/20080629021908/http://www.50. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato. I. in Four Books.org/snobelen. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. online edition (http:/ /www. Cohen and R. Hugh. Robertson.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss. West Strand.sussex. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www.uk/ Biographies/Newton.st-andrews. John Deighton..uk/prism. R.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www.fullerton.fmalive. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. "Newton.tqnyc. (1962).). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.ac. including letters of other eminent men (http://books. J Edleston.stanford. E.com/modules/historic/newton/index.com/biography/Newton.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H. I. Cambridge.org/NYC051308/index.newtonproject. Cambridge.html). • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www.htm) Kandaswamy.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library. Hall and M.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www.galilean-library.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor.math. and motion (http://plato.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.pbs. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702).edu/entries/newton-philosophy/). Nourse.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www. Schofield. eds.a. – Google Books • Maclaurin.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.mcs. B.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www..php) • The Newton Project (http://www.ac. Anand M.google. Parker. Thayer. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. John W. .htm) (via archive. S. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www.wolfram.adherents. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes.pierre-marteau.edu/entries/newton-stm/). (1975).org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www. London.archive. I. • Newton. time. 1850.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www. • Newton. Roger Cotes.stanford. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space. (1953).phaser.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton.stanford.skepticreport. (1958).questia.indiana. ed.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web.chlt. University of St Andrews. ed (1911).dlib. Edmund F.

and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history.uk/collections/newton) .com/). optics.newtonproject.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.nodak.mcs.st-andrews.sussex. Space. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www.cam.uk/prism. physics.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes. reception.earlymoderntexts.ndsu.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton.ac.ca/newton/) Images.gutenberg.archive.lib.ac.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography. Refractions.sussex.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up).enlighteningscience. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.ltrc.cs. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.cmu.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1. audio. at the Newton Project (http://www.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy. full text on archive. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. or a Treatise of the Reflections.ac.math. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www.mcmaster.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.org • Newton Papers.ul.edu/id.ac.

who buried her next to his father. Lincolnshire. in April 1642. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. at the age of nineteen. 1697 by her son. when he was three years old. James and Margery Ayscough. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. Hannah's brother William. Smith died in 1653. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). She and Rev. and returned to his mother's household. at quite a critical time in his education. Later in his life. As his father had been a farmer. He spent a year away from school on the farm. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. When Rev. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. the elder. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer. and thus took him away from his school studies. He died in October 1642. unlike her. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. . Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. when Isaac was 54. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. By this time Isaac was ten years old. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4.

[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. not before.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. Newton. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. witty and clever. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. Hannah Smith.[5] . although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. half-niece of Isaac Newton. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. the wife of John Conduitt. and baptized at Brigstock."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. However. Is. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later.

[3] Swift. • The Newton Project (http://www. Charlotte M.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. affection and esteem. [8] St Martin in the fields register. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. [9] Yonge. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. National Archives. born in 1721. [7] Hants Record Office. p349. King's College Cambridge. References [1] Robert Barton's will. newton. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). Retrieved 23 September 2009.com. Northampton Record Office. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress. Montague. online-literature. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May.newtonproject.ac. Journal to Stella. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. www. p195. Vol 4. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. and their son. ac.[7] The couple had one daughter.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. I have long had for her person. PROB11/416. uk/ art/ portrait. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. 1715. towards the end of his life.php?id=15) . PROB11/546. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.online-literature. near Winchester. Parish register. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. entries in 1710 and 1711.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. html). Viscount Lymington. not to make a dispute over her legacies.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698.5. by then Earl of Halifax. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. . National Archives. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. however. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. On 30 August. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. & previous reference. Westminster Record Office. Harliean Society. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220.sussex. his nephew George Montague.uk/prism. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. John Wallop. Harl Soc vol 24. 1886. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. 1689. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. (1898). he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. 1543–1869. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Catherine. [5] Newton Correspondence. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727.

Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. London: Dawsons. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. he quickly stopped. proposed by the president. In 1705. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. described herself as 32 years old. Hampshire. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. Cambridge with three others. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. towards the end of his life. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. Sir Isaac Newton. Newton: his friend. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. Early life. (PRO. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. then aged 38 years. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. on 8 March 1688. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. near Winchester. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. London. 161 pp. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). In 1720. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. Catherine. on petition. 1st ed (reprinted). He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. Covent Garden. while at Westminster. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. and his niece. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. Covent Garden. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. isbn 0712903305. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. but after starting. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. but did not graduate. named after her mother. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. a whig member for Whitchurch. and his uncle by marriage.[1] By 1707. and was baptized at St Paul's. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. The couple had one daughter. defending the government on a number of issues.[3] . During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. 1968. staying only two years. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan.

J. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. (1898).htm) . "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. References [1] Venn.uk. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. 1749) in 1740. www. Retrieved 27 September 2009. " Conduitt. aspx?compid=42018#s4). On his death. online-literature. vol 4. uk/ cgi-bin/ search.. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). underage. and their son. www.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. cam. Venn.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton. A. was buried with him. lib. eds (1922–1958). pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". 1st Earl of Portsmouth.. His wife. California.cyberbeach. Huntingdon Library. J.online-literature.com. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. John Wallop. [4] Page. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. uk/ report.british-history. William (1908). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. ac.ac. Catherine. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. John (http:/ / venn. Cambridge University Press. Viscount Lymington (d. ms 57. ac. Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. fo 169 [3] Yonge. . A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. Charlotte M. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. british-history. . who died in 1739.). Retrieved 23 September 2009.

[6] . England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. the English mathematician and scientist. he was a small child. He was removed from school. master at the King's School. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. and Kepler. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. where his mother.[3] Henry Stokes. author of the Principia. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role.[4] At that time. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. Newton was educated at The King's School. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother. He hated farming. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. When Newton was three. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. achieving an admirable final report."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. Margery Ayscough. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. In 1665. and by October 1659. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. widowed by now for a second time. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. Newton was born three months after the death of his father.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. This he did at the age of eighteen. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. he was admitted to Trinity College. Galileo. Born prematurely.1 litre). persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. optics and the law of gravitation. attempted to make a farmer of him. At the time of Newton's birth. 25 December 1642. In June 1661.

on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". which was of a bluish green within next the white. and in summer 1665. and introduced him to higher mathematics.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. near Cambridge. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. and next about that the inner Crown. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. to two and fifty figures by the same method. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. and of a yellow and red without. and borrowed Wallis' works. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. in the years 1663 and 1664. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. its acceleration a. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. I saw two such Crowns about her. at night. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". 1699. book ii. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. in Lincolnshire. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. verging below farthest from the moon. part iv. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. February 19th. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction." . who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. together with observations on refraction. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. Isaac Barrow. and red on the outside of it. John Slade of Catharine Hall. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". I being then Senior Sophister. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. particularly those "in affected powers. obs. there are several articles on angular sections. It was elliptical. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. several calculations about musical notes. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. In a small commonplace book. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. and. many years afterwards. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. he was unable. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. and the applied force F is F = ma. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. which appear in his Optics. dated January 1664. Cambridge.

and added. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. a fellow of our college. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. In March 1668 he took his M. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. Dr Pearson. and signed by the master of the college. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. dated 7 August 1665. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. which he put. degree. and also chemicals and a furnace. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. probably in June 1669. He wrote a paper. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions.] a mathematician of no mean order. There were nine vacancies. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. [see also James Gregory. and who. "the name of the author is Newton. apparently for chemical experiments. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. Newton must have left college before August 1665. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. but kept the name of the author a secret." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine).A. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. On each occasion it was agreed.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. and 22 June 1666. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. optics. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. arithmetic. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. 29 . statics. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. astronomy. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. or some other mathematical subject. who had a powerful genius for such matters. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. geography. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). and a young man. mathematician. These lectures did little to expand his reputation.

because. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. as glass transmits. which would polish as finely as glass. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. he proceeded: "When I understood this. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. when I further considered. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. if they continue them for any time. I left off my aforesaid glass works. for I saw. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). as I found it. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. and finding them regular. so that a much . But these seemed very great difficulties. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. provided a reflecting substance could be found. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. it could not collect those also into the same point. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. the secretary of the Royal Society.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. So that. I understood. Nay. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. than a circularly figured lens. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. and reflect as much light." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. on 6 February 1672. bishop of Salisbury. and I have almost thought them insuperable. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. I wondered. After he explained this to the Society. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. The whole is printed in No. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. were light uniform. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672.

that the composition of whiteness be perfect. are again dissipated and severed. the figure also would be corrected to the last. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. or of acknowledging my errors. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. whereby. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. as I imagined. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. I began to try. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. that the prism and lens be placed steady. as you inform me. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). but yet with this difference. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. so I doubt not. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. for." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. with which 'tis illustrated. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. if any thing seem to be defective. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. you will not only find. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. that. But it is requisite. and that the paper. who. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. care must be taken. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. by such motion. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. but yet most luminous in blue. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. than in figuring glasses for refraction. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. And there place a clear and colourless prism. And therefore. what might be effected in this kind. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. when I made the other. I conceive. They have there no appropriate colour. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). or to thwart this relation. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. which. which they had before they entered the composition. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. and vanish into whiteness. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. And this analogy twist colours. are taking care about it at London. but yet most luminous in red. You may also see. proper for metal. . "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). but not very distinctly. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. as I said. but I shall conclude with this general one. Further on. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. how the colours gradually convene. He concludes his communication with the words: This. or proportionally disagreeing in both. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. if I have committed any. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them.

This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. George Villiers. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. and are now almost universally rejected. The public oratorship fell vacant. and. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. endeavored to effect a compromise which. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. and the inflexion of light. light polarization and binocular vision. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. I do recommend them both to be nominated. or communicated to the Royal Society. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. he says. who was the chancellor of the university. and entered in the Regent House. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally." The heads. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. or to become a slave to defend it. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. till after Newton's death. and many others. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. but was not published. . On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. and he wrote on double refraction. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. Others criticized the experiments. however. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. when a description of it was found among his papers. and. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. or leave to come out after me. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". although some of his views have been found to be erroneous.

(4. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. he says. I desire to withdraw." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. I thank you. till 1860. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface." (See Newton's cannonball. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. who married John Conduitt." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. Newton. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. if you have not done it already. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. He therefore was led to inquire whether. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. In one version of the story.57 metres) in one minute. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. when. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. as he was not in holy orders. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth. dated 23 June 1673. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675. owing to decay." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre.) .Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. as several others are. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. a fellow of the Royal Society. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. and one of Newton's intimate friends. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. by calculating from Kepler's laws. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that.

I have calculated it. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. one of the secretaries of the Society. Unless otherwise noted. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. by the hand of Mr Paget. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. Moreover. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. In January 1684. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. "an ellipse". the secretary. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established.e. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. to consult Newton on the subject. put his hand upon his calculation. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". "Why. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. Sir Christopher Wren. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar." He could not. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. in the month of August 1684. however.Early life In November 1679. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. After the latter had left Cambridge." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. At Newton's birth. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. one of the fellows of his own college. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. and started for Cambridge. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. made the two results. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. i. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. Oldenburg. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. but he promised to send it to Halley. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. or their views about the researches of others. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. Newton replied promptly. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). . and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. By the time he died. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. a copy of his demonstration.

Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. . Cambridge University Press. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. when Montagu. afterwards Earl of Halifax. and the esteem the king has of your merits. was false to him. p. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post.) (1960). ac. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". at pp. sfu. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. The Life of Isaac Newton.Early life [2] Cohen. (1970). the warden of the mint. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". Cambridge. Venn. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. J.. J. 35 References • Westfall. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed.) (1960). [10] H W Turnbull (ed. However. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal." Newton was now 55 years old. eds (1922–1958). after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. p. Isaac (http:/ / venn.M1) [5] ed. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. google. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. cam. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). cited above. (1994). Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton.297-314. Richard S. Isaac. Montagu. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude.B. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. 1960). Later life During his residence in London. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. 159. In a letter to Newton announcing the news. [7] Newton. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. cam. Michael Hoskins (1997). Vol 2 (1676-1687). ISBN 0521477379. A. 11. Vol.43. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. I. and has not . [8] http:/ / www. and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state.435-440. The office is the most proper for you. 16–19 [4] Michael White. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. Charles Montagu.. Mr Overton. lib. lib. (Cambridge University Press. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. Cambridge University Press. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple.). ac. " Newton. pp. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692.

200 and £1.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704).[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. was still. To this work were added two treatises. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. however. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. except to Newton and his friends. the second.500 per annum. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. while exports were paid for in gold. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. Newton took it seriously. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble. a process that was completed in about two years. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. he did not exhibit it in the results. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. a post worth between £1. a secret. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. Of this. . and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. with an account of their properties. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials.

from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. and E. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. 's Gravesande published a tract. making it public. was published at London in 1712. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. Leibniz. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. and having since met with some things copied out of it. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. and eight foreign associates were created. In that year the Academy was remodelled. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. "tanquam. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. I have on this occasion made it public. secretary to the Royal Society. which was also written many years ago. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. ." says he. with improvements by the author. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. but he received a letter from Leibniz. prefixing to it an introduction. W." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. who have solicited the. and published by Dr Wallis. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. (2) to determine a curve such that. and he gave a method of determining it. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. P2. He also solved the second problem. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. and a second edition of it. Hartsoeker. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. and. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). and made known to some friends. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. although Newton's solution was anonymous. by Dr Machin.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. obtained leave to make it public.

the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second.I forget from where . He held the office for 25 years. Dr Bentley." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701.. the master of Trinity College. On 21 May 1709. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. The prince had offered. however. the queen's husband. and a number of honorary degrees conferred. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. of his work. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. where a congregation of the senate was held. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life." Newton. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . and discharged the duties of the post. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. so far as he could do it. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. but being a Whig. and beaten by a large majority. when the queen. Roger Cotes. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him." (I have learnt . He was warmly supported by the residents. he was opposed by the non-residents.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. in the first few months of 1695. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. Dr Edleston. 2002).. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. In April 1705. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. they paid a visit to Cambridge. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. and of a new edition. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. "will be glad to see you in June. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. after speaking to Newton. have been completely investigated. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. Rumours. fellow of Trinity College. however. on Newton's recommendation. the master of Trinity. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. were heard from time to time. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton." he said. the lunar theory would. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society.

Caroline of Ansbach. I. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. passed both Houses. 2. "If you write any further preface. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . the following account of this new Edition. about midsummer 1713. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. true in theory but difficult to execute. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. On the 31st of March 1713. who called witnesses. pointing out their weak points. facilior redditur et amplior. and received the royal assent. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. lent his copy to M Fréret. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. she requested him to give her a copy. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. an antiquary at Paris." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. Newton waited on Queen Anne. who translated it. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. The abbé. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. In Libri primi Sect. vii. 3. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. The Princess of Wales. and. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. however. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. At last. Newton criticized all the methods. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. 4. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. I must not see it. 1713. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. on 27 July. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. He mentioned four: 1. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. "28 Mar. wife of George II. and endeavoured to refute it. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. took every opportunity of conversing with him. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. to present her with a copy of the new edition. In Libri secundi Sect. N.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. for I find that I shall be examined about it.

Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. Newton printed. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. he solved it later the same evening. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. He therefore asked Locke. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. which was published in 1728. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. This was done. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". John which was published in London in 1733. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. who was on the way to the continent. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. in 1756. In an earlier part of his life. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. This edition had many errors. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. a nephew of Bentley.. beginning his studies before 1690. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. after his death. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. . he became alarmed at the possible consequences. to suppress it". Upon receiving a copy of this work. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. and though he was fatigued from work. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. and published at Paris. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. to have it translated into French and have it published there. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret. For example in 1716 Leibniz. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. translated into French by the observator.

1111/j. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage. ISBN 9780151012787. (1898).com. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. doi:10. 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. PMID 15638889. Sir Isaac Newton.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. pierre-marteau.x. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey. archive.. html). pdf).1464-410X. .[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). online-literature.[10] Towards the end of his life.online-literature. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. horse racing. . 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. who. (2005). A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. urotoday. com/ php/ stopics. Athol L Murray. php?rec=true& UID=1304). com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25. ahds. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. Edward. after six years of "cock[fight]ing.and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. ac. Vol V. pdf). 21 September 1717. Charlotte M. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads. He endured great suffering. [9] Ostad.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). Gilbert J. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. ac. measuringworth. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. [6] By The King. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www.January 1843 (http:/ / www. April 1842 . OCLC 276340857. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. p. ahds. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. 870 [11] Yonge. Retrieved 23 September 2009.2005. Wise. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. www. pdf) (PDF). Athol L Murray. Richard Kleer.05242. [10] Westfall 1980. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. Newton and the Counterfeiter. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. litencyc. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Retrieved 2008-05-22. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. . University of Regina. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ).

ucsc. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. economist John Maynard Keynes.". alchemy. In this sense.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. Bernard Cohen (Dawson.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics.edu/~michael/koll.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. Santa Fe. he was the last of the magicians. with a and historical introduction by I. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. superstition. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. Distinctions between science. the noted English scientist and mathematician. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). 1975). Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. for example. These occult works explored chronology.

S. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. catalogue. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. Diamond. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. who throughout his life.K.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. burning 20 years of research. In the story. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. In addition. Newton's dog started the fire. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. or some other substance). Newton is thought to have said. Arts and Humanities Research Board. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold).[2] It was for this reason. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. National Science Foundation. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. In recent years. with its associated nomenclature. and perhaps to a lesser extent. "O Diamond. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. and analytical chemistry. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings.[8] . lead. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. several projects have begun to gather. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. A perfectionist by nature. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. The English Crown. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936." 43 In 1936. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. made penalties for alchemy very severe. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts.

Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. In its time. Nicolas Flamel. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem.[10] In addition to scripture. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. "Ezechielem Explanationes". the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. and his "secret book". though mysterious figure. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple. "Nicholas Flammel. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. Most notably are documents entitled. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. 1728. in a search for their occult knowledge. Hieroglyphical Figures. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. Published London. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. This concept. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. In predicting this he said. and the vegetable or the growing stone. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. Artephius. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. "Artephius his secret Book".[12][13] . who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562"."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. "Theatrum Chemicum". and occultism. early forms of tarot.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction.

as in Genesis. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. orthographic projection. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. In the knowledge of this philosophy.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. spirals. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. In addition. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. was published posthumously in 1728. only adding to the public interest in the temple.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. such as golden sections. both speculative and active. To Newton. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. . and other harmonious constructions. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. is not only to be found in the volume of nature. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. conic sections. Psalms. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. [14] Job. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy".[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". but also in the sacred scriptures.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. scholars. Isaac Newton's treatise. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". due to the success of Villalpando's publications. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". . found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. This immense 13-foot-high (4. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. 27 years after his death. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. when deciphered. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. In 1628. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. Around 1692. which was popular in its day.[17] In 1754. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. the same was true of their architecture. ” During Newton's lifetime. Isaiah and others.

1. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. .[D. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half.C. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. Nature. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. 2060. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year. Canada's National Post. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks.[19] is a small letter slip.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. in or after 1705. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy.] 70. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. It may end later. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them.C. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. Christ comes as a thief in the night. Both of these lay essential to his calculations. the period of 1260 days. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. Furthermore. evidently written by Isaac Newton. will end A. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. 7th.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. The first document. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture. Britain's Daily Telegraph.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. 800. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. part of the Yahuda collection.

Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. Ogygia was home to Calypso. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. However. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. an approximately 87. As such. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. and poets. In this entry he mentions Mephres. but rather one in which he believed the world. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. . and available source material. and the Levant. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. It is done. and various other classical historians. In Greek Mythology. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. The marriage supper. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). In a separate manuscript. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. or possibly the same island. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. but was sunk into the Sea. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Plutarch. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. Anatolia. Africa and Asia. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth. Pliny. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. as he saw it. In fact. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. standards. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. authors. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. Homer. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. Egypt.

as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world.[26] At the time of his death. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. a recognized Knight. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. and highly politicised. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. Additionally. Like Newton. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. the physical universe. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature. the level of their secrecy. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). For its time. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. Furthermore.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. However. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized.[24][25] however. these are considered learned societies. which they claimed to have in their possession. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. avowedly Christian. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone. lack of supportive publicized material. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. Considering his esteemed social status.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. anti-Catholic. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. remains unclear. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. however.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. In his library. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. and the spiritual realm.". a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement.C. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. not esoteric societies. would seem to exclude Newton .[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R.

. ac. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Oxford University Press US._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. Retrieved 2010-07-19. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. However. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. (2005). Isaac Newton (http:/ / books.M. 175. edu/ newton/ about. During his own life. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". p. s-most-famous-alchemist)". sussex. do). Discover Magazine. Rabbi Chaim. huji. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. [6] http:/ / webapp1. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. "Newton. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. (http:/ / www. . The Man". christianpost.[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. templeinstitute. . lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. Retrieved 2007-08-12. Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. William R. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. referring not to a medieval knight. 2010 [5] Newman. com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. as were many members of The Royal Society. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019530070X. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). Gale E.Occult studies from their membership. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. pbs. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. Associated Press. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. Jane Bosveld. jsp [7] http:/ / www. References [1] Keynes. Page 91. Temple Institute (1991-2008). Temple Institute. USA: PBS. Pope). and he never publicly identified himself as one. christianpost. "The Da Vinci Code". google. July/August.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. ac. 19 June 2007. htm). 15–19 July 1946. (5 April 2007). indiana. dlib. uk/ prism. . htm) on 6 May 2008.._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. 144.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. [10] Richman. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. J. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. . 1999. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. sacred geometry. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. Retrieved 1 July 2008. edu/ newton/ index. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. p. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. newtonproject. [11] Christianson. indiana. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. jnul. archive. Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). htm). dlib.

Rob Iliffe. freemasons-freemasonry. p. 31r [22] Newton. 1997. . f. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. newtonproject. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. S. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. ac.ac. 5 April 2007. google. .uk)) . ed. Scott Mandelbrote. London: Routledge. Alain (2007). . 2060. . Delta Trade Paperbacks. The Newton Project. ISBN 073820143X. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. (1972). Isaac (5 April 2007).staff. 496. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. & A.dcs. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www.newtonproject. f. 2005: Weiser. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. Retrieved 2007-08-15. fairfield. html). Michael (1999).dlib. Fairfield University. sussex. Retrieved 2008-06-26. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. p. .uk/prism. Laurence (2007).org/library/drmath/view/55191.sussex. Retrieved 2007-08-19. com/ book_bauer. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).ac. Holy Blood. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www. Michael. spalding-gentlemens-society.ac. p.jnul. . org/ ).ac. Frances A. uk/ texts/ viewtext.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell. Henry (2004).html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. Retrieved 1 July 2008.fairfield.). Book Excerpt . bcy.sussex. The Newton Project.php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www.com/pillar_solomon_temple. sussex.gutenberg. newtonproject. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. ca/ aqc/ leon.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode.ac. Stephen D. Retrieved 2007-08-15. Holy Grail.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies. Retrieved 20 April 2010. ISBN 1-59477-172-3. University of Sussex: The Newton Project. [23] Bauer.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7.M.newtonproject.freemasons-freemasonry. Retrieved 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2008-06-25.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www.edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.newtonproject. org/ newton_2060.2a. ac.D. sussex. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando.F. AHRC Newton Papers Project. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized). [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www. written at USA.J.indiana.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando. uk/ prism. . . [14] Gardner. Da Capo Press. (http:/ / www. php?id=74). 146. .html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.niu. (http://www. newtonproject. Chetwode. [26] White.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books. google. pp. . uk/ texts/ viewtext. ISBN 1578634040. . ac. isaac-newton." (http:/ / www. faculty. f.newtonproject. Joseph.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. William (2010).st-and." (http:/ / www. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). ac. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. newtonproject.themathpage. htm).faculty.from Chapter 3.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory.science.sussex. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. [17] Newton. . "Juan Bautista Villalpando. Lincoln. J. 859" (http:/ / www.sussex..3o. the Apocalypse and A.htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. [28] Baigent.ac.uu. [19] Yahuda MS 7. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed. Michael. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7.htm) • the math (http://www-groups. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books.html) • unit fractions.pbs. htm). sussex.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A. William Stukeley 1752. inul. org).. (http://www. W. 50 • White. Originally published: London : HarperElement.huji. Isaac. html). [18] Snobelen.3g.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. 117.com/aReal/unit-fraction. com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C).math.

Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. After 1690. natural philosopher. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. astronomer. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science. theologian and alchemist.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. mathematician. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. In predicting this he said. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. "so little understood". I study the Bible daily. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. and he said. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. written by those who were inspired.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. had it been made public.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used .

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct).[5][6] . and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). Alternatively. The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. or. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. 77–82. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. space. place and motion. in other words.[1] Background These arguments. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. causes. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". in general. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work.

387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. accordingly. p. the surface of the water remains flat. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition. but the neighboring train. C: Both rotate.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . who contended that all motion was relative. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force.[9] When. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. not only with respect to the experimenter. — Ernst Mach. however. and that there is no absolute motion. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. However. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. A: Central object rotates.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". Thus. it begins to spin rapidly. his real position was that motion is absolute. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. despite proximity to the pail. but in opposite directions. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. but also in relation to the water it contains. In other words. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. Eventually. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. On the other hand. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. it is not your own train moving. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. B: Outer ring rotates. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter.[7] However. but in opposite direction. as the cord continues to unwind. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space.

will make it begin sensibly to revolve. Thus.[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string. is incomplete. a limitation that has not been established. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. and recede by little and little.are altogether destitute of any real effect.. then filled with water. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. forming itself into a concave figure. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. it is whirled about in the contrary way. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. . but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. the vessel continues for some time this motion.... who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it. . In fact.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. And therefore.. by the sudden action of another force. — Isaac Newton. a stationary frame can be identified. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames.. and held at rest together with the water. Principia. — Ernst Mach.. after. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. as quoted by L. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water. the surface of the water will at first be plain. . and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. not relative. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. and may be measured by this endeavour.. and effectually to distinguish. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. and while the cord is untwisting itself.. as before the vessel began to move. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. but relative motions. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. p. which is here directly contrary to the relative. hung by a long cord. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. 58 .Bucket argument If a vessel. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. see Rotating spheres..It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. However. discovers itself..

.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. the sum of all three forces must be zero. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. see Knudsen and Hjorth. for if this were not so. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force..[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. because the element of water does not move. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω.. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. For example. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. and the aim is to determine this function. one might question just how rotation brings about this change.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. 127 Moreover. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. p. the water. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components.. But from the nature of a fluid. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. the co-rotating frame. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. if at rest. To sum to zero. the horizontal. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. However.

the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. for example. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position.) As r increases. because all positions are equivalent in energy. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. equilibrium is attained. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. In words. That is. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. On the other hand. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. that is. The potential energy is useful. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. . and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. That being so. were surface regions with lower energy available. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid.

M1). [7] Robert Disalle (2006). Thus. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. and the more rapid the rotation. editors) (2002). 191. If rotation is arrested. for example through friction. This change in shape would not be stable. . [5] René Descartes (1664). At some small angular rate of rotation. however.M1).Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). Principia philosophiae. 105. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. University of Chicago Press. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. Cambridge University Press. 170. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. a concave surface represents the stable situation. 75. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. ISBN 0226282198. ISBN 1606201433. As the height of water increases. [2] http:/ / ia310114. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). this energy is constant independent of position r. ISBN 0521656966. Requiring the energy to be constant. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. §25. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). Smith. and lowering it at smaller radius. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. google. To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. The water surface is flat at first. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. Bernard Cohen & George E. . because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. See Figures 1 and 2. google. p. Part ii. google. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). at a given angular rate of rotation. pdf [3] René Descartes. . p. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. Forgotten Books. . Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. the more concave this surface. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. Cambridge University Press. To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. 43. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). Cambridge University Press. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. . p. before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. ISBN 0521358124. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. p. us. google. p. google. archive. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. John Cottingham translator (1988).

The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein.google. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. stanford. editor) (2008). Springer. Lerner (1997). google. [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). [19] Hans J. Princeton University Press. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. . p. time. p. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. 167. . Soc. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. 45. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. . Am. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. vol. See: • R. Partridge (1995). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127.edu/l/leib-met.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. ISBN 0120598779. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). . B. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent.utm. . ISBN 354067652X. George Edwin Smith. p. Phil. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. Poul G. ISBN 0691033234. ISBN 0375412883. article by Robert Rynasiewicz. Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. External links • Newton's Views on Space. pp. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). In I.google. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. no. 143. google. 104.M1). p. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). ISBN 0521352541. ISBN 0521656966. cit.M1). html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. 79-81 [13] L. Weber & George B.). ISBN 0867204796. 78. google. google. 19. Jones & Bartlett.edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.M1). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. stanford.iep. 325–348.. ISBN 0486607690. At the end of this article. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. . com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. In Edward N. google. . us. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521857902. and Motion (http://plato. 79. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. op. John Wiley & Sons.M1). google. 5 (1975) ed. 279–280. 78–79. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1. 404. p.). . Draza Marković (Editors) ed. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. Lynden-Bell (1996). . com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. New York: Courier Dover Publications. Leibniz (http:/ / books. p.Bucket argument p. [11] Robert Disalle. p. Cambridge University Press. [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884).M1). Knudsen. google. ISBN 1402086679. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104.. . Wiley. [15] Jens M. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Springer. A A Knopf. Academic Press. pp. The Universe and the Bucket".com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. . com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). p. pp. 386–387. • D.M1) (in Proc. Hjorth (2000). loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. "Chapter 2. Time.M1). pp.htm) see section on Space.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. Arfken (2003). Bernard Cohen. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. 119. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. pdf) pp. [16] Lawrence S. google.). . archive. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. • Ralph A. and the texture of reality. ISBN 0521621135. "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. 127.google. Zalta. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. google. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books.stanford.

pi calculus. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. More generally. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. lambda calculus. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. Calculations of volumes and areas. one goal of integral calculus. more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. term by term integration. and join calculus. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. and infinite series. Calculus is the study of change.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. or "infinitesimal calculus". derivatives. 1820 BC).[4] In the 5th century AD. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics. with no indication as to method. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. Historically. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". broadly called mathematical analysis. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. calculus. economics.[6] . a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. early forms of differentiation. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. variational calculus. to calculate areas and volumes. integrals.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation. which prefigures the concept of the limit. Calculus has widespread applications in science. It has two major branches. and some of them are wrong. but the formulas are mere instructions. Eudoxus (c. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. functions.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. an integral test for convergence. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. infinite series approximations. differential calculus and integral calculus. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. while Archimedes (c. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education.

the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. second and higher derivatives.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. he developed series expansions for functions. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. Isaac Barrow. Pierre de Fermat. By Newton's time. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. but Leibniz published first. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. Taylor series. He did not publish all these discoveries. and providing the product rule and chain rule. which is its logical [7] development. The product rule and chain rule.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. introduced the concept of adequality.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics." —John von Neumann In Europe. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. the oblateness of the earth. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. and the system of mathematical analysis. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. including fractional and irrational powers. In other work. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. the notion of higher derivatives. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. Newton derived his results first. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. Unlike Newton. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. in their differential and integral forms. and James Gregory. In his publications.

attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. Robinson's approach. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. . foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. Several mathematicians. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. In modern mathematics. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. In Cauchy's writing. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. however. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". who gave the new discipline its name. developed in the 1960s. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. to the detriment of English mathematics. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. but it would be 150 years later. Following the work of Weierstrass. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception.Calculus Society. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. Today. It is Leibniz. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. including Maclaurin. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm.

and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. Greece. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. center of mass. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. just like infinitesimals. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. but less than any number in the sequence 1. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. during the 17th century. . Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. arc length. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals.. For centuries. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. China. . This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. However. time. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. especially the limit and the infinite series. 1/3. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. From this point of view. but use the ordinary real number system. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. They capture small-scale behavior. India. work. 1/2. and pressure. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. and for this reason they are the standard approach.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt.. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. volume. "infinitely small". which resolve the paradoxes. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers.. Iraq. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. and Japan. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. Persia. and motion. In this treatment. Calculus provides tools. i. in some sense.e. the slope of a curve. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. In the 19th century. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. and optimization. Historically. and less than any positive real number.

Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. where functions usually input a number and output another number. (a. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. Therefore (a + h. and applications of the derivative of a function. can take the squaring function as an input. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line." For instance. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. For example. In mathematical jargon. Thus. three is sent to nine. f(a)) and (a + h. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. however. four is sent to sixteen. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. If the input of the function represents time.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. properties. the derivative of the function of f is f′. Given a function and a point in the domain. it is possible to produce a new function. then a + h is a number close to a. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. let f be a function. b is the y-intercept. if the graph of the function is a straight line). then it outputs six. if the doubling function is given the input three. then it outputs nine. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. pronounced "f prime. f(a + h)) is close to (a. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. f(a)). meaning that it considers the behavior of f . Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. and if the squaring function is given the input three. however. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. For example. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. If h is a number close to zero. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. where x is the independent variable. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. To be concrete. which is impossible. the doubling function. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. and fix a point a in the domain of f. it is the velocity of the ball. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. that is. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. The derivative. y is the dependent variable. f(x)). If a function is linear (that is. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. f(a + h)). This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. outputs a second function. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function.

The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. that is to say. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. . −15/8) has a slope of 23/4.9) is 6. For this reason. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. Here is a particular example. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2.

Leibniz. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. If the speed is constant. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. (This use of upper. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. the inverse operation to the derivative. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. only multiplication is needed. but if the speed changes. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. the indefinite integral and the definite integral.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. the derivative.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. integral calculus studies two related linear operators. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. called a Riemann sum. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. In technical language. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. For example: In this usage. as the output. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. then the speed will stay more or less the same. However. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. however. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. .Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. introduced by Leibniz. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. and applications of two related concepts. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. properties. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled.

the area between the axis and the curve. The indefinite integral. we can choose one value of the function f(x)." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). as an output. the area. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. where C is any constant. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. Call that value h. To approximate that area. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. . which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. The symbol of integration is . and is not being multiplied by f(x). between two points (here a and b). the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. is y′ = 2x. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. For each small segment. an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. dx is not a number. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. f(x)=h. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. or antiderivative. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it.

population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. economics. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. statistics. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. concavity and inflection points. business. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. the moment of inertia of objects. we use calculus to derive its path. the study of graphs of functions. slope. for every x in the interval (a. made by both Newton and Leibniz. In analytic geometry. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. This realization. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. computer science. Physics makes particular use of calculus. then Furthermore. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. . was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. More precisely. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. In biology. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. b). demography. b).Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. actuarial science. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. medicine. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. engineering. For example. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus.

130. An approach through history. Scott.. ac. Iris B. p 2 (http:/ / books. (2009). Robert Sonné (1966). [8] André Weil: Number theory. Ltd. Biggers. . edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. For example. Liu. F. google. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill.. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images.. pp. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu.. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. and linear approximation. p.. For instance. Copy (http:/ / books. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. Reprinted in Bródy. ed. in Heywood. Vámos. . 1995. Fan.. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. mcs. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www.. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). Jones & Bartlett Learning. . 2008. agnesscott. T. R. fixed point iteration. From Hammurapi to Legendre. Reed. 2. Kenelly. The Works of the Mind. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. In nuclear medicine. Gottfried Wilhelm. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. Wright. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. pp. Chapter . Cohen.. Vol. xxvii.. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. "The Mathematician". Elif (April 1995). Examples are methods such as Newton's method. google. B. google. st-andrews. Boston. p. p. Method. htm). From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. p. Discrete Green's Theorem. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. Pte.. html [7] von Neumann.. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. Inc. ISBN 0817645659. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. Dennis G. Sherry (2007). google. University of Chicago Press. [9] Leibniz. In economics. Warren S. 279. Donald R. For example. 1947. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. 1984. I [3] Archimedes.. Wright. google. John W. Cengage Learning. eds. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. In the realm of medicine. Agnes Scott College. it's used to derive dosing laws..Calculus Green's Theorem. . Inc. 279 (http:/ / books. Birkhauser Boston. google. Cosimo. 618–626. World Scientific Publishing Co. J. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. Page 228. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. p. The Neumann Compedium. Dainian. Chapter 1. MA. . Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-763-75995-3.. 180–196. google.. 28. Springer. ISBN 9810222017. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object .). is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue.see also the summed area table algorithm.

• Cliff Pickover. Volume 2. 1998. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books.ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. Ron. NY. Addison-Wesley.html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. Volume 1. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. Ch. 9th ed. Donald A.. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. • Tom M. "Calculus". Thompson and Martin Gardner.wolfram. • Thomas/Finney. • Robert A. (September 1994). George B.. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. Bruce H. Carl Benjamin (1949). 25. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. Maurice D. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. Frank R. (1996). (2003).. ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. Cambridge University Press. Vol. Weir.2002.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. Richard D.. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. American Mathematical Society. 1–46. (1999). • Silvanus P. Apostol. Adams. Ltd. Calculus: Early Transcendentals. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. Mathematical Association of America No. "The History of Notations of the Calculus. (1988). • Edmund Landau. • Albers.Irl Bivens. Not a Filter. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. 2004. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. Calculus for a New Century. • Howard Anton. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. Edwards (2010). Brooks Cole Cengage Learning.. Wiley. The Association. Press. Addison Wesley. ED 300 252. Publish or Perish publishing. 1 (Sep. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. 1923). ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th. A Pump. Apostol. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. 7. 2nd Ser. Giordano (2008).. pp.. 11th ed.Stephen Davis:"Calculus".John Willey and Sons Pte. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. Dover edition 1959. (1967). • Tom M. Anderson and Don O. • Mathematical Association of America. • Leonid P. • Florian Cajori." (http://mathworld. Hafner. University Science Books. Wiley. Lebedev and Michael J. Loftsgaarden. google. ed. (1969). Donald J. • Weisstein. 1: The Tools of Calculus".. James (2008)." Annals of Mathematics. Princeton Univ. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. Eric W. (1998). (2003). Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. "Calculus". No.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. 6th ed. Stony Brook. • Michael Spivak. Joel Hass. ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course.

nd. ( listen now (http:// www. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.wisc. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology. (2001).htm (http://www. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.pdf (http://www.htm) from ERICDigests.byu.wisc. lightandmatter.html)" from MathWorld.D. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa. Eric W. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.bbc.mit.pdf (http://www. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre .understandingcalculus.uiowa.com/calc/calc.. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.wolfram.umn.math. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www. S.html (http://www.com/Calculus.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.math.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business). "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.calculus. H. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics.ericdigests.org/index.org: The Calculus page (http://www. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.pdf (http://www.wolfram. External links • Weisstein.caltech.cacr. J.math.nd.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www. (2003).math.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.html) • Mauch.html) at PlanetMath. William V.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www.edu/~keisler/calc. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www. "Calculus" Light and Matter. .bbc. (2004).edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only). (2006).pdf) • Faraz.pdf) • Sloughter.uiowa.umn. soton.economics.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses. Dan (2000).co. (2004).htm) (HTML only) • Strang.co.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus.com/calc/calc.temple. (1991). • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan. " Calculus (http://mathworld. B. mit.cacr.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.htm (http://ocw.math. (2000). H.understandingcalculus.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson.pdf) • Garrett.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. (2006).edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.lightandmatter.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext. URL http:// www. P.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.edu/~keisler/calc.caltech.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.com/ (http://www.encyclopediaofmath.edu/~sean/applied_math. G.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC. Michiel Hazewinkel ed.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler. Thompson (http://djm. Fullerton.org/pre-9217/calculus.htm) • Smith.mit.ac. K.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism.edu/~sean/applied_math.org) at University of California.math. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus".math. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw.math.

The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman. 4. minima.[1]. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read.com/) Raymond. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www.mit. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions. A. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). this statement went unchallenged some years. 3. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. . Newton. as in the 'Principia' of 1687. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. Newton. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials. at the age of 23. as noted above.math. exams and interactive applets. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684.Calculus Dame with activities. Moreover.solved-problems. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus.ucdavis. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill.[2]) Meanwhile. Newton manipulated the quarrel. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus".html) by D.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. and others. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. and centers of gravity. or. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death. 1709–1716. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. 2. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's.

to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. I. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. however. In 1849. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. No attempt was made to rebut #4. Shortly before his death. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. In 1696. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. C. on the method of tangents. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. whereas Newton began from derivatives. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24.[2] At first. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. It is. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. but some deny this. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. Gerhardt. in particular power series. the manuscript. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . For instance Leibniz came first to integration. which was not known at the time. and in fact worked together on some aspects. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. However. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. one of which was new to him. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then.

that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. the letter of June 7.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. but it appears that on more than one occasion. I have enjoyed little leisure. 30 years later. as if by the authority of a great judge.g. the debate persisted for many years. in the Acta Eruditorum). and doubts emerged. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. in the Charta Volans. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. Several points should be noted. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. which I could sort through only with time and patience. 1713. All this casts doubt on his testimony. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. No such summary (with facts. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. which the author of that epistle. 1716. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. In any event. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. and that of April 8. forty years ago. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. which referenced all allegations. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. Moreover. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. 77 . What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. finding in favor of Newton. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. of which many are lost. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir." he said. dont plusiers se sont perdus. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. and when I did. Leibniz may have minimized.. had endeavoured to wrest from me. In accepting the denial. Now that I am old. suspicious details. The report of the committee. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. as it appeared to Newton's friends. in most cases I did not keep a copy. Moreover. When pressed for an explanation. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. dates. "I have never. before publishing them. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e.

[4] D Gjertsen (1986). not in the German-speaking world). other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". (Cambridge University Press. (Guicciardini 2003. 1696). (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. tcd. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. so making the priority row a nonsense. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. [5] http:/ / www. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). (1970). 1968). D. maths. the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. especially at p. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books.. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". at page 250 (http:/ / books. T. (Cambridge University Press. at p. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. . google. google. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions".. [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. the analytical method of fluxions. the differential and integral calculus. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. 2003). References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. and the differential and integral calculus. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. at page 400. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). at page 41 (http:/ / books.. of equal certainty. whose potentialities he fully understood.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. points of resemblance. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). google. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. They adopted two algorithms. at page 149.. 1967). which were translatable one into the other.). explaining "the method of first and last ratios". com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). "The Newton handbook".99. 120.

is the Notion of Materialism and Fate.math. as a perfect machine. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. or initiated by the Big Bang. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. random behaviour. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes.maths. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Anand. with its gears governed by the laws of physics.html). approaching a maximum value). including the law of universal gravitation. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. 1997. Rouse Ball. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. W.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. Dated. Canberra. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. 1908. W W Norton. Press. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Cambridge Uni. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. It continues ticking along. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. R."[1] . going on without the Interposition of God.tcd. • Kandaswamy. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. 1988.. a prominent supporter of the theory. • W.html). • Hall. Edward B. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. 1980. 4th ed. A. • Stephen Hawking. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will.rutgers. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. A thorough scholarly discussion.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. and tends.

Pr. 1974). Alan Durrant. Ed.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). Joy Manners. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. 19. Robert Lambourne. 201. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. p.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. (http://physicalworld.html) The Physical World. Edward. Webb. 2. quoted in Edward Grant. On the Sphere. 2011. ed. Andrew Norton. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. 3. 1991. p. ibid.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. p. [2] John of Sacrbosco. Edward B. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. God was the master-builder. space. John Bolton." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. who created the perfect machine and let it run. regularity. the Royal Society. no.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. 65. Cambridge: 1996. Clarke quotation taken from article. 1.. Edinburgh. Knud Haakonssen. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". 1850. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. References [1] Davis. . Richard S.google. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. p. 2: 103-117. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". Harper Collins. and beauty. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. 465." Science and Christian Belief 3. who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. Further reading • Dolnick. This steel artwork contains moving gears. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. R. Westfall. In this widely popular medieval text. This view of God as the creator. A Source Book in Medieval Science. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. cited in. and motion. the machine of the world. God was the Prime Mover. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. Cambridge University Press. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy.K. a working clock.

pp. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. Particle.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. bartleby. form. corpuscular theory of light. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. 1931). spatial locality. the material point and force (interaction between material points). 1210-1219 (2004) . However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. and the additional concept of force. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. and all their 'inner' qualities. com/ 65/ li/ light. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. Albert Einstein. Phys. time. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www.edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier.: Am. James Clerk Maxwell. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1].com (http:/ / www. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people.whitman. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). an appreciation by Albert Einstein. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. retaining only inertia. Translation). gutenberg.[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. pp. translation.The Wave. html) . 72. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . htm [2] bartleby. J.29-32.html) JJ Thorn et al. edited by Thomas F. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. Eugene. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. Torrance (1982).

Newton showed that these laws of motion. .e. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). 3. in the third volume of the text. first published in 1687. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and I do not feign hypotheses. page 943 of I. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal. have no place in experimental philosophy. combined with his law of universal gravitation. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Therefore. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. 974 pages. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. Third edition.e.[5] For example. opposite and collinear. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. or based on occult qualities. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces.. General Scholium.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems.[2][3][3] 2.. and hypotheses. F = ma. i. whether metaphysical or physical. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. i. Newton's First and Second laws. and afterwards rendered general by induction. in Latin. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena. or mechanical.

[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero.Laws of motion In their original form. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. independently of any particle structure. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. i. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. Euler’s laws can. Thus. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. momentum. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe. That is. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. In this sense.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. then the velocity of the object is constant. acceleration. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. however.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia. In the given interpretation mass. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. from this point of view. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. This is the most common. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity.e.

Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account.. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it. m is the mass of the body. if a body is accelerating. then there is a force on it. In other words. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below). The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. even if there is no change in its magnitude.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration.e.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. otherwise it would stop moving. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. i. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. Galileo. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. and a is the body's acceleration. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction.[22] . Thus. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. such is the case with uniform circular motion. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. where F is the net force applied. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. Thus. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. acceleration. Consistent with the first law. however. the momentum of the body is constant. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it.

according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. reading: If a force generates a motion. Then. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology.[24] .[17] The reasoning. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. a double force will generate double the motion.[23] this is understood. Under some conventions. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. particles by definition have constant mass. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. In case of a well-defined system of particles. when they are oblique. M is the total mass of the system. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. a triple force triple the motion. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. known as the thrust. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. if the body moved before. or gradually and successively. Instead. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations.[18] In classical mechanics. or obliquely joined. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. by substituting the definition of acceleration. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. in modern terms. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side.

will draw the horse as much towards the stone. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body.[25] In the above. If you press a stone with your finger. as it does the stone towards the horse. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. but act in opposite directions.g. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. the finger is also pressed by the stone. as will be proved in the next scholium. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. If a body impinges upon another. but act in opposite directions. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. For.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. and directed to contrary parts. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. and by its force changes the motion of the other. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. As shown in the diagram opposite. motion is Newton's name for momentum. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies.. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. that is to say. toward the contrary part. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. in its own motion. as the motions are equally changed. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. This law takes place also in attractions. if the road . Although the forces are equal. The changes made by these actions are equal. as usual.

From a mathematical point of view. So each and every force has two ends. which can be stated as follows. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. optical properties of substances. Given two objects A and B. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. one might say. . momentum. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. At speeds comparable to the speed of light. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. Fb.b are the forces from B acting on A. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. most notably at very small scales. Newton's laws of motion. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. each exerting a force on the other. including general relativity and quantum field theory.[28] however from a deeper perspective. and not on a single object. However. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. very high speeds (in special relativity. 87 where Fa. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields.a are the forces from A acting on B. and in quantum mechanics. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. Therefore.

Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. htm) [. Michael E. ISBN 9780070084988. p. Edoardo (2003). com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws. pp. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). Translations. 207. archive. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). P G. .. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. and by a modern text of the early 21st century.Truesdell. ce. Clifford A. Treatise on natural philosophy. Tseitlin.45G. New York: Birkhäuser. . energy. Newtonian Physics. I. google. Antonio. W (Lord Kelvin). see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively.. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points.. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". In modern physics. • Section 242. 58. and to both classical and non-classical physics. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia".. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. quantum electrodynamics. google.. Benvenuto. volume 1. . Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. Jacob (2008). the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. springerlink. McGraw-Hill Companies. energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. tripod. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. Dover Publications. This can be stated simply.. (1867). google. the laws of conservation of momentum. html). pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. us. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. google. doi:10. Becchi. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books." Because force is the time derivative of momentum.). the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. Newtonian Physics. berkeley. . References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. since they apply to both light and matter. ISBN 3764314761.]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. ISBN 097046701X. lightandmatter.12. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. etc. Halliday Browne. However. quantum mechanics. "Newton's First Law: Text. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. pdf). M. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. .. [9] Benjamin Crowell.. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. "Momentum. (2003).g. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. action at a distance has been completely eliminated. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. general relativity. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). Indeed. "4. ISBN 0486462900. .1023/A:1022632600805. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). and Tait. Lubliner.

"On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. Whiteside (http:/ / books. . Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. google. "'Corpore cadente. 78–79. The Principia. doi:10.M1). Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. ISBN 052189266X. [16] Plastino.112H. s. Angel R. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". unless somewhat else stir it. McGraw-Hill.. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. . pp. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books.. 1967). but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. 199.B. is a truth that no man doubts. google. com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009).. Faughn (2006). [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. "Newton’s third law revisited".. [14] Thornton. 161. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. Principia. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). google.). Archive for History of Exact Sciences...53. . . com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). Educ." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. J. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[. cited below. 2007. Special relativity (http:/ / books. Corollary III to the laws of motion . com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). Springer. Physics.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). p. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used. Hillier. 12 ff. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. Perspectives on Science. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. html#NewLawMot). p. 53." [19] Hannah. Millard F. in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. p. it will lie still forever. (1992).227P. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. University of California press. [26] C Hellingman (1992). and (3) Bruce Pourciau. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Applied Mechanics.. . Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". An Introduction to Mechanics. ISBN 0534997244. vol. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. . Juan C. 24. (2006).] Consequently. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0534408966. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. ISSN 0923-2958. "Physics". google.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". [11] Isaac Newton. 1. ISBN 0471037109. (2) Stuart Pierson. p. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. pp. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003).5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. stanford.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. 133–134. is not so easily assented to. Whitman. p221. google. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only.. ISBN 0521602890.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. pages 143–185. 6. College Physics (http:/ / books. pages 627–658. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. 353. Berkeley 1999. consists. (http:/ / books.27. ISBN 0387237046. Marion (2004). Daniel.. Serway. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. See Harman and Shapiro. John Wiley & Sons." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). . 27 (2): 112–115. pages 157–207. Shapiro.60 (2006). in 5. Robert Kolenkow (1973). ISBN 0070350485. also an online discussion by G E Smith. Bibcode 1992PhyEd. Eds) (2002). . the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. Pitman Paperbacks. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. .. Jerry S. p. . and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. A new translation by I. [13] Beatty. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". 1 (1993). London/Berlin: Springer.T." [17] Halliday. p. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press." [28] Newton. [. Resnick. producing the relativistic expression for momentum. Brooks/Cole.1007/BF00052611. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. google. Harman & Alan E. Muzzio. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. Phys. google. doi:10. "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. Cohen and A. [22] WJ Stronge (2004). 1971 [20] Raymond A.. M J. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. pp. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D.

com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04. volume 1. Light and Matter).com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04. P G.motionmountain.Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell.google. Peter W.youtube.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. • Fowles.com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). and Tait.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books.1). R. • Likins.google. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". Vol. M. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books. Special relativity (http://books. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw.).google.. G.com/lm/).com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178). G. (1973). Saunders College Publishing. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". ISBN 0030223172. (1867). The Feynman Lectures on Physics.com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) .html#Section5. p. Elements of Engineering Mechanics.1. (2011).com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations.2). Sands. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). • Newton. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. html#Section4. Wolfram Demonstrations Project. P. google.M1).hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw..wolfram. R.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6.html#Section4. and Section 5. ISBN 0070378525. Cassiday.. Harcourt College Publishers. W (Lord Kelvin). especially at Section 242. Newton's laws of motion (http://books. Light and Matter (http://www.mit.2. (2005).google.lightandmatter. Stephen (1995). containing Book 1 (http://books. • Thomson. (2011. especially at Section 4.lightandmatter. Newton's First Law (http://www. L.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ).lightandmatter. Newton's Third Law (http://www. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1 (2nd ed. Isaac. Pearson/Addison-Wesley. Isaac. Section 4. • Newton. Jerry. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003). especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726).3. volume 1. Benjamin.lightandmatter.3). Newton's Second Law (http://www.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy. ISBN 0030973023. R. • Feynman. 6.google. Leighton.lightandmatter. (1999). London/Berlin: Springer. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC). ISBN 0805390499. • Marion. B. Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. volume 2.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC).). Thornton.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny.

The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . Both are inverse-square laws. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). F is measured in newtons (N). m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. r in meters (m). first published on 5 July 1687. .) In modern language. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. G is the gravitational constant. Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant. m1 is the first mass. Assuming SI units. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. m2 is the second mass. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects. instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses.

"having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat.. however.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. of 24 November 1679. and on which some points still excite some controversy. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674.".[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity". and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive . but also. being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall. in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's.[6] In this way arose the question what. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. On the latter two aspects."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers".[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions. "prosecuting this Inquiry"). Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance.Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal.[7] It was later on. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society.e. if anything.[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration... that Hooke communicated his "supposition . till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". Plagiarism dispute In 1686.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known". Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified".. together with a principle of linear inertia. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time.

as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. otherwise lacking. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations."[14] . there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles.[20] and associated sections of Book 3. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. which Newton was making in the 1660s. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage. even close up. which inclined me to try it . in all editions of the 'Principia'.. but without demonstration. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. also without demonstration. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. Hooke. but that did not mean. According to Newton. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. Newton acknowledged Wren.[15] (who suggested. according to Newton. without evidence in favor of the supposition."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. Thus Newton gave a justification. supported by mathematical demonstration.. Among the reasons. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1.[14] including Bullialdus. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book.[19] In addition. although significant. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body".[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. Newton did accept and acknowledge.

even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".. Alexis Clairaut. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre.[26][27] In the light of the background described above. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. this entails integrating the force (in vector form. In the limit. for example. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). As a consequence.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. that "One must not think that this idea .[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. as the component point masses become "infinitely small". see below) over the extents of the two bodies. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour. it becomes understandable how. Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. That is. As described above. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations. taken together. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies. cancel each other out. within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727..[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. Nevertheless.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. . on the point at r0.

the increase due to the additional mass is 1. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines .2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. Thus. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. In this formula. quantities in bold represent vectors. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2. further outward the gravity increases again. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. G is the gravitational constant. and if the sphere is large enough.

except that F is now a vector quantity.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. object 1 the Earth). Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. It is a generalization of the vector form. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . For 2 objects (e. Also. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). it can be seen that F12 = −F21. per unit mass. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. object 2 is a rocket.g. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector.

that is. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. Gravitational fields are also conservative. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. where φ is the gravitational potential.[31] For example. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model). i. and c is the speed of light. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. . General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. The field has units of acceleration. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. this is m/s2.e.. in SI. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large.

• The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. you get an orbit with no precession. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". the definitive answer has yet to be found. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. and the observed precession. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. However. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. regardless of their different inertial masses. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. in his words.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. I believe. In all other cases."[33] .Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. which was detected long after the life of Newton. "assigned the cause of this power". made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. Moreover. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. In 1692. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. but in the case of gravity. Yet. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. See the Equivalence Principle. especially of planet Mercury. F = ma. and assume a point mass for each. However. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it.. In point of fact. though hypotheses abound. independent of the quantities of matter involved. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another." He never. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. in his third letter to Bentley.. decades before Newton. is to me so great an absurdity that.

. (Cambridge University Press.Proposition 75. [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. (University of California Press.. Rev.). [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. 1666. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. [2] . 1664-1684". G. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. 1645. Journal for the History of Astronomy.). google. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. nist. [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. pdf).. Correspondence. nist. doi:10. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Springer. CUP 1989. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. pages 11-61. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. at p.392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729. iastate. google. [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. google. 1960). 1960). General Scholium.80. google. Bruce Brackenridge. start at page 177 (http:/ / books. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. p. at page 66 (http:/ / books. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". document #235. A. i (1970). Journal for the History of Astronomy. "Astronomia philolaica". David B.1103/RevModPhys. Newell. Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. htm).. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. Vol 2 (1676-1687).). 1960). Robert D. . "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. google. public. In Einstein's theory. the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". (Cambridge University Press. especially at page 13. Florence. (Cambridge University Press.431-448.956 . translators: Isaac Newton. (2008). Mod. [16] Borelli. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. 27 May 1686.I. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. ISBN 3-034-60036-4.. (2009). (Cambridge University Press. 24 November 1679.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. ch. physics. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. Book 3. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). document #288. In general relativity. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata.).Bernard Cohen. Ofer Gal. 168.. [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1.). Direct link to value (http:/ / www. 20 June 1686. (Cambridge University Press. Taylor. 45 (1991). Vol 2 (1676-1687). start at page 263 (http:/ / books. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. see particularly page 431. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). Vol 2 (1676-1687). Theorem 35: p. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Paris. 1960). google. Barry N. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). especially at 13-20. i (1970). 1995). [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. 1960). "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false).633. mpg. Bibcode 2008RvMP. [21] D T Whiteside. . by I. Vol 2 (1676-1687). because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime. google. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". Phys. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Peter J. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". [8] Purrington. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia".. [22] See J. Vol 2 (1676-1687). [17] D T Whiteside.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. document #239. pages 5-19. [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. . document #286. 80: 633–730. already cited. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. [18] Page 436. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. pages 5-19.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime.80.2.633M. 1664-1684". for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. mpiwg-berlin. Vol. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity.

[32] . in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. Thorne.youtube. [27] See also G E Smith. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. it will simply fall back on Earth. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. (D) 4. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. by Richard S. (A and B) 2.W. in Early Science and Medicine. (C) 3. in Early Science and Medicine.Max Born (1924). 1. 511-517. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". Kip S. M Nauenberg. Newton". ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049.. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World. 10 (2005).. John Archibald (1973). If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. Charles W. If the speed is low. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1.pythia. 518-528.Freeman and Company.The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth. and it was the key force for planetary motion. and the Earth. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside.com.) [33] . html) [31] Misner. in Early Science and Medicine. If the speed is very high. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). New York: W. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon. 10 (2005). "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics".. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball..ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. Ofer Gal. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". utexas. Wheeler. Gravitation. stanford. cited above. Newton" (1759). at Introduction (section IX). it will indeed leave Earth. 1893). [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. 10 (2005). Rouse Ball. 529-534. at page 69. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. (E) . H. ph. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . Venus. Westfall. Cambridge University Press.

html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon.physics. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light. When the disc is rotated. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record.virginia. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. php?p=2_23 . net23. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). net/ index. the colors fade to white. eg. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell. A combination of red.bucknell. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone. Carl et al. New York: Random House.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. Notes [1] Sagan.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless. google.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111).html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours.

b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. succeeded by Halley's method. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method).Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. and the method can be iterated. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. for converging on the root can be easily derived. Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. (x1. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. and its derivative ƒ '. Then by simple algebra we can derive . b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. That is Here. f (x0)). The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. Suppose ƒ : [a. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess.

provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. in 1740. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. for a zero of multiplicity 1. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). though the connection with calculus was missing. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). (The closer to the zero. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. the better. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. However. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. essentially giving the description above. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. Finally. More details can be found in the analysis section below. In 1690. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. Furthermore.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. In the same publication. But. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. . Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. He does not compute the successive approximations . particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. Finally. However.) The method will usually converge.

Furthermore. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. However. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. and diverge from that root. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. Specifically. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. For situations where the method fails to converge. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. However. if the multiplicity of the root is known. the method may overshoot. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. there are some difficulties with the method. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. In these situations.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root.

Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α.. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . then the convergence is usually only linear. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. Exercise 1. x in a neighborhood U of α. However. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. then. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Specifically. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable.e. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. α being a zero of multiplicity r. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. In practice these results are local. in U+. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. the sequence of iterates converges linearly.6). ƒ(α) = 0. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. i. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x).

[1] for the function . 2.Newton's method 106 That is. 2. .352836327 converges to –3. 2. where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small. 2. For example. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2.35284172 converges to –3. (b) (c) Finally.35287527 converges to 4. 3. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms. 2. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1.352836323 converges to 1.35283735 converges to 4. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1.

since the tangent at (0. This can happen. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. In general. Let and take 0 as the starting point. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). instead of the starting point. x1 will be undefined. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. For the following subsections. any iteration point is stationary. . In such cases a different method. The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. such as bisection. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). for example.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. the method will converge. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . preventing convergence. In fact. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. unless the solution is guessed on the first try.

then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. Indeed. even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. For example. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. where . where its derivative is undefined (this. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. farther away than it initially was. let . so they do not converge in this case either. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). the derivative at the root is nonzero. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. does not affect the algorithm. In fact. So convergence is not quadratic. except for x = 0. In the limiting case of (square root). applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. then convergence will not be quadratic. however. let then and consequently . which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double.

Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. since both roots are non-real.127507934.041224176.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has.251062828. 0.031642362.500250376.1 = 0. For example. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. 0. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root.067671976. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. 0. meaning the iterates do not converge. Basins of attraction for x5 . the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. 0. darker means more iterations to converge.032741218. . 0. 0. For many complex functions.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. the derivative is not zero at the root. then convergence may fail to be quadratic. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. Indeed. 0. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. Given . let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions.

one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. In the formulation given above. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. . Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. If the nonlinear system has no solution.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. k variables. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line.

which may be found via Newton's method. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. There are many methods of computing square roots. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. With an initial guess of 10. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x). if one wishes to find the square root of 612. and Newton's method is one. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. with derivative. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. For example.5. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2.) . (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result.

no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. Matlab.Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. In particular.7 [7]. • Press.. New York: Cambridge University Press.6 [6]. • J. SIAM. pp. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. M. Rheinboldt. Deuflhard. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. "Chapter 9. Egwu (2008). We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. Claude.. Sagastizábal. Maple. 9. MR2265882. Claudia A. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]. PPT. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein. Flannery. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. • C. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. 112 References • Tjalling J. Ortega. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. Classics in Applied Mathematics.). Vetterling. Cambridge University Press. 2000. Springer. See especially Sections 9.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. Charles. SIAM Review 37 (4). WT. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. J. Frédéric. T. doi:10. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. of translation of 1997 French ed. C. 531–551. ISBN 0-521-00794-1.1007/978-3-540-35447-5.Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . doi:10.4 [5]. Gilbert. John H. SA. SIAM. Lemaréchal. WH. 2003. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. (2006). An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. 1995. xiv+490.). Universitext (Second revised ed. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. Teukolsky. 2004. Newton's method [9] -. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. J. • Bonnans. Mathcad. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. W. Eric W. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. Vol. Autar. 35. Kelley. Berlin. 2003. illustrating the quadratic convergence.).1137/1037125. BP (2007). • Kaw. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. and 9. • P. Ypma. Kalu.

name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. . 6). Mathematical Gazette 81. edu [16] http:/ / math. "Cubics. lightandmatter. heroku. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. r-project. html [17] http:/ / plus. nrbook. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. In physics. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. Gilbert. chaos and Newton's method". maccery. macroeconomics and other fields. fullerton. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. however. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. com/ empanel/ index. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. html#Section4. amcgowan. nrbook. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. 403-408. nrbook. com/ empanel/ index. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. [3] http:/ / www. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. It is defined as: and so on. mathworks. usf. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. wolfram. torkian. usf. fullerton. p. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. pp.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. or dot notation. html [12] http:/ / animation. html [21] http:/ / www. January 1991. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. html [9] http:/ / www. "A chaotic search for i". November 1997. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. Thomas. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. com/ empanel/ index. nrbook. springer. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. com/ NewtonsMethod. eng. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. [2] Strang. php [11] http:/ / math. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. 3-12 (esp. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. maths. com/ empanel/ index. eng. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. 1 [10] http:/ / www. yihui. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited.

it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. or a little less. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. covering the limb of the Metal round about. but be an opake Circle. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. and not the spherical aberration. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. lib. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. being the first known successful reflecting telescope. an early composition of speculum metal. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex. He also made all the tube.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. cam. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. ac. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope".[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. made with a concave Eye-glass. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. and fittings. For this Circle being placed here. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. . than by Refraction in the Glass. mount. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times.

com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23. uk/ lens. They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. ssplprints. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space. 1785" (http:/ / www. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. com/ image. php?imgref=10408672). google. google. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). google. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m. McGraw-Hill Inc. Page 74 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. .. google.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. co. google.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope.". Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. by Alfred Rupert Hall.Publication. html . com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). 1966. p.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE .M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. clas. Wilson Published by Springer. 2004 ISBN 3540401067.[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1.University of Florida (http:/ / www. 9783540401063. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. Telescopes in History. Science & Society Picture Library. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). Modern Optical Engineering. King. [10] http:/ / www.Work . Warren J. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown.6 References • Smith. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. stsci.. Dr Robert A.A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life . Heath's) in Strand. page 67 (http:/ / books. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. Retrieved 22 November 2008.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. craig-telescope. ufl. Hatch .3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4.

In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope.[9][10] If this was true.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers. then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web. and there were many theories as to what caused it.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day.edu/~picard/personal/Newton.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index.[3] and others. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616.mit. such as Niccolò Zucchi. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] . During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour.media.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build).[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one.stsci.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects.[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors.

They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope. He also made the tube. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. mount. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. The surface also tarnished rapidly. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. cassegrains. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. the primary mirror (2). Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured).[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. reducing cost and adding to portability. and fittings. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. leading to wider field of view. it would still correct chromatic aberration. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. . • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. Because of these difficulties in construction. Like Gregory before him. namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day.

with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. For visual observing. This flare is zero on-axis.[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. For research telescopes. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. .[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. Visually. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. low-power imagery.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. suffer from coma. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter).

by Alfred Rupert Hall. google. org/ basics. Inc NetLibrary. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. The Newton handbook.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. page 562 (http:/ / books.By Fred Watson. google. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& . Page 108 (http:/ / books. King. google. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. google. google. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. rice. html) [3] Stargazer . com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . VandeWettering.M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi.Mark T. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. page 67 (http:/ / books. Page 74 (http:/ / books.

Retrieved 2009-09-29. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical . htm). com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. & David Shafer.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". telescope-optics. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. .1. David (2004). 9783540401063. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life".. McGraw-Hill Inc. telescope-optics. Modern Optical Engineering. pdf) (pdf). html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. [20] Alexius J. . com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith.1. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. Hebra. Warren J. stsci. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. htm) [13] amazing-space. google. . . cloudynights. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer ."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object.. google.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. google. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. "8.edu . page 14 (http:/ / books. Retrieved 29 November 2010. baader-planetarium.stsci. [12] telescope-optics.John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. two. net/ reflecting. Gebelein. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations. com/ documents/ paracorr. Vladimir (2006-07-14). p. . com/ Telescopes/ Hadley. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. pdf). so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. 77R [16] Sacek. 1966. p. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. google. Retrieved 2009-10-03. Wilson Published by Springer. . com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). 116. harvard. espacenet. Rolin J. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review.and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian.

30. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. are connected by a cord.Sep. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought.: Harvard University Press. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. in general. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. Vol. Yehuda Elkana. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. causes.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. measuring the amount of tension in the cord. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". Such determination. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. David Hume. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that.[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. 0. Alternatively. the tension). Journal of the History of Ideas. jstor. in addition to influencing philosophy.2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). Retrieved 2008-03-26. 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. CO. pp. if two globes. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics.. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . As an example where causes can be observed. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. Cambridge. . Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. 319-330" (http:/ / links. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). Ronald S.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. Calinger. for one. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. 1969). No. floating in space. (This experiment involves observation of a force. . For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. Also. with no other clues to assess the situation. political thought and theology. he says. 1974. 3 (Jul. Mass. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres.

in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars.[2][6] For me. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation.) Below. Because of the rotation. the fixed stars. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. were revolved about their common center of gravity.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. the matter is more subtle. for example. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. centrifugal forces are produced. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. Alternatively. partly from the forces. . — Ernst Mach. instead. Scholium To summarize this proposal. absolute space or fixed stars). from the tension of the cord.[8] (Of course. have been established already as not in a state of rotation.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. but standing on the Earth's surface. which are the differences of the true motions. according to the preceding methods. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. then. pp. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. we might. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. according to Newton. For instance. no centrifugal forces are produced. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. and if.. as an example from Newton's time. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. . partly from the apparent motions..Rotating spheres force). p. by means of a cord that connects them. even in an immense vacuum. and therefore. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. Principia. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. Book 1. they are not rotating. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. — Isaac Newton. the string tying the spheres together is under tension.

also shown in Figure 2. and is called a centripetal force. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. the string is under tension. and should require an inward force to do that. This force is directed inward. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. The other ball has the same requirement. According to the article fictitious force.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). Because the balls are not moving. See Figure 2. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. the Coriolis force is:[11] . but circular motion at constant speed. In this zero-tension case. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. but opposite in direction. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. According to the rotating observer. requires a centripetal force of the same size.)[9] To account for this tension. To travel in a circular path. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. they clearly see the string is under tension. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. they would say no force acts on the balls. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. (See reactive centrifugal force. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. pulling them apart. the tying string. but being on the opposite end of the string. Because of the rotation. However. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. putting the string under tension. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. the string is placed under tension. |xB| = R. m is the mass of the ball. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. and acts on everything they observe. (For example. accounting for their observation. which would stretch. not just these spheres. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. These two forces are provided by the string. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. so the string should be relaxed. locating one or the other of the spheres). along the direction of the string. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. the Coriolis force. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. observers say they are at rest.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω.

The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. . and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. However. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. Therefore. hence. say ωI (I = inertial). For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). |vB| = ωR. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. while for a more rapidly moving frame. Full notational details are in Fictitious force. ωS < 0. In either case. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. When ωI < ωS. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. this force is not the tension in the string. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). In the geometry of this example. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. That is. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers.

82. The Principia. ISBN 0486607690. p. Cambridge University Press. google. ISBN 0486652270. Bernard Cohen. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). 43. Courier Dover Publications. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. ISBN 0521621135. 167. John Archibald Wheeler (1995).Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR.[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. Freeman (1986). google. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. p. . Time and Space (http:/ / books. google. 233. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. ωS is the greater.M1). Moreover. Finch (1998). ISBN 0521656966. htm).M1). Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. 161. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. [4] Max Born (1962). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. ISBN 354067652X. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. google. Sausalito CA: University Science . editors) (2002). p. 80. George Edwin Smith (2002).M1). . Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. . Bernard Cohen & George E. Princeton University Press. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. [2] Robert Disalle (I. 324. p. p. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. google. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. Hand. Smith. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. Springer. Figure 43.M1). [8] D. google. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. google. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. 43. Knudsen & Poul G. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). and I. . . ISBN 0486607690. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). google. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). ISBN 0521656966. p. p. com/ definitions. New York: Courier Dover Publications. Hjorth (2000). google. [9] Barry Dainton (2001). p. p. Cambridge University Press. Courier Dover Publications. p. Courier Dover Publications. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. . [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. .M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed.). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). . 386–387. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). ISBN 0691033234. Retrieved 2010-05-13. . com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. ISBN 0773523065. Cambridge University Press. editors) (1996). 175. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. . p. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). google. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. google. .M1).M1). Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. [10] Jens M. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. pp. 79. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Draza Marković.[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. McGill-Queen's Press. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. ISBN 0521575729. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0486607690. Janet D. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. google. [5] Max Born (1962). . tripod. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. [7] Max Born (1962). The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward.

348–349. Mechanics (http:/ / books. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. D. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. google. . ISBN 0521352541. An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. the theorem has been . [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. p. Da Capo Press. B. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. In Proposition 44. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. google. . one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. Henning Genz (2001). com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. ISBN 0074603159. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. p. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0521621135. Partridge (1995). In Proposition 43. Phil. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. ISBN 189138922X. vol. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers.M1). p. Am.M1). . p. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55.4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. pp.). 119. .). As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. (3. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. (3. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. Dennis W.. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. [16] R. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). 55.M1).M1) (in Proc. first published in 1687.M1). no. . [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. . Mechanics (http:/ / books.3) in Stommel and Moore. . 275. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. 325–348. he showed that the added force must be a central force. pp. ISBN 0738206105. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. google..M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. p. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. 43. and Ralph A. .[1] Since 1997. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. Lynden-Bell (1996). and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). google. he derived a formula for the force. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. Moore (1989). google. Nothingness (http:/ / books. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. 5 (1975) ed. See Henry Stommel.Rotating spheres Books. google. their Eq. 279–280. Soc. 99ff. In this example. pp. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. ISBN 0231066368. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. google. Cambridge University Press. 167. fixed in space (the center).

[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). By analogy. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. However. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. 262 BC – ca.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". To describe this forward-and-backward motion. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era.Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. to first approximation. To explain the epicycles.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. However. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars. According to these laws. In particular. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. for planets orbiting the Sun. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). Arguing from his laws of motion. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton.[5] Roughly 350 years later. Apollonius of Perga (ca. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). and so on. exhibiting retrograde motion. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity.

this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant. to first approximation. According to this theorem. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r). However. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun.[12] and Delaunay. The radial and angular motions. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. in particular. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. afterwards. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. that is. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. To find this approximation. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. r(t) and θ1(t). the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System.[11] Brown. However. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion.[13] However. However. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 .

F2 − F1 is a negative number. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. A GIF version of this animation is found here. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. if k2 is less than one. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. For example. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. If k2 is greater than one. it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). For this purpose. rather. such as r(t) and θ1(t). the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. the added inverse-cube force is attractive. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane.Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. Formally. thus. For example. since θ2 = k θ1. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. rather. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. change with time t as the particle moves. θ1). the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. then. the angle of the second particle. F2−F1 is a positive number. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. r(t) and θ1(t). In other words. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. Both of these coordinates. the path of the second particle is given by . By contrast. where k is any constant. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1).

F1(r) = 0. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter.e. in that case. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. this is true only for circular orbits. to one. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). In this case. shown in red). where k is a constant. in other words. . Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. If k is greater than one.Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. the second orbit resembles the first. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. i.e. but not equal.e.. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). Hence. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. the orbit does not change as it precesses. at a constant angular speed.. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). i. if k is less than one. According to the conservation of angular momentum. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3).. However. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. when the orbit is a circle. Hence. i. However. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. both of which are constant.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. when the distance reaches a minimum. but revolves gradually about the center of force. respectively. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω.

Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). the force is attractive.0 (green). When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k. Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). whereas when k is greater than one. corresponding to an attractive force (green. Thus. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m). the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. when k is greater than one. Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants.0 (blue). cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). 3. and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit.0 (cyan) and 6.0 (black). 1. Thus. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. 1. 3.5 (green).0 (blue). which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m. the range of allowed angles increases. as illustrated in Figure 7. Thus. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion.0 (cyan) and 6. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). when k is less than one. L12/m. the inverse-cube force is repulsive. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. On the other hand. When k is less than one. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).

the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. An govern the motions of planets. i. green orbit in Figure 9). those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. and other effects. This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. However.. where m and n are integers. i. Conversely. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). Over time. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. no matter what its initial position or velocity.. i. As shown by Bertrand's theorem.e. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually.e. green orbit in Figure 10). in general. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. For example. provided that k equals a rational number. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. oblateness in the attracting body. F = Cr. such as Hooke's law.. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. general relativistic effects. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. the line connecting the two apses. However. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. For example. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. and inverse-square forces. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green).) In such cases. For illustration. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. such as . this property is not true for other types of forces. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. In other words.e. F = C/r2.

hence. As a final illustration. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε.[16] According to their argument. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. one of the first appearances of such a series.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). Therefore. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession.C(r) is proportional to rn. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. this implies that. In the first two. using the general law θ2 = k θ1. where n equals 1. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. the apsidal angle α is 180°. For the inverse-square force. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). α equals 180°. in general. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. i. the central force is a power law. Wilson and Harper.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. in the same time. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words.. As noted above.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. F(r) = rn−3 and. Thus. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°. the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly.e.

134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately.[24] for comparison. of the planets. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8. i.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier.e.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale.[23] in Newton's time.[28] Ironically. Hipparchus and Ptolemy. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon.6 years. again on the monthly time-scale.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets. and is noticeably more complex than that. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude.0165)[26] In 1894. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time. In 1673. However. the so-called Saros cycle. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes). which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude.. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force .[25] First.85 years.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. 18.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2.

However. consistent with the formula given above. θ2 = k θ1. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. For every revolution. The second term. the original force is not scaled. For comparison. In this case. so that r1 = r2. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. but the inverse-square term is not. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. Also. roughly half of the observed 3. the long axis would rotate 1. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1). the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. r1 = r2. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In contrast to Newton.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. and its argument is unchanged. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. so Newton reasoned. and estimates of A and B. the inverse-cube force is added. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. . Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same. however.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth.[4] As Newton did.525°). Rather. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth.5°.

the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. Proposition 43.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. therefore. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. which equals (k−1) θ1. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Proposition 44 . Therefore. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. which equals θ2 = k θ1. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. derived earlier in the Principia. At the apapsis and periapsis. All three planets (red. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. by Newton's Proposition 2. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. Expressed another way. In an infinitesimal time dt. specifically Propositions 43–45. and also its angle θ1(t). This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. by Proposition 2. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest.

by which two bodies may be made to move equally. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. to offset this. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles.Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. the other in the same orbit revolving.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r). the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. one in a fixed. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45.[36] In this Proposition. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. r(t). Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. In Proposition 44 of his Principia. specifically by the formula given above.[33] By assumption.

[28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). . pp. [5] Sugon QM. [10] Clairaut. "Unknown title". [25] Newton. Monthly Notices Roy. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". [13] Delaunay C (1862). 141–147. [21] Horrocks J (1673).. Mechanics (3rd ed. Am. ISBN 978-1888009088.1111/j. pp.. Imp. Propositions 43–45. Harper W (1997). [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). esp. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473.2307/2369812.1023/A:1008317327402. [29] Brown EW (1903). Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. pp. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". p. doi:10. p. 254. [34] Chandrasekhar. Imp. 193–194. 98–106. section IX of Book I. editor.0016. [35] Chandrasekhar. problem 7). D.2307/2369997.). Principia.x. [15] Newton.13018. [14] Newton. Lynden-Bell RM (1997). London: G Godbit for J Martyn.18. 83. JSTOR 2369812. 91–108. "Unknown title". [17] Cohen IB (1990). Am. 184. p. doi:10. doi:10. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. In Norman Thrower. Sc. pp. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems".1007/BF02422379. Section IX. p. JSTOR 2369997. 192. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". Principia. pp. 187. ISBN 978-0520065895. doi:10. pp.2008. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia". p.Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. [19] Cook A (2000). 183–192. Math. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. [7] Sundman KF (1912). AC (1745). Green Lion Press. Math.1997. [37] Whittaker. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. [32] Chandrasekhar. Jin S (2008). p. Mémoires Acad. Bragais S. [16] Valluri SR. Oxford. "Unknown title". p. 135–147. [22] Wilson C (1987).1086/102055. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. Wilson C. [3] Lynden-Bell D.. [30] Roseveare N (1982). Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. Berkeley. Brown EW (1891). 198. Mémoires Acad.: 237. "Unknown title". Delaunay C (1867). 267 (Chapter 6.: 451. Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein.14. Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits".1098/rsnr.. [11] Hill GW (1895). "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations".... Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. MA: Addison–Wesley. doi:10. Proposition 45. Bibcode 1987JHA. [27] Hall A (1894). "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. [2] Lynden-Bell. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27.386. doi:10. 406. p. Book I.. [36] Chandrasekhar. Reading. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. Astron. pp. [31] Symon KR (1971).. [20] Smith. Soc.. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. Bibcode 1894AJ. 252. 67–70.245L. Principia. p. [26] Chandrasekhar.77W. "Unknown title". Simon Newcomb. 183.. [12] Brown EW (1891). pp. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). [6] Whittaker. Sc. 52: 71. [24] Smith.1365-2966. 9: 31. [18] Chandrasekhar. bnf. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. 2708v1). org/ abs/ 0807. [9] Cohen.. CA: University of California Press. 339–385. doi:10. Vawda F (2000).49H. [33] Chandrasekhar. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. Proposition 2. p. . Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. Book III. 147. [4] Mahomed FM. J. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv.

The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. ISBN 978-0520088160. • Routh EJ (1960). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.). (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). MM (2007). doi:10. Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. assisted by Julia Budenz ed. pp. • Smith GE (1999). pp. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. • Spivak. ISBN 0-85274-348-3. 56. 252–257. Cambridge University Press. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. CA: University of California Press. 83. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5.google. • Whittaker ET (1937).2432126. Berkeley. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. pp. John Wiley and Sons. Bibcode 2007AmJPh. Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. 147–148.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). Principia Vol. ISBN 978-0520009288. • Cook A (1988).352D. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion".1119/1. CA: University of California Press. External links • Three-body problem (http://www. "The first-order orbital equation"..). CA: University of California Press.75. • Rouse Ball WW (1893). pp. Merchant Books). translated by I.). 534–545. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. Berkeley. pp. 230–233 (sections §356–359). "A Guide to Newton's Principia". 183–200. Publish or Perish. Calculus (3rd ed. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). Macmillan and Co. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. 246–264. 246–252.. CA: University of California Press. 257–264. ISBN 0914098896. Oxford University Press. • Newton I (1966). Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. "Planetary Motion". 84–85. • Guicciardini. pp. p. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713).Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). ISBN 978-0520088160. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. New York: Dover Publications. Michael (1994).com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). pp. Bristol: Adam Hilger. Berkeley. ISBN 9780521544030. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. • Pars LA (1965). • Chandrasekhar S (1995). translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). • D’Eliseo. The Motion of the Moon. LCCN 64-24556. 147–148.google.).). An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books.com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). Niccolò (1999). pp. Berkeley. (reprint. ISBN 978-0520088160. ISBN 978-0520088160. CA: University of California Press. with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). Berkeley. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". pp. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. • Smith GE (1999).scholarpedia.

He also offered. without proof. it was edited and published by William Whiston. and the solution of equations. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. None of these editions credits Newton as author. In fact. cfm [2] http:/ / www.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. Babson Collection. when Whiston's edition was published. Title page of the Arithmetica. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. pdf . Written in Latin. arithmetic. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. centre. babson. and so refused to have his name appear. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. published in 1865). John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. the relationship between geometry and algebra.

Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. Law 1 in the Principia. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. (in the absence of external force. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar).) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. then for the remaining (2) propositions. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. Before reaching this core subject-matter. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. Only the draft has the title now used.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion. resistance is assumed nil. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. both copies are without title. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. Law 3 in the Principia. It contains 11 propositions. these had not been generally regarded as laws. some with corollaries.[4] as well as in Latin.) This . the distance is proportional to the square of the time. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short. After further encouragement from Halley.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia. (Before Newton's work. and its (Latin) text is available online. but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws".

Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. while their number increases without limit. and the corollaries here reappear also. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle.) This theorem appears again. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. and inversely proportional to the radius. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. problems. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. Theorem 1. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. using another geometrical limit argument. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. Theorem 4 in the Principia. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. it follows that a radius vector. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. putting this in another way. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. of the 'Principia'. drawn from the body to the attracting center. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. and shows that for any given time-segment. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. Corollary 2 shows that. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. it would then depart along the tangent. as Proposition 1. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. labeled as theorems.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. with expanded explanation. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance).) .

where the center of attraction is at its center. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. in the Principia. that if the speed is high enough. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. Problem 6. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP².) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. (Proposition 15 in the Principia.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. that is. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. speed and direction of the orbiting body. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. (This material becomes Proposition 10. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. . 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector.e. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit. square] of the distance . Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed.. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. therefore. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. Newton points out here. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun. Lastly. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. Problem 5 in the Principia. .) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. Problem 4 then explores..

The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. and as if to whet Newton's interest. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time. In 'De Motu'. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. or that they were not stated by Newton.e. According to one of these reminiscences. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places. or their views about the researches of others.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. are self-evident and obvious or not. Halley asked Newton. that in any given setup. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. and a short correspondence developed. and then gave a whole list. in 1686.[15] . i. using a falling body. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse".[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. Later. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. and other items. ". and both of them produced from very old memories.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. and the associated uniqueness statements. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley... but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. as in the first edition of the Principia.

293. of 1729.196. Westfall's Never at Rest.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. pp. 6 (1970). Vol 2 (1676-1687). among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. in Early Science and Medicine. (Cambridge University Press. in Early Science and Medicine.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton.2 already cited. and the original copy had no title: online. and printed by I Bernard Cohen.g. and the 1686 correspondence at pp. Math. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. especially at p. f.431-448. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". 116-138.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". Weinstock. at pp. Journal for the History of Astronomy.120.297. google. in "Newton's Orbit Problem. 10 (2005). gutenberg.[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. Alexis Clairaut. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 518-528. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. google. but not Hooke. vol. Historia Math. Chapter 10. Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. google.56-83.193-200. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). pp. p.195-6.). one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. at p. [15] H W Turnbull (ed. is available here (http:/ / books. but note that the title was added by Rigaud. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). 38 (2007). 1960).1 (1970). concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". 1971. who heard of this from Halley. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli.89-170. who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. at pages 56 (http:/ / books. 10 (2005).60-70. at p. pp. at p. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses.[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727.297-314. about the Principia. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. but the point was disagreed by R. Ofer Gal. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). as far as Book 1. and the first English translation. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. [13] H W Turnbull (ed.431-448.6 (1684-1691). com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. google. [14] 'Correspondence' vol. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. including Bullialdus. . to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". footnote 73.101. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. Papers vol.). but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. A Historian's Response". A Historian's Response". so-called. "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". See also D T Whiteside (1970).3968. Page 403. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). see e. org/ etext/ 28233). 1974). rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. pp. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". in Early Science and Medicine. M Nauenberg. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged. 10 (2005).). acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". and Borelli. who called it a 'petitio principii'. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. [11] Quoted in Richard S. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. (Cambridge University Press. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 6 (1684-1691). both in Newton's lifetime and later. and Bruce Pourciau.193-200.6. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. 19(1) (1992).). vol. (Cambridge University Press. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. also D T Whiteside. in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. 511-517. "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. 1960).57. vol. pp. 529-534. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation".

1893). ed. by D. by R. Whiteside. T. 30–91. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. Westfall. S. Cambridge University Press. 6.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . pp. Rouse Ball. at page 69. Vol. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. Cambridge University Press.W.

beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. The majority of the treatise. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. II. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. I. and that his Temple the first ever built. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. followed by others. but since republished in mass paperback format. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. Chap. however. followed by a short advertisement. Chap. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. Chap. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. . Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. Of the Empire of Egypt. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. King of Egypt. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. therefore. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. Chap. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. V. Newton's results. Of the Empire of the Persians. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. beginning with Sesostris. VI. IV. Chap. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. with all others being copies. III. Of the Assyrian Empire.

27 years after his death." in support of the Trinity doctrine. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. and what steps it has been changed. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. Syriac.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". Egypt. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. Ethiopia. the Father.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. Erasmus. and later into the text itself. and some others. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. sussex. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. Mesopotamia. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. and some others. first as a marginal note. Syria. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. Bullinger.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds".[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. ac. sussex. are strangers to this reading". ac. First published in 1754. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. would not dissemble their knowledge". 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. Armenian. the Word. . as far as I can hitherto determine by records". and the argument full and strong."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. Muscovy. still in use in the several Eastern nations. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. newtonproject. or retain it as only a marginal reading. Grotius. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. gutenberg. He noted that "the Æthiopic. Arabic. the Father. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. newtonproject. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. Finally. the Word. as Luther.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. Armenia. htm#chron http:/ / www. and Slavonic versions. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton.

com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. [3] An Historical Account. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. p. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. Scotland. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. likely due to the political climate. seen of angels. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. Cp. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. aramaicpeshitta.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. biblegateway. received up into glory. Aramaic version (http:/ / www.& version=31. knew nothing of these two texts.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. p. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. biblegateway. Newton argued that. aramaicpeshitta. p. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7.& version=31. Cp. p. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture.). by a small alteration in the Greek text. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account. p. 1 [4] An Historical Account."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16. p. justified in the Spirit. pp. was hanged at Edinburgh. believed on in the world. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. biblegateway. References [1] http:/ / www. biblegateway. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711. [2] http:/ / www. preached unto the Gentiles." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. htm) . 2 [5] An Historical Account. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. I understand not.& version=31. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England.& version=31.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". but some place it in a footnote.). further legal ramifications on the second occasion. Aramaic version (http:/ / www.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion.

uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. archive. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years). Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus).newtonproject.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. and published in 1736.co. fifty years before Newton.sussex.ac. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt .uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1). The book was completed in 1671.google. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667. and published it in 1684. but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www.

such as water or glass. on dispersion. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. That is. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. Multiple-prism arrays. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. refractions. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. first reported in 1672[1] . Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. Rather. The first. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. into another. as beam expanders. reflection. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. such as air.[2] . different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. 1704. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. It is about optics and the refraction of light. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours.

" the proper way to do science. there were 31 Queries." In the first edition. especially the later ones. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. filling many pages. it is written in English rather than Latin." In many ways. That is. Clearly. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. electrical phenomena. or the tools of mathematics. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. that number was increased in the Latin edition. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. unlike the Principia. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. but that it may go on for many pages. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. In the fourth edition of 1730. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. They are almost all posed in the negative. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. published in 1717/18. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . Rather. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. Second. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. as rhetorical questions. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. but the later ones became short essays. the nature of chemical action. therefore. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). First of all." They concern the nature and transmission of heat.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia." Rather. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer. In this sense. the possible cause of gravity. published in 1706. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. by the use of fluxions. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. over the next two hundred years. these were sixteen such Queries. These Queries. The first set of Queries were brief. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena. and then in the revised English edition.

43. 303–307 (1982).fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. lib.).: Octavo. Fourth edition (http://books. Duarte and J. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin. Opticks or.com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. First edition (http://gallica. refractions.cam.bnf. Commun. 153 References [1] Newton. J. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. Optics. Isaac.lib. Retrieved 10 January 2012. A.rarebookroom.google.Opticks the Principia. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ).ac. "Hydrostatics. [2] F. First edition (http://www. Papers on Hydrostatics. . External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. Opt.html) • Gallica. • Newton. Optics. and James Black. Piper. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed. Calif. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. Palo Alto. a treatise of the reflexions. Sound and Heat (http://cudl. Isaac (1998).org/Control/nwtopt/index. cam. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. ac.

Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'.] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities.[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3]. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia.. first published 5 July 1687.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. Newton also published two further editions. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science". "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that.[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium). Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]).."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate.. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. at least in certain respects. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [.] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). in 1713 and 1726. Newton used his expression that became famous... so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally.. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus..] . Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. Newton wrote[10] [. also Newton's law of universal gravitation. Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". often referred to as simply the Principia. and of the forces required to produce any motions. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton . spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses. accurately proposed and demonstrated [. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton."[7] In formulating his physical theories.[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion.. by the end of a century after publication in 1687.

Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis. De motu corporum Book 1. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. by observations. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses..[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3).. in revised and extended form. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. . thus offering criteria to decide. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time).' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. near-parabolic orbits.

Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions.Newton). starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34].[45] . Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3.[41] For Newton. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. and motion in arbitrary force laws. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. Corollary 2 [44]). to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. which "is acknowledg'd by all. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). and that this centre "either is at rest. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). and accounts for the tides [37]. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. Book 3. others. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. corollary [42]). the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. Proposition 11. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). and served not so much to explain as to confuse them.[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. especially its consequences for astronomy. attempts to derive the speed of sound. and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. especially the variation. and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. modified in a somewhat modern way. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. but only a little. while some contend that the Earth. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. De mundi systemate Book 3.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies.

In the four rules. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude.] instead of absolute places and motions. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. but in philosophical discussions. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. However.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. [. for today's readers. However. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. and consider things themselves. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. Instead. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. assign the same causes. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. by which they may either be made more accurate. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. as far as possible. Curiously. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. mathematical and common. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum). In his notes. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. till such time as other phenomena occur. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. we ought to step back from our senses. for example. therefore. he retracted this sentence in the published version.. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. true and apparent. . To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. or liable to exceptions.. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". this was a faulty theory. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". From a Cartesian point of view. we use relative ones. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. and was assured about their correctness.

Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. 1726). in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction".[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". as they did.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. concerning the qualities of bodies. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. From the system of the world. From this textual evolution. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. he inferred the existence of a Lord God.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. 1713 (and amended in the third edition.) Newton's gravitational attraction. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. scientists use it today. "I frame no hypotheses". 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. of Descartes. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. Newton also gave theological argument. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. . With these rules. fires in the home and in the Sun. an invisible force able to act over vast distances.

[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. Halley. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). in November 1684. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. and generalized the result to conic sections. and he normally kept dated notes of them. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. or the state of his clothes. that he immediately went to visit Newton again.'. how he sometimes forgot his food.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science.. resolved to ask Newton. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley.. or his sleep. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. and Halley. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law.[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Wren was unconvinced. but that he could not find the papers. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. and did very little else for well over a year and a half.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results. Humphrey Newton. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it... His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies. assuming an inverse square law of force. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. which he sent to Halley in late 1684. and to his project during this time. but also all the laws of planetary motion. The contents of 'De motu.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. . Newton's tract 'De motu.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. Hooke and Wren. although the (lost) original may have been without title.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down.

corporum. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". (Newton had also communicated 'De motu.. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". because in the meantime. under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. After Newton's death in 1727.. the moon. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. Liber secundus' of 1685. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. and less accessible mathematical style. amended to update cross-references. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. and the other two books somewhat later. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. in more than one manuscript. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. Liber secundus' still survives. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. published by Halley at his own financial risk. making it look . with handwritten corrections for the second edition.' to Flamsteed. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. tighter. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. Liber primus'. it survived complete.[59] appeared in July 1687.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. but he largely started afresh in a new. and its completion has been London. that it might be read by many".Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. not authorised by Newton's heirs). and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. The complete work. the tides. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. the solar system. also in 1728. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only.

velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. At this time. rather than before. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. Rather. as President. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. 1686. Samuel Pepys. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). showing considerable diplomatic skills. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. among them himself. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). or. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. . a second edition (1731). gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. In addition. licensing the book for publication. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. Cambridge. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. including two to Leibniz. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. To these two laws he added a third a decade later. causing some delay. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. but Halley. who hated disputes. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. in some cases. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. secondary sources based on them. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

especially at p. Journal for the History of Astronomy. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". The first. archive. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). Herivel. lib. [14] http:/ / books. No. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). google. Isaac. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument.[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. often incorporating revisions. which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death).120. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books.[104] The second full English translation. google. htm).[2] was described by Newton scholar I. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). 2001). [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut. 116-138. tripod.2. [11] http:/ / books. from 1729. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. Oxford University Press. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747).[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). at page 19 of vol. cap. and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. google. University of Toronto.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. vol. See also D T Whiteside (1970). 1999). "Du systeme du monde. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. . 1972. and well written". com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. at p. Vol. cam. google. into modern English. 1729 translation. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP. [3] Newton. stanford. W. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later.[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. by Andrew Motte. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. google. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). p. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. The background to Newton's "Principia".329. MA.1 (1970). John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text.392. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared." Author(s): Judith P. 1965. pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. google. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. 55. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato.329 (according to a note on p. ac. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. E N Zalta (ed. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). assembled and ed. 227-245. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. in the 1729 English version). "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. and see also J. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. published in 1996. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members.).1 (1729) (http:/ / books. 2 (May. [7] G E Smith. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ).[105] William H. about the 'Principia'.

google. google. eds. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. [17] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. google. in H. be/ steffen/ GS. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. also pp. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. p. Retrieved 2008-05-31. 1998': A. google. google.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. google.2. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. [54] Cook. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). htm).2. [50] Ducheyne. google. cited above. google. 2A'. google. 431-448. [61] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. 1998. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". google. W. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. 153-156. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter.g. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. [58] Westfall. Volume. google. [49] Snobelen.. 45 (1991) 11-61. Oxford University Press 1998. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. google. google. n. at pp. at p. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. [42] http:/ / books.404. n° 2. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. at pp. now often known as Huygens' formula. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 54.406. R Taton & C Wilson. 147. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press 1980. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. 1980. [56] Cook. 1980. Vol. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. google. pdf). was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. . [59] Westfall. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. vol. 1998. google. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. [53] As dated e. Stephen. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. 33. Book 3 (http:/ / books. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. at page 233 (http:/ / books. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol.147 and 152. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. at p. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989.2. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books. google. google. org/ scholium. The Cartesian vortex theory. 1980': R S Westfall. [47] Edelglass et al. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. [29] http:/ / books. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. Matter and Mind. 406. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. google. google. [52] 'Cook.2. 1980. Turnbull (ed. google.47-142. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. pp. (Cambridge. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books." (http:/ / logica. google. Edmond Halley. Cook. google. at p. Books 2 & 3. google. 223-274.) 167 . pp. Steffen. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. vol. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. by D. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. [55] 'Westfall. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. google. 151. [57] Westfall. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. 191-2. Cambridge University Press. google. Whiteside. ugent.). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. T.207-221. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". google. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. pp. at pp. speed and radial force. google. Books 2 & 3. google. 1971). .15. at p.

document #236 at page 301. i (1970). asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. [83] http:/ / www. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). a resisting medium). [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). Newton". Bernard Cohen. umich.). and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. or even a 'blunder'. 'Never at Rest'. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. at page 69. and extract of his letter.. museumoflondon. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. ch.2. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". 28 November 1679. org. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. cam. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo.297-314. Vol 2 cited above. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. html [86] http:/ / lion. 1995). [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. p. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. fondationbodmer. Part A. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books.e. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . 453.297. (Cambridge UP 1989). "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. especially at 13-20. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. google. document #237. at page 66 (http:/ / books. London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969. google. ac.. ac.2 cited above. Journal for the History of Astronomy. [74] 'Correspondence' vol.. Newton" (1759). at document #239. vol. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. html [88] http:/ / www. mpiwg-berlin. at pages 304-306. Never at Rest. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was.2 cited above. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. lib. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). at Introduction (section IX). google. has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". cited above. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". Bruce Brackenridge. would terminate in the center C". Ofer Gal. see D Gjertsen. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. edu 168 . Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [73] H W Turnbull (ed.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books.. document #286. though elongated. see Newton to Hooke. jstor. uu. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. google..431-448. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. CUP 1989. html [89] http:/ / www. google. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". closed curve and spiral. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". (http:/ / www. pages 11-61. google. (Cambridge University Press.2 already cited. google. mpg. (University of California Press. 1960). se/ press/ pm. [65] http:/ / books. at pages 391-2. at page 259). also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. lib. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). at p. wm. pages 5-19. roe. Rouse Ball. 'Correspondence' vol. see 'Correspondence'. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www.. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". with accompanying figure). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). ac. [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. 1664-1684". 1980. stanford. [80] R S Westfall. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. at page 433. 45 (1991). Vol 2 (1676-1687). Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". cam. 1893).W. Tycho Brahe to Newton".

xv-xvi.. • Brian Ellis.712–716." in Grattan-Guinness.699. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. • Andrew Janiak. at pp. [106] Dana Densmore and William H. Cambridge University press 1967.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Cambridge U. 1965). n. Westfall. . [99] Westfall. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. at p. p. • Richard S. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. vol. at p. Burtt. 1954). Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. 1971)... p. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. G. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Introduction to the Principia. wpi. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you. University of California Press. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. Cambridge University Press 1967. cgi?v1=8& ti=1. pp. Chandrasekhar. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0.750. vol. • E. 1999. Press.. [104] See pages 29-37 in I.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans.A.42. ed. • I. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p.. 2008). University of California Press.4. N. 1971). Notes. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. vol. Elsevier: 59-87. pp. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. [100] Westfall. at pp. c1995). 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. Bernard Cohen.2. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia. • John Herivel. vol. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". Cambridge University press 1967. [94] I Bernard Cohen. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. Cambridge University press 1975. Donahue. • S. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. Colodny. google. 3rd edition.751–760. 29-68. "Philosophia Naturalis. 1995). Force in Newton’s physics. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. The background to Newton’s Principia. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. • Guicciardini." [98] Westfall. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. Clarendon Press.5. to whom he owes more than that. and obligations to you. 1965). Curtis Wilson (Princeton. 1965). Westfall.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. R.4. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. [101] Westfall. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation.4. Dawsons of Pall Mall). [95] Richard S. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). • François De Gandt. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. Bernard Cohen (1999). I. pp. 1999.519. NY: Doubleday and Company. Cambridge 1971.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. ed. 2005. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press.518-20. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. NJ: Princeton University Press.

first edition (1687. 1713.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200).archive.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.google.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica.google. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University.html).no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist.org #1 (http://www. • Project Gutenberg (http://www. in Latin) (http://www.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2). • Partial HTML (http://gravitee. • Wikisource • Archive.ntnu.1).org (http://www.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3.1 with Book 1 (http://books.google.com/toc.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687. Partial • Google books. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy.200 (http://books. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition. (Book 3 starts at p.gutenberg. Chittenden. ed. 1726). Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above).google. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource. regarding online editions . interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage).ac.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books.archive.lib..archive. annotated) (http://books. vol. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1). W.org #2 (http://www. • Principia (in Latin.tripod. vol. first edition (1687.google.cam. largely the Motte translation of 1729. • Google books. 1729.archive.org (http://www. in Latin) (http://books.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte.htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version.net/~bjn/principia/).babson.

" Although this manuscript contained only the first book. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. 1686. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. 1687 and began changing the world." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. on April 28. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. 1686. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. he says. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. which he had enlarged and completed. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. that its truth is past dispute.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). on May 19. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. At the next meeting of the Society." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. For the influences for the second edition. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. to make a report thereof to the council. if certain. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties." At the next meeting of the Society. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. 1686.

whom the good weather had drawn out of town". and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. and the absence of the vice-president's. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low." but. which 172 . which he engaged to do. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton. but it being a frivolous business. Halley in his letter of May 22. viz. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. on June 2. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. and printing it at his own charge." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. cuts and so forth." acknowledging at the same time that. so likewise what you have to do in this matter." Halley adds. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. At the next meeting of the council. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. so far as I could remember. 1686. so that you might act accordingly. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. I am almost confident by circumstances. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. you know best." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. and I do not know that I have seen them since. "is so. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. that Sir Chr. volume. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. the heads of it in short. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. for 'tis long since they were writ. On June 20. I shall content myself to give you. though Newton had the notion from him. and to desire his opinion as to the print." "How much of this. Indeed.

the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. which I can as well let alone. can know no more. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. and only wants transcribing. in compliment to sweeten my answer. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. a copy being presented to me. 173 . and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. I designed the whole to consist of three books. his letters put me upon it. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. thought no further of philosophical matters than. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. in print. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. I could not but have found it now. accused me of that ignorance. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. so that a while after. so Mr Hooke. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. and only guessed it to be so accurately. the second was finished last summer being short. and so upon mistaken grounds. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. And so. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. and guessed it to be elliptical. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. namely.. is expressed. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. as to the other from Kepler. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. that without my demonstrations. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. And so. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. was upon other things. did not answer his third. though not accurately enough. and understood it. The third wants the theory of comets. told him I had laid philosophy aside. Oscill. sent him. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. in print. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. Some new propositions I have since thought on. expected to hear no further from him. and drawing the cuts fairly. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. sun and planets. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. and that's above fifteen years ago). with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. in stating this business. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. and earth from the sun. "The proof you sent me I like very well. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. But. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy.

" This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. In the first page. 174 . caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. as I guess by what you write. It will help the sale of the book. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. ought to compose it. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. on April 6. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. you ought to be considered as the inventor. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica." On June 30. "Is. And if in truth he knew it before you. I must now again beg you. On July 14. which is all at present. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. and therefore I had altered it to this. HALLEY. and then.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. without the third." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. What application he has made in private. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica." On June 20. from your affectionate friend. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. If it please you to have it so. I am. Sir. found out last winter. 1686. The two first books. which he puts so much value on. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. and humble servant. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. and adding. which made me afterwards return to the first book. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. July 5. your most affectionate humble servant. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. with her. "If you please you may change the word to sections. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. I know not. I will push on the edition vigorously. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. E. as have to do. which. though it be not material. nor on the books of the Society. The second book. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. Now you approve of the character and paper. in the honour you do them. as to deprive us of your third book. De Motu Corporum libri duo. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. I found it so formerly. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. The third I now design to suppress. Sir. not to let your resentments run so high. which are much the greater number. Hooke and Halley. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. The third book was presented to the Society. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". I will try how well it can be done. and not much more charge. The work. NEWTON. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. but she gives me warning. as might have been expected. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. upon second thoughts. I retain the former title. 1686. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. It will be more convenient. 1687. "But. and now I am no sooner come near her again. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition.

rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. so much to your own and the nation's credit. I intend the price of them. or else at some short time. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. and was dismissed. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. On May 7 it was discussed. The following letter from Halley. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. that starts from town tomorrow. July 5. which I entreat you to accept. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. a very great part of which is extant. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. Mr Paget. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. On April 27 they gave their plea. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. nor suggested a compromise. or at 5 sh. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. On April 21 the deputation. before starting for London. announcing the completion of the Principia. to take my money as they are sold. the chancellor. with their case carefully prepared. which will be of prodigious use in navigation." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. as well as of profound and public speculation. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. Mr Boyle. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. and lettered. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. Mr Flamsteed. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. The deputies. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey." . an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. and hope it will please you. dated London. appeared before the court. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. a Benedictine monk. and ordered them out of court. the master of Magdalene College. for ready. to be [OCR error] shillings here. 1687. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. but the university showed no sign of compliance. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. but rather. who was vice-chancellor. bound in calves' leather. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. to request him to get the mandamus recalled.

" he says. but that "he was out of town. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way." On September 20. added." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. beg you. before I considered what I did. as in a letter to his friend Millington. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. whose mind was never at rest. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. which this summer has been epidemical. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. and beg your pardon. and a distemper. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. therefore. In a letter dated the September 13. or mind. and keeping him shut up. upon his own accord. Sir. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. nor by icing James's favour. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. 1694. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. and I hope never will. from the concern I have for him. 1693. but what I said of your book I remember not. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. Let me." To which Leibniz. I remember I wrote to you. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. 1693. Christiaan Huygens. which lasted eighteen months. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. and before I had time to ask him any question. Pepys must have heard such rumours. if I may but have them quietly. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. I was averse. wrote to Leibniz.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. but upon his pressing consented. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. according to a report which was believed at the time. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. that it had actually done so. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. dated September 26. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. as to be put into great disorder by it. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. where. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. put me farther out of order." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. so that when I wrote to you. and since. He is now very well. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. to let me know the very truth of the matter. namely. by sleeping too often by my fire. I will give you an account of it if I can. replied. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. addressed to Samuel Pepys. or. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. at which he was much concerned. 1693. and for five days together not a wink. "I have not seen him. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. winter. nor have my former consistency of mind." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. and dated the 15th of October 1693. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. or both. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. which doubtless must have been very alarming. in a letter dated June 8. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. Newton wrote: "The last." . I got an ill habit of sleeping. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth.

1689.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. Forbes et al. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members. the vice-chancellor of the university. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. see Isaac Newton's later life. Newton retained his seat only about a year. ed. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor..Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. now archaic. Westfall. On February 12. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge.G. Never at Rest. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube.. On April 30.) [3] Richard S. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. and gives original spellings. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. published as #537 in Vol. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). 1997. . and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel. as it were. E.1998. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes.

Robert Boyle. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. at the other. Some headings were followed by vast entries. currently in the Cambridge University Library. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. place. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. but my best friend is truth). Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. 1661. Galileo's Dialogue. "Of ye Creation". These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. for example. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. They began with the nature of matter. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. whereby every question is put to experimental test. 1664. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. and others. It is also definitely before December 9. At the other end of the book. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. vision. The initial notes. Aristotle is my friend. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. Kenelm Digby. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. colour. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. in Greek. which had . He entered notes from both ends. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. These were followed by questions on violent motion. rarity. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. Thomas Hobbes. fluidity. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. hardness etc. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. Following this. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. But following this he drew a line across the page. and other sensations. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. Additional information This octavo notebook. light.

Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure..Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. others were blank. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science.. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. would look coloured. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. including his idea that it is a wave. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. on the contrary. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. such as when a heavy body falls. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. . Gassendi. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. Elsewhere. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo.

vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. • J. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] . Westfall. by Richard S. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. References • "Portsmouth Papers". Cambridge University Press. Lohne. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. A. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms.

[1] In 1999. alone.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. Newton was deemed the more influential. Cambridge . This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. Newton became a scientific icon. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton or Albert Einstein. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. in 1795. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. plays. In this work. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. Because of the resounding impact of his work. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. mathematician. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. Many books. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. In mathematics. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. published in 1687." Newton was the runner-up. natural philosopher. located in the chapel of Trinity College. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device.

• A. of course. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects.. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach." . The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. It was there to be discovered." "Gravity.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. was merely a discovery. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent.. Though that. "there was also the small matter of gravity. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. But the catflap . It is a door within a door. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics. Invention.. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. perspicuity and invention. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr." said Richard.. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). there was that as well.) Sir Isaac Newton. pure creative invention. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes.." . Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002). • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. "(. Science in Popular Culture [9]. ah." "Yes. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3. It is a door within a door. there is a very different matter. a . A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. pp. I suppose. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. • Mordechai Feingold (2004).. 27–43. set during the Great Recoinage. you see. including the famous apple. "yes. "They even keep it on at weekends. you see. Oxford University Press. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. Routledge..

Newton in popular culture

183

Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. who regularly experienced spiritual visions.[5] References [1] Townsend. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. retrieved 10 September 2009. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake.[3]. apparently at the bottom of the sea. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. . org. pp. S. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. ISBN 0-87451-436-3.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. Hanover. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. 1997. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). Walter de Gruyter. Christopher B. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. Foster (1988). Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. tate. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. Science is the Tree of Death. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. 243. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. page 328. [4] Burwick.

Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson. London: Tate Publishing. William Blake: The Painter at Work.).Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . Joyce (ed. Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. 2003.

upon the lands of the lord of the manor. So.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". reaping. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. England.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. Shoveller. with many distinct farms and cottages. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church."[2] Following the death of Coram.[2] ". who married her daughter in 1665..[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. Mr. when he let it to Dr John Young.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. and Coram drew their daggers. He died in 1706. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park. Pye. although open days are occasionally held. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury. and rode at each other through the wheat. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". Mr. Sir Thomas Clarke. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. when it required the interference of Mr. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s.. or hay-making. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal.[1] During the Commonwealth era. The house and park are not generally open to the public.[5] . which stunk and had worms swimming in it. no doubt. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. near Winchester. although his wife survived him until 1720.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. dean of Winchester. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. when Young was expelled from the deanery. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward.[1] Sir Charles.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr.

In 1734. the owner. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. but his election was declared invalid.[5][6] On Newton's death.[5] In May 1721. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. the points alternately plain and embossed.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday.C. Conduitt. a diagram of the compass.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. In 1770. the estate was left to his son.[9] The Castle. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. Catherine. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774). leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. and within. Watch fast".[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781). although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. all round the world. retaining that position for four years. remaining there until his death in 1727. John Rowley. next the hours. and a scaled-down gateway tower. Newton became resident at Cranbury. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. is below. the outermost divided into minutes. and after his death. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex .Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. Hampshire. then the months divided into days. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park. On his death. Thomas. Shortly after his marriage. Harriet. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. which he also owned. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. as granted to him in 1717."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. Nearer the centre are degrees. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. built in 1780. and the arms of Mr. then a circle marked "Watch slow. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park.. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. etc.. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. leaving a daughter. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. Cranbury Park.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. Bt). he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. In 1747. the base of a pillar. Towards the end of his life. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras". Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" .

with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. Whilst serving the town.[11] on her death. In fact. The house.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer. but in the rear descending rapidly. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht. Tankerville Chamberlayne.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings.[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. which has a circular domed ceiling.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald".[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. on that . but his wife survived him until 1825. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. is on the level ground at the top.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. William Chamberlayne. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. a large red brick one. Arrow. MP for Southampton. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. intersected by various springs. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. built round a court. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. In 1822. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. especially in the saloon on the south front. flat as it fronts to the south.[22] Writing in 1898. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)). set in arch-headed reserves. During the Second World War. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights.

Retrieved 24 September 2009. built from material plundered from Netley Abbey. Retrieved 20 September 2009. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. Eleanor. .com. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. Charlotte M.com. . Retrieved 23 September 2009.G. Hansard. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www.com. "Later changes" (http:/ / www. (1898). A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. www. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. online-literature.online-literature. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross.com. (1898). html).parliament. . Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. A. Paul Cave Publications. Retrieved 23 September 2009. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. uk/ report. Charlotte M. City of Winchester.ac. p. [14] Yonge. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. pdf). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. british-history. 5 May 2004. horninghold. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102. Facet-Headed. [12] Leonard.Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury.online-literature. com/ p4650. "History of Cranbury Park. (1898). Eden. britannia. Retrieved 23 September 2009. www. . www. ac. thepeerage. aspx?compid=42018#s4).[19] The folly known as "The Castle". publications. online-literature. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. Netley Abbey.uk. Charlotte M. 72 & 74. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. . and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. (1900).britannia. close to The Castle. "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. 15 May 2005. thepeerage. (1898). . Hamilton (1953). pp.thepeerage. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. www.british-history. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. 68. [9] Yonge. www. www. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. parliament. library. William (1908). 22. . Retrieved 20 September 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009. is situated in the southern corner of the park. htm). Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. Retrieved 24 September 2009. ISBN 0-86146-041-3. www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. 9 October 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2009. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www. [7] Gatty.[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. Stories of Southampton Streets. [5] Yonge. . specimen trees and pinetum." a word signifying a country dance. Margaret Scott. [10] Thompson."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. Retrieved 23 September 2009. a rose garden. online-literature. [8] "The Buttercross. Winchester" (http:/ / www. Charlotte M. . with a great deal of wall and very little glass. . www. Lloyd. Victoria County History of Leicestershire. [4] Yonge. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Charlotte M. and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. html). upenn. Michael (1999). [11] "Horninghold. . (1898).[26] References [1] Page. . 1998. htm#i46495). .online-literature. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). www. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. online-literature.com. www.uk. . co. The Book of Sun-dials.K. H. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3.com. com/ p4650.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. [6] Ford. Retrieved 23 September 2009. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. and include fountains. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. The English Country House.online-literature.thepeerage.online-literature. A. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. [2] Yonge. before joining Monks Brook.K F. Hampshire" (http:/ / www.com. cityofwinchester. p.com. html). online-literature. org. htm#i46497). [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. Retrieved 23 September 2009. (1984).

Architect. 1971:93-95. (1898). A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects. 3rd ed. [22] Dorothy Stroud. uk/ Campsite/ index. www. plates 23-2. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. The lost country houses of England. htm). com/ gst/ abstract. Retrieved 2009-07-12. html). [20] Dorothy Stroud. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. Retrieved 2009-07-12. htm). Charlotte M. amazon. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. Retrieved 26 September 2009. [21] Watkin. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. Micheldever. oldmaps. org. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ).[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2009. alresford. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. "Stratton Park. uk/ m35.[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. [19] "Cranbury Park. chandlersfordscouts. April 2004. s.co. . html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). in Country Life. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3. . www.oldmaps. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009. . John Buonarotti". nytimes. George Dance. fieldclub. [23] Yonge. htm). [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester.com. 1600-1840. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). . . 1995. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. html). The New York Times: 10. . Christopher (Spring 2005). uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. . David (April 2004). online-literature. Retrieved 26 September 2009.uk.700) in late 2001's terms. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring.000 (us$35. "Papworth. 1741—1825. . com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. 15 November 1956. 16 January 1881. Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. noted in Howard Colvin. "Chandler’s Ford. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www.online-literature. matthewbeckett.v. which would value approximately £25. hants. . org. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. . Matthew (2009). 8 and 15 November 1956. [25] Currie. Retrieved 24 September 2009. co..

Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. [3] Mike Adler. Retrieved 22 july 2010. edu. but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". uwa.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy.] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. co. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school.. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. edu. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. That is. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. au/ ~mike/ ). as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). bbc. the question can be solved by experiment. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20).[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. edu. According to Alder. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". maths. University of Western Australia. au/ people/ mike. to the scientist. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. maths. uwa. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. Mike Alder's Home Page. which he describes as pure reason. uwa. philosophynow. stm). .pdf). Retrieved 22 july 2010. either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable).[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved.. alder).[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. BBC news. Alder admits however. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. .[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. . uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. . it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". . Also available as Mike Alder (2004). and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible. . amongst others. He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. University of Western Australia. [4] Mike Alder (2004).[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard.

One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. to the rear of the house. being restored. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. taking into account modern living. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. Woolsthorpe Manor. and the old walled kitchen garden. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. near Grantham. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. most notably his work on light and optics. New areas of the house. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. once private. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. were opened up to the public in 2003. Lincolnshire. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. England.

uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ . nationaltrust. org.Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www.

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