His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. At the time of Newton's birth. he never married. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. When Newton was three. In this work. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. Margery Ayscough. and contributed to the study of power series. he was a small child.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. the subjects he is mainly associated with. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. He was an unorthodox Christian."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. 25 December 1642. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. independently.1 litres). natural philosopher. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. Newton was also highly religious.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Born prematurely. and for the style of the work.[11][12][13] . his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. mathematician. In mathematics. published in 1687. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. astronomer. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. alchemist. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. due. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. and theologian.

[15] Henry Stokes. Crowell & Co. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. and did not give a full account until 1704. Newton was educated at The King's School. Sarah K. master at the King's School.[18] At that time. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague.[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method". and by October 1659. where his mother. In 1667. ordaining normally could not be dodged.) Such a . Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. he became the top-ranked student. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. and after 1820 or so. and very young . 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied".Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. attempted to make a farmer of him. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below).[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests.[23] A related subject was infinite series.. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. he was admitted to Trinity College.[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently.. Famous Men of Science. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. widowed by now for a second time. In 1665. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". a fellow of our College. He hated farming. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton. Nevertheless. Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus.. for example. He was removed from school. and Kepler. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. NY: Thomas Y. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. also by British mathematicians.[17] In June 1661. Galileo. For such a significant appointment. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. such as Descartes. Luckily for Newton. in a manuscript of October 1666. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). although with very different notations. were adopted by continental European mathematicians.

[32] Starting in 1699.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. However. of 1684. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. however. He discovered Newton's identities. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. In that day. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables). whose permission was needed. At the time. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. Because of this. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.[34] 4 . any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. but never finished it. In 1691. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. accepted this argument. and Charles II. Newton's method. However. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit").Isaac Newton suggestion. valid for any exponent.

and may . In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. . He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles. 12). (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. and the general phenomenon of diffraction.) In 1704. which he later expanded into his Opticks. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another.[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. Newton published Opticks.. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns. when Hooke. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80.. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. today known as a Newtonian telescope. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk.[39] Building the design. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. across a vacuum.13).[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. Thus. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. Newton lectured on optics. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props. John Maynard Keynes.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. the first known functional reflecting telescope. he might not have developed his theory of gravity. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. This is known as Newton's theory of colour.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique.II.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. revived his interest in alchemy. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration). it stayed the same colour. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour. In 1671. Today's quantum mechanics. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. Props. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. As a proof of the concept. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. however. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope.

[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world.. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). Also. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years.[49] For Newton. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. In the same book he describes. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'. as they did. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. using a glass globe (Optics. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. via diagrams.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679. and much more. prisms. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. In the same work. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. but they did not so far indicate its cause. i. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion.e. In this work. the use of multiple-prism arrays. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. wherever it was. was at rest).[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". and defined the law of universal gravitation. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke.[51] Later. 8th Query). Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way. In an article entitled "Newton. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth.

His half-niece.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton became internationally recognised. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. With the Principia. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. He took charge of England's great recoining. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). which Newton had used in his studies. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. until his death in 1727. Cambridge. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). but Newton took them seriously. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. the Astronomer Royal. Catherine Barton Conduitt. including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. These appointments were intended as sinecures. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Towards the end of his life. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). near Winchester with his niece and her husband. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. In his position at the Royal Society. 1st Earl of Halifax. after Sir Francis Bacon. when it abruptly ended.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. John (1733) – were published after his death.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726]. a position Newton held until his death. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

this is expressed as . in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). the first term vanishes. The SI unit of force is the newton. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. . the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. Mathematically. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. they may be at rest). The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. named in Newton's honour. with time. Newton's physics is meant to be universal. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum.[102] Apple incident . Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. For example.Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. Unlike Aristotle's. and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. Before Newton. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun.

& drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. published in 1752. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. it must be in proportion of its quantity. Grantham. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance. & myself. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. had the first thought of his system of gravitation.[107] In similar terms. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. whose manuscript account. if matter thus draws matter. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. there must be a drawing power in matter.[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment. that the earth draws it. to the Moon. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. not in any side of the earth. he told me. as well as the earth draws the apple. We went into the garden.[111] . though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. amidst other discourse. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. and hence named it "universal gravitation". The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. the reason is. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . only he. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. in an inverse-square proportion. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. as when formerly."[106] John Conduitt.. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. or toward the centre. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident..[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. and get good agreement. Cambridge. The King's School. he was just in the same situation.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. therefore the apple draws the earth.

Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. Newton. . edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period. I. The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. Retrieved 28 March 2010.1017/S0007087499003751. Oxford University Press. Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). [13] Newton. 8. Leibniz. heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. Unless otherwise noted. Bellevue College. [2] Mordechai Feingold. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. newton. Retrieved 3 February 2009. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. p. . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. chlt. Dictionary of Scientific Biography.B. google. Retrieved 28 March 2010. (1983) [1980]. No. ac. Stephen D. jstor. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www. May 2007. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. doi:10.1. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. uk/ newtlife. . Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. "Singular scientists". Graham's Home Page. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www.96. com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www. 74. (1970). org/ heretic. c. n. pp. a. 22 [17] James. [14] http:/ / www.e. html). but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. html). prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. isaac-newton. p. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. pp. p. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. 315. PMC 539373. doi:10. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (2001). Vol. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Isaac. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style').Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. 530–1.M1) [19] ed. php). ISBN 9780521274357. bellevuecollege. Derek (1986). ISBN 9780521058179. accessed 24 February 2009. Optical Lectures. [18] Michael White. p. oxforddnb. Cambridge University Press . com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. 1993). "Isaac Newton. At Newton's birth. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Daniel S. google. (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. ISBN 0195092244. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. 1998. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. Vol. 84. John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. Greenwood Publishing Group. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). online edn. . 159. . google. google.1258/jrsm. (1996). com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey).36. The Newton Handbook. Barrow. (1999). explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. p. html). ISBN 1-573-56256-4. berkeley. Moreover. com/ view/ article/ 1541). 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. Isaac. [7] Burt. p. Ioan (January 2003). flickr. edu/ MATH/ Newton. Isis. PMID 12519805. Michael Hoskins (1997).4 [4] Gjersten. Gale E. [9] Christianson. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. . org/ stable/ 236236)".. 11.43. Retrieved 28 March 2010. pdf) (PDF). Richard S. google. September 2004. org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. By the time he died. . [10] Cohen. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. James R. 50. [6] Snobelen. fictional. [5] Westfall. 2 (June. i. Oxford University Press.

44. com/ arms/ index.107 [32] Westfall 1980. '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. vol. Numericana. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. [47] R S Westfall. ISBN 9780486432656. by Alfred Rupert Hall. especially at pages 119–120.5. Retrieved 10 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2010. at page 319.. google. at page 400.. Page 74 (http:/ / books. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). . uk/ cgi-bin/ search. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. at page 149.T." Westfall 1994 p. Henry C (2003). Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes. MacMillan St. 1684–1691. p. 1696). cam. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2). Retrieved 16 January 2010. "Newton. pdf). J. Retrieved 16 January 2010. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. (2000).11. p. J. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). 363–4. google. Cambridge University Press 1960. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [59] Westfall 1980.000024. J.24D. htm#newton). Volume. vol. Book 3 (1729 vol. lib. Matter and Mind. 'Principia'. online-literature. [48] D T Whiteside (ed. . uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). H W Turnbull. [26] Newton. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Cambridge University Press. vol. [49] See Curtis Wilson. [27] Clifford Truesdell. 1980.6. document #235. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books. doi:10.). google. p. Cambridge University Digital Library. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233). p. (December 1982). . Charlotte M. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). F. [24] D Gjertsen (1986). at page 297.). uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). Isaac (http:/ / venn. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54). . numericana.1364/OPN. pages 116–138. 54 [52] Westfall 1980. [51] Edelglass et al. [54] White 1997. nor for his service at the Mint. Robert (2007) Newton. 1676–1687' ed. J. google. "Hydrostatics. (Cambridge University Press. google. p. Martin's Press. [30] D T Whiteside (1970). "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte. pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. com/ F. pp. 324 [38] Ball 1908. google. . an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science.. p. ac. Cambridge University Press 1974. " Newton. Venn. Cambridge University Digital Library. A very short introduction. p. [60] Westfall 1980. p. Isaac.. 2A'. pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908. google.2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". Chapter 11. 'Never at Rest'. 151 [35] King. J. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. 1729 English translation. at page 54 (http:/ / books. cam. [21] Venn. p170 [40] Hall. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books.1086/353114.. [53] Westfall 1980. [31] Stewart 2009. [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia. [45] Dobbs.com. p. Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25..com.online-literature. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. at page 233 (http:/ / books. eds (1922–1958). Google Books. 325 [39] White 1997. Isaac. (1898). but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. 1967). "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". at page 30. ISBN 0-940262-45-2.2. "A short account of the history of mathematics". "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. Bibcode 2000OptPN.99. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. prisms. A. www. Alfred Rupert (1996). Optics. lib. [37] Ball 1908.245 [58] Yonge. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). ISBN 9780521566698.). [41] White 1997. "Newton. . [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. google. doi:10. [36] Newton. Retrieved 10 January 2012. The Man". ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. 595 15 . "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". King. "The Newton handbook". 1968).Isaac Newton [20] Newton. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. at page 41 (http:/ / books. letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679. 232 [55] White 1997. . ac.11. 1729 English translation. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). [23] D T Whiteside (ed. [25] Newton. at pages 391–2. [43] Iliffe. com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover).1. com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). at p. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio. John Maynard (1972). lib. Isis 73 (4): 523. ac. page 67 (http:/ / books. opticsjournal. 'Principia'. Google Books. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). DuarteOPN(2000).317 [56] Gerard Michon. cam. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. p. 356ff [34] White 1997.

ISBN 0791413195. (1976). Associated Press. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. 10 November 2003. [72] "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide" (http:/ / www. Knud Haakonssen. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. T. [90] Westfall.. Knud. 233. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. p187. pp. p. 5 February 1676. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. In Martin Fitzpatrick ed. Cambridge: 1996. bbc. htm).. 1. [75] Pfizenmaier. "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. Michigan.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. [66] White 1997. Book III. ISBN 0208008438. Milford. com/ biography/ Newton. ISBN 0521560608.bbc. Wilson. and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. Cornell University Press. [82] Westfall. reviewed by Jane Gleeson-White.: Mott Media. . Richard S. co. 42. (1994). 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[67] Memoirs of the Life. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. . p. Manchester University Press. [83] Haakonssen. 65. ISBN 0855270667. uk/ banknotes/ denom_guide/ nonflash/ 1-SeriesD-Revised. Hafner Library of Classics. the success of Newtonian physics in providing a mathematical description of an ordered world clearly played a big part in the flowering of this movement in the eighteenth century" John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. p. 1953. Newton runner-up: BBC news. Scientist and Teacher. Retrieved 13 November 2009. Odo. Retrieved 30 August 2006. "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability. 2nd Ed 1706. 1850. le comte J. Query 31. php?type=article& year=2008& month=08& title_link=the-deist-minimum--28). [91] Marquard. Westminster Abbey. 28. H. 14. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. Monday. NY.co. [89] H. New York: King's Crown Press. [94] "Although it was just one of the many factors in the Enlightment." 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Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings. (1959–77). Charles (1948). 1998. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology. [70] Opinion poll. Cambridge University Press. 29 November 1999. v. G. News. Writings. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment.H. 37. wolfram. (1958). com/ print. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. "The Enlightenment. [93] Cassels. Alexander (ed) The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence. Alan.

ISBN 0-02-905190-8. pp. ISBN 0521477379. " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. Thomas (2010). Imperial College London. edu/ newton/ index. newtonproject. p. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p.1098/rsnr. Retrieved 10 January 2012.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. doi:10. 2011). ISBN 9781447204152. org/ ). Richard S. org. 6 [109] Alberto A. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. [98] Westfall 2007. Smith. 1998). Newtonproject. ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. New York: Free Press. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. New Scientist. dlib. The Life of Isaac Newton. Retrieved 30 August 2006. sussex. eds. Richard S. Brogdale. ISBN 9780495557425. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). Cambridge University Digital Library. 337 [103] White 1997. (1994). "Keynes Ms.1038/182149a0. valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig.. Cambridge University Press. indiana. . ISBN 9780199213559. . google. html 17 References • Ball. pp.W. co. 4. This well documented work provides. brogdale. 265–266. Isaac Newton. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. John.1963. cam. John (1963). • White. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. php?varietyid=1089). • Stewart. p. • Craig. . Pan Macmillan. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www. . [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. ac. uk/ image1. Retrieved 11 January 2007. Cambridge University Press.149C. [107] Conduitt. Rouse (1908). "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". google. Fourth Estate Limited. W. Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. Richard S. Einstein's Wife. ISBN 0486206300. The Art of Science. Mariner Books. p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. James (2009). Richard (2011). ISBN 9780547336046. newscientist. brogdale. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Retrieved 10 January 2009. Never at Rest. Cengage Learning. • Westfall. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". New York: Dover. [113] http:/ / www. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. p. Retrieved 20 December 2008. and Other Myths. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). ISBN 1-85702-416-8.182. p.0017. • Christianson. Gale (1984). jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. Bernard Cohen and George E. . (2007). com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. (1980. • Levenson. 130.org. 18 January 2010. lib. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. • Westfall. in particular. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. php). [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. Cambridge University Press.. pierre-marteau. Retrieved 7 September 2011. ac. Michael (1997). uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". . Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. • Westfall. doi:10. O'Reilly Media. Isaac. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. Bibcode 1958Natur. Inc. [108] I.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. . uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167).73 [99] White 1997. John (1958).

amazon. • Koyré. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Knopf. JSTOR 531368. Readings in the Literature of Science. London: S. (1988). ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. H. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. • Gjertsen. • Keynes. I. excerpt and text search (http://www. Newton at the Mint. (1965).. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. Gale (1984). Cambridge. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Bernard and Smith. Bernard Cohen. I. Palmer. George E. E.amazon. New York: Harper & Row. (1959).com/dp/0521656966). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. • de Villamil. (1728). (1975). Bernard. 277 pp. Zev (1991).. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. New York: Free Press. W. complete edition online (http://www. Richard (1931). . – Preface by Albert Einstein. B. ISBN 0792310543. Newton.. and Cohen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Berlinski. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Principia: a new Translation. England: Cambridge University Press.amazon. John Maynard (1963).Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. • Cohen. ISSN 0035–9149. See this site (http://www. 354 pp. Harvard University Press. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon".. Alfred A. (1996). New York: Henry Holt and Company. London: G. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. 256 pp. "Discoveries" pp. Knox. Jed Z. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. N. • Halley. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. the Man. Guide by I. William C. eds. J.amazon. M. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. • Dobbs. and H.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini. Dampier. ISBN 0841430144. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". Stephen. E. Newtonian Studies. B. New York. edited by I. Norton & Co. excerpt and text search (http://www. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. Leibniz. S. (1946). ISBN 0521229642. New York (1972). • Dampier. • Craig. excerpt and text search (http://www.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. P. • Shapley. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. (1950). (1965). ISBN 019530070X. (1980). Isaac (1642–1727). Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. W. Gale E. 500 pp. Isaac Newton. • Hawking. • Shamos. 147–9. J. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. focuses on philosophical issues only. (2002). A Treasury of Science. Kepler. "Review of Newton's Principia". Essays in Biography. • Bardi.1988. doi:10. "Newtonia" pp.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. (1959). Harper & Bros. W. Morris H. Wright. • Newton. • Christianson. • Newton. Harlow.amazon. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus.questia. John (1946). Isaac. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. excerpt and text search (http://www. James (2003). De C. ed. A. David.D. New York: Chanticleer Press.. MIT Press. Isaac Newton. 1958. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. ISBN 0-393-00189-X.0006. Oxford University Press. The Background to Newton's Principia. T. 150–4. Derek (1986). Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. I. ISBN 0375422331. ed. ISBN 0486428052. The Newtonian Revolution. Springer. On the Shoulders of Giants.1098/rsnr. 2001. • Christianson. The Newton Handbook. (2000).1978. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. ISBN 0486253465. The Calculus Wars: Newton. 2006. Jason Socrates. Rapport. (1687). Great Experiments in Physics. • Gleick. Inc.

and Influence. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. Isaac. ISBN 0521077400.1017/S0007087499003751. Vol. originally published in 1752) • Westfall. London: Taylor and Francis. J. J. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Opticks (4th ed.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. University of California Press. 1984. (1991). Vol. • Wiles. Turnbull and others. H. (1999). Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. (1936). and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. Stephen "'God of Gods. R. 1996. Archetypal Heresy. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?".Isaac Newton • Simmons.org/stable/4028372). Betty Jo Tetter.google. Primary sources • Newton. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. JSTOR 3653988.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. • Newton. James E. The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. 974 pp. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. (1996) 214pp. (1952). (1999). The correspondence of Isaac Newton. 342pp . Nature. 16. 627 pp. rev. 1730) online edition (http://books. 2nd Series. Maurice. JSTOR 4027945. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. 2. or A Treatise of the Reflections. Florian Cajori. • Pfizenmaier. I. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. H. Isaac. ed. and Richard H. Thomas C. London: Macdonald. Stephen D.google.. • Newton. tr. Popkin. (1999). Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. Opticks. ISBN 0444196110. Motte. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.jstor. • Newton. 19 Religion • Dobbs. T. (1967–82). Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. Inflections & Colours of Light. eds. (1996). Isaac. (1971). (2001). D. – 8 volumes • Newton. White. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. Sydney: The Book Company. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. University of California Press. Newton and Religion: Context. 1670–1672. S. (edited by A. Refractions. Arianism through the Centuries. doi:10.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). Isaac. 1: The Optical Lectures. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. • Whiteside. • Stukeley. Ayval.google. Press.jstor. links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. (1934).microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. I. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. • Brackenridge. 299 pp." Osiris. New York: Dover Publications. 7 vols. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. "Isaac Newton. pp. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. W. Cambridge U. Pp. in JSTOR (http://www. argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. Bruce. (1959–77) . xvii + 325. (January 1997). A. W.

archive. Cambridge University Press.uk/ Biographies/Newton.ac. London. (1953).html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www. E.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss.pbs.dlib. Sir.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. (1748). (1958). Edmund F.mcs.math. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato.google.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/). S.htm) (via archive. Anand M.uk/prism. Cohen and R.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library.php) • The Newton Project (http://www. "Newton. John Deighton.pierre-marteau.html). Millar and J. 1850.org/NYC051308/index.com/biography/Newton. London: A. (1962).fmalive.wolfram.isaacnewton. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702). Thayer. University of St Andrews. I.ac.stanford. . Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes. including letters of other eminent men (http://books. • Newton.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page. West Strand.indiana. • Newton. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www.).org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato. B..chlt.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. Schofield. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. eds.newtonproject.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports.50.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. – Google Books • Maclaurin.tqnyc.st-andrews. online edition (http:/ /www.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. Parker.org/web/20080629021908/http://www. in Four Books.galilean-library. Nourse. J Edleston. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. I.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www.sussex. Sir Isaac".stanford. ed (1911).html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www. 20 External links • Chisholm. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history. Hall and M. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space. Robertson. C. Roger Cotes.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton.com/modules/historic/newton/index. John W. time. I.stanford.edu/entries/newton/).stanford.skepticreport. (1975). and motion (http://plato. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.phaser.adherents.fullerton. Cambridge.. Cambridge.htm) Kandaswamy. Hugh.org/snobelen.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I).edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www. • Newton. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. B. R.a.edu/entries/newton-stm/).rutgers. ed. London: Dawson. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www. com/predictions/newton. A. Hall.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www.questia.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ). I. John J.

ac.ltrc.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton. optics.cam.ul. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.cmu.sussex. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www. physics.ac.cs.org • Newton Papers.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www. or a Treatise of the Reflections.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.sussex.mcs. audio.uk/collections/newton) .nodak.edu/id.archive.ac. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy.st-andrews.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up).enlighteningscience.ac.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography. reception.earlymoderntexts. Refractions.ca/newton/) Images. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www. Space.math.ndsu.gutenberg.com/).lib. full text on archive.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes.uk/prism.mcmaster. at the Newton Project (http://www.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1.newtonproject.

Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. at quite a critical time in his education. when he was three years old. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. and returned to his mother's household. at the age of nineteen. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. He spent a year away from school on the farm. 1697 by her son. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. who buried her next to his father. unlike her. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. As his father had been a farmer. When Rev. in April 1642. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. Hannah's brother William. when Isaac was 54. Later in his life. She and Rev. . Smith died in 1653. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. By this time Isaac was ten years old. the elder. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Lincolnshire. He died in October 1642. and thus took him away from his school studies. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. James and Margery Ayscough.

and baptized at Brigstock. although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). Hannah Smith. not before. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. Is. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. Newton. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. However. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later.[5] . the wife of John Conduitt. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. half-niece of Isaac Newton. witty and clever.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague.

and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. p349.newtonproject. (1898). Charlotte M.com. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle.php?id=15) . [8] St Martin in the fields register. 1886. newton. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. and their son. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields.ac. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love.5. King's College Cambridge. 1543–1869. by then Earl of Halifax. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. near Winchester. his nephew George Montague. 1715. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. PROB11/546. Montague. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. [5] Newton Correspondence. Northampton Record Office. ac. p195. Harl Soc vol 24. Viscount Lymington. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. 1689. not to make a dispute over her legacies. [9] Yonge. Journal to Stella. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. I have long had for her person. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ).[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. PROB11/416. National Archives. online-literature. uk/ art/ portrait. . she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. • The Newton Project (http://www.uk/prism.[7] The couple had one daughter. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress. entries in 1710 and 1711. Retrieved 23 September 2009. John Wallop. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. Catherine. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. html). National Archives. References [1] Robert Barton's will. affection and esteem. Westminster Record Office.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject.online-literature."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. [7] Hants Record Office. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. Harliean Society. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May.sussex. On 30 August.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. however. [3] Swift. Parish register. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. towards the end of his life. born in 1721. www. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. Vol 4. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. & previous reference.

He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. Cambridge with three others. 1st ed (reprinted). and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. on petition. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. but after starting. In 1705. 161 pp. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. Hampshire. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. Early life. 1968. London. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. and his niece. staying only two years. and was baptized at St Paul's. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. Newton: his friend.[3] . proposed by the president. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. near Winchester. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. Sir Isaac Newton. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. but did not graduate. a whig member for Whitchurch. he quickly stopped.[1] By 1707. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. named after her mother. (PRO. Catherine. The couple had one daughter. In 1720. described herself as 32 years old. Covent Garden. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. isbn 0712903305. Covent Garden. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. while at Westminster. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. London: Dawsons. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. and his uncle by marriage. then aged 38 years. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. defending the government on a number of issues. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. towards the end of his life. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. on 8 March 1688.

William (1908). ac. Venn. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. References [1] Venn.). "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www.htm) . underage. Cambridge University Press.online-literature. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. 1st Earl of Portsmouth. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. J. " Conduitt. Huntingdon Library. vol 4. John (http:/ / venn. who died in 1739. He was the eldest son of John Wallop.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton.british-history. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. J. Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. ms 57. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. His wife. .. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. uk/ report. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. Viscount Lymington (d. Retrieved 27 September 2009.ac. british-history. cam. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. online-literature. www. Charlotte M. eds (1922–1958). and their son.cyberbeach. 1749) in 1740. California. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). Catherine.com.. fo 169 [3] Yonge. aspx?compid=42018#s4). On his death.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. A.uk. [4] Page. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". . Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. ac. lib. John Wallop. (1898). www. Retrieved 23 September 2009. was buried with him.

widowed by now for a second time. In June 1661."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. master at the King's School. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education.[4] At that time. Born prematurely. the English mathematician and scientist. 25 December 1642. Newton was educated at The King's School. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. This he did at the age of eighteen.[3] Henry Stokes. He hated farming. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. and by October 1659. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. achieving an admirable final report. author of the Principia. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. attempted to make a farmer of him. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. When Newton was three. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. he was admitted to Trinity College.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. where his mother. optics and the law of gravitation. In 1665. and Kepler. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother. Galileo. Margery Ayscough.1 litre). At the time of Newton's birth. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. he was a small child. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role.[6] . He was removed from school. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague.

in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. Cambridge. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. in the years 1663 and 1664. part iv. and of a yellow and red without. book ii. he was unable. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. which was of a bluish green within next the white. dated January 1664. many years afterwards. near Cambridge. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. and red on the outside of it. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. several calculations about musical notes. February 19th. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. in Lincolnshire. together with observations on refraction. Isaac Barrow. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. 1699. I saw two such Crowns about her. and in summer 1665.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. there are several articles on angular sections. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees." . By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". and. its acceleration a. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. and the applied force F is F = ma. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. verging below farthest from the moon. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. It was elliptical. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. I being then Senior Sophister. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. and introduced him to higher mathematics. and borrowed Wallis' works. to two and fifty figures by the same method. and next about that the inner Crown. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. which appear in his Optics. obs. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). particularly those "in affected powers. John Slade of Catharine Hall. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. In a small commonplace book. at night. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry.

29 . In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. In March 1668 he took his M. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. dated 7 August 1665. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. and 22 June 1666. "the name of the author is Newton. a fellow of our college. Newton must have left college before August 1665." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. astronomy. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. optics. [see also James Gregory. He wrote a paper. mathematician. There were nine vacancies. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. Dr Pearson. as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. arithmetic. and signed by the master of the college. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. statics. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. degree. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. apparently for chemical experiments. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. and who. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683).A. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). and a young man. or some other mathematical subject. On each occasion it was agreed. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. and added. and also chemicals and a furnace. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. but kept the name of the author a secret. which he put. probably in June 1669. geography. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics.] a mathematician of no mean order. who had a powerful genius for such matters. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with.

But these seemed very great difficulties. it could not collect those also into the same point. if they continue them for any time. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. when I further considered. I left off my aforesaid glass works. bishop of Salisbury. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. because. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. than a circularly figured lens. I wondered. as glass transmits. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. After he explained this to the Society. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. which would polish as finely as glass. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. and reflect as much light. and I have almost thought them insuperable. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. for I saw. So that. he proceeded: "When I understood this. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. the secretary of the Royal Society. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others. were light uniform. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. I understood. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. Nay. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. The whole is printed in No. so that a much . would cause by the unfitness of its figure." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. provided a reflecting substance could be found.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. on 6 February 1672." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. and finding them regular." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). as I found it.

but I shall conclude with this general one. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. how the colours gradually convene. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. with which 'tis illustrated. but yet most luminous in blue. as I imagined. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. and that the paper. He concludes his communication with the words: This. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. which they had before they entered the composition. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. who. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). that none of the colours fall besides the lens. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). so I doubt not. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. whereby. or of acknowledging my errors. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. I began to try. I conceive. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. are again dissipated and severed. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. or proportionally disagreeing in both. by such motion. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. that the prism and lens be placed steady. but not very distinctly. care must be taken. are taking care about it at London. But it is requisite. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. or to thwart this relation. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. but yet with this difference. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. that. the figure also would be corrected to the last. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. but yet most luminous in red. And this analogy twist colours. They have there no appropriate colour. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. And there place a clear and colourless prism. if I have committed any. and vanish into whiteness. Further on. And therefore. as I said. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. . You may also see. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. which. than in figuring glasses for refraction.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. what might be effected in this kind. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. you will not only find. for. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. as you inform me. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. proper for metal. if any thing seem to be defective. when I made the other. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this.

saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. and the inflexion of light. who was the chancellor of the university. I do recommend them both to be nominated. and entered in the Regent House. or communicated to the Royal Society. and are now almost universally rejected. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. or leave to come out after me. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. The public oratorship fell vacant. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous." The heads. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). and. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. or to become a slave to defend it. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. he says. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. and many others. Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). endeavored to effect a compromise which. . He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. but was not published. and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. 2nd Duke of Buckingham. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. however. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. light polarization and binocular vision. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". George Villiers. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. when a description of it was found among his papers. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. till after Newton's death. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. and he wrote on double refraction. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. and. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. Others criticized the experiments.

when. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. as several others are.57 metres) in one minute. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. He therefore was led to inquire whether. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. and one of Newton's intimate friends. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. owing to decay. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. as he was not in holy orders. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. if you have not done it already. dated 23 June 1673. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. he says. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. I thank you.) . since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. (4. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. a fellow of the Royal Society. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. by calculating from Kepler's laws. I desire to withdraw. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun." (See Newton's cannonball. Newton. In one version of the story. till 1860. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. who married John Conduitt. Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth.

Newton replied promptly. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. but he promised to send it to Halley. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. put his hand upon his calculation. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. in the month of August 1684. one of the secretaries of the Society. "an ellipse". I have calculated it. i. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. "Why. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. Sir Christopher Wren. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. Moreover. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. a copy of his demonstration. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. Unless otherwise noted. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. one of the fellows of his own college. At Newton's birth. by the hand of Mr Paget. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. made the two results. the secretary. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. however. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. Oldenburg. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. After the latter had left Cambridge. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made." He could not. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". In January 1684. By the time he died. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established.e. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. and started for Cambridge. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. . two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°.Early life In November 1679. to consult Newton on the subject. or their views about the researches of others. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar.

Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. ac. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. [8] http:/ / www. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal. the warden of the mint. p. cam. Mr Overton. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". and the esteem the king has of your merits. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. Richard S. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. J. I. 1960). Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. Vol. pp. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. google. However.) (1960).297-314. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). Charles Montagu.435-440.43. . Later life During his residence in London. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. Montagu. Michael Hoskins (1997). Cambridge. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. ISBN 0521477379. and has not . pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". 35 References • Westfall. Vol 2 (1676-1687).Early life [2] Cohen. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. uk/ cgi-bin/ search.. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. J. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. cam. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. Isaac (http:/ / venn. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College.B. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. at pp. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. sfu. [7] Newton. " Newton. Cambridge University Press.) (1960). is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. cited above. lib. (1994). and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state.). eds (1922–1958). Venn." Newton was now 55 years old. Cambridge University Press. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. was false to him. 16–19 [4] Michael White. when Montagu. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. ac. Isaac. p. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum.. 11. 159. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. In a letter to Newton announcing the news. The office is the most proper for you. (Cambridge University Press. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. (1970).M1) [5] ed. The Life of Isaac Newton. lib. afterwards Earl of Halifax. A.

Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. except to Newton and his friends. Newton took it seriously.200 and £1. while exports were paid for in gold. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. a post worth between £1. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). he did not exhibit it in the results. Of this.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. with an account of their properties. a secret." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. . the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). To this work were added two treatises. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. however. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. a process that was completed in about two years. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works.500 per annum. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. was still.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. the second.

two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. . sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. making it public. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. Leibniz. and. although Newton's solution was anonymous. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. and joining a Scholium concerning that method." says he. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. and published by Dr Wallis. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. "tanquam. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. obtained leave to make it public. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. with improvements by the author. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. which was also written many years ago. Hartsoeker. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). and a second edition of it. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. prefixing to it an introduction. He also solved the second problem. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. who have solicited the. but he received a letter from Leibniz. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. and E. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. (2) to determine a curve such that. was published at London in 1712. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. I have on this occasion made it public. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. In that year the Academy was remodelled. and he gave a method of determining it. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. W." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. by Dr Machin. and made known to some friends. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. and having since met with some things copied out of it. and eight foreign associates were created. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. P2. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. secretary to the Royal Society. 's Gravesande published a tract.

were heard from time to time. after speaking to Newton. The prince had offered. however." Newton. in the first few months of 1695. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton. the master of Trinity College. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. "will be glad to see you in June. where a congregation of the senate was held. Dr Edleston. he was opposed by the non-residents. and a number of honorary degrees conferred. however. they paid a visit to Cambridge. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. have been completely investigated. the master of Trinity. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. Roger Cotes. fellow of Trinity College." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. Rumours. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval." he said. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second... and discharged the duties of the post. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. so far as he could do it. the lunar theory would. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the ." (I have learnt . Dr Bentley. He was warmly supported by the residents. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him.I forget from where . Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. the queen's husband. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. and of a new edition. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. In April 1705. when the queen. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. and beaten by a large majority. He held the office for 25 years. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. of his work." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. On 21 May 1709. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. but being a Whig. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. on Newton's recommendation. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. 2002).

et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. Caroline of Ansbach. true in theory but difficult to execute. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. however. Newton waited on Queen Anne. about midsummer 1713. lent his copy to M Fréret. On the 31st of March 1713. facilior redditur et amplior. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. Newton criticized all the methods. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. At last." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. He mentioned four: 1. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. I. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. the following account of this new Edition. 4. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. N. an antiquary at Paris. who translated it. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. who called witnesses. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. passed both Houses. The Princess of Wales. The abbé. and. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. wife of George II. for I find that I shall be examined about it. vii. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. "If you write any further preface. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. pointing out their weak points. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. "28 Mar. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. 1713. took every opportunity of conversing with him. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. and received the royal assent. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. on 27 July. 3. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. and endeavoured to refute it. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. she requested him to give her a copy. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. I must not see it. to present her with a copy of the new edition. 2. In Libri secundi Sect. In Libri primi Sect.

Later life M le Chevallier Newton. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. which was published in 1728. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. he solved it later the same evening. In an earlier part of his life. Upon receiving a copy of this work. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais.. This edition had many errors. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. For example in 1716 Leibniz. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. in 1756. He therefore asked Locke. and though he was fatigued from work. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. to suppress it". included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. translated into French by the observator." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. to have it translated into French and have it published there. Newton printed. after his death. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. and published at Paris. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. John which was published in London in 1733. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. . beginning his studies before 1690. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. who was on the way to the continent. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". a nephew of Bentley. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. This was done. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity.

online-literature. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. (1898). ahds. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). Newton and the Counterfeiter. www. Gilbert J. Retrieved 23 September 2009. ac. pierre-marteau.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. html). 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. [9] Ostad. online-literature. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26.. Athol L Murray. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). Richard Kleer. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). com/ php/ stopics. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-05-22. litencyc. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. ac. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads.[10] Towards the end of his life. archive. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. Sir Isaac Newton. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. (2005). ahds. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25. pdf) (PDF). org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. Charlotte M. pdf).x. . In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt).1464-410X. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. OCLC 276340857. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men.1111/j. [6] By The King. Edward. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.2005.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. after six years of "cock[fight]ing. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. p. php?rec=true& UID=1304).05242. pdf). [10] Westfall 1980.January 1843 (http:/ / www. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. He endured great suffering. April 1842 . measuringworth. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. horse racing. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. University of Regina. 21 September 1717. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward.com. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. PMID 15638889. Athol L Murray. Wise. urotoday. Vol V. ISBN 9780151012787. . 870 [11] Yonge.and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. who. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. .

2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). the noted English scientist and mathematician.edu/~michael/koll. alchemy.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime.ucsc. 1975). and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. he was the last of the magicians. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. for example. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). In this sense. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy.". Bernard Cohen (Dawson. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom. economist John Maynard Keynes. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. superstition. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. with a and historical introduction by I. These occult works explored chronology. After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. Distinctions between science. Santa Fe.

Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work." 43 In 1936. and analytical chemistry. In the story. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. Newton is thought to have said. and perhaps to a lesser extent. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. several projects have begun to gather. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. The English Crown. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. made penalties for alchemy very severe. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. National Science Foundation.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted.[8] . In recent years. Arts and Humanities Research Board.K.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). or some other substance). 9th Earl of Portsmouth. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents.S. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. lead. In addition. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. with its associated nomenclature. "O Diamond. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community.[2] It was for this reason. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. burning 20 years of research. Diamond. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. Newton's dog started the fire. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. who throughout his life. catalogue. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy. A perfectionist by nature.

which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. "Ezechielem Explanationes". And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. 1728. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. Hieroglyphical Figures. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. Most notably are documents entitled. "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. This concept. "Artephius his secret Book".[12][13] . Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. though mysterious figure. Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. in a search for their occult knowledge. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. early forms of tarot. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece.[10] In addition to scripture. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). In its time. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. "Nicholas Flammel."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. In predicting this he said. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. "Theatrum Chemicum". were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. and occultism.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. Published London. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. and his "secret book". was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. Artephius. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple. Nicolas Flamel. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. and the vegetable or the growing stone.

. Around 1692. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. In 1628.[17] In 1754. . but also in the sacred scriptures.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. was published posthumously in 1728. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. and other harmonious constructions.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. both speculative and active. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. such as golden sections.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. due to the success of Villalpando's publications. only adding to the public interest in the temple. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. Isaac Newton's treatise. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. To Newton. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. In addition. scholars. Psalms. is not only to be found in the volume of nature. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". ” During Newton's lifetime. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. when deciphered. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. [14] Job.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. as in Genesis. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". the same was true of their architecture. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. orthographic projection. there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. Isaiah and others. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. This immense 13-foot-high (4. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. 27 years after his death. which was popular in its day. In the knowledge of this philosophy. conic sections.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. spirals. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture.

an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. Canada's National Post.C. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. will end A.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. 7th. part of the Yahuda collection. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year. Furthermore. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. 800. Nature. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. The first document.] 70. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. 2060. It may end later. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. evidently written by Isaac Newton. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. Britain's Daily Telegraph. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. 1. in or after 1705. Christ comes as a thief in the night. the period of 1260 days. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end.[D. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. .[19] is a small letter slip.C. Both of these lay essential to his calculations.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot.

and poets. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. In a separate manuscript. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. or possibly the same island. Pliny. Egypt. but was sunk into the Sea. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. However. Africa and Asia. The marriage supper. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Greek Mythology. as he saw it. archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. and various other classical historians. As such. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis. an approximately 87. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. authors. Ogygia was home to Calypso. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. Homer. and the Levant. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). and available source material. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. It is done. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. but rather one in which he believed the world. Plutarch.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. . the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. standards.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. In fact. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Anatolia. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. In this entry he mentions Mephres.

and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed).[26] At the time of his death. In his library. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. Like Newton. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. lack of supportive publicized material. which they claimed to have in their possession.[24][25] however. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. the physical universe. and highly politicised. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized.". the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. would seem to exclude Newton . Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. a recognized Knight. anti-Catholic. avowedly Christian. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them. and the spiritual realm. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. not esoteric societies. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups.C. The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. remains unclear. these are considered learned societies. Additionally. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. Furthermore. the level of their secrecy.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. Considering his esteemed social status. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. however. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. For its time. However.

Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred".[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. and he never publicly identified himself as one. htm). Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. Associated Press. William R. sussex. google. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). huji. . It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. . p. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. indiana. Retrieved 1 July 2008. newtonproject. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish.. 144. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. Temple Institute. July/August. uk/ prism. [11] Christianson. Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. Retrieved 2007-08-12. htm). s-most-famous-alchemist)". During his own life. (http:/ / www. as were many members of The Royal Society. 2010 [5] Newman. however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member.[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web.M. 1999. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. indiana. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. 19 June 2007.Occult studies from their membership. Rabbi Chaim. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). Oxford University Press US. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. Pope). Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. "Newton. edu/ newton/ index. sacred geometry. dlib. . Temple Institute (1991-2008). do). Gale E. Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. htm) on 6 May 2008. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". USA: PBS. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. 175. ISBN 019530070X.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. dlib. References [1] Keynes. (2005). jsp [7] http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. archive._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. Discover Magazine. . christianpost. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. jnul._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. ac. Page 91. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. (5 April 2007). edu/ newton/ about. [6] http:/ / webapp1. p. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. Oxford University Press. com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. pbs. Jane Bosveld. . However. 15–19 July 1946. "The Da Vinci Code". referring not to a medieval knight. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. The Man". and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A.[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. templeinstitute. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. ac. Retrieved 2010-07-19. [10] Richman. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. J. christianpost.

Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley. Rob Iliffe. London: Routledge. google. written at USA. .htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando. ISBN 073820143X. [18] Snobelen. Chetwode. f. "Juan Bautista Villalpando.php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. 1997. ac. .Occult studies [13] MacDonnell. Frances A.math. [14] Gardner. & A. ISBN 1-59477-172-3. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). William (2010). .dcs. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www. pp.org/library/drmath/view/55191.ac. inul." (http:/ / www. . Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. 496. php?id=74). The Newton Project. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. Henry (2004).themathpage. uk/ prism. ISBN 1578634040.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www.indiana.M. Delta Trade Paperbacks.sussex.sussex.F.science. freemasons-freemasonry. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. uk/ texts/ viewtext. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. Lincoln.niu. newtonproject. Michael. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed.htm) • the math (http://www-groups. AHRC Newton Papers Project. ca/ aqc/ leon. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books. . [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www.newtonproject.3o. (1972). Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates.2a.uu. 859" (http:/ / www. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books.).ac.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h. org). p. f. [17] Newton. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A. sussex. Isaac (5 April 2007). p. bcy.st-and.com/aReal/unit-fraction. sussex. S. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7. sussex.html) • unit fractions.newtonproject. University of Sussex: The Newton Project. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized).html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. Fairfield University.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory. Retrieved 2007-08-15. newtonproject. ac. 146. 2005: Weiser.J. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. google.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies.sussex. ." (http:/ / www. W. f. .org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode. com/ book_bauer. . Retrieved 2008-06-25. ac.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. faculty. Originally published: London : HarperElement. Retrieved 2007-08-15.ac.dlib. 5 April 2007. (http:/ / www.ac. .staff.com/pillar_solomon_temple. Retrieved 2007-08-19. ed.edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.ac. . Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. [28] Baigent. [23] Bauer.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando.sussex. Laurence (2007). Retrieved 1 July 2008. spalding-gentlemens-society. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7. [26] White.ac. (http://www. Michael. html). The Newton Project. Retrieved 2008-06-26. ac.fairfield. uk/ texts/ viewtext. 31r [22] Newton.newtonproject. org/ ). [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. org/ newton_2060. Book Excerpt . Joseph. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).D. p. sussex. newtonproject. Retrieved 20 April 2010.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum.. isaac-newton. Stephen D. . [19] Yahuda MS 7. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. . Michael (1999). Da Capo Press. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www.. Holy Grail.jnul. the Apocalypse and A. Scott Mandelbrote. fairfield.uk/prism. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life. htm).3g.gutenberg. J.uk)) . • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. William Stukeley 1752.from Chapter 3. Isaac. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No. 50 • White. Alain (2007). html).faculty.huji. 117. Holy Blood. Retrieved 2007-08-15.freemasons-freemasonry.newtonproject. 2060. (http://www. htm). "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton.pbs.

[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word. written by those who were inspired. astronomer.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy. and he said."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. natural philosopher. In predicting this he said. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. mathematician. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. had it been made public."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . theologian and alchemist. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. "so little understood". In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. I study the Bible daily. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. After 1690. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). causes. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that.[5][6] .[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. space. and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". in other words.[1] Background These arguments. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies. appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. place and motion. Alternatively. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. It is one of five arguments from the "properties. The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). 77–82. in general. or.

p. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. not only with respect to the experimenter. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] .[9] When. Eventually. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. In other words. B: Outer ring rotates. it begins to spin rapidly. accordingly.[7] However.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. but also in relation to the water it contains. it is not your own train moving. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. the surface of the water remains flat. who contended that all motion was relative.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. and that there is no absolute motion. but in opposite directions. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. but the neighboring train. — Ernst Mach. C: Both rotate. On the other hand. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. However. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. as the cord continues to unwind.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. despite proximity to the pail. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. his real position was that motion is absolute. A: Central object rotates. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition. however. but in opposite direction. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force. Thus. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space.

. . do by no means come under the observations of our senses. 58 . then filled with water. In fact. and recede by little and little. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. — Ernst Mach. forming itself into a concave figure.. and may be measured by this endeavour. and held at rest together with the water. will make it begin sensibly to revolve. the surface of the water will at first be plain.[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string.. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. it is whirled about in the contrary way. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. which is here directly contrary to the relative. after. hung by a long cord. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. Thus. a stationary frame can be identified. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water..... but relative motions. — Isaac Newton. the vessel continues for some time this motion. discovers itself. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. is incomplete.Bucket argument If a vessel. a limitation that has not been established. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. . who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it.. as before the vessel began to move. see Rotating spheres. not relative.. as quoted by L. and effectually to distinguish. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent. And therefore. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed.. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. by the sudden action of another force. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. However. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. .. Principia.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. and while the cord is untwisting itself.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion.are altogether destitute of any real effect. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. p. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted.

the co-rotating frame. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force. . the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. the sum of all three forces must be zero. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket.. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. and the aim is to determine this function. one might question just how rotation brings about this change. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. To sum to zero. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. But from the nature of a fluid. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. p.. the horizontal. see Knudsen and Hjorth. However.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. the water. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. for if this were not so.. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω.[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. because the element of water does not move. For example. 127 Moreover. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. if at rest.

the normal to the surface must have the same angle. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. In words. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. The potential energy is useful.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. That being so. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. equilibrium is attained. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. for example. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. were surface regions with lower energy available. On the other hand. That is. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. that is. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. because all positions are equivalent in energy. .) As r increases.

and lowering it at smaller radius. This change in shape would not be stable. google. . because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Principia philosophiae. at a given angular rate of rotation. Forgotten Books. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). [5] René Descartes (1664). References [1] Robert Disalle (I. University of Chicago Press. us. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r.Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. . either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. ISBN 1606201433. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. Cambridge University Press. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. 43. At some small angular rate of rotation. Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). google. Bernard Cohen & George E. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. 191. which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. for example through friction. 105. . editors) (2002). an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. this energy is constant independent of position r. Smith. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. ISBN 0226282198. pdf [3] René Descartes.M1). the more concave this surface. Cambridge University Press. p. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Part ii. 75. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). Requiring the energy to be constant. The water surface is flat at first. archive. google. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. . google. As the height of water increases. p. p. [2] http:/ / ia310114. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). See Figures 1 and 2. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. §25. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. a concave surface represents the stable situation. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. p. . and the more rapid the rotation. google.M1). If rotation is arrested. ISBN 0521656966. Thus. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. p. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. however. 170. ISBN 0521358124. John Cottingham translator (1988). but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius.

[16] Lawrence S. A A Knopf. ISBN 0486607690. p. • Ralph A.iep.edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Phil. us. ISBN 0521656966. p. op. archive. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975).). ISBN 0521857902. time. editor) (2008). article by Robert Rynasiewicz. and the texture of reality. External links • Newton's Views on Space. John Archibald Wheeler (1995).. Lerner (1997). Wiley. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. 167. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. . 404. google. . 78. Time. ISBN 354067652X. Springer. . loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. 104. Princeton University Press. 279–280. 78–79.. google.M1). Academic Press. Soc. ISBN 0120598779. George Edwin Smith. pp.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. .edu/l/leib-met. [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). pp. . 45. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. John Wiley & Sons. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. google. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1.google. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. google. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). vol. New York: Courier Dover Publications. Springer. Jones & Bartlett. Bernard Cohen. . Hjorth (2000). 79-81 [13] L.M1). Weber & George B. See: • R.M1). Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. stanford. Leibniz (http:/ / books.M1). ISBN 1402086679. "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). "Chapter 2. ISBN 0691033234.utm. stanford. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein. p. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). pp.htm) see section on Space. google. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. 143. At the end of this article. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. . Partridge (1995). 386–387. pdf) pp. 19. B. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). In I.google. [19] Hans J. Poul G.google. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. p. and Motion (http://plato. google. ISBN 0375412883. ISBN 0521352541. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127. cit. [11] Robert Disalle. • D. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. google. [15] Jens M. 325–348. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). Lynden-Bell (1996).M1). com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. 119.stanford. no. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. p. . The Universe and the Bucket". Am.). [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. p. google. Cambridge University Press. p.com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. 79. google.Bucket argument p. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. Zalta. . Knudsen. Arfken (2003). ISBN 0521621135. . Draza Marković (Editors) ed. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104.M1) (in Proc. . Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. . 127.). ISBN 0867204796. In Edward N. 5 (1975) ed. The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. p. pp.M1).

Calculus is the study of change.[6] . functions. Calculus has widespread applications in science. Calculations of volumes and areas. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus. with no indication as to method. and join calculus. and some of them are wrong. an integral test for convergence. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. calculus. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. but the formulas are mere instructions.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics. derivatives. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. early forms of differentiation. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. economics.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. More generally. differential calculus and integral calculus. more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. broadly called mathematical analysis. to calculate areas and volumes. pi calculus. one goal of integral calculus. variational calculus.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. integrals. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. infinite series approximations. 1820 BC). Eudoxus (c. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. lambda calculus. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. Historically. and infinite series. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. which prefigures the concept of the limit. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. term by term integration. It has two major branches.[4] In the 5th century AD. while Archimedes (c. or "infinitesimal calculus". 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion.

and James Gregory. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. introduced the concept of adequality. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. The product rule and chain rule. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. and the system of mathematical analysis. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. second and higher derivatives. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. the notion of higher derivatives.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. By Newton's time. he developed series expansions for functions. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. including fractional and irrational powers. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. Pierre de Fermat. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance." —John von Neumann In Europe. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. which is its logical [7] development. He did not publish all these discoveries. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. Newton derived his results first. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . Isaac Barrow. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. Taylor series. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. and providing the product rule and chain rule. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. but Leibniz published first. in their differential and integral forms. the oblateness of the earth. Unlike Newton. In his publications. In other work.

to the detriment of English mathematics. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. who gave the new discipline its name. however. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. Today. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. but it would be 150 years later. developed in the 1960s. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. including Maclaurin. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. Several mathematicians. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics.Calculus Society. Following the work of Weierstrass. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. It is Leibniz. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. Robinson's approach. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. In modern mathematics. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. In Cauchy's writing. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. .

calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. However. Persia. but less than any number in the sequence 1. . The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. From this point of view. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. work. Historically. especially the limit and the infinite series. the slope of a curve. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. India. China. time. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. during the 17th century. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. and pressure. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area.. and for this reason they are the standard approach.. and Japan. but use the ordinary real number system. In the 19th century. Greece. . arc length. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. which resolve the paradoxes. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. center of mass. Calculus provides tools. volume. 1/3. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. i. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input.e. and optimization. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. Iraq. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. and motion. They capture small-scale behavior. in some sense. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. 1/2.. In this treatment. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. "infinitely small". and less than any positive real number. For centuries. just like infinitesimals. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers.

The derivative. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. then it outputs nine. where functions usually input a number and output another number. which is impossible. that is. it is the velocity of the ball. If a function is linear (that is. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. Thus. Therefore (a + h. In mathematical jargon. f(a)). For example. and fix a point a in the domain of f. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. three is sent to nine. For example. If the input of the function represents time. If h is a number close to zero. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. however. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. however. and if the squaring function is given the input three. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. where x is the independent variable. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. f(a + h)). (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. then it outputs six. four is sent to sixteen. the derivative of the function of f is f′. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. outputs a second function. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. To be concrete." For instance. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. if the doubling function is given the input three. (a. properties. pronounced "f prime. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. the doubling function.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. f(x)). the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. b is the y-intercept. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. Given a function and a point in the domain. it is possible to produce a new function. can take the squaring function as an input. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. then a + h is a number close to a. y is the dependent variable. let f be a function. f(a)) and (a + h. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. and applications of the derivative of a function. f(a + h)) is close to (a. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . if the graph of the function is a straight line).

that is to say. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. .9) is 6. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. Here is a particular example. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. For this reason. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically.

integral calculus studies two related linear operators. as the output. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. the indefinite integral and the definite integral. however. but if the speed changes. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. only multiplication is needed. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. and applications of two related concepts. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. the derivative. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. introduced by Leibniz. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. then the speed will stay more or less the same. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. However. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x".Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. If the speed is constant. the inverse operation to the derivative. (This use of upper. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative. properties. . We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. Leibniz. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. In technical language. For example: In this usage. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. called a Riemann sum. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles.

In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. the area. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. between two points (here a and b). dx is not a number. The indefinite integral. but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. the area between the axis and the curve. or antiderivative. and is not being multiplied by f(x). . the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. To approximate that area. f(x)=h.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. For each small segment. the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. is y′ = 2x. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. we can choose one value of the function f(x). is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). where C is any constant. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. Call that value h. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. as an output. the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. The symbol of integration is . an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C.

It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. This realization. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). then Furthermore. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. made by both Newton and Leibniz. In analytic geometry. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. economics. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. In biology. . Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. the study of graphs of functions. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. the moment of inertia of objects. computer science.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. b). slope. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. for every x in the interval (a. Physics makes particular use of calculus. demography. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. For example. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. business. engineering. medicine. concavity and inflection points. More precisely. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. we use calculus to derive its path. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. statistics. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. b). actuarial science.

Inc. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. The Works of the Mind. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. p 2 (http:/ / books. p. R. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. Biggers. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. ed. 279 (http:/ / books. ISBN 0817645659.. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. In the realm of medicine.. google. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. . From Hammurapi to Legendre. google. F. Boston.see also the summed area table algorithm. Vámos.. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. I [3] Archimedes. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains.. In economics. B. [8] André Weil: Number theory. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. The Neumann Compedium. Examples are methods such as Newton's method. . Discrete Green's Theorem. 2008. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. MA. . in Heywood.. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . Reed. agnesscott.Calculus Green's Theorem. Robert Sonné (1966). (2009). . Cengage Learning. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. Agnes Scott College. Scott. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. it's used to derive dosing laws. Ltd. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. Springer. 180–196. google. google. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. Kenelly. p. Dainian. 1984. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. ISBN 9810222017. and linear approximation. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. 1995. John W.. Iris B. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. pp. Birkhauser Boston. eds. Elif (April 1995). calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue.). edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. . J. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology.. 2. Method. st-andrews. mcs. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. Pte. Inc. Liu. In nuclear medicine.. p. google. Page 228. For example. google. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. Wright. pp. Jones & Bartlett Learning. T.. p. Vol. 1947. fixed point iteration. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. Dennis G... 618–626. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. Reprinted in Bródy. An approach through history. Sherry (2007). Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. google. [9] Leibniz. htm). For instance. Cosimo. World Scientific Publishing Co. 279. Chapter .. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. "The Mathematician".. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. Chapter 1. Copy (http:/ / books. xxvii.. Donald R.. Fan. p. Wright. 130. ac. Warren S. html [7] von Neumann. Cohen. 28. Gottfried Wilhelm. For example. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books.

One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. Stony Brook. 11th ed. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. Volume 2. • Albers. Not a Filter. • Leonid P. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. (1999). A Pump. Mathematical Association of America No.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus.Irl Bivens.html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. Calculus: Early Transcendentals. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. 1 (Sep. Calculus for a New Century.wolfram.. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. • Cliff Pickover. Dover edition 1959. Cambridge University Press. • Thomas/Finney. • Mathematical Association of America. Addison Wesley. • Silvanus P. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. University Science Books.. "Calculus". ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. Hafner. (1967). (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. Ron.2002. 25.. ED 300 252. Vol." (http://mathworld.Stephen Davis:"Calculus". 2004. Apostol. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. • Edmund Landau. James (2008). Donald J. ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. Ch.John Willey and Sons Pte. ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. 7.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. (1988).com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. • Florian Cajori. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. 1: The Tools of Calculus". American Mathematical Society.. (1969). • Robert A. Frank R. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. (2003). Joel Hass. Carl Benjamin (1949). "The History of Notations of the Calculus. • Michael Spivak. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. NY. (1996). Apostol. Weir. Volume 1. Giordano (2008). (2003). ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. (September 1994). • Weisstein. google. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. 1–46.. • Tom M. The Association. Edwards (2010). No. ed. Eric W.. Bruce H. Richard D.. Loftsgaarden. Donald A. 1923). Adams. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. • Tom M. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. 9th ed. Publish or Perish publishing. Press. Princeton Univ. ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th. Addison-Wesley. 2nd Ser. • Howard Anton. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Wiley. Anderson and Don O.." Annals of Mathematics. 1998. George B. (1998). 6th ed. Maurice D. pp. Ltd.ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . Lebedev and Michael J. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. "Calculus". Thompson and Martin Gardner. Wiley. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers.

edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).understandingcalculus.htm (http://ocw. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus".htm) (HTML only) • Strang. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www.html)" from MathWorld.cacr.math.wisc.pdf) • Sloughter. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www.pdf (http://www. William V. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.edu/~sean/applied_math. Thompson (http://djm. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw..edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www.pdf) • Garrett.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota.edu/~keisler/calc.pdf (http://www.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business).D. (2004).economics.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC.wolfram. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow. Dan (2000).math.edu/~keisler/calc.byu. (2000).temple. J.math.pdf) • Faraz.encyclopediaofmath.wolfram. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism.pdf (http://www. (1991). "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ( listen now (http:// www.umn.cacr. URL http:// www.com/ (http://www. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre .org/index.wisc.understandingcalculus.com/calc/calc. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.math.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism. " Calculus (http://mathworld. mit. (2001). P.uiowa.mit.ac.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan. "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www.ericdigests.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.mit. G.nd. B.html) • Mauch.math. "Calculus" Light and Matter.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. H.edu/~sean/applied_math. Michiel Hazewinkel ed.lightandmatter.org/pre-9217/calculus.htm) from ERICDigests.calculus. H.math. (2003). (2006).htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.bbc.co.com/calc/calc. Eric W. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.co.uiowa. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.caltech. Fullerton. S.org: The Calculus page (http://www.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus. soton. (2006). (2004). "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development. lightandmatter.math.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses. External links • Weisstein. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.caltech.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.html) at PlanetMath.htm (http://www. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.bbc.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext.html (http://www.umn.org) at University of California.com/Calculus.math.nd.htm) • Smith. .htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals. K.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler.

solved-problems. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. at the age of 23. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith. Newton. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read. 2. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711. Moreover. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675. as in the 'Principia' of 1687. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. 1709–1716. and others. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus.com/) Raymond. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www.math. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. and centers of gravity. this statement went unchallenged some years. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's. as noted above. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it.mit. 3.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill.ucdavis. . 4. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention. Newton. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. Newton manipulated the quarrel.Calculus Dame with activities. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. A.html) by D. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. or. exams and interactive applets. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666. minima.[2]) Meanwhile. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman.[1]. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death.

are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. which was not known at the time. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then.[2] At first. It is. I. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). C. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. on the method of tangents.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. however. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. No attempt was made to rebut #4. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. Gerhardt. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. in particular power series. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. one of which was new to him. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. but some deny this. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. Shortly before his death. the manuscript. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. In 1849. In 1696. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . and in fact worked together on some aspects. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. However. whereas Newton began from derivatives. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands.

as it appeared to Newton's friends. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. dates. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. which referenced all allegations.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. but it appears that on more than one occasion. dont plusiers se sont perdus. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. forty years ago. In any event. the debate persisted for many years. Moreover. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. which I could sort through only with time and patience. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. in most cases I did not keep a copy. of which many are lost. No such summary (with facts. suspicious details. When pressed for an explanation. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. I have enjoyed little leisure. before publishing them.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. 77 . had endeavoured to wrest from me. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. 1713. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton." he said. Moreover. in the Charta Volans. 30 years later. Several points should be noted. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. "I have never. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. Leibniz may have minimized. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. and doubts emerged. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. Now that I am old. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. as if by the authority of a great judge. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. All this casts doubt on his testimony.. and when I did. In accepting the denial. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. which the author of that epistle. finding in favor of Newton.g. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). and that of April 8. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. the letter of June 7. The report of the committee. 1716. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. in the Acta Eruditorum).

(London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). [4] D Gjertsen (1986). . maths. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). They adopted two algorithms. 1967). [5] http:/ / www. "The Newton handbook". D. so making the priority row a nonsense. [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris.. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz... google. at p. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. (Cambridge University Press. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). explaining "the method of first and last ratios".99.).. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. of equal certainty. the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. 1696). com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). the analytical method of fluxions. which were translatable one into the other. google. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. points of resemblance. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). the differential and integral calculus. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". at page 149. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". at page 250 (http:/ / books. the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. whose potentialities he fully understood. google.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. tcd. (Guicciardini 2003. and the differential and integral calculus. at page 41 (http:/ / books. not in the German-speaking world). T. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. (1970). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. 120. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. especially at p. other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. 1968). (Cambridge University Press. at page 400. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. 2003).

. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. Press. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke.html). 1980. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. Dated. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. 1908. It continues ticking along. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www.rutgers.math. A thorough scholarly discussion. • W. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Cambridge Uni. approaching a maximum value). 1997. 4th ed. including the law of universal gravitation. W. a prominent supporter of the theory. R. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion."[1] . The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. Canberra. A. going on without the Interposition of God. 1988.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness.maths. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. Edward B. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. • Stephen Hawking.html). Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. Anand. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. as a perfect machine. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. • Hall. and tends. • Kandaswamy.tcd. W W Norton. Rouse Ball. or initiated by the Big Bang. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. random behaviour. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World.

References [1] Davis. Cambridge: 1996. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. and beauty. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. Edinburgh. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. Further reading • Dolnick. Robert Lambourne.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. 1. [2] John of Sacrbosco. God was the master-builder. 1974). Cambridge University Press. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. who created the perfect machine and let it run. 19. John Bolton. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. 201. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. cited in. 2011. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. Joy Manners. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. This steel artwork contains moving gears. the Royal Society. and motion.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. no. Clarke quotation taken from article. 1850. In this widely popular medieval text. . Webb. 3. On the Sphere. 2: 103-117. This view of God as the creator. p. Knud Haakonssen. p. 65. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. A Source Book in Medieval Science. who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World." Science and Christian Belief 3. Ed. Westfall. quoted in Edward Grant.K. ed. (http://physicalworld. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". a working clock." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”..com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). God was the Prime Mover.google. regularity. Andrew Norton. Edward B. Edward. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. 465. Harper Collins. p. ibid. 2. space. 1991. Pr. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster.html) The Physical World. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. R. the machine of the world. p. Richard S. Alan Durrant.

1931). James Clerk Maxwell.: Am. and the additional concept of force. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. 72. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. com/ 65/ li/ light. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . an appreciation by Albert Einstein. form. and all their 'inner' qualities. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics.html) JJ Thorn et al. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. gutenberg. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. time. pp. interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory.edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy.whitman. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. html) . Eugene.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. Albert Einstein. Phys.com (http:/ / www. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. corpuscular theory of light. htm [2] bartleby. Translation). J. retaining only inertia.29-32. the material point and force (interaction between material points). set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies.[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. Torrance (1982). pp.The Wave. 1210-1219 (2004) . spatial locality. Particle. translation. bartleby. edited by Thomas F.

For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena. 3. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). page 943 of I. Newton showed that these laws of motion. first published in 1687.e. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. i. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces.[5] For example. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis.[2][3][3] 2. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. opposite and collinear. in Latin. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. whether metaphysical or physical. i. and afterwards rendered general by induction. and hypotheses. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. have no place in experimental philosophy.e. Third edition. and I do not feign hypotheses.. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal. . The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. or based on occult qualities. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. 974 pages. or mechanical.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. combined with his law of universal gravitation. Therefore. Newton's First and Second laws.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses.. General Scholium. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. in the third volume of the text. F = ma. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation.

a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. Euler’s laws can. In this sense. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. from this point of view. acceleration. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. This is the most common. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity. In the given interpretation mass.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. i. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. independently of any particle structure. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. That is. momentum. then the velocity of the object is constant. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. Thus. however. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted .[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe.e.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero.Laws of motion In their original form.

and hence the body will maintain its velocity. acceleration. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below).Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account.[22] . Thus. i. even if there is no change in its magnitude.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. the momentum of the body is constant. Galileo. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. however. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. such is the case with uniform circular motion. where F is the net force applied. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest. if a body is accelerating. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero.. In other words. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. m is the mass of the body.e. and a is the body's acceleration. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. Thus. otherwise it would stop moving. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. Consistent with the first law. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. then there is a force on it. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force.

according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. by substituting the definition of acceleration. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. or obliquely joined.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. reading: If a force generates a motion. when they are oblique. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd.[18] In classical mechanics. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. Instead. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side.[24] . and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. Then. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. a double force will generate double the motion. if the body moved before. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body.[23] this is understood. in modern terms. a triple force triple the motion.[17] The reasoning. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. or gradually and successively. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. M is the total mass of the system. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. In case of a well-defined system of particles. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. particles by definition have constant mass. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. known as the thrust. Under some conventions. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both.

the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. as it does the stone towards the horse. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. and by its force changes the motion of the other. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. For. but act in opposite directions. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. The changes made by these actions are equal. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. As shown in the diagram opposite.. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. If you press a stone with your finger.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. as the motions are equally changed. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. This law takes place also in attractions.[25] In the above. Although the forces are equal. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. in its own motion. as will be proved in the next scholium. toward the contrary part. that is to say. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. the finger is also pressed by the stone. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. if the road . not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. and directed to contrary parts.g. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. as usual. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". but act in opposite directions. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. motion is Newton's name for momentum. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. If a body impinges upon another. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body.

Given two objects A and B.a are the forces from A acting on B. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. So each and every force has two ends. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. one might say. and in quantum mechanics. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. Therefore. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. momentum.[28] however from a deeper perspective. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. most notably at very small scales. optical properties of substances. Newton's laws of motion. including general relativity and quantum field theory. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. .b are the forces from B acting on A. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. each exerting a force on the other. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. which can be stated as follows. However. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. 87 where Fa. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. From a mathematical point of view. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. Fb. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). At speeds comparable to the speed of light. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. very high speeds (in special relativity. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. and not on a single object. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life.

since they apply to both light and matter. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. quantum mechanics. 58. This can be stated simply. energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. ISBN 3764314761. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. Indeed. Treatise on natural philosophy. Jacob (2008). . berkeley. .12. etc. tripod.. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. (1867). p. Newtonian Physics. . Dover Publications. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. • Section 242. I. "Newton's First Law: Text. Tseitlin. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). energy. Benvenuto. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". and is not used in fundamental theories (e. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. . Michael E. ISBN 097046701X. us. (2003). the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. Lubliner.. pdf). M. [9] Benjamin Crowell. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). ISBN 9780070084988.. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books.). "Momentum. htm) [.. quantum electrodynamics. general relativity. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. Becchi. ce. Newtonian Physics. Halliday Browne. Translations. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. Edoardo (2003).Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics.." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. and to both classical and non-classical physics.. doi:10.1023/A:1022632600805. springerlink. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ).]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. and Tait. In modern physics. lightandmatter. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. action at a distance has been completely eliminated. ISBN 0486462900. the laws of conservation of momentum. McGraw-Hill Companies. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. "4. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. html). P G.. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles.g.45G. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. volume 1. google. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). google. New York: Birkhäuser. Antonio. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. and by a modern text of the early 21st century. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. . the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. google.Truesdell. pp. . and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). W (Lord Kelvin).. However. archive. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. 207. Clifford A. google. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws.

. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. . com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. [11] Isaac Newton. pages 627–658. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). ISBN 0471037109. Perspectives on Science. p. Springer. Special relativity (http:/ / books.T. John Wiley & Sons. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. cited below. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law".). . ISBN 0070350485. Angel R. Applied Mechanics. Whiteside (http:/ / books. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. [16] Plastino. ISBN 052189266X. and (3) Bruce Pourciau. Pitman Paperbacks. google. Harman & Alan E. [22] WJ Stronge (2004). 27 (2): 112–115. 161. An Introduction to Mechanics. Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. unless somewhat else stir it. pp. . com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009).. . 1971 [20] Raymond A. Corollary III to the laws of motion . Physics.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". Shapiro. 24. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[.." [19] Hannah. . [26] C Hellingman (1992). com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only. The Principia. Jerry S. doi:10.. Eds) (2002). "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. stanford. Faughn (2006)..] Consequently. 199. (2) Stuart Pierson. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. html#NewLawMot). though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself).. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. p. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used. pages 157–207.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass.. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. google. Resnick. Marion (2004). google. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. Serway. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still.. (1992). in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. Educ. 53. 1 (1993). [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. 353. p. google. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. ISSN 0923-2958. [13] Beatty. "Physics". "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". Millard F. pp. 6. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. Cohen and A. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. 12 ff. (2006). . A new translation by I. Whitman. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). consists. (http:/ / books. 133–134." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. . in 5. London/Berlin: Springer. vol.M1).1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. ISBN 0387237046. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). J. p. "'Corpore cadente.1007/BF00052611.27." [28] Newton. google. Phys. "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. pp. Robert Kolenkow (1973). ISBN 0534997244. McGraw-Hill. is a truth that no man doubts. 78–79.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. M J. 1967). Berkeley 1999. but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M. .B.. 1. p. s.53. Bibcode 1992PhyEd. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. Juan C. "Newton’s third law revisited". Muzzio. University of California press. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. See Harman and Shapiro. ISBN 0521602890. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. 2007. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. [14] Thornton. Principia.. College Physics (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. doi:10. Daniel.112H. it will lie still forever. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. is not so easily assented to. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. ISBN 0534408966. [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. [. pages 143–185. . com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). producing the relativistic expression for momentum.." [17] Halliday. google.227P. also an online discussion by G E Smith. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". p.60 (2006). Hillier.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. p221." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). Brooks/Cole. .

htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. • Marion.. Wolfram Demonstrations Project. R. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003). Newton's laws of motion (http://books.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny. Benjamin. Vol. Thornton.3).com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) .wolfram. 6. containing Book 1 (http://books. Pearson/Addison-Wesley.com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178).html#Section5.lightandmatter.. ISBN 0030973023. 1 (2nd ed.google.). • Fowles.M1).lightandmatter. p.html#Section4. (1867).net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy. Stephen (1995). P G.3.lightandmatter. Cassiday. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". Saunders College Publishing. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books.).Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell. ISBN 0070378525. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books. • Newton. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Harcourt College Publishers. ISBN 0030223172. • Likins.2).com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6.1). Sands.. (1973). (2011). Peter W. volume 2. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726).motionmountain.google. G. M. ISBN 0805390499.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC). P.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05. google.lightandmatter.youtube. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. R. G.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04. volume 1.mit. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ). Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. especially at Section 4. London/Berlin: Springer. Elements of Engineering Mechanics. Jerry. • Feynman. (1999).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC).hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw. volume 1.com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). • Thomson. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). Newton's Third Law (http://www. • Newton.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04. Newton's First Law (http://www. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". and Section 5. R. L. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books. Leighton.com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6.google. and Tait. especially at Section 242. Newton's Second Law (http://www. Section 4. (2005). External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw.google.com/lm/). html#Section4.lightandmatter. Isaac.google. Special relativity (http://books. Isaac.2. Light and Matter (http://www.1.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations. W (Lord Kelvin). B. Light and Matter). (2011. ISBN 1-85233-426-6.

but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"). m1 is the first mass. G is the gravitational constant. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G. F is measured in newtons (N).[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. m2 is the second mass. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Assuming SI units. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant.) In modern language.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Both are inverse-square laws. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. first published on 5 July 1687. r in meters (m).[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. .

an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive . but also. being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity"."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[6] In this way arose the question what. "prosecuting this Inquiry").. that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall.e. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers".[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution.. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity. however.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. together with a principle of linear inertia. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. On the latter two aspects.Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s. and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known". but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674. if anything. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal. of 24 November 1679.[7] It was later on. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". that Hooke communicated his "supposition . and on which some points still excite some controversy.[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity".. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society.. Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified". did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time.". in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton. Plagiarism dispute In 1686. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets.

Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand. According to Newton. in all editions of the 'Principia'.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[20] and associated sections of Book 3. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book.[19] In addition.. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. also without demonstration. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view.[15] (who suggested. Hooke. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate."[14] . Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. Thus Newton gave a justification. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. which Newton was making in the 1660s. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. supported by mathematical demonstration. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1. although significant.[14] including Bullialdus.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. without evidence in favor of the supposition.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. but without demonstration. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. Newton did accept and acknowledge.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). even close up. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way.. Newton acknowledged Wren.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. but that did not mean. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). otherwise lacking. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. which inclined me to try it . Among the reasons. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. according to Newton.

Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. for example. taken together. Nevertheless.. on the point at r0..[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). it becomes understandable how.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. That is. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". .[26][27] In the light of the background described above. even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. In the limit. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. As a consequence.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). as the component point masses become "infinitely small". cancel each other out. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published. that "One must not think that this idea . • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour. this entails integrating the force (in vector form. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). Alexis Clairaut. As described above. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable.[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke.

quantities in bold represent vectors. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines . the increase due to the additional mass is 1. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. further outward the gravity increases again. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. Thus. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. In this formula.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. G is the gravitational constant. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. and if the sphere is large enough.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary.

it can be seen that F12 = −F21. except that F is now a vector quantity.g. object 1 the Earth). Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. For 2 objects (e. Also. object 2 is a rocket. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . It is a generalization of the vector form. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. per unit mass.

Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. Gravitational fields are also conservative. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. and c is the speed of light. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. v is the velocity of the objects being studied. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. . This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. in SI. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity.e. The field has units of acceleration. where φ is the gravitational potential. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. this is m/s2. General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. i. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. that is. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model)..[31] For example.

the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity."[33] .Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. However. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. is to me so great an absurdity that. "assigned the cause of this power".[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work." He never. and the observed precession. independent of the quantities of matter involved. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. In all other cases. but in the case of gravity. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. though hypotheses abound. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. decades before Newton.. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. which was detected long after the life of Newton. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. Yet. In 1692. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". I believe. especially of planet Mercury. in his third letter to Bentley. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. you get an orbit with no precession. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. and assume a point mass for each. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally. in his words. In point of fact. regardless of their different inertial masses. However. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. F = ma.. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. the definitive answer has yet to be found. the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. See the Equivalence Principle. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. Moreover.

"The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". Vol 2 (1676-1687). com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). p. In Einstein's theory. (Cambridge University Press. htm). google. Vol 2 (1676-1687).. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). google.. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false)..392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729.633. 1960). [6] H W Turnbull (ed.). mpiwg-berlin. "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". nist.. David B. ch. Journal for the History of Astronomy. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. In general relativity. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Direct link to value (http:/ / www. Springer. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. [22] See J. 1664-1684". i (1970). start at page 177 (http:/ / books. 45 (1991). document #286. pages 5-19. public.. . by I. A. for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. General Scholium. at p. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia". [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. CUP 1989. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. (Cambridge University Press. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. iastate. (Cambridge University Press. Book 3. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. mpg. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". Florence.1103/RevModPhys. 1960). pages 5-19.. Taylor. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). 1960). because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime.I. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity.80. translators: Isaac Newton. [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645).). is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. nist. 1664-1684". Phys. 1666. Ofer Gal. pages 11-61. document #235.. document #239. Vol. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Correspondence. [17] D T Whiteside. edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. google. [2] .). Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. especially at page 13. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). [21] D T Whiteside. [16] Borelli. [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia.).633M. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. (2009). 24 November 1679. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. google. google. (Cambridge University Press. [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". google. 168. 27 May 1686. start at page 263 (http:/ / books. see particularly page 431. Vol 2 (1676-1687). gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). 80: 633–730. (Cambridge University Press. Peter J. [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. 1645.956 . already cited. G. [18] Page 436. especially at 13-20.80. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.Bernard Cohen. Mod. "Astronomia philolaica". Rev. 1960). Theorem 35: p. 1995). Bruce Brackenridge. doi:10. at page 66 (http:/ / books. Newell. Barry N.). (2008). 20 June 1686. i (1970). Vol 2 (1676-1687). . Paris. Robert D. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. Vol 2 (1676-1687). pdf). "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www.. google. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. (University of California Press. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 1960).2. physics. document #288. Bibcode 2008RvMP. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr.Proposition 75. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books.431-448. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [8] Purrington. . gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata.

Westfall. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. If the speed is low. ph. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. 511-517. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. (E) . de Hook diminue la gloire de M. and the Earth.W. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . cited above.. stanford. 10 (2005). (D) 4. 518-528. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. 10 (2005). If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. 10 (2005). then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth.. Thorne. by Richard S. html) [31] Misner. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". in Early Science and Medicine. Venus. and it was the key force for planetary motion. [27] See also G E Smith. it will simply fall back on Earth. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. M Nauenberg. it will indeed leave Earth. in Early Science and Medicine.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. 529-534. Wheeler. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan.Max Born (1924). New York: W. [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W.. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. Rouse Ball. Gravitation. If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon.. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. If the speed is very high. Kip S. at page 69. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball.Freeman and Company. Cambridge University Press. utexas. at Introduction (section IX). 1893).pythia.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www.) [33] . (A and B) 2. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". Newton" (1759). edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). 1. Ofer Gal. (C) 3. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. Newton". [32] .com. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World.youtube. H. in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. John Archibald (1973). Charles W. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity.The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. in Early Science and Medicine.

edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. eg.bucknell.virginia. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books. New York: Random House. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result. A combination of red. When the disc is rotated. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111). net23. the colors fade to white. Notes [1] Sagan. php?p=2_23 . google. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light. Carl et al. net/ index.physics.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless.

we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. and its derivative ƒ '. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. (x1. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. succeeded by Halley's method. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. f (x0)). and the method can be iterated. That is Here. Suppose ƒ : [a. b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). Then by simple algebra we can derive . f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method). for converging on the root can be easily derived.

Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. (The closer to the zero. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. More details can be found in the analysis section below. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. However. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. the better. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. But. He does not compute the successive approximations . Finally. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. though the connection with calculus was missing. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. However. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. In the same publication. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. In 1690. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. for a zero of multiplicity 1.) The method will usually converge. Furthermore. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. essentially giving the description above. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. . Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. Finally. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. in 1740. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus.

However. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. the method may overshoot. For situations where the method fails to converge. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. Specifically. Furthermore. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. In these situations. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. there are some difficulties with the method. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. However. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. and diverge from that root. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. if the multiplicity of the root is known.

if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable.e. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. Specifically. However. x in a neighborhood U of α. then. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. in U+. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. then the convergence is usually only linear. ƒ(α) = 0. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if .6). Exercise 1. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. In practice these results are local. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. α being a zero of multiplicity r.. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. i. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x).

sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms. that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied. 2. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1.35287527 converges to 4. 2.352836323 converges to 1. 2.35284172 converges to –3. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1. For example.[1] for the function . where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small. 2. . 3.352836327 converges to –3. 2.35283735 converges to 4.Newton's method 106 That is. (b) (c) Finally.

For the following subsections. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . Let and take 0 as the starting point. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. . the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. In such cases a different method. any iteration point is stationary. The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. since the tangent at (0. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function).Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. In general. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. In fact.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. the method will converge. instead of the starting point. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. preventing convergence. x1 will be undefined. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. such as bisection. for example. This can happen.

and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. For example. where its derivative is undefined (this. Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. except for x = 0. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. So convergence is not quadratic. Indeed. where . In the limiting case of (square root). however. the derivative at the root is nonzero. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. then convergence will not be quadratic. let . which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. In fact. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . so they do not converge in this case either. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. let then and consequently . does not affect the algorithm. farther away than it initially was. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0.

127507934. since both roots are non-real.032741218. . the derivative is not zero at the root. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root.251062828. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. darker means more iterations to converge. 0. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1.500250376. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. 0. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. These sets can be mapped as in the image shown.031642362.1 = 0. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions. 0. For example. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. Indeed. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. 0.067671976. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. 0. For many complex functions. 0. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. meaning the iterates do not converge.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . then convergence may fail to be quadratic. Basins of attraction for x5 .041224176. 0. Given .

which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. k variables. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. In the formulation given above. one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. . Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . If the nonlinear system has no solution.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn.

the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. We try a starting value of x0 = 0.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. With an initial guess of 10.5. There are many methods of computing square roots. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1.) . one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x). showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. and Newton's method is one. with derivative. We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. if one wishes to find the square root of 612. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. which may be found via Newton's method. For example.

Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld.. Classics in Applied Mathematics. Ypma. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. and 9. Cambridge University Press. W. Claude. Vetterling. Gilbert. SIAM. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. Mathcad. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. Frédéric. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. 2004. Charles. Eric W. • Press. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. SIAM Review 37 (4). Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. doi:10. In particular.6 [6]. 2003.).4 [5].Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4].Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. C. Maple.7 [7]. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. 35. 112 References • Tjalling J. • C. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. Teukolsky. Flannery. Egwu (2008). Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. SA. T.. J. • Kaw. Kalu. Newton's method [9] -. • P. New York: Cambridge University Press.). M. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. See especially Sections 9. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3].). Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots . no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. Springer. Vol. 9. WH. SIAM. BP (2007). External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein. (2006). Ortega. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. xiv+490. ISBN 0-521-00794-1. MR2265882. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. illustrating the quadratic convergence. pp. WT. 1995. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. John H. Universitext (Second revised ed. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. PPT. "Chapter 9. J. • J. Claudia A. Autar.1137/1037125. • Bonnans.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. Rheinboldt. 2003. Sagastizábal. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. Matlab. Berlin. 2000. 531–551. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Deuflhard. doi:10. of translation of 1997 French ed. Kelley. Lemaréchal.

1 [10] http:/ / www. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. "Cubics. Gilbert. however. eng. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. mathworks. springer. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. wolfram. com/ empanel/ index. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. nrbook. January 1991. maths. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. edu [16] http:/ / math. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. eng. Mathematical Gazette 81. html [9] http:/ / www. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. torkian. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. pp. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. html [21] http:/ / www. In physics. November 1997. nrbook. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. or dot notation. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. Thomas. lightandmatter. . fullerton. com/ empanel/ index. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. nrbook. It is defined as: and so on. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. com/ empanel/ index. macroeconomics and other fields. heroku. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. p. maccery. php [11] http:/ / math. [3] http:/ / www. nrbook. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. html [12] http:/ / animation. [2] Strang. html [17] http:/ / plus. html#Section4. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. usf. com/ NewtonsMethod. 403-408. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. "A chaotic search for i". name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. chaos and Newton's method". usf. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. amcgowan. r-project. com/ empanel/ index. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. 6). 3-12 (esp. yihui. fullerton.

formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. mount. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. being the first known successful reflecting telescope.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. than by Refraction in the Glass. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. covering the limb of the Metal round about. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. cam. . and not the spherical aberration. ac. or a little less. and fittings. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. For this Circle being placed here. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. but be an opake Circle. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. made with a concave Eye-glass. an early composition of speculum metal. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. lib. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. He also made all the tube.

htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. com/ image. Page 74 (http:/ / books. King. Hatch . Wilson Published by Springer. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. 1785" (http:/ / www. 9783540401063. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. craig-telescope. . ssplprints. google.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). Heath's) in Strand.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23. They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672.Work . google. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space. 1966.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE .[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. Science & Society Picture Library. Telescopes in History. clas.". php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics. by Alfred Rupert Hall. Warren J. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). google.A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life .M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. google. stsci. Modern Optical Engineering..6 References • Smith. 2004 ISBN 3540401067.Publication.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books..[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown. page 67 (http:/ / books.[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). google. uk/ lens. Retrieved 22 November 2008.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. php?imgref=10408672). Dr Robert A. co. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. [10] http:/ / www. html . com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. ufl. McGraw-Hill Inc.University of Florida (http:/ / www. p. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.

[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors.[3] and others.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] . claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616.[9][10] If this was true.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour. and there were many theories as to what caused it. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope.edu/~picard/personal/Newton.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day.stsci. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope.mit.media. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build). breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web. such as Niccolò Zucchi. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672.

[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured).3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. it would still correct chromatic aberration. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3).[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. mount. reducing cost and adding to portability. Because of these difficulties in construction. leading to wider field of view. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. cassegrains. the primary mirror (2). the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. Like Gregory before him. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope. The surface also tarnished rapidly. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types. .[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. and fittings. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. He also made the tube.

• For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). This flare is zero on-axis. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter).[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. low-power imagery.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. For visual observing. A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. . Visually. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. For research telescopes. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. suffer from coma.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path.[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast. where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio.

Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . Page 74 (http:/ / books. google.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. google. Inc NetLibrary.Mark T. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. Page 108 (http:/ / books. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. org/ basics. rice. google. page 67 (http:/ / books. google. The Newton handbook. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108.By Fred Watson. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& .M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. by Alfred Rupert Hall. google. King. html) [3] Stargazer . com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. VandeWettering. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. page 562 (http:/ / books.

pdf). google.. McGraw-Hill Inc. Rolin J. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. [12] telescope-optics. htm) [13] amazing-space. com/ documents/ paracorr. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations. "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. 116. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer .1. google. telescope-optics. espacenet.1. Wilson Published by Springer. Retrieved 2009-09-29. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. p.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. 77R [16] Sacek. [20] Alexius J. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. Warren J..and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). google. Modern Optical Engineering. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. 9783540401063. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. baader-planetarium. google. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life". . com/ Telescopes/ Hadley. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N.John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey.stsci. cloudynights. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical . published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely.edu . . Vladimir (2006-07-14). com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. Retrieved 2009-10-03. harvard. Retrieved 29 November 2010. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. 1966."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. two. pdf) (pdf). . . Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. telescope-optics. Hebra. . net/ reflecting. edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. & David Shafer. page 14 (http:/ / books. Gebelein. David (2004). p. "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". .M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. htm). The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. stsci. com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. "8.

: Harvard University Press. for one. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. CO. 319-330" (http:/ / links. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. pp. if two globes. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. political thought and theology. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation. with no other clues to assess the situation.2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). Journal of the History of Ideas. measuring the amount of tension in the cord.Sep.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. . the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . 0. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. Yehuda Elkana. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). in addition to influencing philosophy. are connected by a cord. 30. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. causes. was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. in general. (This experiment involves observation of a force. floating in space. David Hume. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. jstor. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. Vol. Also. 1974. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. Ronald S. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. Retrieved 2008-03-26. 3 (Jul. the tension). Mass. Alternatively. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. 1969). Cambridge.. Calinger.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. As an example where causes can be observed. . The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. Such determination. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. he says.[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". No. org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2.

were revolved about their common center of gravity. pp.[2][6] For me. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. by means of a cord that connects them. Principia. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument. Book 1. partly from the apparent motions. . the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. .[8] (Of course. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. Scholium To summarize this proposal. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. we might. centrifugal forces are produced. — Ernst Mach. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. the matter is more subtle. instead. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. from the tension of the cord. and therefore. according to the preceding methods. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. Alternatively. which are the causes and effects of the true motions.Rotating spheres force). — Isaac Newton. even in an immense vacuum. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion.) Below. the fixed stars. but standing on the Earth's surface. For instance. according to Newton.. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. as an example from Newton's time. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. for example. partly from the forces. which are the differences of the true motions. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. p. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. absolute space or fixed stars). and if. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe.. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. Because of the rotation. then. they are not rotating. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. no centrifugal forces are produced.

If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. but opposite in direction. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. so the string should be relaxed. observers say they are at rest. along the direction of the string. the Coriolis force is:[11] . putting the string under tension. Because of the rotation. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. The other ball has the same requirement. Because the balls are not moving. (For example. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). and should require an inward force to do that. the string is placed under tension. These two forces are provided by the string. they would say no force acts on the balls. requires a centripetal force of the same size. m is the mass of the ball.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. pulling them apart. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. accounting for their observation. See Figure 2. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. and acts on everything they observe. the tying string. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. However. (See reactive centrifugal force. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. |xB| = R. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. which would stretch. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. locating one or the other of the spheres). According to the article fictitious force. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. the Coriolis force. but circular motion at constant speed. not just these spheres. In this zero-tension case. To travel in a circular path.)[9] To account for this tension. but being on the opposite end of the string. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. This force is directed inward. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. they clearly see the string is under tension. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. and is called a centripetal force. also shown in Figure 2. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. According to the rotating observer.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. the string is under tension.

the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. In the geometry of this example. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. while for a more rapidly moving frame. ωS < 0. it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. In either case. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. this force is not the tension in the string. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. hence. . Full notational details are in Fictitious force. That is. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. However. say ωI (I = inertial). General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward).Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. |vB| = ωR. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. Therefore. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. When ωI < ωS.

p. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. 175. 82. Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. p. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame.[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. Cambridge University Press. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. [2] Robert Disalle (I. Sausalito CA: University Science . ISBN 0521656966. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. . google. google. The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. [8] D. Hand. Freeman (1986). Janet D. . com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. p. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 354067652X.M1). google. 233. . 161. . google. ISBN 0486607690. Courier Dover Publications. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). Bernard Cohen & George E. Retrieved 2010-05-13. and I. Draza Marković. p. google. google. google. Moreover. ISBN 0691033234. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. . . . google. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. p. ISBN 0521621135. Knudsen & Poul G.M1). . inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. p. [7] Max Born (1962). Finch (1998). com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). . Princeton University Press.Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. [9] Barry Dainton (2001). 43. google. editors) (2002). Cambridge University Press. McGill-Queen's Press.M1). com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. ISBN 0486652270. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. p. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. editors) (1996).M1). Figure 43.M1). Courier Dover Publications. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. 80. Bernard Cohen. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Hjorth (2000). The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. htm). com/ definitions. Cambridge University Press. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). [4] Max Born (1962). Springer.M1). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. . [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. George Edwin Smith (2002).M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. [10] Jens M. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . . pp. 167. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. p. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. google. . google. 79. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. 324. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. Time and Space (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521656966.[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. p. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). tripod. Smith. p. ISBN 0521575729. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. New York: Courier Dover Publications. [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. p. ISBN 0773523065. ωS is the greater. 43. The Principia. ISBN 0486607690. [5] Max Born (1962).). google. ISBN 0486607690. 386–387.

275. Moore (1989).. showing that it was an inverse-cube force. . Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). Draza Marković (Editors) ed. Mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. first published in 1687.M1) (in Proc. . In Proposition 43. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. 99ff. 5 (1975) ed. ISBN 0074603159. (3. 279–280. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). See Henry Stommel. [16] R. Lynden-Bell (1996). Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). In Proposition 44. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. the theorem has been . 348–349. ISBN 0521352541. An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. ISBN 0521621135. p. Phil. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. Henning Genz (2001). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. google. pp. B. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. their Eq.). Nothingness (http:/ / books. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. he derived a formula for the force. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. p. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. ISBN 0738206105. ISBN 189138922X. and Ralph A. Am. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0231066368.M1).M1). Dennis W. . Soc. Mechanics (http:/ / books. google. In this example. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4. no. google. vol. Partridge (1995). com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. p. . . com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. google. com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99.[1] Since 1997.Rotating spheres Books. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force.M1). Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. 325–348.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. google. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43.. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. he showed that the added force must be a central force. D. Columbia University Press. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. google. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. pp.3) in Stommel and Moore. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. . whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. Da Capo Press. 167. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. (3. . fixed in space (the center). com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). pp. google. 43. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession.). p. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force.M1).4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. p. . 55. 119.

always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. 262 BC – ca.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. To explain the epicycles. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . By analogy. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). In particular. Arguing from his laws of motion. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. exhibiting retrograde motion. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. However. for planets orbiting the Sun.[5] Roughly 350 years later. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. Apollonius of Perga (ca. Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). According to these laws. and so on. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered.Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. to first approximation. However.

its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 .[12] and Delaunay. that is. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. To find this approximation. However. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. According to this theorem. However. afterwards. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. in particular. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. to first approximation. r(t) and θ1(t).[13] However. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. The radial and angular motions. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. However. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit.[11] Brown. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r). this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces.

the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). such as r(t) and θ1(t). the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. F2−F1 is a positive number. the angle of the second particle. change with time t as the particle moves. if k2 is less than one. In other words. then. θ1). The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. Formally. If k2 is greater than one. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. A GIF version of this animation is found here. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). rather. For example. By contrast. the added inverse-cube force is attractive. thus. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. Both of these coordinates. F2 − F1 is a negative number. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). r(t) and θ1(t). where k is any constant. Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. the path of the second particle is given by . the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. since θ2 = k θ1. rather. its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle.Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. For example. where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. For this purpose.

In this case. i. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum.e. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω. when the distance reaches a minimum. in other words. the orbit does not change as it precesses.. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. Hence. the second orbit resembles the first.e. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. but not equal. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. if k is less than one. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. but revolves gradually about the center of force. However.. respectively. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added.e.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. If k is greater than one. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°.Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. According to the conservation of angular momentum. to one. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). . ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. when the orbit is a circle. where k is a constant. Hence. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. both of which are constant. i. shown in red). the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. i. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). F1(r) = 0. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3).. this is true only for circular orbits. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. However. at a constant angular speed. in that case. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r.

corresponding to an attractive force (green. whereas when k is greater than one. 1. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k.0 (blue). the inverse-cube force is repulsive. the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. Thus. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). the force is attractive. Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals.0 (blue). On the other hand. Thus. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity.0 (cyan) and 6. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m).0 (black). L12/m. Thus. 3. the solution corresponds to an epispiral.5 (green). Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. when k is less than one. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. when k is greater than one. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). 1. 3. the range of allowed angles increases. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit. which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity.0 (green).0 (cyan) and 6. When k is less than one. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. as illustrated in Figure 7.

i. and other effects. However. this property is not true for other types of forces. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. oblateness in the attracting body. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem. F = Cr. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. F = C/r2. For example. green orbit in Figure 9). Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. the line connecting the two apses. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. green orbit in Figure 10). Conversely. where m and n are integers. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4.e. no matter what its initial position or velocity.. In other words. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. For example.. i. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. However. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. Over time. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force.e. such as . The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. provided that k equals a rational number. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually.. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue).) In such cases. An govern the motions of planets. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets.e. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. in general. and inverse-square forces. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. such as Hooke's law. i. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. For illustration. general relativistic effects.

and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . the central force is a power law. Thus. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. For the inverse-square force. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse.e. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. using the general law θ2 = k θ1. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth.C(r) is proportional to rn. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. As noted above. in general.[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. Therefore. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. F(r) = rn−3 and. where n equals 1.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits.[16] According to their argument. Wilson and Harper.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. the apsidal angle α is 180°. in the same time. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. α equals 180°. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. As a final illustration. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°. In the first two. hence. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. this implies that. one of the first appearances of such a series.. i. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law.

However. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2. In 1673. Hipparchus and Ptolemy. of the planets. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun. i. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes). again on the monthly time-scale. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit.[28] Ironically.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude.[23] in Newton's time. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets.6 years. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon.[24] for comparison.. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately. 18.0165)[26] In 1894.[25] First.e. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity.85 years. and is noticeably more complex than that. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force .[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. the so-called Saros cycle. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale.

roughly half of the observed 3. r1 = r2. so Newton reasoned. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. and estimates of A and B. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1).76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. and its argument is unchanged. The second term. so that r1 = r2. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. the original force is not scaled. θ2 = k θ1. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle.5°. Rather. however. the long axis would rotate 1. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0.[4] As Newton did. For every revolution. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). consistent with the formula given above. For comparison. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia.525°).[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. but the inverse-square term is not. However.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. In this case. the inverse-cube force is added. Also. In contrast to Newton. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth. .

which equals θ2 = k θ1. Proposition 43. specifically Propositions 43–45.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. derived earlier in the Principia. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). by Proposition 2. At the apapsis and periapsis.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. Therefore. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. Expressed another way. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. which equals (k−1) θ1. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. All three planets (red. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. therefore. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. In an infinitesimal time dt. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. by Newton's Proposition 2. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. and also its angle θ1(t). the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. Proposition 44 . the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular.

[36] In this Proposition. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . to offset this. by which two bodies may be made to move equally. he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. specifically by the formula given above. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement.[33] By assumption. which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. In Proposition 44 of his Principia. r(t).Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force. The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. one in a fixed. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r). Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. the other in the same orbit revolving. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth.

254. [2] Lynden-Bell. 147. doi:10. pp. 2708v1). [25] Newton. Proposition 45. [10] Clairaut. org/ abs/ 0807. [19] Cook A (2000). fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). 252.. 267 (Chapter 6. 406. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. doi:10. Mémoires Acad. [30] Roseveare N (1982).. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". [27] Hall A (1894). [15] Newton. CA: University of California Press.49H. p. Simon Newcomb. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv.. pp. p. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. . pp. Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. Math. Mémoires Acad. Oxford. ISBN 978-0520065895.386. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. Delaunay C (1867). p. problem 7). Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. Bibcode 1987JHA. 141–147. doi:10. [31] Symon KR (1971). [21] Horrocks J (1673).245L. [5] Sugon QM. MA: Addison–Wesley. Jin S (2008). pp. bnf. [34] Chandrasekhar. AC (1745). Imp. American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. 67–70. [22] Wilson C (1987). "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". Sc. [18] Chandrasekhar. 339–385. 183–192. Principia. 193–194. Monthly Notices Roy. London: G Godbit for J Martyn. [6] Whittaker. In Norman Thrower. Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein.. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179.: 237.1023/A:1008317327402. pp. p. p. p. Vawda F (2000). "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia".Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. J.. pp. [14] Newton. [13] Delaunay C (1862). ISBN 0-201-07392-7. Propositions 43–45.1086/102055. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". . 91–108. 187. doi:10. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". [3] Lynden-Bell D. Book I. Harper W (1997). 192. [36] Chandrasekhar.1111/j. "Unknown title". Proposition 2. doi:10. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. 9: 31. 184. 52: 71. p.2307/2369812. Am.77W.1007/BF02422379.: 451. p. Lynden-Bell RM (1997).18.2008.13018. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. Section IX. 135–147. Imp. [11] Hill GW (1895). [37] Whittaker.1098/rsnr. [12] Brown EW (1891). [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). D. Principia. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". "Unknown title". "Unknown title".x. JSTOR 2369812. [4] Mahomed FM. [20] Smith. pp.1997.14. "Unknown title". "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". doi:10. [9] Cohen. Brown EW (1891). esp. Bragais S. Reading. [33] Chandrasekhar. ISBN 978-1888009088. [16] Valluri SR. Sc.. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". Principia. Soc. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). 198. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. Green Lion Press. Bibcode 1894AJ.. "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". Math. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. "Unknown title". doi:10. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. [32] Chandrasekhar. Astron. [35] Chandrasekhar. Berkeley. section IX of Book I. Book III. The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51.. "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". [7] Sundman KF (1912). 83.).1365-2966. Wilson C. 98–106. Mechanics (3rd ed.0016. Am.. [29] Brown EW (1903). JSTOR 2369997. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. editor. p. [17] Cohen IB (1990)...2307/2369997. [26] Chandrasekhar. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". [24] Smith. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534.. 183. p. pp.

translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. Macmillan and Co. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. • D’Eliseo. Publish or Perish. 183–200. 147–148. Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). pp. 230–233 (sections §356–359). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books.. 252–257. • Routh EJ (1960). translated by I.google.). External links • Three-body problem (http://www. pp. ISBN 978-0520088160. ISBN 978-0520088160. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713).). Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. Berkeley.). Cambridge University Press.Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). CA: University of California Press.google. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. • Guicciardini. 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). ISBN 978-0520088160. 246–252. CA: University of California Press. Bristol: Adam Hilger. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader.scholarpedia. CA: University of California Press. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Michael (1994). Berkeley. p. pp. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. • Smith GE (1999). ISBN 9780521544030. Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. assisted by Julia Budenz ed. • Spivak. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. Bibcode 2007AmJPh. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. The Motion of the Moon.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. Berkeley. pp. Principia Vol. pp. 83. • Rouse Ball WW (1893). MM (2007). ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). 534–545. • Cook A (1988). (reprint. doi:10. Berkeley. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". "A Guide to Newton's Principia".75. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. ISBN 0914098896. • Chandrasekhar S (1995). Calculus (3rd ed.2432126.. pp. pp. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". • Smith GE (1999). 56. CA: University of California Press. • Pars LA (1965). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. "Planetary Motion". New York: Dover Publications. Merchant Books).com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). Berkeley. • Newton I (1966).352D. ISBN 0-85274-348-3. • Whittaker ET (1937).com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). 246–264. pp.1119/1. CA: University of California Press.). Oxford University Press. "The first-order orbital equation". pp. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). ISBN 978-0520009288. 257–264. Niccolò (1999). ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). New York: Dover Publications. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). LCCN 64-24556. John Wiley and Sons.). 147–148. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. ISBN 978-0520088160.

it was edited and published by William Whiston. when Whiston's edition was published. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. cfm [2] http:/ / www. In fact. Babson Collection. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. published in 1865).140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. None of these editions credits Newton as author. without proof. arithmetic. and so refused to have his name appear. He also offered. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. Written in Latin. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. babson. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. and the solution of equations. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. the relationship between geometry and algebra. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. pdf . Title page of the Arithmetica. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. centre.

(in the absence of external force. After further encouragement from Halley. Law 1 in the Principia. (Before Newton's work.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. It contains 11 propositions. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. Only the draft has the title now used.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. some with corollaries. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion. resistance is assumed nil. Before reaching this core subject-matter.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). Law 3 in the Principia. both copies are without title. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws". and its (Latin) text is available online.) This .) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. these had not been generally regarded as laws. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. the distance is proportional to the square of the time. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. then for the remaining (2) propositions.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect.[4] as well as in Latin. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion.

and shows that for any given time-segment. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. putting this in another way. using another geometrical limit argument. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. it follows that a radius vector. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. problems. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'.) This theorem appears again. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. drawn from the body to the attracting center.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. with expanded explanation. and inversely proportional to the radius. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. Theorem 1. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. and the corollaries here reappear also. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle.) . Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. it would then depart along the tangent. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. of the 'Principia'. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. while their number increases without limit. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius. Theorem 4 in the Principia. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. Corollary 2 shows that. labeled as theorems. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. as Proposition 1.

how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. Problem 4 then explores. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. Problem 6. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. Problem 5 in the Principia..De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP². where the center of attraction is at its center. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. Newton points out here. . and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. in the Principia. Lastly. that is. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. (This material becomes Proposition 10. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. square] of the distance .) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line.e. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. therefore. speed and direction of the orbiting body. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. that if the speed is high enough. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1.. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. .

The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. and both of them produced from very old memories. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time. In 'De Motu'.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. or their views about the researches of others. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not.. that in any given setup. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places.[15] . and other items. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime. ".what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. in 1686. Halley asked Newton. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches.. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13.e. using a falling body. i. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). and the associated uniqueness statements. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse".[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. and a short correspondence developed. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. and as if to whet Newton's interest. or that they were not stated by Newton."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. According to one of these reminiscences. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. Later. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. and then gave a whole list.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. as in the first edition of the Principia. are self-evident and obvious or not. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'.

at pages 56 (http:/ / books. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. 19(1) (1992). 10 (2005). rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". org/ etext/ 28233). 6 (1684-1691).297. of 1729. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. also D T Whiteside. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. (Cambridge University Press. at p. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google. [14] 'Correspondence' vol. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". See also D T Whiteside (1970).297-314. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. and the first English translation. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. gutenberg. Papers vol.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. especially at p. in "Newton's Orbit Problem. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". google. (Cambridge University Press. Chapter 10. 6 (1970). that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul').431-448. who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance.6 (1684-1691). A Historian's Response". "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". and Bruce Pourciau. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. pp. 10 (2005). M Nauenberg. [11] Quoted in Richard S. pp.[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. Page 403. f.). to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". so-called. Math. as far as Book 1. 1974). at pp. vol. at p. Westfall's Never at Rest. Journal for the History of Astronomy.195-6. but note that the title was added by Rigaud. including Bullialdus. vol.1 (1970). or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli. [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. pp. footnote 73. 511-517. at p. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. Alexis Clairaut. 1960). [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin).89-170. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". pp. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences.56-83. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. 1960).193-200. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3).431-448. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.g. who heard of this from Halley. google. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. but not Hooke. [13] H W Turnbull (ed. is available here (http:/ / books. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. [15] H W Turnbull (ed. Historia Math. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65).196. 10 (2005).[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. and the original copy had no title: online.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton.3968. who called it a 'petitio principii'. Ofer Gal. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. 518-528. but the point was disagreed by R. (Cambridge University Press. and Borelli.). com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. in Early Science and Medicine. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed.). about the Principia. 1971.60-70. but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books.193-200. and printed by I Bernard Cohen. pp. google. A Historian's Response". p.).120.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. see e. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Weinstock.57. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. 38 (2007). [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica".101. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. . and the 1686 correspondence at pp.6. 116-138.2 already cited. one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. both in Newton's lifetime and later. in Early Science and Medicine.293. 529-534. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged. in Early Science and Medicine. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). Vol 2 (1676-1687). vol. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest.

pp. by R. Vol. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.W. Whiteside. T. by D. 6. Rouse Ball. 1893). Westfall. ed. Cambridge University Press. 30–91. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press. at page 69. S. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] .De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W.

however. IV. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. Chap. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. The majority of the treatise. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. Chap. Of the Empire of Egypt. and that his Temple the first ever built. III. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. Chap. Of the Assyrian Empire.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. beginning with Sesostris. followed by others. Chap. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. Of the Empire of the Persians. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. with all others being copies. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. Chap. Newton's results. II. V. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. followed by a short advertisement. . often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. therefore. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. King of Egypt. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. but since republished in mass paperback format. I. VI. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity.

" in support of the Trinity doctrine. Erasmus. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. first as a marginal note. and later into the text itself. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". sussex. Bullinger. Grotius. Syria. He noted that "the Æthiopic."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. htm#chron http:/ / www. or retain it as only a marginal reading. Muscovy. sussex. would not dissemble their knowledge". Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. and some others. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. Arabic. . ac. Egypt. the Father. Armenia. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds". newtonproject. Mesopotamia. and some others. and Slavonic versions. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. as Luther. the Word. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. are strangers to this reading". 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". the Father. 27 years after his death. still in use in the several Eastern nations.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. ac. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. Finally. Syriac. and the argument full and strong. gutenberg. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. newtonproject. the Word. and what steps it has been changed. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. First published in 1754. Ethiopia. Armenian. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www.

32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Cp. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16.& version=31. p. pp. aramaicpeshitta. by a small alteration in the Greek text.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. justified in the Spirit. was hanged at Edinburgh. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead. knew nothing of these two texts. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. preached unto the Gentiles. Cp.& version=31."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages.& version=31. further legal ramifications on the second occasion. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. biblegateway. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. Newton argued that. 1 [4] An Historical Account. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. biblegateway. received up into glory. htm) . but some place it in a footnote. References [1] http:/ / www. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. I understand not. p. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. p. biblegateway. likely due to the political climate. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www.& version=31. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. [2] http:/ / www. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. p. p.). p. biblegateway. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. Scotland. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. 2 [5] An Historical Account. [3] An Historical Account. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. seen of angels. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account.)." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. aramaicpeshitta. believed on in the world.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh.

sussex.co.ac. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly.google. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt . Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). and published in 1736. archive. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years).newtonproject. and published it in 1684. but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions. fifty years before Newton. The book was completed in 1671.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).

He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. such as air. into another. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. The first.[2] . Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. It is about optics and the refraction of light. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. refractions. as beam expanders. That is. first reported in 1672[1] . reflection. such as water or glass. on dispersion. Rather. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. 1704. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light. Multiple-prism arrays. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours.

the nature of chemical action." In many ways. First of all." In the first edition. but that it may go on for many pages. Rather. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . They are almost all posed in the negative. published in 1717/18. it is written in English rather than Latin. as rhetorical questions. by the use of fluxions. unlike the Principia. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. That is. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. over the next two hundred years. and then in the revised English edition. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. but the later ones became short essays. and it was the famous "31st Query" that." Rather. especially the later ones. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. filling many pages. Second. In the fourth edition of 1730. that number was increased in the Latin edition. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. The first set of Queries were brief. the possible cause of gravity. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. therefore. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. electrical phenomena. there were 31 Queries. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. These Queries. Clearly. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. these were sixteen such Queries. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer. In this sense. published in 1706. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. or the tools of mathematics." the proper way to do science.

"Hydrostatics.com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. First edition (http://www. 153 References [1] Newton. Fourth edition (http://books. Commun. • Newton. Optics. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. Sound and Heat (http://cudl. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier.google. J. Isaac (1998). Isaac. Duarte and J. 303–307 (1982).org/Control/nwtopt/index. a treatise of the reflexions. First edition (http://gallica. cam. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed. Opt. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures.rarebookroom. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). [2] F. Opticks or. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) .cam. refractions. ac. Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers.ac. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin. and James Black. Retrieved 10 January 2012. . Piper.html) • Gallica.bnf. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. A. 43.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. Calif. lib.lib. Palo Alto.Opticks the Principia. Papers on Hydrostatics.).: Octavo. Optics.

[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3].. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus.. in 1713 and 1726. and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [.. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]). Newton wrote[10] [. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally.] ."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. Newton also published two further editions.. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically).[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton used his expression that became famous. often referred to as simply the Principia. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and of the forces required to produce any motions. Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". forming the foundation of classical mechanics. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus.[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium). But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia. at least in certain respects. first published 5 July 1687.] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever.."[7] In formulating his physical theories. by the end of a century after publication in 1687.. also Newton's law of universal gravitation. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton ..] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature.. accurately proposed and demonstrated [.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science".

and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time).' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. De motu corporum Book 1. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. .. in revised and extended form. by observations.. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios".Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. thus offering criteria to decide. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. near-parabolic orbits. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge.

This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. which "is acknowledg'd by all. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. corollary [42]). and motion in arbitrary force laws.[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. but only a little. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". and accounts for the tides [37]. De mundi systemate Book 3. others. Corollary 2 [44]). Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. while some contend that the Earth. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result.Newton). especially the variation. modified in a somewhat modern way. since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). attempts to derive the speed of sound. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1.[41] For Newton.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. especially its consequences for astronomy. Book 3. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34].[45] . subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). Proposition 11. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". and that this centre "either is at rest. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices.

the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. we ought to step back from our senses. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. Curiously. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. From a Cartesian point of view. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". as far as possible. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. . we use relative ones. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. and consider things themselves. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. However. and was assured about their correctness. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. by which they may either be made more accurate. However. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. assign the same causes. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter.] instead of absolute places and motions. In his notes. this was a faulty theory. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. In the four rules.. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. for today's readers. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". he retracted this sentence in the published version. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. therefore. for example. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. till such time as other phenomena occur. but in philosophical discussions. [. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. Instead. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. mathematical and common. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum).. true and apparent. or liable to exceptions. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named.

which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction.) Newton's gravitational attraction. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. concerning the qualities of bodies. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. From this textual evolution. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). he inferred the existence of a Lord God. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. With these rules. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. of Descartes. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements. 1726). and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. as they did. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. From the system of the world. fires in the home and in the Sun. Newton also gave theological argument. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. "I frame no hypotheses". The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. scientists use it today.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. .[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters.

"De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies. and to his project during this time. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. although the (lost) original may have been without title. . (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). or the state of his clothes.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Humphrey Newton. Newton's tract 'De motu. The contents of 'De motu. Hooke and Wren.. and generalized the result to conic sections. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. or his sleep. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. and did very little else for well over a year and a half. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. resolved to ask Newton.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work.'. that he immediately went to visit Newton again.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. how he sometimes forgot his food.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. assuming an inverse square law of force... but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work. but that he could not find the papers. Wren was unconvinced.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. Halley.. and Halley. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. which he sent to Halley in late 1684. and he normally kept dated notes of them. Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down. in November 1684.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago.[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. but also all the laws of planetary motion.

What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. with handwritten corrections for the second edition. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. especially about the theory of the motions of comets.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. Liber secundus' of 1685. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. amended to update cross-references. and its completion has been London.' to Flamsteed. that it might be read by many". with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. but he largely started afresh in a new. the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. Liber secundus' still survives. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. tighter. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. it survived complete. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. and the other two books somewhat later. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. corporum. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. Liber primus'. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. in more than one manuscript. the solar system. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. not authorised by Newton's heirs). who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". the moon.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. also in 1728. (Newton had also communicated 'De motu.. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. making it look . because in the meantime. the tides. and less accessible mathematical style. The complete work.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. After Newton's death in 1727.. published by Halley at his own financial risk.[59] appeared in July 1687.

Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. in some cases. Samuel Pepys. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. causing some delay. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. To these two laws he added a third a decade later. . Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. but Halley. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. Cambridge. secondary sources based on them. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. a second edition (1731). his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. including two to Leibniz. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. In addition. licensing the book for publication. who hated disputes. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. showing considerable diplomatic skills. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. At this time. as President. rather than before. or. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. 1686. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. Rather. among them himself. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them).

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

2 (May. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. google. Isaac. [14] http:/ / books. 55. [7] G E Smith.[105] William H. archive. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. tripod. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". google. by Andrew Motte. MA. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. See also D T Whiteside (1970). Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. 227-245.[104] The second full English translation. 116-138. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). google. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. Herivel. "Du systeme du monde.2. 1729 translation.392.[2] was described by Newton scholar I. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). University of Toronto. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. at p. 2001). W.[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. and well written". cap. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. Vol. . stanford. 1965. 1972.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). into modern English." Author(s): Judith P. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books.120. Oxford University Press. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. No. google. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). vol. Journal for the History of Astronomy. E N Zalta (ed. The first. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. [3] Newton. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). ac. especially at p.). [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul').[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. and see also J. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. from 1729. [11] http:/ / books. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. about the 'Principia'. and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. lib. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared.329 (according to a note on p. google. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science".1 (1970). assembled and ed.329. cam. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. 1999). org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). at page 19 of vol. published in 1996. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. htm). p. The background to Newton's "Principia". in the 1729 English version). often incorporating revisions.

Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. google. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. n. [55] 'Westfall. google. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. [29] http:/ / books. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". google. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. google. at pp. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. W. 147. .2. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. also pp. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". google. 431-448. Charting the Heavens and the Seas.404.g. cited above. Whiteside. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. [57] Westfall. google. 2A'. 54. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. [56] Cook. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. 1998': A. google.).. google. [58] Westfall. at page 233 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. vol. Books 2 & 3. at pp.47-142. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. be/ steffen/ GS. google. at p. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. Edmond Halley. 1971). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. 45 (1991) 11-61. Cambridge University Press. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. google. The Cartesian vortex theory. now often known as Huygens' formula. 153-156. htm). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. google. google. 1980. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. google. . Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . n° 2. Turnbull (ed. google. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. Matter and Mind. [59] Westfall." (http:/ / logica. [61] http:/ / books. at p. at pp.2.207-221. 33. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. Volume. pp. google. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. 1980': R S Westfall. Cook. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. google. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. Cambridge University Press 1980. 191-2.406. [54] Cook. [52] 'Cook. by D. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. pdf).2. ugent. org/ scholium.15. google. [53] As dated e. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. google. 406. vol.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. [50] Ducheyne. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. at p. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. Retrieved 2008-11-19. Retrieved 2008-05-31. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. google. google. p.2.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. Oxford University Press 1998. google. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). Stephen. (Cambridge. google. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. Book 3 (http:/ / books. [17] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. in H. Books 2 & 3. Vol. google. 1980. Steffen. [47] Edelglass et al. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. google. 1998. T. [42] http:/ / books. 151. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. 223-274. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). [49] Snobelen.) 167 . com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. 1998. google. google. speed and radial force. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. R Taton & C Wilson. eds. 1980.147 and 152. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). google. google.

2 cited above. google. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson.W. London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969.. Rouse Ball. wm. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . lib. google. google. at page 259). [80] R S Westfall. org. would terminate in the center C". jstor. cited above. 45 (1991). (Cambridge University Press. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. html [89] http:/ / www.. pages 11-61. document #237. 28 November 1679. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton.. especially at 13-20. ac. Newton" (1759). uu. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. at page 433. at page 66 (http:/ / books. though elongated. vol. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). ac. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. 1893).297. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. edu 168 . lib. at Introduction (section IX). 1960). [83] http:/ / www. with accompanying figure). com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). mpg. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. umich.2 already cited. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. Vol 2 cited above. (Cambridge UP 1989). Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". html [88] http:/ / www. 1995). cam. document #286. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google.. [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). 'Correspondence' vol. and extract of his letter. see D Gjertsen. uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. google. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. (University of California Press. Tycho Brahe to Newton". google. at p. at page 69. [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. a resisting medium). Bruce Brackenridge. Newton".). [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken.. ac. fondationbodmer. see 'Correspondence'. Journal for the History of Astronomy. i (1970). but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i.2 cited above.297-314. html [86] http:/ / lion. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. 453. Vol 2 (1676-1687). and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. [73] H W Turnbull (ed.e. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. at document #239. stanford. or even a 'blunder'. museumoflondon. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. Ofer Gal.431-448. 1664-1684". closed curve and spiral. 'Never at Rest'.. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. [74] 'Correspondence' vol. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is".Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). 1980. (http:/ / www. cam. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. at pages 304-306. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". Bernard Cohen. [65] http:/ / books. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www. pages 5-19. asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". Never at Rest. at pages 391-2. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. mpiwg-berlin. CUP 1989. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. see Newton to Hooke. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". 'Newton Handbook' (1986). p. roe. document #236 at page 301. ch. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. google. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths.2. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". Part A. se/ press/ pm. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'.

(Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. at pp." [98] Westfall. Press. pp. at p. Force in Newton’s physics. Westfall. 1971). and obligations to you. [101] Westfall. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. [99] Westfall. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. google.42. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). vol. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. Introduction to the Principia. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. 29-68. 1954). Cambridge U. • François De Gandt. • S. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you. [95] Richard S.. xv-xvi. p.. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. [94] I Bernard Cohen. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 1999. NY: Doubleday and Company. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. Elsevier: 59-87.518-20. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. 1965). pp. .4. vol. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. 2008).4. R. Cambridge 1971.A. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. • Andrew Janiak. n.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. vol. ed. • I. G. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. to whom he owes more than that. ed. 1971).519.712–716. • Guicciardini. Curtis Wilson (Princeton. • E. Bernard Cohen. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia. [104] See pages 29-37 in I.5.4. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0. cgi?v1=8& ti=1. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. University of California Press. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4.2. N. Cambridge University press 1967. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). • Richard S. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. NJ: Princeton University Press. at p. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. at pp.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. Bernard Cohen (1999). • Brian Ellis. Dawsons of Pall Mall). 3rd edition. [100] Westfall. I. pp. Clarendon Press. 1995).750. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. vol. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. wpi. Cambridge University press 1975. Donahue." in Grattan-Guinness. Notes. Cambridge University Press 1967. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. The background to Newton’s Principia. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". 1999.. 1965). [106] Dana Densmore and William H..699.751–760. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. University of California Press. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. c1995). as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. • John Herivel. p. Burtt. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. 2005. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Chandrasekhar. Westfall.. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. "Philosophia Naturalis. 1965). Cambridge University press 1967. Colodny.

google. largely the Motte translation of 1729.archive. (Book 3 starts at p. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. 1713.ac. in Latin) (http://www.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1).htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.cam.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol.babson.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2).org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive.archive. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica.archive. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. 1729.org (http://www.org #2 (http://www. first edition (1687. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above). annotated) (http://books. 1726). • Project Gutenberg (http://www.lib.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books.tripod. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte. Chittenden.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur..com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).gutenberg.ntnu.org #1 (http://www. vol. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy.1).org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. first edition (1687. W. in Latin) (http://books.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687.google.org (http://www. ed. interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections. regarding online editions .org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654.net/~bjn/principia/).uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition.1 with Book 1 (http://books.google. • Wikisource • Archive.200 (http://books.google.com/toc.archive. Partial • Google books.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200). • Principia (in Latin. vol. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3.html). • Google books.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage). 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version.google.

" [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. that its truth is past dispute. on May 19. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. 1686. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. if certain. which he had enlarged and completed. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. 1686. to make a report thereof to the council. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. on April 28. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. At the next meeting of the Society." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. 1687 and began changing the world." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn." At the next meeting of the Society. he says. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley. For the influences for the second edition. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. 1686. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses.

"yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton." acknowledging at the same time that. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. Indeed. "is so. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society." Halley adds." "How much of this. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. and printing it at his own charge.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. 1686. At the next meeting of the council. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. but it being a frivolous business. on June 2. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. that Sir Chr. for 'tis long since they were writ. which 172 . but I thought it my duty to let you know it." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. so far as I could remember. you know best. though Newton had the notion from him. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. so likewise what you have to do in this matter. the heads of it in short. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. volume. which he engaged to do. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. and I do not know that I have seen them since. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. so that you might act accordingly. and the absence of the vice-president's. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. and to desire his opinion as to the print. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. viz. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. On June 20. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. I am almost confident by circumstances. I shall content myself to give you. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. Halley in his letter of May 22. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low." but. cuts and so forth.

so that a while after. sent him. And so. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. and only guessed it to be so accurately. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. and earth from the sun. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. as to the other from Kepler. in print. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. "The proof you sent me I like very well. is expressed. I could not but have found it now. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. the second was finished last summer being short. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens.. and that's above fifteen years ago). for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. though not accurately enough. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. in print. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. and so upon mistaken grounds. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. namely. Some new propositions I have since thought on. The third wants the theory of comets. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. in stating this business.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. told him I had laid philosophy aside. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. which I can as well let alone. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. I designed the whole to consist of three books. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. 173 . a copy being presented to me. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. expected to hear no further from him. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. And so. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. so Mr Hooke. was upon other things. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. and drawing the cuts fairly. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. and guessed it to be elliptical. did not answer his third. in compliment to sweeten my answer. accused me of that ignorance. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. thought no further of philosophical matters than. and only wants transcribing. sun and planets. his letters put me upon it. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. that without my demonstrations. can know no more. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. and understood it. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. But. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. Oscill. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth.

will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. without the third. 1686. NEWTON. on April 6. which made me afterwards return to the first book. July 5. It will be more convenient. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. It will help the sale of the book. HALLEY. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. I must now again beg you. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. And if in truth he knew it before you. If it please you to have it so. De Motu Corporum libri duo. 1687. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. 174 . though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. your most affectionate humble servant. not to let your resentments run so high. ought to compose it. 1686. and therefore I had altered it to this." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. nor on the books of the Society. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". In the first page. Sir. Sir. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. I will push on the edition vigorously. I will try how well it can be done. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. "If you please you may change the word to sections. though it be not material. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. "But. The third book was presented to the Society. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and now I am no sooner come near her again. Now you approve of the character and paper. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. and not much more charge. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. The second book. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. What application he has made in private. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. as to deprive us of your third book. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. Hooke and Halley. and adding. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. On July 14. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. "Is. which. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. and then. in the honour you do them. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. I know not. which is all at present. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold." On June 20. as I guess by what you write. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. I retain the former title. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. as might have been expected. E." On June 30. I am. upon second thoughts. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. but she gives me warning. which he puts so much value on. and humble servant. I found it so formerly. The work. found out last winter. The two first books. which are much the greater number. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. from your affectionate friend. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. you ought to be considered as the inventor. as have to do. with her. The third I now design to suppress.

but rather. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. the master of Magdalene College. nor suggested a compromise. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. I intend the price of them. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. for ready. who was vice-chancellor. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. so much to your own and the nation's credit. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. July 5. The deputies. a very great part of which is extant. appeared before the court. as well as of profound and public speculation. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. bound in calves' leather. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. a Benedictine monk. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. and hope it will please you. and was dismissed. or else at some short time. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. 1687. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. with their case carefully prepared. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. Mr Paget. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. to take my money as they are sold. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. and ordered them out of court. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. and lettered. Mr Flamsteed. announcing the completion of the Principia. that starts from town tomorrow. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. dated London. The following letter from Halley. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. which I entreat you to accept. On April 21 the deputation. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell." . On May 7 it was discussed. or at 5 sh. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. before starting for London. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. the chancellor. but the university showed no sign of compliance. Mr Boyle. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. to be [OCR error] shillings here. On April 27 they gave their plea. to request him to get the mandamus recalled." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. and I am contented to let them go halves with me.

1693. where. and a distemper. and dated the 15th of October 1693. and since. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. Newton wrote: "The last. and rest your most humble and obedient servant." To which Leibniz. winter. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. from the concern I have for him. or. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. 1693. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute." On September 20. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more." he says. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. upon his own accord. and before I had time to ask him any question. which doubtless must have been very alarming. and I hope never will. and for five days together not a wink. so that when I wrote to you. that it had actually done so. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. I remember I wrote to you. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. but what I said of your book I remember not. which lasted eighteen months. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. 1693. Pepys must have heard such rumours. Christiaan Huygens. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. in a letter dated June 8. which this summer has been epidemical. as to be put into great disorder by it. as in a letter to his friend Millington. addressed to Samuel Pepys. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. I will give you an account of it if I can. He is now very well. to let me know the very truth of the matter. dated September 26. before I considered what I did. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. wrote to Leibniz. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. beg you. nor by icing James's favour." . I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. according to a report which was believed at the time. by sleeping too often by my fire. therefore. and keeping him shut up. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. added. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way. whose mind was never at rest. Let me. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. or both. 1694. I got an ill habit of sleeping. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. Sir. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. if I may but have them quietly. namely. but that "he was out of town. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. and beg your pardon. nor have my former consistency of mind. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. "I have not seen him. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. In a letter dated the September 13. but upon his pressing consented. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. at which he was much concerned." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. replied. put me farther out of order. I was averse. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. or mind. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in.

the vice-chancellor of the university. . see Isaac Newton's later life. Westfall. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised.) [3] Richard S.1998. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. 1689. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge..Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. now archaic. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. 1997. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). On February 12. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. E. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. as it were. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor. Newton retained his seat only about a year. On April 30. Never at Rest. and gives original spellings. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time.G..2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". published as #537 in Vol. ed. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. Forbes et al. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes.

Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. Some headings were followed by vast entries. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. but my best friend is truth). He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. whereby every question is put to experimental test. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. The initial notes. But following this he drew a line across the page. Thomas Hobbes. which had . He entered notes from both ends. They began with the nature of matter. vision. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. Kenelm Digby. place. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". Aristotle is my friend. and other sensations. Galileo's Dialogue. "Of ye Creation". "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". These were followed by questions on violent motion. Additional information This octavo notebook. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. at the other. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. rarity. 1661. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. for example. hardness etc. in Greek. currently in the Cambridge University Library. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. light. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. fluidity. It is also definitely before December 9. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. Following this. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. and others. At the other end of the book. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. 1664. Robert Boyle. colour.

he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. Gassendi. . in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. would look coloured. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways.. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. others were blank. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section.. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo. Elsewhere. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. including his idea that it is a wave. such as when a heavy body falls. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. on the contrary.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. with its juxtaposition of light and dark.

"Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] . A. • J.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. Cambridge University Press. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. by Richard S. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. Westfall. References • "Portsmouth Papers". Lohne. additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms.

Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. Cambridge . In this work. published in 1687. alone. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. in 1795." Newton was the runner-up. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. Newton was deemed the more influential. mathematician.[1] In 1999. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. Newton or Albert Einstein. Newton became a scientific icon. Many books. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. located in the chapel of Trinity College.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. natural philosopher. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. In mathematics. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. plays. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. Because of the resounding impact of his work. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus.

Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. I suppose. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent. "They even keep it on at weekends. set during the Great Recoinage. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics.) Sir Isaac Newton. pp. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. It is a door within a door." said Richard. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. "(. Science in Popular Culture [9]. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter. there was that as well. you see. But the catflap . with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. 27–43.." . a . • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. there is a very different matter. Though that.. was merely a discovery." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug." "Yes.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies. pure creative invention.." "Gravity. It was there to be discovered. • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002). perspicuity and invention. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. ah. It is a door within a door. of course. you see. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. "there was also the small matter of gravity." . Routledge. Oxford University Press. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach.. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology.. including the famous apple.. "yes. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. Invention. Greenwood Press. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). • A..

Newton in popular culture

183

Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. org. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. Walter de Gruyter. Foster (1988). S. [4] Burwick.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. 243. page 328. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. apparently at the bottom of the sea.[5] References [1] Townsend. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. pp. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. tate. . The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake.[3]. Hanover. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. retrieved 10 September 2009. who regularly experienced spiritual visions. Christopher B.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. 1997. Science is the Tree of Death.

). Joyce (ed. William Blake: The Painter at Work. Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. London: Tate Publishing. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2003. ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson.Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault.

in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day.[1] Sir Charles. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. who married her daughter in 1665. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. England. no doubt. although open days are occasionally held. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury. The reapers refused to work without better provisions.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. Mr. dean of Winchester. Sir Thomas Clarke. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France".[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon."[2] Following the death of Coram. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work. He died in 1706.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge. upon the lands of the lord of the manor. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. Mr. reaping. when Young was expelled from the deanery. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church. The house and park are not generally open to the public. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. which stunk and had worms swimming in it. although his wife survived him until 1720. with many distinct farms and cottages. near Winchester.[5] . when he let it to Dr John Young.[2] ". England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. or hay-making.. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. Shoveller. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". Sir Thomas Clarke's steward. when it required the interference of Mr. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. Pye.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701. So. and rode at each other through the wheat. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park..[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580.[1] During the Commonwealth era.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. and Coram drew their daggers.

built in 1780. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. John Rowley. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774). Watch fast". the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. the owner. Thomas. then the months divided into days. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. In 1734. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras". In 1747. Shortly after his marriage. as granted to him in 1717. remaining there until his death in 1727. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. Towards the end of his life. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. Hampshire.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. Nearer the centre are degrees. but his election was declared invalid. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. Conduitt.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. the base of a pillar. and a scaled-down gateway tower. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. and within. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. the points alternately plain and embossed. Bt).[9] The Castle. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate. the outermost divided into minutes. and after his death. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. a diagram of the compass."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. then a circle marked "Watch slow...[5] In May 1721. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781). Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch.[5][6] On Newton's death.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. Catherine. retaining that position for four years. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774.C. On his death. is below. In 1770. Harriet. next the hours. and the arms of Mr. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. all round the world. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. etc. leaving a daughter. which he also owned. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" . Newton became resident at Cranbury. Cranbury Park.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. the estate was left to his son. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday.

[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings. In 1822. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. is on the level ground at the top. but his wife survived him until 1825. The house. especially in the saloon on the south front. Arrow. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior. MP for Southampton. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park.[22] Writing in 1898. Tankerville Chamberlayne. Whilst serving the town. the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. intersected by various springs. set in arch-headed reserves. In fact.[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase.[11] on her death. but in the rear descending rapidly.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. on that . who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)). William Chamberlayne. which has a circular domed ceiling. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. a large red brick one. flat as it fronts to the south. During the Second World War. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald". built round a court. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast.

htm#i46497). www. [2] Yonge. Michael (1999). com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. online-literature. Stories of Southampton Streets. and include fountains. "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. com/ p4650. www. www. .Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. Facet-Headed. . upenn. . A. ac. [10] Thompson. 22.ac. . Retrieved 20 September 2009. horninghold. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. Hamilton (1953). Retrieved 23 September 2009. Charlotte M. thepeerage. p. A. Charlotte M. com/ p4650. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. . parliament. thepeerage. Charlotte M. Victoria County History of Leicestershire. . [9] Yonge.thepeerage. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. www. publications. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. Charlotte M. aspx?compid=42018#s4). Retrieved 20 September 2009. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital.com.com. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. online-literature. [14] Yonge. htm#i46495). (1984). uk/ report. 9 October 2006. www. the lakeside walk and the fern walk.com. html). www.[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. 5 May 2004."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake. Eden. Winchester" (http:/ / www. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). specimen trees and pinetum. is situated in the southern corner of the park. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 23 September 2009. [5] Yonge.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. "History of Cranbury Park. Paul Cave Publications.com. built from material plundered from Netley Abbey.britannia. (1898). .com. The English Country House. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. 15 May 2005. cityofwinchester. . uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Eleanor. Retrieved 23 September 2009. co. pdf). Retrieved 20 September 2009.com. The Book of Sun-dials. William (1908).[26] References [1] Page. 72 & 74. Margaret Scott. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 23 September 2009. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www.online-literature. www. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. online-literature. Hampshire" (http:/ / www.com. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. Retrieved 23 September 2009. (1900). a rose garden. H. Retrieved 24 September 2009. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. [11] "Horninghold.uk.uk.online-literature. . p. www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3. (1898). [7] Gatty. html). htm). (1898). org. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8.K F. and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. Lloyd. www.online-literature. [4] Yonge." a word signifying a country dance. . [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. City of Winchester. online-literature. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). ISBN 0-86146-041-3.online-literature. "Later changes" (http:/ / www. . edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102.K. britannia. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. www. close to The Castle. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. 68. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford.british-history. british-history.online-literature. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). Charlotte M.thepeerage. . pp. online-literature. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. [12] Leonard. Netley Abbey. Hansard. . before joining Monks Brook. library. .parliament. html). [8] "The Buttercross. (1898).G. Retrieved 23 September 2009. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3.com. [6] Ford. 1998. (1898). Retrieved 24 September 2009.

com/ gst/ abstract. hants. org. "Papworth. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. Retrieved 24 September 2009. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. . David (April 2004). Architect. in Country Life. . html). [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www. 1971:93-95. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby.co. 3rd ed. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. . "A Survey" (http:/ / www. www. amazon. Otterbourne" (http:/ / www.[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. . April 2004. [19] "Cranbury Park. noted in Howard Colvin. George Dance. Retrieved 2009-07-12. oldmaps. [20] Dorothy Stroud. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group.online-literature.. [23] Yonge. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3.oldmaps. . [22] Dorothy Stroud. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). Retrieved 2009-07-12. uk/ Campsite/ index. html). The New York Times: 10. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. Matthew (2009). The lost country houses of England. . John Buonarotti". (1898). 1600-1840. htm). Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett. 1995. [25] Currie. alresford. .700) in late 2001's terms. chandlersfordscouts. which would value approximately £25. Retrieved 26 September 2009. [21] Watkin. Retrieved 26 September 2009. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. org. 1741—1825. Charlotte M. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www. "Chandler’s Ford. co. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. plates 23-2. Retrieved 24 September 2009. 8 and 15 November 1956. s. matthewbeckett. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. . com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). Christopher (Spring 2005). fieldclub.uk. 15 November 1956. .[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. Micheldever. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. uk/ m35.000 (us$35. Retrieved 26 September 2009. see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). nytimes.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). "Stratton Park.v. htm). online-literature. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects. Retrieved 26 September 2009. htm). 16 January 1881. www.com. Retrieved 26 September 2009. .

maths. Alder admits however.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. . University of Western Australia. . as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. amongst others.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. According to Alder. uwa. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. . but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. . au/ ~mike/ ).. edu. which he describes as pure reason. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. Also available as Mike Alder (2004). Mike Alder's Home Page. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. stm).] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. edu. edu. So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). the question can be solved by experiment. uwa. . philosophynow.pdf). or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable).. He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword. That is. uwa.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 22 july 2010. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. Retrieved 22 july 2010.Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. bbc. or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible.[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. . The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. au/ people/ mike. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. alder). Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20). "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. BBC news. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". co. maths.[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. [4] Mike Alder (2004). University of Western Australia. [3] Mike Adler. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". to the scientist. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [.

being restored. once private. to the rear of the house. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. were opened up to the public in 2003. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). Lincolnshire. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. Woolsthorpe Manor. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. taking into account modern living. and the old walled kitchen garden. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. New areas of the house. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. most notably his work on light and optics. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). England. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. near Grantham.

Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. org. uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ . nationaltrust.

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