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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. When Newton was three. independently. published in 1687."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. mathematician. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. Born prematurely. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. alchemist. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. and for the style of the work. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders. In this work. He was an unorthodox Christian. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written.1 litres). which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. At the time of Newton's birth. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. he was a small child. In mathematics. astronomer. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. and contributed to the study of power series. 25 December 1642. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day.[11][12][13] . he never married. Margery Ayscough. and theologian.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. due. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. Newton was also highly religious. the subjects he is mainly associated with. natural philosopher. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband.

something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. also by British mathematicians. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. Nevertheless. Crowell & Co. NY: Thomas Y. for example. and after 1820 or so. He was removed from school. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). He hated farming.[18] At that time.. Sarah K.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests.) Such a . persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. widowed by now for a second time. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied".[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. although with very different notations.[17] In June 1661. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. In 1665. (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method". For such a significant appointment. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". master at the King's School. were adopted by continental European mathematicians.. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth.[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. he was admitted to Trinity College.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. a fellow of our College. and did not give a full account until 1704. In 1667. nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.. and Kepler. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton. Galileo. The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair. and by October 1659.[15] Henry Stokes. Luckily for Newton. Newton was educated at The King's School. such as Descartes. he became the top-ranked student. ordaining normally could not be dodged. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. Famous Men of Science.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome.[23] A related subject was infinite series. where his mother. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. in a manuscript of October 1666. and very young . attempted to make a farmer of him.

[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684". valid for any exponent. In 1691. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. However. however. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. In that day.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. but never finished it. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time. of 1684. and Charles II. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz. At the time. Because of this. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia. based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. Newton's method. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. accepted this argument. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed.[32] Starting in 1699.[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables).[34] 4 . and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.Isaac Newton suggestion. whose permission was needed. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science).[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. However. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). He discovered Newton's identities. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it.

John Maynard Keynes. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. This is known as Newton's theory of colour.Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672.[39] Building the design. Newton published Opticks.II. Props. Thus.) In 1704.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work. across a vacuum. which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. 12).. when Hooke. Today's quantum mechanics. Newton lectured on optics. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration).[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles.and may . the first known functional reflecting telescope. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light.13). using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles. however. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. it stayed the same colour. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique. . he might not have developed his theory of gravity.[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. In 1671. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. today known as a Newtonian telescope. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles.. and the general phenomenon of diffraction. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. revived his interest in alchemy. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk. which he later expanded into his Opticks. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. As a proof of the concept. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches.

provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. and much more. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness.. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke.e. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. using a glass globe (Optics. Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way. Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. In this work.[47] After the exchanges with Hooke. prisms. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. In the same work. but they did not so far indicate its cause. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. In an article entitled "Newton. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. In the same book he describes. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. Also. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. i. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. and defined the law of universal gravitation.[51] Later. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth.[49] For Newton. wherever it was. was at rest). multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World".[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. 8th Query). the use of multiple-prism arrays. as they did. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. via diagrams.

A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. In his position at the Royal Society. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. after Sir Francis Bacon.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena. somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. With the Principia. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701. but Newton took them seriously. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. He took charge of England's great recoining.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. the Astronomer Royal. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. 1st Earl of Halifax. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Newton became internationally recognised. His half-niece.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726]. John (1733) – were published after his death. when it abruptly ended. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers. until his death in 1727.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. Cambridge. a position Newton held until his death. This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. which Newton had used in his studies. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. then Chancellor of the Exchequer. These appointments were intended as sinecures. Towards the end of his life. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . Catherine Barton Conduitt. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. named in Newton's honour.[102] Apple incident . Newton's physics is meant to be universal. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. and by substitution using the definition of acceleration. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. they may be at rest). the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). Another example is the recoil of a firearm. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. . If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). the first term vanishes. For example. Mathematically. Before Newton. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. this is expressed as . it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. with time.Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. Unlike Aristotle's. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. The SI unit of force is the newton.

[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends. there must be a drawing power in matter.. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. amidst other discourse.[111] . it must be in proportion of its quantity. therefore the apple draws the earth. Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. not in any side of the earth. only he. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. whose manuscript account. Grantham. in an inverse-square proportion. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly. as well as the earth draws the apple.[107] In similar terms. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. The King's School. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. or toward the centre. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. published in 1752. Cambridge.[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. that the earth draws it. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later. if matter thus draws matter. & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground. had the first thought of his system of gravitation. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. he was just in the same situation. the reason is. he told me. We went into the garden. to the Moon. Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. as when formerly.. & myself."[106] John Conduitt. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). and hence named it "universal gravitation"." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. and get good agreement. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident.

google. google.B. 1671–75)[112] De motu corporum in gyrum (1684) Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) Opticks (1704) Reports as Master of the Mint [113] (1701–25) Arithmetica Universalis (1707) The System of the World. Extract of page 315 (http:/ / books. "Singular scientists". p. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC). org/ heretic. PMID 12519805. google. 2 (June. [2] Mordechai Feingold.. explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. [14] http:/ / www. heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. bellevuecollege. Isaac (1630–1677) (http:/ / www. . . the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). 310–338 [3] Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http:/ / www.96. Bellevue College. 74. p. . newton. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [11] "Isaac Newton's Life" (http:/ / www. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. ac. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. [13] Newton. p. html). The biography book: a reader's guide to nonfiction. At Newton's birth. com/ books?id=jpFrgSAaKAUC& pg=PA315) [8] "The Early Period (1608–1672)" (http:/ / etoile. doi:10. I. (1970). Leibniz. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. Isaac. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Gale E. n. Derek (1986). the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'.e. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Vol. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. oxforddnb. Isaac Newton and the scientific revolution (http:/ / books. jstor. chlt. The Newton Handbook. 84. (1996). Derek Thomas Whiteside (1967). Greenwood Publishing Group. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. Retrieved 28 March 2010. p. . Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Isis. September 2004. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. fictional. Cambridge University Press . ISBN 9780521058179. html).1017/S0007087499003751. Barrow. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. Daniel S. c. Stephen D. a. berkeley. (1999). Moreover. By the time he died. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96 (1): 36–39. [6] Snobelen. html). isaac-newton. 1993). . google. com/ view/ article/ 1541). Oxford University Press. (Amended) and De mundi systemate (published posthumously in 1728) • Observations on Daniel and The Apocalypse of St. and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation (http:/ / www. Isaac. pp 16–19 [16] White 1997. 159. Graham's Home Page.43. com/ ?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA8& lpg=PA8& dq=isaac+ newton+ miss+ storey& q=miss storey). 530–1. PMC 539373. Retrieved 28 March 2010. Oxford University Press. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. online edn. ISBN 9780521274357. Newton. and film biographies of more than 500 of the most fascinating individuals of all time (http:/ / books. (2001). [12] "Isaac Newton" (http:/ / scidiv. Michael Hoskins (1997). [10] Cohen. flickr. 1998. p. 8. i. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 315. Richard S. Optical Lectures.4 [4] Gjersten. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms.M1) [19] ed. google. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton: 1664–1666 (http:/ / books. No. edu/ MATH/ Newton.Isaac Newton 14 Writings • • • • • • • • Method of Fluxions (1671) Of Natures Obvious Laws & Processes in Vegetation (unpublished. James R. com/ books?id=O61ypNXvNkUC& pg=PA74). the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. accessed 24 February 2009. [18] Michael White. [5] Westfall. . doi:10. pp. "Isaac Newton. pp. Retrieved 3 February 2009. ISBN 1-573-56256-4. [7] Burt. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. [9] Christianson. Retrieved 28 March 2010. ISBN 0195092244. php).36. com/ photos/ kingsschoollibrary/ 3645251382/ in/ photostream/ [15] Westfall 1994. Unless otherwise noted. May 2007. Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. 50. edu/ ~jrg/ TelescopeHistory/ Early_Period. org/ sandbox/ lhl/ dsb/ page. org/ stable/ 236236)". 11. (1983) [1980]. 22 [17] James.1. Ioan (January 2003). . pdf) (PDF). John (1733) • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (1754) Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime.1258/jrsm. uk/ newtlife. p. Vol.

com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41).. J. (December 1982). "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. htm#newton). 1980. p.24D. Numericana. J. at page 149. com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400).. [41] White 1997. [28] In the preface to the Marquis de L'Hospital's Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. Henry C (2003). com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=RA1-PA2). [36] Newton. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). Page 74 (http:/ / books. at page 41 (http:/ / books. J. google. Isaac (http:/ / venn. .). Robert (2007) Newton.T. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. cam. [22] W W Rouse Ball (1908). p. . google. pp. [53] Westfall 1980. ''The History of the Telescope'' By Henry C. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). pages 116–138.6. "The Newton handbook". Optics. . . "Newton. Matter and Mind. Cambridge University Press 1974. [27] Clifford Truesdell.. by Alfred Rupert Hall. com/ arms/ index. J. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. Google Books. uk/ cgi-bin/ search.Isaac Newton [20] Newton. p. J. quoting Opticks [46] Duarte. Cambridge University Press 1960.99. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-04004/ ). p. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA54). [30] D T Whiteside (1970). google. 1729 English translation. A very short introduction. F. p. [60] Westfall 1980. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.245 [58] Yonge. Cambridge University Digital Library. [37] Ball 1908. '''Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought'''. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. "Hydrostatics. vol. (1898). online-literature. at page 54 (http:/ / books. letter from Hooke to Newton dated 24 November 1679.5. 'Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton'. Venn. google.com. "Waste Book" (http:/ / cudl. Retrieved 16 January 2010. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233). google.000024. com/ ?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover). p. [49] See Curtis Wilson. A. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". MacMillan St. google. 325 [39] White 1997. . google. 1729 English translation. [25] Newton..). Isaac. p168 [42] See 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton. p. ISBN 9780486432656. but for the greater glory of party politics in the election of 1705. Cambridge University Digital Library. . Retrieved 10 January 2012. [26] Newton. cam. H W Turnbull. 595 15 . 324 [38] Ball 1908. especially at pages 119–120.. 232 [55] White 1997. [43] Iliffe. Alfred Rupert (1996). pp 531–540 on Newton's breakdown. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. cam. "A short account of the history of mathematics". [48] D T Whiteside (ed.com. and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers" (http:/ / www. 356ff [34] White 1997. 1676–1687' ed. at p. [23] D T Whiteside (ed. Optics and Photonics News 11 (5): 24–25.2. p. page 67 (http:/ / books. Book 3 (1729 vol. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1).1086/353114. 'Principia'. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233).2) at pages 232–233 (http:/ / books. Google Books. . at pages 391–2. Retrieved 23 September 2009. an honor bestowed not for his contributions to science.. "Newton. [29] Starting with De motu corporum in gyrum. nor for his service at the Mint. 1696). 'Never at Rest'. [24] D Gjertsen (1986). pdf). see also (Latin) Theorem 1 (http:/ / books. Volume. Retrieved 10 January 2012. at page 400. pp 493–497 on the friendship with Fatio.11. [47] R S Westfall. "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". " Newton. Isaac. DuarteOPN(2000). google. 2A'. ISBN 9780521566698. Chapter 11." Westfall 1994 p. [21] Venn. [54] White 1997. Isis 73 (4): 523. Bibcode 2000OptPN. at page 319. com/ ?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669). Oxford University Press 2007 [44] Keynes. "The Mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica" in Journal for the History of Astronomy. lib. The Man".1. document #235. Retrieved 16 January 2010. ac. opticsjournal.317 [56] Gerard Michon.online-literature. lib. Retrieved 16 January 2010. www. pages 233–274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. eds (1922–1958). p170 [40] Hall. [51] Edelglass et al. at page 233 (http:/ / books.11.1364/OPN. 54 [52] Westfall 1980.107 [32] Westfall 1980. 'Principia'. King. numericana. 1967). 1968).). lib. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". (2000). doi:10. ac. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". [59] Westfall 1980. John Maynard (1972). at page 30. Charlotte M. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. p. (Cambridge University Press. prisms. [57] "The Queen's 'great Assistance' to Newton's election was his knighting. [45] Dobbs. doi:10. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). pp 538–539 [33] Ball 1908. at page 297. 151 [35] King. [50] Text quotations are from 1729 translation of Newton's Principia. vol. Martin's Press. vol. [31] Stewart 2009. 363–4. "Coat of arms of Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. p. ac. Cambridge University Press. 44. 1684–1691. com/ F.

Retrieved 13 November 2009.bbc. [66] White 1997. M. Query 31. Odo. 1998. Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. ISBN 0208008438. NY. ISBN 0855270667. p. Knud. p. New Haven: Yale University Press. Einstein voted "greatest physicist ever" by leading physicists. [89] H. ibid. p. stm) [71] "Famous People & the Abbey: Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. [85] Germain. . The Sydney Morning Herald [69] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of Royal Society scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ web/ 20070813033620/ http:/ / www. Meier. politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons"._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. Newton runner-up: BBC news. J. [75] Pfizenmaier. [88] Webb. (1976). [76] Tiner. [94] "Although it was just one of the many factors in the Enlightment. In Martin Fitzpatrick ed. archive.Isaac Newton [61] "Newton. R. Paris. (1959–77). 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[79] Opticks. 42. bbc. A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology.: Mott Media. Milford. and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. provisionally judges 30 most likely. 65. Book III. pp. Hafner Library of Classics. (1958). co. 27) [68] "Einstein's Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics". Richard S. htm) on 13 August 2007. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. com/ print. . ed. Ch. T. [65] John Gribbin (2002) Science: A History 1543–2001. p187. ISBN 0791413195. History of Science: Newton citing: Delambre. p. p. Lagrange. cited in. as transcribed in Jean-Pierre Maury (1992) Newton: Understanding the Cosmos. xx. 1989. v. org/ our-history/ people/ sir-isaac-newton). com/ biography/ Newton. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. Isaac (1642–1727)" (http:/ / scienceworld. [90] Westfall.C. Retrieved 27 August 2009. Gilbert G. [81] Jacob. New York: King's Crown Press. Michigan. 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"Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). google. . Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. . Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches. 18 January 2010. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www.182. Michael (1997). . Bibcode 1958Natur. John (1958). Smith. co. John. 2011). Retrieved 7 September 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2008. uk/ image1. Richard S. John (1963). • Stewart. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. org/ ). • Westfall. Isaac Newton. Retrieved 11 January 2007. cam. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. Gale (1984). eds. 6 [109] Alberto A. [98] Westfall 2007.149C.W. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. ISBN 9780199213559. [113] http:/ / www. • White. • Westfall. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 10 January 2009. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. pierre-marteau. newscientist.0017. p. p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. Brogdale. Mariner Books. Cambridge University Press. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. brogdale. Richard S. ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved 30 August 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. pp. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). . ISBN 0521477379.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. Retrieved 10 January 2012. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. Imperial College London. doi:10. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). doi:10. org. brogdale. indiana. p. Cambridge University Press. sussex. Pan Macmillan. ac. • Westfall. php). p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. dlib.1098/rsnr. Cambridge University Digital Library. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. Isaac. "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". • Craig. google. jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. [108] I.org. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1.73 [99] White 1997. p.. (2007). This well documented work provides. (1980. valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. The Life of Isaac Newton. 265–266. 1998). html 17 References • Ball. . Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. ISBN 9780495557425. 337 [103] White 1997. O'Reilly Media. (1994).. in particular. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. James (2009). Richard (2011). W. Bernard Cohen and George E. Cengage Learning.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. Thomas (2010). ac. New York: Dover. ISBN 9781447204152. New Scientist. "Keynes Ms. lib. . • Christianson.1038/182149a0. Rouse (1908). ISBN 9780547336046. ISBN 0486206300. and Other Myths. Inc. 130. Newtonproject. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator". Fourth Estate Limited. 4. Einstein's Wife. [107] Conduitt. • Levenson. edu/ newton/ index. Richard S. Never at Rest. php?varietyid=1089). The Art of Science. Cambridge University Press. newtonproject. pp. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. New York: Free Press. p.1963. . ISBN 0-521-27435-4. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story.

Stephen. JSTOR 531368. Bernard Cohen. David. • Keynes. (2002).0006. • Shapley.questia. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. excerpt and text search (http://www. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". ISBN 0375422331. • Christianson. The Newtonian Revolution. Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. S. W. excerpt and text search (http://www. MIT Press. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times.. • Christianson. George E. Newton. 147–9. (1946). 1958. Alfred A.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. • Berlinski.amazon. ISBN 0486253465. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon".amazon. doi:10.1098/rsnr. focuses on philosophical issues only. (1996).1978. New York: Free Press. ISSN 0035–9149. H. excerpt and text search (http://www. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. Bernard and Smith. Gale E. Wright. 2001. Readings in the Literature of Science. De C.. • Craig. Norton & Co.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. London: S. New York: Chanticleer Press. I. The Background to Newton's Principia. Knopf. Gale (1984). Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. Guide by I. New York. Rapport. Oxford University Press. edited by I. Morris H.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. and Cohen. England: Cambridge University Press. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. J. B. ed. Harlow. (1687).amazon. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. 256 pp. Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. E. Derek (1986). P. Isaac Newton. ISBN 0841430144. A Treasury of Science. and H. 150–4. • Shamos. New York (1972). (1959). Harper & Bros. See this site (http://www. London: G. (1980).. M. New York: Harper & Row. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. Harvard University Press. 354 pp. – Preface by Albert Einstein.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. W. Jason Socrates. A. (1975). . Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. Newton at the Mint. The Principia: a new Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon. (1950). Palmer.. 2006. On the Shoulders of Giants. "Discoveries" pp. B. "Review of Newton's Principia". Isaac (1642–1727). Leibniz. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Springer. Newtonian Studies. N. Zev (1991). John (1946).1988. 277 pp. complete edition online (http://www. (1965). 500 pp. "Newtonia" pp. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Henry Holt and Company. • Koyré. Bernard. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. Isaac Newton. John Maynard (1963). ed. (2000). Inc. Essays in Biography. ISBN 019530070X. J. Cambridge.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini. • Gleick. • Newton. I.com/dp/0521656966). eds. The Calculus Wars: Newton. • de Villamil. • Newton. E. W. Isaac. (1965). Richard (1931).amazon. Knox. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. (1728). • Halley.. The Newton Handbook. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. (1959). • Dampier. I. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0792310543. • Dobbs. William C. • Gjertsen. Dampier. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Great Experiments in Physics. Kepler. • Cohen. Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. (1988). T. Jed Z. the Man.D. ISBN 0-393-00189-X. • Hawking. James (2003). ISBN 0521229642. • Bardi. ISBN 0486428052.

(1952). T.google. The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. 7 vols. (1971). Nature. Motte. (1936). argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. Press.com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www. JSTOR 4027945. eds. Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. (1999). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. (1999). with chapter 4 on 18th century England. (1996).com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. 19 Religion • Dobbs. Archetypal Heresy. Arianism through the Centuries.jstor. 2nd Series. – 8 volumes • Newton.Isaac Newton • Simmons. Thomas C.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). ed. doi:10. pp. 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati. Maurice. (1959–77) . Stephen D. H. I. 299 pp. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". (2001)." Osiris. University of California Press. 342pp . 1670–1672. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. Opticks. ISBN 0444196110. Bruce. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. • Newton. R. Isaac. or A Treatise of the Reflections. 1984. (1967–82). Stephen "'God of Gods. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.1017/S0007087499003751. • Newton. "Isaac Newton. H. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. Florian Cajori.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. • Pfizenmaier. University of California Press.org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. • Stukeley. I.jstor. 1996. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. Berkeley: University of California Press. Ayval. Isaac. Newton and Religion: Context. links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. (1934). and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. originally published in 1752) • Westfall. London: Taylor and Francis.org/stable/4028372). 627 pp. Sydney: The Book Company. in JSTOR (http://www. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge U. (1999). J. Opticks (4th ed. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". tr. • Brackenridge. JSTOR 3653988.. Turnbull and others. 16. Pp. (edited by A. James E. D. • Wiles. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Refractions. W. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. Betty Jo Tetter. 2. 1: The Optical Lectures. Isaac. (1991). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. rev. A. Popkin. White. Vol. Inflections & Colours of Light. (1996) 214pp. London: Macdonald. W.google.google. • Whiteside. 1730) online edition (http://books. xvii + 325. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. Isaac. Vol. S. • Newton. (January 1997). New York: Dover Publications. and Richard H. Primary sources • Newton. ISBN 0521077400. 974 pp. J. and Influence.

• Newton.pbs. Cambridge University Press. Sir Isaac". J Edleston. Millar and J. John Deighton. John W. Anand M.com/modules/historic/newton/index. 1850. 20 External links • Chisholm.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www.50.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor.fullerton.php) • The Newton Project (http://www.questia. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato.edu/entries/newton/).).sussex. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents. including letters of other eminent men (http://books.pierre-marteau.htm) (via archive.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/). Sir. I. (1958). (1953). in Four Books. R. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes.stanford. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld. Hall. B..com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato. London: A. London: Dawson. Schofield. – Google Books • Maclaurin.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato.ac. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. University of St Andrews.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.dlib.uk/prism. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library.org/snobelen. Cambridge..html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss. Thayer.archive.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www.newtonproject.skepticreport.html).google. • Newton. I.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www. "Newton.org/web/20080629021908/http://www. E. B.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ). by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space. .chlt. Edmund F. John J. C.mcs.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www. Hugh.uk/ Biographies/Newton.adherents.st-andrews.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I).indiana. (1975).wolfram.stanford. I. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries. time. Roger Cotes. ed. S.org/NYC051308/index. A.html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702).isaacnewton.phaser. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www.com/biography/Newton.fmalive.htm) Kandaswamy. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium. Parker.ac. Nourse. ed (1911).ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history.tqnyc. online edition (http:/ /www. Robertson. com/predictions/newton. Cohen and R. (1962).edu/entries/newton-stm/).rutgers. Cambridge. Hall and M. West Strand.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www.stanford.math. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.stanford. (1748). • Newton.galilean-library. and motion (http://plato. I. eds.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www. London.a.

Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www. audio.ac.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history.sussex. Space.sussex. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.mcmaster. Refractions.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts.edu/id.org • Newton Papers.ul.ndsu.cam.ca/newton/) Images. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.earlymoderntexts. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www.st-andrews. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy. reception.newtonproject.enlighteningscience.cs.ac.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1.cmu.nodak.ltrc.uk/prism. physics. optics.mcs.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up).gutenberg.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography.com/). and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton.ac.math.archive.uk/collections/newton) . at the Newton Project (http://www. full text on archive. or a Treatise of the Reflections.ac.lib. php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.

Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. She and Rev. Hannah's brother William. Lincolnshire. Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer. the elder. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. James and Margery Ayscough. He spent a year away from school on the farm. and returned to his mother's household. When Rev. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). at quite a critical time in his education. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. Smith died in 1653. 1697 by her son. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. who buried her next to his father. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. when he was three years old. at the age of nineteen. By this time Isaac was ten years old. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. As his father had been a farmer. He died in October 1642. when Isaac was 54. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. unlike her. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. and thus took him away from his school studies. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). in April 1642. . She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. Later in his life.

"[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. half-niece of Isaac Newton. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. Newton. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him. Is.Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later. and baptized at Brigstock. witty and clever. However. the wife of John Conduitt.[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist. not before. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives.[5] . Hannah Smith. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague.

John Wallop. I have long had for her person. p349. newton.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698. born in 1721. (1898). PROB11/416. Harliean Society. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.ac. 1715. however. • The Newton Project (http://www. Charlotte M. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation. 1886.online-literature. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year.uk/prism.sussex. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. Northampton Record Office. Vol 4. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress.com. Journal to Stella. affection and esteem. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. and their son. by then Earl of Halifax. Parish register.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737. [8] St Martin in the fields register. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. [5] Newton Correspondence. online-literature. near Winchester. [7] Hants Record Office.5. On 30 August. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). ac. [9] Yonge. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. PROB11/546. & previous reference. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. Harl Soc vol 24. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. Viscount Lymington. 1689. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge.newtonproject. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. References [1] Robert Barton's will. p195. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields.php?id=15) . the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. King's College Cambridge. Montague. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. National Archives. and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. Catherine. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton. Retrieved 23 September 2009. www.[7] The couple had one daughter. not to make a dispute over her legacies. National Archives. html). She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. uk/ art/ portrait. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. entries in 1710 and 1711. his nephew George Montague. . Westminster Record Office. towards the end of his life. 1543–1869. [3] Swift. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton. he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor.

he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. 1st ed (reprinted). including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. Covent Garden. named after her mother. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. described herself as 32 years old. Hampshire. London. staying only two years. 1968. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton.[3] . He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. and his niece. 161 pp. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. a whig member for Whitchurch.[1] By 1707. and his uncle by marriage. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. Sir Isaac Newton. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. on petition. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. but did not graduate. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. Catherine. In 1705. During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. Cambridge with three others. towards the end of his life. and was baptized at St Paul's. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. proposed by the president.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. Early life. while at Westminster. Newton: his friend. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. The couple had one daughter. on 8 March 1688. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft. he quickly stopped. (PRO. Covent Garden. near Winchester. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. but after starting. then aged 38 years. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. In 1720. London: Dawsons. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. defending the government on a number of issues. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. isbn 0712903305.

com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). J. Charlotte M. uk/ report.. John (http:/ / venn. Catherine. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. ms 57. ac. ac. Huntingdon Library.com. www. and their son. Venn. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". California. .british-history. 1st Earl of Portsmouth. References [1] Venn. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. british-history. aspx?compid=42018#s4). uk/ cgi-bin/ search. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3.). who died in 1739. Retrieved 23 September 2009. online-literature. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. cam.. www. who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. lib. John Wallop. His wife.ac.online-literature. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. underage. eds (1922–1958). near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer.cyberbeach.uk. A. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710. (1898). Viscount Lymington (d. [4] Page. vol 4.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. 1749) in 1740. J. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. William (1908). Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. was buried with him.htm) . fo 169 [3] Yonge. . On his death. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. Cambridge University Press. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 27 September 2009.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton. " Conduitt.

a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton.[6] . he was a small child.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. where his mother. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. This he did at the age of eighteen."[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. Newton was born three months after the death of his father.[3] Henry Stokes. In June 1661. Newton was educated at The King's School. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. and Kepler. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. Margery Ayscough. author of the Principia. widowed by now for a second time. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. Born prematurely. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity.1 litre). master at the King's School. attempted to make a farmer of him. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. In 1665. and by October 1659. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. When Newton was three.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. 25 December 1642. optics and the law of gravitation. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). He was removed from school. achieving an admirable final report. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. He hated farming. the English mathematician and scientist. he was admitted to Trinity College. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. At the time of Newton's birth. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Galileo. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire.[4] At that time. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother.

in Lincolnshire. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. to two and fifty figures by the same method. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). John Slade of Catharine Hall. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. and of a yellow and red without. there are several articles on angular sections. in the years 1663 and 1664. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". verging below farthest from the moon. at night. dated January 1664. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. and the applied force F is F = ma. 1699. together with observations on refraction. It was elliptical. book ii. he was unable. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. I saw two such Crowns about her. part iv. particularly those "in affected powers. obs. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots." . It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. several calculations about musical notes. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". and next about that the inner Crown. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors. and borrowed Wallis' works. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. February 19th. Next about the moon was a Circle of white. Cambridge. and in summer 1665. its acceleration a. and. which was of a bluish green within next the white. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. many years afterwards. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. which appear in his Optics. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. and red on the outside of it. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. I being then Senior Sophister. In a small commonplace book. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them. near Cambridge. and introduced him to higher mathematics. Isaac Barrow. and that of the second about five Degrees and an half.

optics. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). geography. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. There were nine vacancies. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. 29 . It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. "the name of the author is Newton. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). astronomy. which he put. who had a powerful genius for such matters. The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. Dr Pearson. and who. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. In March 1668 he took his M. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. and also chemicals and a furnace.A. a fellow of our college. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. [see also James Gregory. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. probably in June 1669. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. and added. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. On each occasion it was agreed.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind. and signed by the master of the college. Newton must have left college before August 1665. and a young man. arithmetic. apparently for chemical experiments. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. but kept the name of the author a secret. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. or some other mathematical subject. degree. mathematician. and 22 June 1666.] a mathematician of no mean order." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. dated 7 August 1665. He wrote a paper. statics. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse.

and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. provided a reflecting substance could be found. which would polish as finely as glass." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. But these seemed very great difficulties. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. it could not collect those also into the same point. than a circularly figured lens. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. and finding them regular. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. I left off my aforesaid glass works. and reflect as much light." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. as I found it. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. as glass transmits. he proceeded: "When I understood this. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. when I further considered. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. I understood. Nay. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. so that a much . I wondered. So that. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. bishop of Salisbury. because. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. The whole is printed in No. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. the secretary of the Royal Society. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. would cause by the unfitness of its figure. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. for I saw. and I have almost thought them insuperable. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. on 6 February 1672. were light uniform." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. if they continue them for any time. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. After he explained this to the Society. Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours.

if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. He concludes his communication with the words: This. but yet most luminous in blue. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. or proportionally disagreeing in both. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. I conceive. what might be effected in this kind. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. and that the paper. are taking care about it at London. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. when I made the other. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. . proper for metal. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. but not very distinctly. that the prism and lens be placed steady. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. as I imagined. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. and vanish into whiteness. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. than in figuring glasses for refraction. but yet most luminous in red. which. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. whereby. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). or to thwart this relation. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. that. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. but I shall conclude with this general one. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. if any thing seem to be defective. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. But it is requisite. you will not only find." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. I began to try. And therefore. They have there no appropriate colour. for. are again dissipated and severed. with which 'tis illustrated. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. or of acknowledging my errors. at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. who. And there place a clear and colourless prism. by such motion. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. You may also see. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants. the figure also would be corrected to the last. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. care must be taken. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. And this analogy twist colours. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. as you inform me. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. so I doubt not. but yet with this difference. as I said. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. how the colours gradually convene. if I have committed any. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. Further on. which they had before they entered the composition.

Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. or communicated to the Royal Society. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. I do recommend them both to be nominated. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. light polarization and binocular vision. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. endeavored to effect a compromise which. and. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. who was the chancellor of the university. 2nd Duke of Buckingham." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. and the inflexion of light. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. and are now almost universally rejected. . and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. one of whom was to be elected by the senate. and entered in the Regent House. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. and many others." The heads. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. and he wrote on double refraction. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. and. The public oratorship fell vacant. or to become a slave to defend it. George Villiers. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. when a description of it was found among his papers. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. till after Newton's death. or leave to come out after me. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. Others criticized the experiments. he says. however.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. but was not published. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election.

" On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon." (See Newton's cannonball. till 1860. as several others are." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. (4. who married John Conduitt. he says. I thank you.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. In one version of the story." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8]). when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675. when. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. by calculating from Kepler's laws. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. I desire to withdraw. owing to decay.) . He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. as he was not in holy orders. and one of Newton's intimate friends. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. a fellow of the Royal Society. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth.57 metres) in one minute. He therefore was led to inquire whether. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. if you have not done it already. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. dated 23 June 1673. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. Newton.

Sir Christopher Wren. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. "Why. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. i. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it". the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. but he promised to send it to Halley. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. At Newton's birth. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. Newton replied promptly. I have calculated it. yet this truth was not looked upon as established. made the two results. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672." He could not. the secretary. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. a copy of his demonstration. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. or their views about the researches of others. Unless otherwise noted. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. By the time he died. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. "an ellipse". In January 1684. Moreover. put his hand upon his calculation. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere.e. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity. . This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". and consists of four theorems and seven problems. one of the fellows of his own college. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. in the month of August 1684.Early life In November 1679. After the latter had left Cambridge. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. Oldenburg. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. and started for Cambridge. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. to consult Newton on the subject. one of the secretaries of the Society. by the hand of Mr Paget. however.

com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. 11. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. lib. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint.297-314. He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. eds (1922–1958). Richard S. [8] http:/ / www. [10] H W Turnbull (ed. ac. Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. 35 References • Westfall. 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. 16–19 [4] Michael White.) (1960). and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal. Later life During his residence in London. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. at pp. ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right. Vol. In a letter to Newton announcing the news.Early life [2] Cohen. Isaac. However. and has not . J. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). p. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. J. Montagu. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Mr Overton. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. ISBN 0521477379.M1) [5] ed.). lib.43. Charles Montagu. cited above. Cambridge.435-440. when Montagu. Michael Hoskins (1997). he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. (Cambridge University Press. Venn. Cambridge University Press. Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. The office is the most proper for you. (1994). his hopes were spoiled by long delay. The Life of Isaac Newton. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. I. A. . ac. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. pp. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. Isaac (http:/ / venn. Cambridge University Press. " Newton. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". sfu. google. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". Dictionary of Scientific Biography.) (1960). html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. 1960).. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. (1970). the warden of the mint. and the esteem the king has of your merits.. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude." Newton was now 55 years old. p. [7] Newton. afterwards Earl of Halifax. cam.B. was false to him. cam. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. 159. and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post.

Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis. however. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions.200 and £1." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. Of this. The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. was still. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. he did not exhibit it in the results. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). except to Newton and his friends. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696.500 per annum.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. while exports were paid for in gold. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. a post worth between £1. and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. with an account of their properties. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. a process that was completed in about two years. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. a secret. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]).[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. . the second. Newton took it seriously. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. To this work were added two treatises. and of its application to the quadrature of curves. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717.

" and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. He also solved the second problem. Leibniz. and. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. but he received a letter from Leibniz. and published by Dr Wallis. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. 's Gravesande published a tract. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. who have solicited the. with improvements by the author. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. In that year the Academy was remodelled. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. obtained leave to make it public. and made known to some friends. was published at London in 1712." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period. and E. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. although Newton's solution was anonymous. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February." says he. and having since met with some things copied out of it. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. by Dr Machin. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. secretary to the Royal Society. I have on this occasion made it public. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. and eight foreign associates were created. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. W. which was also written many years ago. Hartsoeker. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author. and he gave a method of determining it. making it public. "tanquam. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. . (2) to determine a curve such that. and a second edition of it. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. prefixing to it an introduction. P2. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital.

but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place." (I have learnt . and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him. In April 1705. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. Roger Cotes. however. On 21 May 1709. in the first few months of 1695. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. but being a Whig.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). however. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. the queen's husband. and a number of honorary degrees conferred. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. Rumours." he said. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton. "will be glad to see you in June. and discharged the duties of the post. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. they paid a visit to Cambridge. the lunar theory would." Newton. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. he was opposed by the non-residents. where a congregation of the senate was held.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint.. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. so far as he could do it. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election.. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . fellow of Trinity College. of his work. 2002). who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark. He held the office for 25 years. justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton. Dr Edleston. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. have been completely investigated. and of a new edition. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. were heard from time to time. He was warmly supported by the residents. The prince had offered. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. Dr Bentley. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. on Newton's recommendation. the master of Trinity. when the queen.I forget from where . but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. the master of Trinity College. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. after speaking to Newton. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. and beaten by a large majority. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House.

Newton criticized all the methods. 2. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. 3. who translated it. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. vii. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. to present her with a copy of the new edition. On the 31st of March 1713. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. wife of George II. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . took every opportunity of conversing with him. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. The abbé. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. who called witnesses. In Libri primi Sect. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. the following account of this new Edition. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. facilior redditur et amplior. and endeavoured to refute it. however. I. "If you write any further preface. At last. N. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. true in theory but difficult to execute. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. "28 Mar. pointing out their weak points. I must not see it. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. for I find that I shall be examined about it. 4. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. Caroline of Ansbach. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. The Princess of Wales. 1713." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. on 27 July. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. and. and received the royal assent. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. passed both Houses. about midsummer 1713. He mentioned four: 1. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence. lent his copy to M Fréret. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. In Libri secundi Sect. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. she requested him to give her a copy. an antiquary at Paris.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. Newton waited on Queen Anne.

Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. . Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. For example in 1716 Leibniz. included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. translated into French by the observator. which was published in 1728. a nephew of Bentley. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. and published at Paris. This was done. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. This edition had many errors. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. beginning his studies before 1690. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. to suppress it". to have it translated into French and have it published there. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. after his death." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. John which was published in London in 1733. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. who was on the way to the continent. Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. He therefore asked Locke. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. and though he was fatigued from work. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. he solved it later the same evening. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret.. In an earlier part of his life. Newton printed. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. in 1756. Upon receiving a copy of this work.

Athol L Murray. (1898). ahds. pdf). com/ php/ stopics. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. archive.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. horse racing. (2005). . org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. www. PMID 15638889. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. ahds. In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. urotoday. online-literature. p. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). pdf). . In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man").x.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www.[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. after six years of "cock[fight]ing. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25.com. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009).2005. measuringworth.05242. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. Retrieved 23 September 2009.1111/j. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey. pierre-marteau. ac. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. pdf) (PDF). Gilbert J.1464-410X. litencyc. Wise. Charlotte M. ISBN 9780151012787. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage. Edward. Richard Kleer. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). 870 [11] Yonge. [6] By The King. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads.[10] Towards the end of his life. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons.January 1843 (http:/ / www. [10] Westfall 1980. 21 September 1717. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886.and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. Vol V. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. April 1842 . Athol L Murray. OCLC 276340857. Retrieved 2008-05-22. doi:10.online-literature. php?rec=true& UID=1304). html). Sir Isaac Newton. .. [9] Ostad. Newton and the Counterfeiter. who. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944. ac. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. He endured great suffering. 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. University of Regina.

Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him. superstition. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. Distinctions between science. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942. 1975). alchemy. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science.edu/~michael/koll. Santa Fe. In this sense. These occult works explored chronology. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. he was the last of the magicians. Bernard Cohen (Dawson. the noted English scientist and mathematician. for example. economist John Maynard Keynes. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy.ucsc.". Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. with a and historical introduction by I. During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse).

as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704.S. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. Newton is thought to have said. "O Diamond. with its associated nomenclature. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy. also fearing the potential devaluation of gold.[2] It was for this reason. which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. Newton's dog started the fire. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. and perhaps to a lesser extent. who throughout his life. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. In the story. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. Diamond. several projects have begun to gather. or some other substance). Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). lead. came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community. burning 20 years of research. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism." 43 In 1936. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. Arts and Humanities Research Board. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. In recent years. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts.[8] . so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. and analytical chemistry. A perfectionist by nature. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature.K. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. National Science Foundation. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. made penalties for alchemy very severe. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. In addition. The English Crown. catalogue. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers".Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted.

Hieroglyphical Figures. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. "Artephius his secret Book". Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple. Artephius. Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's.[10] In addition to scripture. Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. "Theatrum Chemicum". This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. 1728. Nicolas Flamel. "Ezechielem Explanationes". followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. in a search for their occult knowledge. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. early forms of tarot. and his "secret book". and the vegetable or the growing stone. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. Published London. "Nicholas Flammel. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". In predicting this he said. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone".[12][13] . often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom).[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. Most notably are documents entitled. In its time. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. and occultism. Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. This concept. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. though mysterious figure.

Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. both speculative and active. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. ” During Newton's lifetime. was published posthumously in 1728.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. Isaiah and others. such as golden sections. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood".[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. This immense 13-foot-high (4.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. In 1628. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. the same was true of their architecture. but also in the sacred scriptures. [14] Job. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him. conic sections. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. . and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. when deciphered.[17] In 1754. 27 years after his death. and other harmonious constructions. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. which was popular in its day. To Newton. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. scholars. In the knowledge of this philosophy. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. .[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. only adding to the public interest in the temple. as in Genesis. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". In addition. spirals. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. orthographic projection. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem. Around 1692. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. is not only to be found in the volume of nature. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown. due to the success of Villalpando's publications. Isaac Newton's treatise. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. Psalms. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject.

Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. The first document. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents.C. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. Canada's National Post. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy. 800. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. 7th. in or after 1705. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. the period of 1260 days. 2060. Nature. .C.[19] is a small letter slip.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. 1. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. Christ comes as a thief in the night.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. Both of these lay essential to his calculations.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. part of the Yahuda collection.] 70. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. evidently written by Isaac Newton. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value.[D. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year. Furthermore. Britain's Daily Telegraph. will end A. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. It may end later. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th.

as he saw it. and poets. and various other classical historians. However. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. Plutarch. and available source material. It is done.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. and the Levant. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. authors. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. . archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. Ogygia was home to Calypso. Africa and Asia. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. Anatolia. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. In Greek Mythology. God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. standards. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). Egypt. In a separate manuscript. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. Homer. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. The marriage supper. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". As such. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. In fact. but was sunk into the Sea. Pliny. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. In this entry he mentions Mephres. but rather one in which he believed the world. an approximately 87. or possibly the same island.[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth.

It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint.C. and highly politicised. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. remains unclear.[24][25] however.[26] At the time of his death. However. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing. would seem to exclude Newton . Considering his esteemed social status. these are considered learned societies. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). however. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. anti-Catholic. Furthermore. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. the physical universe. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them.[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society. not esoteric societies. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone.Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. which they claimed to have in their possession. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. For its time. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. a recognized Knight. Additionally. lack of supportive publicized material. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. avowedly Christian. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born. Like Newton. The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. In his library. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier.". the level of their secrecy. and the spiritual realm. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library.

There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). uk/ prism. ISBN 019530070X. Oxford University Press US. ac. Gale E. pbs. 19 June 2007. (http:/ / www. [11] Christianson. jnul. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. htm) on 6 May 2008. indiana. . a forgery and founding document of the Priory. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. References [1] Keynes. USA: PBS. (5 April 2007). 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. referring not to a medieval knight. huji. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. Pope). com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. do). 15–19 July 1946. William R.Occult studies from their membership. Discover Magazine. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". dlib. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. newtonproject. The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". p. archive. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. [6] http:/ / webapp1. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. htm). Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish.[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. . jsp [7] http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. "Newton. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. (2005). Rabbi Chaim. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. indiana. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-07-19. htm). edu/ newton/ index. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. The Man". google. org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). However. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. 2010 [5] Newman. During his own life. p. sussex. dlib.. from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. christianpost. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. . . Jane Bosveld. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. sacred geometry. J. Temple Institute. 1999. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. s-most-famous-alchemist)". but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. as were many members of The Royal Society. and he never publicly identified himself as one. Page 91. "The Da Vinci Code".[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. 175. 144. christianpost.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. . ISBN 0-19-850364-4. Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). ac. Temple Institute (1991-2008). Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. Retrieved 1 July 2008. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A. edu/ newton/ about. Oxford University Press._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse.M. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. [10] Richman. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. templeinstitute. July/August. Retrieved 2007-08-12.

com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). . Holy Grail. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7.com/aReal/unit-fraction. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. (http://www." (http:/ / www. (http://www.uu. com/ book_bauer. [23] Bauer. sussex. ac.faculty. 146. Henry (2004). Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Fairfield University. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon. Holy Blood. 859" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-08-19. inul. University of Sussex: The Newton Project.2a. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. 31r [22] Newton. newtonproject.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h.edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www. sussex. "Isaac Newton University Lodge No.dcs.ac. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando. .st-and. Scott Mandelbrote. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. 117. & A.sussex. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon).htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. . newtonproject.ac.ac. google. William (2010). Delta Trade Paperbacks. 1997. . S. ISBN 1-59477-172-3. ac. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed.gutenberg. the Apocalypse and A. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. uk/ texts/ viewtext. sussex. p. The Newton Project.dlib. uk/ texts/ viewtext. newtonproject. . Michael. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. fairfield. (1972). • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley. 5 April 2007. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books.html) • unit fractions. freemasons-freemasonry. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates. Retrieved 2007-08-15. [19] Yahuda MS 7. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell. org).htm) • the math (http://www-groups.huji. Isaac (5 April 2007). . Laurence (2007).M.newtonproject.). W. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. Da Capo Press. [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-06-26. newtonproject. p. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. Book Excerpt .uk/prism. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. html). Stephen D.fairfield.staff.indiana. Retrieved 2008-06-25. "Juan Bautista Villalpando.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. Lincoln. org/ ). Isaac. [17] Newton.sussex.ac. The Newton Project. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A. htm). [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www.newtonproject. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7.niu. Alain (2007). 496.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando.il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies. [18] Snobelen. Joseph. . written at USA. Retrieved 20 April 2010.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. 2005: Weiser.newtonproject. London: Routledge.sussex.science. htm). php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized).J.from Chapter 3.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum. Chetwode. William Stukeley 1752.3o. Frances A. ac. org/ newton_2060. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized).freemasons-freemasonry.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode. Originally published: London : HarperElement. ca/ aqc/ leon.. . ed.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. .php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www. ISBN 1578634040. (http:/ / www. spalding-gentlemens-society. Retrieved 1 July 2008. p.htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.org/library/drmath/view/55191. Rob Iliffe. [26] White.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. html).uk)) . f. f. [14] Gardner.newtonproject. . . faculty.3g. bcy. isaac-newton. J. php?id=74). ac. 2060. Retrieved 2007-08-15. google.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. sussex.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life.sussex. [28] Baigent. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions..pbs. . AHRC Newton Papers Project. Retrieved 2007-08-15.ac. Michael." (http:/ / www. 50 • White. f.jnul.math.ac. ISBN 073820143X.F. uk/ prism.D. Michael (1999).uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www.com/pillar_solomon_temple. pp.themathpage.

as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. I study the Bible daily. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. In predicting this he said. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy. had it been made public. written by those who were inspired. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. mathematician. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. "so little understood". Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. theologian and alchemist."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family. natural philosopher. After 1690. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy. and he said. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science. astronomer.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. in general. The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. 77–82. in other words. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". Alternatively. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time. It is one of five arguments from the "properties.[5][6] . appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. space. causes. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). place and motion. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".[1] Background These arguments. or. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding.

but in opposite directions. but the neighboring train. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. it is not your own train moving. it begins to spin rapidly. A: Central object rotates. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force. as the cord continues to unwind. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition. despite proximity to the pail. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. who contended that all motion was relative.[9] When. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. his real position was that motion is absolute. C: Both rotate. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. Thus.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. Eventually. In other words. not only with respect to the experimenter. accordingly. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. p. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train. and that there is no absolute motion.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. — Ernst Mach. but in opposite direction. However. B: Outer ring rotates. On the other hand. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. but also in relation to the water it contains.[7] However. despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. the surface of the water remains flat. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . however.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating.

This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. then filled with water. with no need for an additional centrifugal force.are altogether destitute of any real effect. and ascend to the sides of the vessel. will make it begin sensibly to revolve.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. not relative. forming itself into a concave figure. is incomplete.. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved.. However. 58 .. discovers itself. the vessel continues for some time this motion. Thus.. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. — Ernst Mach. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent.. the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction.. by the sudden action of another force. as before the vessel began to move.. — Isaac Newton. and effectually to distinguish. For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. a stationary frame can be identified. . and while the cord is untwisting itself. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. And therefore. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. and held at rest together with the water. and may be measured by this endeavour.Bucket argument If a vessel. do by no means come under the observations of our senses.. hung by a long cord. Principia. but relative motions. which is here directly contrary to the relative. it is whirled about in the contrary way. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. . In fact. see Rotating spheres.[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water. as quoted by L. . the surface of the water will at first be plain... p.. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. a limitation that has not been established. and recede by little and little. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. and by implication the Earth also is a participant. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. after. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute. but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water.

The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. because the element of water does not move. the co-rotating frame. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. For example.[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. see Knudsen and Hjorth. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces. the sum of all three forces must be zero. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. and the aim is to determine this function. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics. if at rest. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg. Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface.. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. 127 Moreover. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. for if this were not so. To sum to zero. the horizontal. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. But from the nature of a fluid. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components. p. the water. . is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force.. However.. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. one might question just how rotation brings about this change.

the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. were surface regions with lower energy available.) As r increases. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. That is. The potential energy is useful. That being so. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. equilibrium is attained. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. that is. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. . the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. On the other hand. In words. because all positions are equivalent in energy. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. for example. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω.

let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. 191. Requiring the energy to be constant. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. Bernard Cohen & George E. com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. p. . this energy is constant independent of position r. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. pdf [3] René Descartes. google. Cambridge University Press. 43. and the more rapid the rotation. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. . To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. and lowering it at smaller radius. . p. Principia philosophiae. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. ISBN 0226282198. To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. At some small angular rate of rotation. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force.M1). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. If rotation is arrested. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. ISBN 0521358124. archive. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. [5] René Descartes (1664). google. google. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. John Cottingham translator (1988). §25. editors) (2002). p. [2] http:/ / ia310114. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. google. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). a concave surface represents the stable situation. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. . In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). ISBN 0521656966. The water surface is flat at first. . University of Chicago Press. Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. at a given angular rate of rotation. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). however.Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. p. As the height of water increases. before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). 105. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. for example through friction. See Figures 1 and 2. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. Forgotten Books. The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy.M1). This change in shape would not be stable. ISBN 1606201433. Smith. google. 75. the more concave this surface. us. Cambridge University Press. Thus. Cambridge University Press. p. Part ii. 170. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing.

. google. 404. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth). The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. google. ISBN 0521621135. Weber & George B.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. op. archive. google. New York: Courier Dover Publications. 167. Phil.iep.edu/l/leib-met. Time. google. ISBN 354067652X. p. google. Princeton University Press. editor) (2008). [15] Jens M. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. Partridge (1995). p. com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). Arfken (2003). 325–348. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato.stanford. . .utm. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. At the end of this article.M1). p. • D. 386–387. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Springer. Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. Leibniz (http:/ / books. time.google. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. See: • R. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. 78–79. . "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. ISBN 0521656966. . Lerner (1997). pp. and Motion (http://plato. Springer. google. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books.M1).google. 104. .. . George Edwin Smith.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. article by Robert Rynasiewicz. External links • Newton's Views on Space. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [11] Robert Disalle. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). ISBN 0867204796. .). html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. Poul G. • Ralph A. Wiley. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books.com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. 5 (1975) ed. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. p. In Edward N. Am. Zalta. 79-81 [13] L. p.Bucket argument p.htm) see section on Space. [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. 45. ISBN 0375412883. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. us. p.). 78. Soc. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. John Wiley & Sons. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones.). . ISBN 0521857902. [16] Lawrence S..edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114.google. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0691033234. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. pp. . In I. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1. Jones & Bartlett. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein. Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. 279–280. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. ISBN 0120598779. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. stanford. 119. and the texture of reality. Academic Press. vol. B. . stanford. Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. pdf) pp. The Universe and the Bucket". 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). ISBN 0486607690.M1).M1). 19. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127.M1) (in Proc. [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). ISBN 1402086679.M1). • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. p. [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). Bernard Cohen. google. "Chapter 2. google. 143. . ISBN 0521352541. Hjorth (2000). John Archibald Wheeler (1995). Lynden-Bell (1996). google. [19] Hans J.M1). p. pp. cit. Knudsen. com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). 127. no. pp.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. 79. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. A A Knopf.

calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. early forms of differentiation. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. Eudoxus (c. Historically. Calculus has widespread applications in science. It has two major branches. an integral test for convergence. and join calculus. calculus. lambda calculus.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. and some of them are wrong. broadly called mathematical analysis. to calculate areas and volumes. derivatives. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. economics. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". while Archimedes (c. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. one goal of integral calculus. More generally. functions. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. 1820 BC). can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. Calculus is the study of change. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. Calculations of volumes and areas. and infinite series. differential calculus and integral calculus. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. term by term integration. pi calculus. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations.[4] In the 5th century AD. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. which prefigures the concept of the limit. or "infinitesimal calculus". integrals.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus. infinite series approximations.[6] . variational calculus. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. but the formulas are mere instructions. with no indication as to method.

which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . introduced the concept of adequality.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. Isaac Barrow. which is its logical [7] development. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. he developed series expansions for functions. and the system of mathematical analysis. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. By Newton's time. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. He did not publish all these discoveries. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. Pierre de Fermat. and providing the product rule and chain rule. but Leibniz published first. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. the notion of higher derivatives. in their differential and integral forms." —John von Neumann In Europe. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. second and higher derivatives. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. Taylor series. In his publications. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. and James Gregory. The product rule and chain rule. replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. the oblateness of the earth. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. including fractional and irrational powers. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. Newton derived his results first. Unlike Newton. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. In other work.

to the detriment of English mathematics. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. Today. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. developed in the 1960s. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. however. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. In Cauchy's writing. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". Robinson's approach. In modern mathematics. One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. but it would be 150 years later. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. who gave the new discipline its name. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. including Maclaurin. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. . In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. Following the work of Weierstrass.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches.Calculus Society. It is Leibniz. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. Several mathematicians.

and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. From this point of view. i. Historically. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. For centuries. and motion. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. Persia. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. center of mass. but use the ordinary real number system. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis... 1/3. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals. Calculus provides tools. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. and optimization.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. Iraq. during the 17th century. China. in some sense. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. .e. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. These questions arise in the study of motion and area. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series. but less than any number in the sequence 1. volume. However. In this treatment. India. and less than any positive real number. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. "infinitely small". These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. . just like infinitesimals. In the 19th century. and Japan. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input. the slope of a curve. and pressure. arc length. Greece. especially the limit and the infinite series. They capture small-scale behavior. which resolve the paradoxes. 1/2. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. and for this reason they are the standard approach. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. work. infinitesimals were replaced by limits.. time. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers.

if the graph of the function is a straight line). called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. The derivative. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. Thus. If h is a number close to zero. outputs a second function. To be concrete. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. the doubling function.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. that is. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. pronounced "f prime. however. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. four is sent to sixteen. For example. let f be a function. f(a)) and (a + h. f(a + h)) is close to (a. In mathematical jargon. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. If a function is linear (that is." For instance. and if the squaring function is given the input three. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. then a + h is a number close to a. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. where functions usually input a number and output another number. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. b is the y-intercept. where x is the independent variable. it is possible to produce a new function. Therefore (a + h. three is sent to nine. If the input of the function represents time. y is the dependent variable. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. Given a function and a point in the domain. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. properties. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. can take the squaring function as an input. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. For example. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. then it outputs six. f(x)). then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. then it outputs nine. if the doubling function is given the input three. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. and fix a point a in the domain of f.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. f(a + h)). it is the velocity of the ball. however. and applications of the derivative of a function. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. the derivative of the function of f is f′. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. f(a)). then the function can be written as y = mx + b. which is impossible. (a.

A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. Here is a particular example. . For this reason.9) is 6. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. that is to say.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients.

Leibniz. and applications of two related concepts. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. properties. integral calculus studies two related linear operators. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. In technical language. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. as the output. only multiplication is needed. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time. For example: In this usage.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. but if the speed changes. . although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. the inverse operation to the derivative. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. If the speed is constant. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. then the speed will stay more or less the same. We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. (This use of upper. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. however. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". However. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. the derivative. introduced by Leibniz.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. the indefinite integral and the definite integral. called a Riemann sum.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number.

but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. or antiderivative. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. where C is any constant. the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. is y′ = 2x. between two points (here a and b). an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. as an output. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. the area. defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). The indefinite integral. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). dx is not a number. In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. we can choose one value of the function f(x). Call that value h. f(x)=h. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. To approximate that area. and is not being multiplied by f(x). . The symbol of integration is . The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve. For each small segment. the area between the axis and the curve. the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. which is an approximation of the total distance traveled.

and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. In analytic geometry. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. for every x in the interval (a. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. engineering. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. actuarial science. it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. . In biology. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. the moment of inertia of objects. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. the study of graphs of functions. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. b). Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. then Furthermore. demography. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. slope.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. For example. concavity and inflection points. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. This realization. computer science. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. More precisely. Physics makes particular use of calculus. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. economics. b). and are ubiquitous in the sciences. statistics. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. medicine. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. made by both Newton and Leibniz. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. we use calculus to derive its path. business. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals.

618–626. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. Dennis G. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. Vámos.. fixed point iteration. Wright. pp. 1995. calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow.. Iris B. Inc. . J. Chapter 1. World Scientific Publishing Co. Liu. 130.. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC).see also the summed area table algorithm. Discrete Green's Theorem.Calculus Green's Theorem.. [8] André Weil: Number theory. T. From Hammurapi to Legendre. Biggers. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images. eds. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. 180–196. htm). From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. google. agnesscott. Examples are methods such as Newton's method. Scott. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations.). p. In economics. Birkhauser Boston. Cohen. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. . Page 228. Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. B. p. Boston.. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. Cengage Learning.. ISBN 0817645659. Sherry (2007). Robert Sonné (1966). A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books.. google. 279. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. Fan. 279 (http:/ / books. google. google. pp. xxvii. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). google. Method. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. The Works of the Mind.. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. ed. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. Warren S. p. in Heywood. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C.. . st-andrews. [9] Leibniz.. p 2 (http:/ / books. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains.. University of Chicago Press. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. Vol. 2. Gottfried Wilhelm. Agnes Scott College. it's used to derive dosing laws. Cosimo. I [3] Archimedes. ISBN 9810222017. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. Inc. Ltd. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . (2009). in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre. The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. and linear approximation. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. mcs. google. In nuclear medicine. 1947. "The Mathematician". 28. Pte.. p. In the realm of medicine. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. Donald R. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. google. 1984. Chapter . John W. An approach through history. Elif (April 1995).. Reed. For example. ac. MA. Reprinted in Bródy. The Neumann Compedium. 2008. F. For example. R. For instance. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. . Copy (http:/ / books. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. Jones & Bartlett Learning.. Springer. p.. Kenelly. . Wright. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. html [7] von Neumann. Dainian.

google. 9th ed. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. Mathematical Association of America No. Lebedev and Michael J. Volume 1. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. Thompson and Martin Gardner. 2004. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. • Tom M..2002. 25. (2003). ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th. 1923). Apostol. Dover edition 1959. Eric W. 1–46. Cambridge University Press. Donald J. Ltd. Weir. (September 1994). Maurice D. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. James (2008). A Pump. ed. ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus. • Florian Cajori. Press. • Robert A. "Calculus". Calculus: Early Transcendentals. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. • Tom M. • Silvanus P. (1996). ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. • Leonid P. Apostol. (1998). No. Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. Not a Filter. • Cliff Pickover.wolfram. (1969). Volume 2. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. pp. • Howard Anton.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover).. The Association. Hafner. Frank R. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra.html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource.John Willey and Sons Pte. "Calculus". American Mathematical Society. George B. Ch. Publish or Perish publishing. (2003).ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . • Michael Spivak. • Mathematical Association of America. (1967). • Edmund Landau. 11th ed. Wiley. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. Donald A. Stony Brook. 7. • Thomas/Finney. Anderson and Don O. Carl Benjamin (1949).. (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. University Science Books. 1998. ED 300 252. Addison Wesley.." (http://mathworld.Stephen Davis:"Calculus". 1 (Sep.... Edwards (2010). (1988). Ron. Calculus for a New Century. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. Loftsgaarden.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. • Weisstein. (1999). 1: The Tools of Calculus". ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus. Giordano (2008). "The History of Notations of the Calculus. • Albers. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus.Irl Bivens. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. NY. Joel Hass. 6th ed. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. Vol. 2nd Ser. Princeton Univ. Bruce H. Addison-Wesley." Annals of Mathematics. Richard D.. Adams. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications.

"The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.edu/~keisler/calc.pdf) • Garrett.org: The Calculus page (http://www.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson.nd.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business). • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler. External links • Weisstein.html) at PlanetMath. .htm (http://ocw.umn.htm) (HTML only) • Strang.understandingcalculus. Fullerton.edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.temple.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index.htm) • Smith. soton.mit.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only). pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www. H. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell.wolfram. William V.cacr.com/Calculus.math.caltech. "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw.bbc. K. (2004). B.math.mit. Eric W.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals. (2006).edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes.wolfram. H.caltech. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology. lightandmatter.org/pre-9217/calculus.byu.com/calc/calc.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. Dan (2000).encyclopediaofmath.edu/~sean/applied_math. (2006). URL http:// www. "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus". Michiel Hazewinkel ed.calculus. (2003).wisc. in Encyclopedia of Mathematics.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.cacr. "Calculus" Light and Matter.economics.html (http://www.math.math.pdf) • Sloughter.lightandmatter.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext. Thompson (http://djm. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. (1991). • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P. " Calculus (http://mathworld.co.org) at University of California.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses. (2004).uiowa.umn.ericdigests.org/index. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota. ( listen now (http:// www.htm (http://www.html)" from MathWorld.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.understandingcalculus.ac.htm) from ERICDigests. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.edu/~keisler/calc.pdf (http://www.html) • Mauch. (2001).pdf (http://www.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. (2000)..org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre . J.com/calc/calc.co. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow.D.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw.nd. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.edu/~sean/applied_math.bbc.pdf (http://www.pdf) • Faraz. S.math. G. P.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism. mit.math. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology.org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism.math.wisc.math.uiowa.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.com/ (http://www.

but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. at the age of 23. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684.ucdavis. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. Moreover. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www. 2. exams and interactive applets. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus. 3. as in the 'Principia' of 1687.[1]. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. minima. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687. Newton manipulated the quarrel. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions.solved-problems. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention. as noted above.html) by D. and centers of gravity. 1709–1716. and others. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith.com/) Raymond. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. 4. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. A. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. Newton.Calculus Dame with activities. this statement went unchallenged some years.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. . The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675.mit. Newton. or. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton.[2]) Meanwhile. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus.math. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's.

the manuscript. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. I. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. however. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. In 1696. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. It is. Gerhardt. one of which was new to him. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series.[2] At first. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. in particular power series. and in fact worked together on some aspects. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. However. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. but some deny this. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. Shortly before his death. whereas Newton began from derivatives. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. No attempt was made to rebut #4. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. on the method of tangents. It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676. In 1849. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. C. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. which was not known at the time. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation.

But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. Now that I am old.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. dates. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. The report of the committee. and doubts emerged. as if by the authority of a great judge. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713.g. which referenced all allegations. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. suspicious details.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. but it appears that on more than one occasion. 30 years later. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. I have enjoyed little leisure. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. which the author of that epistle. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. the debate persisted for many years. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me. in most cases I did not keep a copy. Moreover. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. In accepting the denial. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. before publishing them. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. finding in favor of Newton. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. had endeavoured to wrest from me. "grasped at fame among foreign nations.. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. which I could sort through only with time and patience. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. In any event. 1716. Leibniz may have minimized. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. as it appeared to Newton's friends." he said. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. and when I did. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. No such summary (with facts. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). 77 . the letter of June 7. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. "I have never. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton. in the Charta Volans. a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. Several points should be noted. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. of which many are lost. 1713. forty years ago. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. All this casts doubt on his testimony. When pressed for an explanation. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. and that of April 8. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. dont plusiers se sont perdus. Moreover. in the Acta Eruditorum). but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty.

which were translatable one into the other. . The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell.. the analytical method of fluxions. especially at p. 1696). maths. for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. [4] D Gjertsen (1986). It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. "The Newton handbook". (Cambridge University Press. so making the priority row a nonsense. google. 1968). at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". D. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. at page 149. points of resemblance. ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. at page 41 (http:/ / books. (Cambridge University Press. other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): .. The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. (Guicciardini 2003. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite. (1970). the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. and the differential and integral calculus. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. google. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). the differential and integral calculus. [5] http:/ / www. of equal certainty. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions". com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. tcd. [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. 2003). 1967). at page 400. T. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250). not in the German-speaking world). Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). They adopted two algorithms. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). at p. 120.Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. google. at page 250 (http:/ / books..99. whose potentialities he fully understood. was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz.. explaining "the method of first and last ratios".).

when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. 4th ed. approaching a maximum value). is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. or initiated by the Big Bang. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke.tcd.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. going on without the Interposition of God. Cambridge Uni. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. A.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. 1980. many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way.html). The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. as a perfect machine. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory.html). Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. W W Norton. 1908."[1] . It continues ticking along.. including the law of universal gravitation.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker. and tends. • Stephen Hawking. Rouse Ball.math. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www. Edward B. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. Canberra. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. Dated. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes.maths. A thorough scholarly discussion. 1988. Anand. • Hall. a prominent supporter of the theory. W. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. Press. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. with its gears governed by the laws of physics. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. random behaviour. • Kandaswamy. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence. 1997. • W. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. R.rutgers.

1850. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. John Bolton. Edward. 1.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. R. and beauty. 2. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. Edward B. (http://physicalworld. Webb. In this widely popular medieval text." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". p. and motion.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. Ed. regularity. space. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. God was the Prime Mover. the machine of the world. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England.K. Robert Lambourne. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. Westfall. no. ed. who created the perfect machine and let it run. [2] John of Sacrbosco. Andrew Norton. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy. Joy Manners. p. A Source Book in Medieval Science. Knud Haakonssen.org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. References [1] Davis. Further reading • Dolnick. 2011. quoted in Edward Grant. This steel artwork contains moving gears. This view of God as the creator. 2: 103-117. 201. Clarke quotation taken from article. Cambridge: 1996. 1991. Richard S. On the Sphere. Harper Collins. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. ibid. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life. 3. 1974). 19.html) The Physical World. p. the Royal Society. 465. Pr. . God was the master-builder. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi.google. Cambridge University Press. Edinburgh.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). cited in. p. 65. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent.. Alan Durrant. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”." Science and Christian Belief 3. a working clock. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity.

James Clerk Maxwell.[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces. retaining only inertia. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. the material point and force (interaction between material points). interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. Particle. Translation). 72. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. spatial locality. pp. htm [2] bartleby. 1210-1219 (2004) . and the additional concept of force. Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. time. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people.The Wave. gutenberg.whitman. pp. form. and all their 'inner' qualities.: Am. org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. translation. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. corpuscular theory of light. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. Torrance (1982).com (http:/ / www.29-32. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. Albert Einstein.html) JJ Thorn et al. com/ 65/ li/ light. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. Eugene. J. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). edited by Thomas F. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. set forward by Sir Isaac Newton. html) . states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy. Phys. 1931).edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. bartleby.

explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Third edition. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena. or based on occult qualities. First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. Newton's First and Second laws. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. 3.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. have no place in experimental philosophy. i. whether metaphysical or physical. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis. page 943 of I.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses. in Latin. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics.. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4.e. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m.[2][3][3] 2. and afterwards rendered general by induction. F = ma. opposite and collinear. and hypotheses. or mechanical. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. General Scholium.e. and I do not feign hypotheses.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. Newton showed that these laws of motion. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation.. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal.[5] For example. i. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). . in the third volume of the text. Therefore.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. first published in 1687. 974 pages. combined with his law of universal gravitation. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star.

later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . independently of any particle structure. The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed.e. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity. This is the most common. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies.Laws of motion In their original form. acceleration.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. i. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. then the velocity of the object is constant. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. In this sense. In the given interpretation mass.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. from this point of view. That is.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. however. Thus. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. Euler’s laws can.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. momentum. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles.

such is the case with uniform circular motion. i. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. and a is the body's acceleration. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest.. Thus. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. even if there is no change in its magnitude. if a body is accelerating.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. however. acceleration.e. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. Thus. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it.[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. Galileo. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. In other words.[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law. where F is the net force applied. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. m is the mass of the body.[22] .Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. then there is a force on it. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. otherwise it would stop moving. the momentum of the body is constant. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. Consistent with the first law. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below).

[23] this is understood. or obliquely joined. known as the thrust. reading: If a force generates a motion. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. Instead.[17] The reasoning. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. is added to or subtracted from the former motion.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. or gradually and successively. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. when they are oblique. a double force will generate double the motion.[18] In classical mechanics. Under some conventions. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. in modern terms. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology.[24] . and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. particles by definition have constant mass. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. Then. the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. by substituting the definition of acceleration. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. a triple force triple the motion. M is the total mass of the system. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. if the body moved before. In case of a well-defined system of particles. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts.

The changes made by these actions are equal.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. if the road . if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies. ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". and directed to contrary parts. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. and by its force changes the motion of the other. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Although the forces are equal. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. For. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. in its own motion.g. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. This law takes place also in attractions. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. As shown in the diagram opposite. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. the finger is also pressed by the stone. If a body impinges upon another.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. motion is Newton's name for momentum. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. as will be proved in the next scholium. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. as usual. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e. but act in opposite directions. as the motions are equally changed. The action and the reaction are simultaneous. toward the contrary part. that is to say.[25] In the above.. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. If you press a stone with your finger. but act in opposite directions. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. as it does the stone towards the horse. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope.

which can be stated as follows. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). optical properties of substances. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects.[28] however from a deeper perspective. most notably at very small scales. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt.a are the forces from A acting on B. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. very high speeds (in special relativity. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. So each and every force has two ends. 87 where Fa. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. Newton's laws of motion. each exerting a force on the other. Fb. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. one might say. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum. errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years.b are the forces from B acting on A. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. and not on a single object. Given two objects A and B. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. Therefore. From a mathematical point of view. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. and in quantum mechanics. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. However. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. . momentum.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. including general relativity and quantum field theory. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). At speeds comparable to the speed of light.

Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles. . Dover Publications. Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. • Section 242.Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). Michael E. and Tait. "Momentum. google. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. doi:10. quantum electrodynamics. Benvenuto. the laws of conservation of momentum. Newtonian Physics. (1867). ISBN 0486462900. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili. Becchi.12. htm) [. tripod. New York: Birkhäuser. springerlink.. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books. us. pp.). except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. p. M. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). berkeley. volume 1.. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. Lubliner. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. . org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. McGraw-Hill Companies. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. Tseitlin.. Treatise on natural philosophy.g. Indeed. google. and by a modern text of the early 21st century. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. ISBN 9780070084988. etc. Antonio. Edoardo (2003). quantum mechanics. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. energy. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum. since they apply to both light and matter. 58. Newtonian Physics.Truesdell.1023/A:1022632600805. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions. . Translations. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www.. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. pdf).]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings. "4. I. ISBN 097046701X. general relativity. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. However. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. ce. In modern physics. see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. . Halliday Browne.. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. Clifford A. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books. lightandmatter. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). google. ISBN 3764314761. action at a distance has been completely eliminated. pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. 207. . However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. W (Lord Kelvin). energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. html). and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". [9] Benjamin Crowell. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. P G.. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". and to both classical and non-classical physics.45G. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws.. archive. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73.. "Newton's First Law: Text. Jacob (2008). Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. . (2003). This can be stated simply.

google. pp.] Consequently. Serway." [28] Newton. ISBN 052189266X..227P." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies.. s. Jerry S. little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. google. 53. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. (2006). "Physics". Juan C. 12 ff. 1967). unless somewhat else stir it. Berkeley 1999. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". p.5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. pp. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D. Springer. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. doi:10. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q).] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. "'Corpore cadente. Perspectives on Science." [19] Hannah. Millard F. stanford. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. [16] Plastino. Faughn (2006). . [11] Isaac Newton. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole. p. consists. Phys. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. it will lie still forever.27. Muzzio. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. doi:10. p. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. Whitman. ISBN 0534997244.. [14] Thornton. and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. [22] WJ Stronge (2004). 161. Bibcode 1992CeMDA. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. College Physics (http:/ / books. in 5. google. is a truth that no man doubts..53. Harman & Alan E. producing the relativistic expression for momentum.. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it.': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". Pitman Paperbacks. pages 157–207.1007/BF00052611. John Wiley & Sons. ISSN 0923-2958. com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). (http:/ / books. pages 627–658. 133–134. "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only. ISBN 0070350485. Whiteside (http:/ / books. Robert Kolenkow (1973). See Harman and Shapiro. . 24. but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. cited below. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. is not so easily assented to. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems". [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. . An Introduction to Mechanics. ISBN 1-85233-426-6.T. [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used.. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). 1 (1993).B. p. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. Resnick. 2007.. Physics.. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. Brooks/Cole. Applied Mechanics. "Newton’s third law revisited".). Educ. 6.. html#NewLawMot). (1992). [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. pp. Cohen and A. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books.M1). . p. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"). [13] Beatty. . p221. McGraw-Hill. 1971 [20] Raymond A. . Hillier. (2) Stuart Pierson. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. also an online discussion by G E Smith. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest. Angel R. Marion (2004). [. p. Principia. ISBN 0471037109. Bibcode 1992PhyEd. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press." [17] Halliday. Shapiro. and (3) Bruce Pourciau. ISBN 0387237046. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). The Principia. And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed. . Archive for History of Exact Sciences. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. M J. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[.. 1. google. google.112H. London/Berlin: Springer. J. 27 (2): 112–115. ISBN 0521602890. . . Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. 78–79. University of California press. "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. Daniel. google. google. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. Special relativity (http:/ / books. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009).. Corollary III to the laws of motion . pages 143–185.60 (2006). 199. vol. A new translation by I. Eds) (2002). [26] C Hellingman (1992). . ISBN 0534408966. "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law".Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. 353.

• Fowles. Benjamin.lightandmatter. R. html#Section4. • Feynman. (1999).motionmountain. (2005).htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www.M1).3). Isaac.. (1867). Newton's Second Law (http://www.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations. especially at Section 4.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw.1. containing Book 1 (http://books. London/Berlin: Springer. and Tait. Thornton. ISBN 0030223172. (2011). P G. Special relativity (http://books. Leighton. Wolfram Demonstrations Project. P. ISBN 0805390499. • Thomson. Section 4. p. G.2. The Feynman Lectures on Physics. (2011. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ). google. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003).com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) .wolfram.2). Elements of Engineering Mechanics.3. External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05.google. 1 (2nd ed. ISBN 1-85233-426-6.google.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny. Sands. (1973). "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". Vol. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726).com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04.com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www.1). B.com/lm/).). Newton's First Law (http://www.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. ISBN 0070378525.lightandmatter. • Newton. R.com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04.html#Section4.html#Section5. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726).com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19).google. Pearson/Addison-Wesley.google. and Section 5. Stephen (1995).mit.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC).youtube. Peter W.. especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books.com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC).lightandmatter. especially at Section 242. Light and Matter (http://www. • Likins.). W (Lord Kelvin).edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6. volume 2. • Newton. volume 1. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems.google.. Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". Newton's laws of motion (http://books. G. 6. Harcourt College Publishers.lightandmatter. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books. Newton's Third Law (http://www. L. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Isaac. ISBN 0030973023. R. • Marion. Light and Matter). M.lightandmatter. Cassiday.Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell. Jerry. volume 1. Saunders College Publishing.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy.

Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2. Both are inverse-square laws. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. Assuming SI units. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. r in meters (m). (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers. instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force.[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia").) In modern language. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg). G is the gravitational constant. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant. F is measured in newtons (N). where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. m2 is the second mass. . m1 is the first mass. first published on 5 July 1687. Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies.

and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating.[7] It was later on. and on which some points still excite some controversy. though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. "prosecuting this Inquiry"). have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". Plagiarism dispute In 1686. of 24 November 1679. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever. if anything.. that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal.[6] In this way arose the question what. did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time.Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance. in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions. Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat. that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall. Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified". will so continue to move forward in a straight line. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention. in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. however.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers". being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center".e.. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s.[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known"."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect.". Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance. On the latter two aspects. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle"..[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. together with a principle of linear inertia. and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive ." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". but also. that Hooke communicated his "supposition . when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity". and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674..

in all editions of the 'Principia'. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements. which Newton was making in the 1660s. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand.Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body".[15] (who suggested.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. but without demonstration. without evidence in favor of the supposition.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law.. Thus Newton gave a justification. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. even close up. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. which inclined me to try it .[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. otherwise lacking.."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[14] including Bullialdus. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters. according to Newton. also without demonstration. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses). denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea.[19] In addition. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1. Newton did accept and acknowledge.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. According to Newton. Among the reasons."[14] . Newton acknowledged Wren. supported by mathematical demonstration. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles. but that did not mean. 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. Hooke.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. although significant. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface.[20] and associated sections of Book 3.

a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies.. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined. Nevertheless. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. Alexis Clairaut.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. As described above.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. In the limit. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". it becomes understandable how. for example. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center.Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke.[26][27] In the light of the background described above. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. that "One must not think that this idea . . They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was). Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. As a consequence. about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. as the component point masses become "infinitely small". he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. taken together. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour. The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above).. this entails integrating the force (in vector form. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. cancel each other out. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). That is.[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. on the point at r0. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published.

inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. further outward the gravity increases again. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. G is the gravitational constant. In this formula. quantities in bold represent vectors. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. and if the sphere is large enough. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary. the increase due to the additional mass is 1. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines . Thus. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1.

For 2 objects (e. It is a generalization of the vector form. per unit mass. it can be seen that F12 = −F21.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale. which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. except that F is now a vector quantity. Also. object 2 is a rocket. object 1 the Earth). It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space.g.

Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. that is. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. Gravitational fields are also conservative. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. then general relativity must be used to describe the system.[31] For example. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. . and c is the speed of light. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model). Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. The field has units of acceleration.e. i. where φ is the gravitational potential. in SI.. this is m/s2. v is the velocity of the objects being studied.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities.

you get an orbit with no precession."[33] . in his words. See the Equivalence Principle. in his third letter to Bentley. I believe. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. regardless of their different inertial masses. which was detected long after the life of Newton. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. though hypotheses abound. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. In point of fact.. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. In all other cases. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. decades before Newton. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. independent of the quantities of matter involved. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. especially of planet Mercury. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. However.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. the definitive answer has yet to be found. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. and the observed precession. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion. Yet. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets. Moreover. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. is to me so great an absurdity that." He never. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. but in the case of gravity. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. F = ma. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. In 1692. However. "assigned the cause of this power". The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays. the experiments of Galileo Galilei. and assume a point mass for each.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation.. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another.

[11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. doi:10. Barry N.). 1960).Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed. 1960). for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.633M. Journal for the History of Astronomy. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false). "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia".. CUP 1989. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989).1103/RevModPhys. Vol 2 (1676-1687). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Direct link to value (http:/ / www. masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. G. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. . ch. [22] See J. . public. 27 May 1686. google.). the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. translators: Isaac Newton. at p. (Cambridge University Press. Vol. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. 1960). Robert D. Rev. by I. see particularly page 431.. [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". i (1970). General Scholium. document #235. Vol 2 (1676-1687).392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". Ofer Gal. In Einstein's theory. [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. [17] D T Whiteside.Proposition 75. 1960).. nist. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. [2] . Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'". already cited. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. 1664-1684". (University of California Press. iastate. i (1970). 168. [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. Correspondence. This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. pdf). edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. [16] Borelli. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). David B. google. (Cambridge University Press.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity. especially at page 13.I. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". start at page 177 (http:/ / books. (Cambridge University Press. in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. google. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC).80. Book 3. document #288. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. start at page 263 (http:/ / books..633. google. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 1666. Florence. nist. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. 24 November 1679. [21] D T Whiteside. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed. 1960). [6] H W Turnbull (ed. pages 5-19. htm). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). especially at 13-20. 80: 633–730. 20 June 1686. pages 11-61. [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed.). Bruce Brackenridge. document #286. [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. "Astronomia philolaica". pages 5-19.80. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. Journal for the History of Astronomy. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. (2008).956 .). "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae". Vol 2 (1676-1687)... Phys. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Newell. p. [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata.2. Bibcode 2008RvMP. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia".431-448. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. A. [18] Page 436. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). Taylor. (2009). (Cambridge University Press. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.. . Vol 2 (1676-1687). mpg. document #239. google. 45 (1991). google. 1664-1684".Bernard Cohen. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. 1995). [8] Purrington. Paris. Mod. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. In general relativity. 1645.). (Cambridge University Press. mpiwg-berlin.. physics. at page 66 (http:/ / books. Theorem 35: p. Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime. Springer. Peter J.

1893). If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049. stanford. Newton" (1759). John Archibald (1973). 511-517. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. 518-528. (D) 4. (A and B) 2. Venus.Max Born (1924). If the speed is very high.W. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. Cambridge University Press. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. Newton". but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit. at Introduction (section IX). [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ).. New York: W. Thorne. M Nauenberg. Rouse Ball. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity.. 10 (2005). "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. it will simply fall back on Earth. Charles W. in Early Science and Medicine. html) [31] Misner.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics".) [33] .. Kip S.Freeman and Company. [27] See also G E Smith. and it was the key force for planetary motion. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. by Richard S.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. H. 1. in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Westfall. Gravitation.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. in Early Science and Medicine. 10 (2005). If the speed is low. Ofer Gal. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon. at page 69. (E) .The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics.youtube. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée".pythia. [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. de Hook diminue la gloire de M. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www.com. and the Earth. cited above. ph. utexas. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". it will indeed leave Earth. [32] . 529-534. edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. in Early Science and Medicine. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . 10 (2005). [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W.. Wheeler. (C) 3.

html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. net23. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours. New York: Random House.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111). the colors fade to white. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision.virginia. External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone. google.bucknell. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result. Notes [1] Sagan.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www.physics. eg. net/ index. php?p=2_23 . Carl et al.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). When the disc is rotated. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless. This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record. A combination of red. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow.

Suppose we have some current approximation xn.Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. Suppose ƒ : [a. That is Here. (x1. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. and its derivative ƒ '. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached. succeeded by Halley's method. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. and the method can be iterated. The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. for converging on the root can be easily derived. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. Then by simple algebra we can derive . f (x0)). b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method).

Finally. He does not compute the successive approximations . for a zero of multiplicity 1. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. essentially giving the description above. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. However. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. In 1690. (The closer to the zero. In the same publication. Furthermore. which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. But. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. Finally. .Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. in 1740. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson). Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. However. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values.) The method will usually converge. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). More details can be found in the analysis section below. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. the better. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. he arrives at an approximation for the root x. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis. though the connection with calculus was missing. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method.

Furthermore. For situations where the method fails to converge. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root. if the multiplicity of the root is known. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. In these situations. it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. Specifically. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. the method may overshoot. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. there are some difficulties with the method.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root. However. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. and diverge from that root. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. However. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root.

ƒ(α) = 0. α being a zero of multiplicity r. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. then the convergence is usually only linear.6). In practice these results are local. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x). Specifically.. x in a neighborhood U of α. in U+. then. i.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if . for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. given a right neighborhood U+ of α. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood.e. Exercise 1. Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. However. the sequence {xn} will converge to α.

that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied. where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small.35284172 converges to –3. 2.352836327 converges to –3.[1] for the function . (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1. 3. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2.35287527 converges to 4. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms.35283735 converges to 4. (b) (c) Finally.352836323 converges to 1. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1. For example.Newton's method 106 That is. . 2. 2. 2. 2.

the method will converge. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. In fact. Even if the derivative is small but not zero. such as bisection. Let and take 0 as the starting point. . unless the solution is guessed on the first try. some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. x1 will be undefined.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. instead of the starting point. If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. preventing convergence. for example. any iteration point is stationary. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . This can happen. In such cases a different method. The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. since the tangent at (0. In general.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). For the following subsections.

the derivative at the root is nonzero. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. let then and consequently . farther away than it initially was. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). So convergence is not quadratic. then convergence will not be quadratic.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. For example. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. let . this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. Indeed. So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. except for x = 0. so they do not converge in this case either. In fact. where its derivative is undefined (this. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis. In the limiting case of (square root). In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . however. does not affect the algorithm. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. where .

and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. Indeed. 0. 0. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. Basins of attraction for x5 .[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . . 0. For example. 0. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has. then convergence may fail to be quadratic. meaning the iterates do not converge.032741218. 0.1 = 0. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. Given . These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions. For many complex functions.251062828. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. since both roots are non-real. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. the derivative is not zero at the root. This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root.127507934. darker means more iterations to converge. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. 0. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals.041224176.067671976. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. 0.031642362. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root.500250376.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1.

The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. . one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). In the formulation given above. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. k variables. If the nonlinear system has no solution. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma.

Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. with derivative. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. For example. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. if one wishes to find the square root of 612. We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. which may be found via Newton's method. There are many methods of computing square roots. and Newton's method is one. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1.5. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x). With an initial guess of 10.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method.) . With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined.

External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. (2006). WH. 112 References • Tjalling J. doi:10. • Kaw. Classics in Applied Mathematics. SA. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. 35. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. Vol. Teukolsky. Sagastizábal. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms. SIAM. xiv+490. 2003. 9.1137/1037125. Cambridge University Press. Gilbert. Egwu (2008). ISBN 0-89871-546-6. 2004. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. J.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. Autar. 2000. of translation of 1997 French ed. Ypma.). Claude. Springer. J. Mathcad. 1995. Kelley. • Press. John H. M.Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. • J. T. Matlab. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . W. PPT. Eric W.). Kalu. "Chapter 9. x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. doi:10. Universitext (Second revised ed. Ortega. Lemaréchal. Maple. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes.. and 9. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. MR2265882. C. Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]. Frédéric. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. pp. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. Deuflhard. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. WT. Charles. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. • Bonnans. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. illustrating the quadratic convergence. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. • C. Vetterling. New York: Cambridge University Press.. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. Berlin. 2003. BP (2007). Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. • P. See especially Sections 9. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed.7 [7]. Rheinboldt.6 [6]. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. ISBN 0-521-00794-1. 531–551. Newton's method [9] -. SIAM. Claudia A. In particular.). Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots .4 [5]. SIAM Review 37 (4). Flannery.

com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. yihui. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby. It is defined as: and so on. com/ empanel/ index.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. maths. usf. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. . amcgowan. [2] Strang. p. springer. Thomas. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. html [21] http:/ / www. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. however. usf. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. November 1997. Mathematical Gazette 81. html [12] http:/ / animation. html [17] http:/ / plus. edu [16] http:/ / math. r-project. nrbook. fullerton. html#Section4. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. [3] http:/ / www. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. eng. January 1991. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). heroku. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. "A chaotic search for i". nrbook. com/ empanel/ index. com/ empanel/ index. lightandmatter. maccery. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. 6). fullerton. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. html [9] http:/ / www. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. or dot notation. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. pp. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. mathworks. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. eng. 3-12 (esp. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. chaos and Newton's method". wolfram. com/ NewtonsMethod. macroeconomics and other fields. php [11] http:/ / math. 1 [10] http:/ / www. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. nrbook. In physics. torkian. 403-408. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. Gilbert. nrbook. com/ empanel/ index. "Cubics.

and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. ac.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. made with a concave Eye-glass. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. being the first known successful reflecting telescope. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. lib. He also made all the tube. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. . it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times. an early composition of speculum metal. For this Circle being placed here. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. and fittings. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration). Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. than by Refraction in the Glass. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. mount. or a little less. and not the spherical aberration. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light.[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. but be an opake Circle. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. cam.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. covering the limb of the Metal round about. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic.

htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. Telescopes in History. Retrieved 22 November 2008. . McGraw-Hill Inc. [10] http:/ / www. clas.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1. google. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. php?imgref=10408672). edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m. p.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm).A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life . when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). Modern Optical Engineering. stsci. Warren J. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. Dr Robert A. 9783540401063. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index. page 67 (http:/ / books. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. craig-telescope.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics. com/ image. html . 1966.University of Florida (http:/ / www. Heath's) in Strand..6 References • Smith.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society). King. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1.M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. google.[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74. by Alfred Rupert Hall. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. uk/ lens. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. google.Publication. Page 74 (http:/ / books.Work . Science & Society Picture Library.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. 1785" (http:/ / www.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought.[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. 2004 ISBN 3540401067.". com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. co.M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE . 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space. Wilson Published by Springer. ufl. google. google. ssplprints.. They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. Hatch .

In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672.stsci. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727).edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour.media.[9][10] If this was true. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] .[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616.mit. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror. and there were many theories as to what caused it.[3] and others.[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build). then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror.edu/~picard/personal/Newton.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one. such as Niccolò Zucchi. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects.

[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. it would still correct chromatic aberration. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. reducing cost and adding to portability. Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). and fittings. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. The surface also tarnished rapidly.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. He also made the tube. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. leading to wider field of view. cassegrains. Because of these difficulties in construction. namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. Like Gregory before him. . Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. mount. overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. • A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained. the primary mirror (2).

like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors. suffer from coma. A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast.[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. For visual observing. Visually. This flare is zero on-axis. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter). where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. low-power imagery. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². For research telescopes. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. .[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast.

com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. The Newton handbook. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. by Alfred Rupert Hall. google. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics . com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought.M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi.By Fred Watson. 2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. King.M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C.Mark T. html) [3] Stargazer . com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. google. google. page 562 (http:/ / books. Inc NetLibrary. VandeWettering. page 67 (http:/ / books. Page 74 (http:/ / books. google.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& . Page 108 (http:/ / books. rice. google. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. org/ basics.

google. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical . "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". htm) [13] amazing-space. pdf) (pdf). telescope-optics. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley. google. Gebelein. stsci.stsci. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. . "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. 77R [16] Sacek.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. Retrieved 2009-09-29. espacenet. . com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036).. McGraw-Hill Inc. htm). google. . [20] Alexius J. 116. David (2004). "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. p.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. telescope-optics. p. 1966. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics. com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke.1. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. . com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. baader-planetarium."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object.1. cloudynights.. two.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. com/ documents/ paracorr. page 14 (http:/ / books. Modern Optical Engineering. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely. google. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide. Rolin J. Retrieved 2009-10-03. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review. net/ reflecting. . Hebra. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life". php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . pdf). so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. Vladimir (2006-07-14). Warren J. Retrieved 29 November 2010. "8. edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks.Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space.and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. . & David Shafer. Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. 9783540401063. Wilson Published by Springer. [12] telescope-optics. harvard. com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith.edu .John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations.

org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality.. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. 30. the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a .[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. political thought and theology. 0. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. Alternatively. he says. Journal of the History of Ideas. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. . for one. Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. Vol. Ronald S. pp. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. Calinger. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. (This experiment involves observation of a force. 3 (Jul. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). Also. are connected by a cord. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects. the tension). with no other clues to assess the situation. CO.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence.Sep. . 1969). if two globes. floating in space. jstor. Mass. No. Yehuda Elkana. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. measuring the amount of tension in the cord. Such determination. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). David Hume. 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. Cambridge.: Harvard University Press. in addition to influencing philosophy.[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. 1974. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. in general. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation. 319-330" (http:/ / links. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument). Retrieved 2008-03-26. As an example where causes can be observed. causes.

the matter is more subtle. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. . Alternatively. — Isaac Newton.. — Ernst Mach. the fixed stars. we might. partly from the apparent motions.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. which are the differences of the true motions. For instance. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument.) Below. but standing on the Earth's surface.. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. absolute space or fixed stars). rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation. partly from the forces. pp. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. they are not rotating. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. Principia. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars. Because of the rotation. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion.Rotating spheres force). and if. then.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. according to Newton. according to the preceding methods. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. even in an immense vacuum. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. . for example. as an example from Newton's time. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. instead. from the tension of the cord. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. Scholium To summarize this proposal. Book 1.[2][6] For me. may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. by means of a cord that connects them.[8] (Of course. centrifugal forces are produced. p. and therefore. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. were revolved about their common center of gravity. no centrifugal forces are produced.

the string is under tension. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. (See reactive centrifugal force. pulling them apart. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. (For example. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. they clearly see the string is under tension. along the direction of the string. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. Because of the rotation. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. |xB| = R. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. This force is directed inward. These two forces are provided by the string. Because the balls are not moving. According to the rotating observer. locating one or the other of the spheres). according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. but circular motion at constant speed. not just these spheres. which would stretch. but being on the opposite end of the string. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. the tying string. m is the mass of the ball. observers say they are at rest. See Figure 2. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. The other ball has the same requirement. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. requires a centripetal force of the same size. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. and should require an inward force to do that. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). To travel in a circular path. According to the article fictitious force. also shown in Figure 2. The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. the Coriolis force is:[11] . the string is placed under tension. they would say no force acts on the balls. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. and acts on everything they observe. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. putting the string under tension.)[9] To account for this tension. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. accounting for their observation. but opposite in direction. However. so the string should be relaxed. In this zero-tension case. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. and is called a centripetal force.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. the Coriolis force. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest.

To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. this force is not the tension in the string. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. That is. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. However. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. |vB| = ωR. while for a more rapidly moving frame. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). ωS < 0. hence. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. In either case. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. When ωI < ωS. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. Therefore. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string. . say ωI (I = inertial). The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. Full notational details are in Fictitious force.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. In the geometry of this example.

The Principia. p. ISBN 0521621135. [2] Robert Disalle (I. Figure 43. Cambridge University Press. . . Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. google. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). google. google. com/ definitions. 324.M1). p. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). p.M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). . 386–387. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. 167. ISBN 0521575729. Moreover. google. Sausalito CA: University Science . ISBN 0486652270. [9] Barry Dainton (2001). Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. tripod. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. Retrieved 2010-05-13. [4] Max Born (1962). p. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. google. . ISBN 0691033234. Time and Space (http:/ / books. p. google. htm).[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N. The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). 175. [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. . com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. Smith. ISBN 0521656966. Bernard Cohen & George E. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). Janet D. . it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. p. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. p.M1). Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. Draza Marković.Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. 161. Bernard Cohen.M1). . New York: Courier Dover Publications. 82. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. google. Courier Dover Publications. [10] Jens M. google. p. [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. [7] Max Born (1962). . ISBN 0521656966. ISBN 0486607690.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0486607690. google. 233. . [8] D. com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. ωS is the greater. p. 43. Freeman (1986). com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. 43. google. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. George Edwin Smith (2002). and I. The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. p. google. google. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Hand. p. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 354067652X. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . editors) (2002). . Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. ISBN 0773523065. 80. editors) (1996). . pp. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. Courier Dover Publications. Finch (1998). inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. Hjorth (2000). ISBN 0486607690.M1). Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). Knudsen & Poul G. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. McGill-Queen's Press. Springer. [5] Max Born (1962). Courier Dover Publications. . Cambridge University Press. being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). 79.M1). Princeton University Press. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example.M1).[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently.

New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. 167. (3. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. [16] R. no. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4.3) in Stommel and Moore. 55. . ISBN 0521621135. pp. 275.). ISBN 0521352541. 119. the theorem has been . Da Capo Press. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. ISBN 189138922X. Dennis W. p. . 348–349. one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. ISBN 0738206105. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. google. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. Cambridge University Press. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force.M1). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. google. Moore (1989).. See Henry Stommel. pp. Phil.Rotating spheres Books.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov.M1). Henning Genz (2001). p. google. Mechanics (http:/ / books. Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. 5 (1975) ed. Am. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. 43. and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004).. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame. In Proposition 44.M1). 99ff. vol. pp. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). showing that it was an inverse-cube force. [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. google.M1) (in Proc. p. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. p. In Proposition 43. google. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result).4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. p. first published in 1687. (3. he derived a formula for the force. . Partridge (1995). and Ralph A.). google. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k. Nothingness (http:/ / books. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. Lynden-Bell (1996). . com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. google. he showed that the added force must be a central force. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. In this example. . . whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion.M1). Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2). B. Mechanics (http:/ / books. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. ISBN 0074603159. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. . . their Eq. fixed in space (the center). Columbia University Press. Soc. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. 279–280.[1] Since 1997. ISBN 0231066368. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. 325–348. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). D.

190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars. According to these laws. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest.[5] Roughly 350 years later. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. exhibiting retrograde motion. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. Apollonius of Perga (ca. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). 262 BC – ca.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. However. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. this rotation is known as apsidal precession. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. for planets orbiting the Sun. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. By analogy.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. and so on. to first approximation. the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. In particular. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687).Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. However. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). To explain the epicycles. Arguing from his laws of motion.

the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. The radial and angular motions. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. in particular. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex. However. to first approximation. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k. he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. To find this approximation. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. r(t) and θ1(t).[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces.[12] and Delaunay.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force.[11] Brown. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r).[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. According to this theorem. However. afterwards. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. that is.[13] However. However.

Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). where k is any constant.Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. change with time t as the particle moves. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. For example. Formally. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). such as r(t) and θ1(t). the added inverse-cube force is attractive. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. Both of these coordinates. the path of the second particle is given by . Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. In other words. r(t) and θ1(t). if k2 is less than one. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. θ1). F2 − F1 is a negative number. then. where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position. since θ2 = k θ1. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. rather. For this purpose. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. For example. By contrast. let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). A GIF version of this animation is found here. thus. rather. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. the angle of the second particle. If k2 is greater than one. F2−F1 is a positive number.

Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. i. According to the conservation of angular momentum. where k is a constant. F1(r) = 0. Hence. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. the orbit does not change as it precesses. ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. respectively. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added. to one. . then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force.. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6).e. However. in that case.e.e. ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant.. this is true only for circular orbits. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3). the second orbit resembles the first.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. shown in red). However. in other words. but not equal. i. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter. when the distance reaches a minimum. at a constant angular speed. Hence. i. the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. but revolves gradually about the center of force. If k is greater than one. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. if k is less than one.. when the orbit is a circle. both of which are constant. In this case. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω.Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter.

0 (cyan) and 6. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7). On the other hand. when k is less than one. for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. 1. 3. Thus. Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. 3. the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). the inverse-cube force is repulsive.0 (blue). as illustrated in Figure 7.0 (green). L12/m. which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m.0 (blue). corresponding to an attractive force (green. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m). When k is less than one. and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ.0 (cyan) and 6. The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity. the range of allowed angles increases. Thus. whereas when k is greater than one. Thus. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit.5 (green). the solution corresponds to an epispiral. 1.0 (black). Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. the force is attractive. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. when k is greater than one. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive). Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k.

Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. and other effects. such as . such as Hooke's law. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. green orbit in Figure 10). the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. Over time. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. F = C/r2. oblateness in the attracting body. the line connecting the two apses. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. Conversely. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. However.e..) In such cases. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. where m and n are integers.e. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. green orbit in Figure 9). For illustration. 2 (magenta) and 3 (green). in general. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. general relativistic effects. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). An govern the motions of planets. i.. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. no matter what its initial position or velocity. A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. provided that k equals a rational number.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually. For example. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. i. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. For example. i. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). However.e. In other words. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. F = Cr. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. and inverse-square forces. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. this property is not true for other types of forces. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia. This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n..

For the inverse-square force. this implies that. the central force is a power law. As noted above. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. in the same time. the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°.. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. one of the first appearances of such a series. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. In the first two. Wilson and Harper. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other.[16] According to their argument. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor .Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%). This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3).[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses).e. there is no angular scaling (k = 1).C(r) is proportional to rn. in general. Therefore. whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. As a final illustration. F(r) = rn−3 and.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. hence. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). i. where n equals 1. using the general law θ2 = k θ1. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n.[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. the apsidal angle α is 180°. Thus. α equals 180°. If an elliptical orbit is stationary.

[28] Ironically.[25] First. 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately. Hipparchus and Ptolemy. the so-called Saros cycle.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time. i. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon. In 1673. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes.e. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale. The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets. mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit. and is noticeably more complex than that. of the planets. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes.[24] for comparison.0165)[26] In 1894.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force. 18.6 years.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon. However. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes).. again on the monthly time-scale.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession.[23] in Newton's time. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force .85 years. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier.

r1 = r2. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same. consistent with the formula given above. the original force is not scaled. In this case. they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. roughly half of the observed 3. and estimates of A and B. However. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system. The second term. so Newton reasoned. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1). .76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. θ2 = k θ1. Also. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. For comparison. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. In contrast to Newton. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. For every revolution. Rather. the long axis would rotate 1. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. the inverse-cube force is added.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. so that r1 = r2.5°. however. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. and its argument is unchanged.525°). but the inverse-square term is not.[4] As Newton did. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation.

The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1. which equals (k−1) θ1. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. by Proposition 2. which equals θ2 = k θ1. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). Expressed another way. the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. In an infinitesimal time dt. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. All three planets (red. and also its angle θ1(t). the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. therefore. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. by Newton's Proposition 2.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. Proposition 43. specifically Propositions 43–45.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. Therefore. At the apapsis and periapsis. Proposition 44 . derived earlier in the Principia. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times.

In Proposition 44 of his Principia. specifically by the formula given above. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. the other in the same orbit revolving. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r).[33] By assumption. one in a fixed. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force.[36] In this Proposition. r(t). he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth.Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. to offset this. in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. by which two bodies may be made to move equally. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r.

Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. p. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. Soc.13018.1086/102055. Math. [5] Sugon QM. 147. [13] Delaunay C (1862). [27] Hall A (1894). pp. section IX of Book I. .2307/2369997. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". . MA: Addison–Wesley. [18] Chandrasekhar. p. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. [33] Chandrasekhar. 406. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. p. "Unknown title". "Unknown title". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. [3] Lynden-Bell D. pp. p. Monthly Notices Roy. AC (1745). ISBN 978-0520065895. CA: University of California Press. "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". [2] Lynden-Bell. Bibcode 1894AJ. 2708v1). Book I. 9: 31. Mémoires Acad. [32] Chandrasekhar.14.. London: G Godbit for J Martyn.1098/rsnr. 183–192. p. p.. [10] Clairaut. "Unknown title". "Unknown title". [6] Whittaker. [36] Chandrasekhar. Oxford. [26] Chandrasekhar. doi:10. [7] Sundman KF (1912).. "Unknown title". JSTOR 2369997. The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. 98–106. "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". doi:10. problem 7). [22] Wilson C (1987). ISBN 978-1888009088. Am. pp. p. Sc. [21] Horrocks J (1673). [37] Whittaker. Berkeley. pp. p. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". [14] Newton.2008. [24] Smith. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure". Simon Newcomb.2307/2369812. Bibcode 1987JHA. "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". [17] Cohen IB (1990). "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur.Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar...0016.49H. Proposition 2. org/ abs/ 0807. Mechanics (3rd ed. [4] Mahomed FM. [34] Chandrasekhar. Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. bnf. 67–70. [12] Brown EW (1891). 183. Principia. Math.. 135–147. 339–385. [9] Cohen. [29] Brown EW (1903). 52: 71. 254. doi:10. Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. pp. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. Propositions 43–45..1007/BF02422379. p. "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". Principia. Delaunay C (1867). Imp. 252. p. 193–194.386. doi:10. Green Lion Press. doi:10. fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer).x. pp. [19] Cook A (2000). Mémoires Acad. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. 83. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps".: 237. J. [16] Valluri SR. Reading. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv.1111/j. Bragais S. 267 (Chapter 6. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. [25] Newton.1365-2966.: 451. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. Am.245L. editor. [15] Newton. "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. D. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). Imp.1023/A:1008317327402. Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. [30] Roseveare N (1982). Vawda F (2000). doi:10. Proposition 45. Principia. [11] Hill GW (1895)... 184. 198.77W. 192. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. Lynden-Bell RM (1997). In Norman Thrower. esp. JSTOR 2369812. [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911).. 91–108. Section IX.18. Wilson C. [35] Chandrasekhar. doi:10. Astron. Sc. pp. Book III.1997. "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia".. American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362.. Harper W (1997). "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". pp. "Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". [20] Smith. [31] Symon KR (1971).). ISBN 0-201-07392-7. 141–147. "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". 187. Jin S (2008). Brown EW (1891).

Principia Vol. Michael (1994). Berkeley. Bristol: Adam Hilger. ISBN 978-0520088160. "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". • Spivak. CA: University of California Press. • Routh EJ (1960). The Motion of the Moon. • Pars LA (1965). CA: University of California Press. CA: University of California Press. 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). "The first-order orbital equation".1119/1. 147–148. MM (2007).com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). • Smith GE (1999). Publish or Perish. ISBN 978-0520009288. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". pp. Merchant Books).com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84). Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). New York: Dover Publications. 84–85. pp. • Whittaker ET (1937). • Cook A (1988). • Rouse Ball WW (1893). Cambridge University Press.). pp. ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). 56. ISBN 0-85274-348-3. Berkeley. ISBN 978-0520088160. • D’Eliseo. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3.75. 257–264. pp. LCCN 64-24556. pp. 246–264. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). Berkeley. pp. 252–257. Berkeley. Bibcode 2007AmJPh. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. ISBN 9780521544030. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.scholarpedia.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . ISBN 978-0520088160. ISBN 978-0520088160. Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. • Chandrasekhar S (1995).). John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9.google. Niccolò (1999). 83. Berkeley. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". 147–148. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355.352D. Oxford University Press. pp.). Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853.google. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. p. Calculus (3rd ed. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713).Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). Macmillan and Co. assisted by Julia Budenz ed. doi:10. (reprint. translated by I. translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed.. "Planetary Motion".. pp. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999).). "A Guide to Newton's Principia".). ISBN 0914098896. with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed. • Newton I (1966).2432126. 183–200. CA: University of California Press. CA: University of California Press. • Guicciardini. pp. External links • Three-body problem (http://www. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). New York: Dover Publications. • Smith GE (1999). 246–252. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. 534–545. 230–233 (sections §356–359). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.

it was edited and published by William Whiston. Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. without proof. Written in Latin. arithmetic. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. and the solution of equations. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. None of these editions credits Newton as author. the relationship between geometry and algebra. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. Title page of the Arithmetica. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. Babson Collection. centre. cfm [2] http:/ / www. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. published in 1865). including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. when Whiston's edition was published. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. pdf . and so refused to have his name appear. He also offered. babson. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. In fact.

but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws".) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. both copies are without title. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. (in the absence of external force. Before reaching this core subject-matter. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. It contains 11 propositions. then for the remaining (2) propositions. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. some with corollaries. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion. Law 1 in the Principia.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. (Before Newton's work. and its (Latin) text is available online.[4] as well as in Latin. After further encouragement from Halley. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. which are two contemporary copies and a draft. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. the distance is proportional to the square of the time. these had not been generally regarded as laws.) This . resistance is assumed nil. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. Law 3 in the Principia. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar). Only the draft has the title now used.[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia.) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule.

Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. Corollary 2 shows that. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. putting this in another way. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. and the corollaries here reappear also.) . the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period.) This theorem appears again. it would then depart along the tangent. as Proposition 1. while their number increases without limit. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle.) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. and inversely proportional to the radius.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. Theorem 4 in the Principia. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. Theorem 1. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. drawn from the body to the attracting center. problems. labeled as theorems. it follows that a radius vector.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. using another geometrical limit argument. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. and shows that for any given time-segment. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. of the 'Principia'. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2). and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. with expanded explanation. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius.

') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. Newton points out here. Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance. . in the Principia.e. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). that is. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. that if the speed is high enough. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position. (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. Problem 6. square] of the distance . Problem 4 then explores. Problem 5 in the Principia. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'.) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. therefore. Lastly. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. where the center of attraction is at its center.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse. speed and direction of the orbiting body. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. . (This material becomes Proposition 10.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies.. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP².. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum.

Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'. ".. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. and a short correspondence developed. as in the first edition of the Principia. It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. and both of them produced from very old memories. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not. and other items. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it.[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. and the associated uniqueness statements. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. Later. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. in 1686. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys.)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. using a falling body. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. and as if to whet Newton's interest.[15] . Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. i. or their views about the researches of others. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime. and then gave a whole list.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. that in any given setup.. According to one of these reminiscences. Halley asked Newton. In 'De Motu'.e."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. are self-evident and obvious or not. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse". as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. or that they were not stated by Newton.

Vol 2 (1676-1687). Journal for the History of Astronomy. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp.101. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). Page 403. is available here (http:/ / books. in Early Science and Medicine.297-314. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument.196. in Early Science and Medicine. pp. Historia Math. vol.195-6. (Cambridge University Press.6. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. but not Hooke. Math. 116-138. Vol 2 (1676-1687).89-170. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin).). "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". A Historian's Response". (Cambridge University Press.193-200. 6 (1970). Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. google. vol. but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize. and the first English translation. [15] H W Turnbull (ed. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. Westfall's Never at Rest. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. at p. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance. one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. both in Newton's lifetime and later. see e. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". google. org/ etext/ 28233).[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. 10 (2005). but the point was disagreed by R. pp. pp.56-83. .120.[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged.6 (1684-1691). to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors". Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 19(1) (1992). A Historian's Response". Chapter 10. rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. 511-517. pp. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. and the original copy had no title: online. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics".g. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results".293. google. 10 (2005). footnote 73. but note that the title was added by Rigaud. and Borelli. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. 1960). Correspondence of Isaac Newton.431-448. 529-534. especially at p. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli. (Cambridge University Press. 518-528. and the 1686 correspondence at pp. Papers vol.193-200. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. 6 (1684-1691). [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91. so-called. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke.57. 1974). vol. [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition. who heard of this from Halley. also D T Whiteside. p. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. at pp. f. 1960). and Bruce Pourciau.).). [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". as far as Book 1. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. and printed by I Bernard Cohen.297. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. at pages 56 (http:/ / books.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". Weinstock. See also D T Whiteside (1970). Ofer Gal. [13] H W Turnbull (ed. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). gutenberg. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. who called it a 'petitio principii'.3968.). [11] Quoted in Richard S. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. including Bullialdus. at p.60-70. 10 (2005). at p.2 already cited. [14] 'Correspondence' vol. in Early Science and Medicine. pp. Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). of 1729. 1971. google. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses.1 (1970). in "Newton's Orbit Problem. Alexis Clairaut. about the Principia. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". M Nauenberg. 38 (2007).431-448. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson.

Westfall. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. Whiteside. S. ed.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. Rouse Ball. by R. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] . pp. by D.W. Cambridge University Press. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. at page 69. Cambridge University Press. 6. 30–91. Vol. T. 1893).

however. Of the Empire of Egypt. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. The majority of the treatise. Chap. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. I. followed by others. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. beginning with Sesostris. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. VI. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. Chap. II. Newton's results. III. . Of the Assyrian Empire. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. V. Of the Empire of the Persians. IV. followed by a short advertisement. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. diverge widely from presently accepted dates. therefore. and that his Temple the first ever built. Chap. with all others being copies. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. King of Egypt. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. but since republished in mass paperback format. Chap. Chap.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87.

the Father.[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". Newton considered the sense and context of the verse."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. Syria. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. 27 years after his death. . Muscovy.[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. or retain it as only a marginal reading. as Luther. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h. Syriac. Egypt. Finally. First published in 1754. sussex.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat. Ethiopia. ac. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. the Word. and what steps it has been changed. newtonproject. and Slavonic versions. He noted that "the Æthiopic. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. newtonproject. Erasmus. and some others. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. Armenian. Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton. Arabic. as far as I can hitherto determine by records". Armenia. sussex. org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. and some others. ac. Grotius." in support of the Trinity doctrine. and later into the text itself. gutenberg. would not dissemble their knowledge". the Father. htm#chron http:/ / www. Bullinger.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. and the argument full and strong. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. the Word.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds". Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. first as a marginal note. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. Mesopotamia.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. still in use in the several Eastern nations. are strangers to this reading".

Cp. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. but some place it in a footnote. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. Aramaic version (http:/ / www. p. Newton argued that. [3] An Historical Account. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh.& version=31. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. likely due to the political climate. [2] http:/ / www. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. htm) . justified in the Spirit.& version=31. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. believed on in the world. aramaicpeshitta.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. by a small alteration in the Greek text. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God.& version=31.). preached unto the Gentiles. p. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. biblegateway.& version=31. p. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. 2 [5] An Historical Account. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. p. knew nothing of these two texts. was hanged at Edinburgh. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead. biblegateway. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. further legal ramifications on the second occasion. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. biblegateway. 1 [4] An Historical Account. p. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. Cp. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. p. Scotland. punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. References [1] http:/ / www. pp. seen of angels. aramaicpeshitta. Aramaic version (http:/ / www.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. I understand not. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8.). received up into glory.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He".

and published it in 1684. but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions. External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt . archive. but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz. fifty years before Newton. The book was completed in 1671.sussex.co.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. and published in 1736. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www.google. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years).newtonproject.ac. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously.

covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. reflection. 1704. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. That is. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. It is about optics and the refraction of light. such as air. refractions. into another. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. The first. such as water or glass. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics.[2] . Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. first reported in 1672[1] . and is considered one of the great works of science in history. edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. as beam expanders. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. on dispersion. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. Rather. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. Multiple-prism arrays. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light.

Second. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. That is." In the first edition. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). but that it may go on for many pages. over the next two hundred years." Other scientists followed Newton's lead. but the later ones became short essays. it is written in English rather than Latin." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. The first set of Queries were brief. In the fourth edition of 1730. These Queries. and then in the revised English edition. First of all. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. In this sense. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. by the use of fluxions." Rather.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia." the proper way to do science. Clearly. They are almost all posed in the negative. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. unlike the Principia. especially the later ones. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. the possible cause of gravity. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. published in 1717/18. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. therefore. these were sixteen such Queries. electrical phenomena. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query. or the tools of mathematics. that number was increased in the Latin edition. the nature of chemical action. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . published in 1706. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer. Rather." In many ways. as rhetorical questions. filling many pages. there were 31 Queries. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them.

. Isaac. Sound and Heat (http://cudl. refractions. [2] F. J. 153 References [1] Newton. lib.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. First edition (http://gallica.lib. Papers on Hydrostatics. and James Black. A.html) • Gallica. 43. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). Optics. Opticks or. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier.com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. Calif. cam.org/Control/nwtopt/index.rarebookroom.google. Fourth edition (http://books. Retrieved 10 January 2012.cam. Commun.ac. Piper. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. • Newton.: Octavo. Palo Alto. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl. Optics.). 303–307 (1982). Isaac (1998).Opticks the Principia. Duarte and J. a treatise of the reflexions. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin.bnf. First edition (http://www. "Hydrostatics. Opt. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. ac.

"[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. at least in certain respects.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. in 1713 and 1726. by the end of a century after publication in 1687. spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science". first published 5 July 1687. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus.. accurately proposed and demonstrated [."[7] In formulating his physical theories. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally.. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion.] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus.. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton . and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [.[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3]... Newton also published two further editions.[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium).] . Newton used his expression that became famous.. also Newton's law of universal gravitation. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton wrote[10] [. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. often referred to as simply the Principia. and of the forces required to produce any motions.] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever... Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9]).

even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. near-parabolic orbits.' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis. De motu corporum Book 1. identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3).. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. in revised and extended form. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios". a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. thus offering criteria to decide. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters.. It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'. It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). . which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. by observations. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). that caused this method to become synonymous with physics. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics.

starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34]. corollary [42]). This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). while some contend that the Earth. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. and that this centre "either is at rest. attempts to derive the speed of sound. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. and accounts for the tides [37]. and motion in arbitrary force laws.[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. others. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. modified in a somewhat modern way. and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -.Newton). Book 3. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. Corollary 2 [44]). In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth.[41] For Newton. attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. but only a little. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". especially the variation.[45] . which "is acknowledg'd by all. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40]. planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies. Proposition 11. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. De mundi systemate Book 3. and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. especially its consequences for astronomy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. he retracted this sentence in the published version. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. we use relative ones. mathematical and common. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. therefore. we ought to step back from our senses. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. However. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects. true and apparent. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. [. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". Curiously. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. assign the same causes. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. till such time as other phenomena occur. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law.. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs.. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. However. In his notes. for example. for today's readers. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever. as far as possible. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. . or liable to exceptions. From a Cartesian point of view. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. this was a faulty theory. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. and consider things themselves. Instead. and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them. Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. but in philosophical discussions. and was assured about their correctness. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. by which they may either be made more accurate.] instead of absolute places and motions. and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. In the four rules. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum).

From the system of the world. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy".[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. With these rules. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. as they did. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle.[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters. concerning the qualities of bodies. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3). An extensive explanation is given of the third rule.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. of Descartes. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. 1726). which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". . In the third (1726) edition of the Principia. 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science.) Newton's gravitational attraction. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments. he inferred the existence of a Lord God. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. fires in the home and in the Sun. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. scientists use it today. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. Newton also gave theological argument. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. From this textual evolution. but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements. "I frame no hypotheses". Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'.

and generalized the result to conic sections.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. and Halley.[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally.. Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London. although the (lost) original may have been without title. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. Wren was unconvinced. The contents of 'De motu. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. Halley. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject.[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. that he immediately went to visit Newton again... to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. Newton's tract 'De motu. and did very little else for well over a year and a half.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work. Humphrey Newton.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. . It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium. or his sleep. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy).[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it.. but also all the laws of planetary motion.'. which he sent to Halley in late 1684. and to his project during this time. or the state of his clothes. and he normally kept dated notes of them. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down. resolved to ask Newton. how he sometimes forgot his food. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. Hooke and Wren.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results. but that he could not find the papers.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley. in November 1684. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). assuming an inverse square law of force.

the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown.' to Flamsteed. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. with handwritten corrections for the second edition. The complete work. but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". but he largely started afresh in a new. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'. because in the meantime. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. the moon. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. Liber secundus' of 1685. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. and its completion has been London. Liber primus'. not authorised by Newton's heirs). Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. tighter. that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. After Newton's death in 1727. and less accessible mathematical style. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. (Newton had also communicated 'De motu. the tides. published by Halley at his own financial risk. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. also in 1728. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]. corporum. that it might be read by many". and the other two books somewhat later.[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime.. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum.. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today. in more than one manuscript. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. it survived complete. the solar system. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. Liber secundus' still survives. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. making it look .[59] appeared in July 1687. amended to update cross-references. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum.

and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. showing considerable diplomatic skills. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people. a second edition (1731). The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. causing some delay. velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. In addition.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. To these two laws he added a third a decade later. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response.[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. secondary sources based on them. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. who hated disputes. licensing the book for publication. among them himself. including two to Leibniz. . Samuel Pepys. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. Rather. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. At this time. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. but Halley. Cambridge. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. or. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. as President. rather than before. in some cases. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. 1686. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740).

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

ac. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). vol. p. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. [7] G E Smith. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele.[104] The second full English translation. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. "Du systeme du monde. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. [11] http:/ / books. [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface). cam. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". 1972. both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. [3] Newton.120. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. google. in the 1729 English version). The background to Newton's "Principia". Isaac. edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). often incorporating revisions.392. google. by Andrew Motte.[105] William H. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. 1965. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3). 1729 translation. pp. 116-138. Vol. but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. Herivel. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . [14] http:/ / books. tripod. google. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. E N Zalta (ed. at page 19 of vol. at p.2. and well written". google. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. MA. into modern English. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. 227-245. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich). See also D T Whiteside (1970). and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. Oxford University Press.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www.329.[2] was described by Newton scholar I. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. 1999). archive. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. cap. htm). that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul').329 (according to a note on p. especially at p. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. University of Toronto. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). 55.[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. 2 (May. [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. W. The first. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). Journal for the History of Astronomy. No. stanford. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato.). [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut." Author(s): Judith P. from 1729.1 (1970).[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. 2001). published in 1996. google. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP. google. about the 'Principia'. lib. assembled and ed. and see also J.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. . "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I.

[56] Cook. now often known as Huygens' formula. google. 45 (1991) 11-61. 1998. at p. google. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. [17] http:/ / books.147 and 152. Steffen. google. 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'.. [42] http:/ / books. p. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. [58] Westfall. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter.47-142. Book 3 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. google. google. . com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. 2A'. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. speed and radial force.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. in H. Retrieved 2008-05-31. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). 1980. be/ steffen/ GS. Matter and Mind. google. [52] 'Cook. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. google. by D. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. google. Cook. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. google. google. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. at pp. 406. . [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. [54] Cook. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. 153-156.207-221. google. 151. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. 191-2. 1971). google. [49] Snobelen. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. The Cartesian vortex theory. eds. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books. R Taton & C Wilson. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. n° 2. google.404. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. Oxford University Press 1998. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. Stephen. vol. google. 431-448.15. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy".2. google. org/ scholium. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. [59] Westfall. google. [55] 'Westfall." (http:/ / logica. ugent. Turnbull (ed. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. (Cambridge. google.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. Volume. 33. 1980': R S Westfall. google. Books 2 & 3. google. [47] Edelglass et al. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . Cambridge University Press 1980. at pp. [57] Westfall. google. at p. google.2. [61] http:/ / books. 147. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. n. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. at page 233 (http:/ / books. 54.406. Whiteside. Books 2 & 3.2. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books. Vol. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books.). pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy. google. 223-274. [53] As dated e. [29] http:/ / books. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books.) 167 .g. T. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. 1998. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. 1980. htm). pdf). "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). pp.2. [50] Ducheyne. google. Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. at pp. pp. 1998': A. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. Edmond Halley. W. cited above. also pp. Retrieved 2008-11-19. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". at p. vol. 1980. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). google. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. at p.

com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . roe. ac. 1960). vol. 'Newton Handbook' (1986). and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. google.. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. Never at Rest.431-448. at page 69. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. Part A. umich. Ofer Gal. though elongated. lib. ch. CUP 1989. Newton". [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. cam. Bruce Brackenridge. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics.). [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. with accompanying figure). at page 66 (http:/ / books. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". see Newton to Hooke. at pages 391-2. wm. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". museumoflondon. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. (http:/ / www. html [88] http:/ / www. (University of California Press. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. at p. p. [83] http:/ / www.W. html [89] http:/ / www. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W.2 cited above. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp.. com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). uu.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". google. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. [65] http:/ / books. at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. google. 28 November 1679. lib. Tycho Brahe to Newton". org. 45 (1991). [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". Correspondence of Isaac Newton. jstor. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. or even a 'blunder'. at page 259).2 already cited.. 453. cam. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. closed curve and spiral. and extract of his letter. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". would terminate in the center C". and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. mpg. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson. Newton" (1759).297. ac. Vol 2 cited above. document #236 at page 301. (Cambridge UP 1989). document #286. google. 'Never at Rest'. ac. html [86] http:/ / lion. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. [80] R S Westfall. asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. at page 433.2 cited above. fondationbodmer. 1980. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium . com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. (Cambridge University Press. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". Vol 2 (1676-1687). especially at 13-20. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. see 'Correspondence'. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www.297-314. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. google.e. google.2. Journal for the History of Astronomy. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www. [73] H W Turnbull (ed. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). Rouse Ball. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". [74] 'Correspondence' vol. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. mpiwg-berlin. see D Gjertsen. Bernard Cohen. a resisting medium). London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969.. at pages 304-306. at Introduction (section IX). at document #239. has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . google. [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage.. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. i (1970). edu 168 . 1893). de Hook diminue la gloire de M.. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. stanford. 1664-1684". 'Correspondence' vol. pages 5-19. se/ press/ pm. pages 11-61. cited above. 1995). Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. document #237. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'.

vol. [106] Dana Densmore and William H.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0. [101] Westfall. Notes. G. 2008). (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. Westfall. Elsevier: 59-87. [100] Westfall. vol. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. University of California Press. at p. 1965). com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty. R.8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. to whom he owes more than that.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library. Press. ed. 1999. N. • Richard S. 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. vol. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University press 1967.7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. vol. 1965). preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia. 1971).751–760.. Cambridge University press 1975. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. 29-68.750. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. wpi. • Andrew Janiak. • François De Gandt." [98] Westfall. 1954). [99] Westfall.2. pp. Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. . a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. University of California Press. pp. Cambridge University press 1967. pp. • Brian Ellis. "A Guide to Newton's Principia"..699. NY: Doubleday and Company. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you.42. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. • E.. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton.5.518-20. [95] Richard S.519.4. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue. Force in Newton’s physics. 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. at pp. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation. Cambridge University Press 1967. ed. Curtis Wilson (Princeton. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). Bernard Cohen (1999). • Guicciardini. NJ: Princeton University Press. Cambridge 1971. Introduction to the Principia. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. 3rd edition. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. c1995). p. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. Bernard Cohen. 2005. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. 1999. xv-xvi. cgi?v1=8& ti=1. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. 1995). at pp. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press." in Grattan-Guinness. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. Colodny. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia. Cambridge U. • I. Donahue. • S. 1965). Dawsons of Pall Mall). n. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. Westfall.. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. Clarendon Press. p. [94] I Bernard Cohen. "Philosophia Naturalis. at p. and obligations to you.712–716. 1971). The background to Newton’s Principia. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics.A.4. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. Chandrasekhar. google. • John Herivel. I.4.. Burtt.

google. regarding online editions .2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version.tripod.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist. in Latin) (http://books..archive.archive.1 with Book 1 (http://books. first edition (1687.google. • Google books.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol. 1729. (Book 3 starts at p.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200). vol.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).org (http://www. • Principia (in Latin.google.ac. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3.org #2 (http://www. • Project Gutenberg (http://www.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University.cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687. ed. W.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2).google.1).200 (http://books.org (http://www.ntnu. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1).org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above). first edition (1687.archive. largely the Motte translation of 1729.lib. annotated) (http://books.com/toc.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654.cam.org/ebooks/28233) • Archive.babson. 1713. • Wikisource • Archive.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition. Chittenden.htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.gutenberg.edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl.net/~bjn/principia/). vol. 1726). in Latin) (http://www.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage).archive. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy.google. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur.html). interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections. Partial • Google books.org #1 (http://www. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource.

1687 and began changing the world." and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. 1686. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. he says. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables. 1686. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the . though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. that its truth is past dispute. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. on April 28. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. At the next meeting of the Society." At the next meeting of the Society. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. on May 19." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. to make a report thereof to the council. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. which he had enlarged and completed. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. For the influences for the second edition. 1686. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. if certain.

" acknowledging at the same time that. Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. and the absence of the vice-president's. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. so that you might act accordingly. that Sir Chr. At the next meeting of the council. on June 2. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. On June 20. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society. the heads of it in short. which 172 . cuts and so forth. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. and I do not know that I have seen them since. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. for 'tis long since they were writ. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. and to desire his opinion as to the print. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. I am almost confident by circumstances. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. "is so. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit." Halley adds. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". Indeed. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. Halley in his letter of May 22. viz. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society. so likewise what you have to do in this matter." "How much of this. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it." but. I shall content myself to give you. volume. 1686.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. and printing it at his own charge. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton. but it being a frivolous business. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. though Newton had the notion from him." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. you know best. so far as I could remember. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. which he engaged to do. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix.

The third wants the theory of comets. a copy being presented to me. is expressed. thought no further of philosophical matters than. so that a while after. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. in print. told him I had laid philosophy aside. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. expected to hear no further from him. sent him. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. "The proof you sent me I like very well. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. and so upon mistaken grounds. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. his letters put me upon it. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. and only guessed it to be so accurately. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. and that's above fifteen years ago). can know no more. accused me of that ignorance. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. in stating this business. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. did not answer his third. Some new propositions I have since thought on. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. and guessed it to be elliptical. I designed the whole to consist of three books. though not accurately enough. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. was upon other things. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. in print. in compliment to sweeten my answer. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. so Mr Hooke. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. and drawing the cuts fairly. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. I could not but have found it now. and understood it. and only wants transcribing. But. when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. the second was finished last summer being short. And so. which I can as well let alone. namely. And so. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. Oscill. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. 173 . conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. sun and planets. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. as to the other from Kepler.. and earth from the sun. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. that without my demonstrations.

The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. from your affectionate friend. which he puts so much value on. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. which. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. Sir. I found it so formerly. The work. If it please you to have it so." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. E. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. Now you approve of the character and paper. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. It will help the sale of the book. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. In the first page. 1686. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print. but she gives me warning. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. which is all at present." On June 30. "If you please you may change the word to sections. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. I will push on the edition vigorously. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. I must now again beg you. and adding. I am. "Is. as have to do. And if in truth he knew it before you. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. you ought to be considered as the inventor. on April 6. The third I now design to suppress. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. What application he has made in private." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. was not sent to the printers until March 1687. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book. On July 14. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. though it be not material. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". found out last winter. It will be more convenient. and humble servant. ought to compose it. The second book. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. which made me afterwards return to the first book. and then.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. in the honour you do them. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. as might have been expected. as to deprive us of your third book. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. and therefore I had altered it to this. your most affectionate humble servant. not to let your resentments run so high. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. Sir. July 5. 1687. HALLEY. upon second thoughts. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. nor on the books of the Society. I retain the former title. De Motu Corporum libri duo. "But. and now I am no sooner come near her again. as I guess by what you write. I will try how well it can be done. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. which are much the greater number. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. 1686. I know not. Hooke and Halley. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. 174 . The two first books. NEWTON. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. with her." On June 20. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. The third book was presented to the Society. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. and not much more charge. without the third.

" . I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. appeared before the court. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. or at 5 sh. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. and was dismissed. as well as of profound and public speculation. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. On May 7 it was discussed. On April 21 the deputation. with their case carefully prepared. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. a very great part of which is extant. While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. I intend the price of them. July 5. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. but the university showed no sign of compliance. or else at some short time. which I entreat you to accept. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. nor suggested a compromise. bound in calves' leather. but rather." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis. the chancellor. Mr Flamsteed. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. to be [OCR error] shillings here. announcing the completion of the Principia. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. and lettered. for ready. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. and ordered them out of court. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. that starts from town tomorrow. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. Mr Paget. before starting for London. Mr Boyle. On April 27 they gave their plea. dated London. so much to your own and the nation's credit. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. The deputies. a Benedictine monk. who was vice-chancellor. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. to take my money as they are sold. The following letter from Halley. 1687. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. and hope it will please you. the master of Magdalene College. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end.

which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. "I have not seen him. and keeping him shut up. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. by sleeping too often by my fire. at which he was much concerned. but what I said of your book I remember not. and since. but upon his pressing consented. dated September 26." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. as in a letter to his friend Millington. which this summer has been epidemical. and I hope never will. Pepys must have heard such rumours. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. Let me. 1693. as to be put into great disorder by it. before I considered what I did. winter. He is now very well. and before I had time to ask him any question. upon his own accord. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. and dated the 15th of October 1693. therefore. but that "he was out of town. that it had actually done so. put me farther out of order. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. and beg your pardon. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. addressed to Samuel Pepys. which lasted eighteen months. so that when I wrote to you. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. which doubtless must have been very alarming. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. nor by icing James's favour. beg you. nor have my former consistency of mind. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. Christiaan Huygens. I remember I wrote to you. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. I will give you an account of it if I can. 1693. or both. in a letter dated June 8. from the concern I have for him. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. namely. and a distemper." On September 20. if I may but have them quietly. where. I was averse. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. added. wrote to Leibniz. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you. 1694. to let me know the very truth of the matter. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter." To which Leibniz." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. In a letter dated the September 13. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. replied. or. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. and for five days together not a wink." he says. 1693. according to a report which was believed at the time. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. whose mind was never at rest. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. I got an ill habit of sleeping. Sir. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. Newton wrote: "The last." . or mind. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way.

. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum.1998. from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. ed. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). Westfall. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. Forbes et al. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members. E. published as #537 in Vol. 1689. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member. the vice-chancellor of the university. . refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. now archaic. as it were. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. 1997. Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed".) [3] Richard S. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. and gives original spellings. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. On April 30. see Isaac Newton's later life. the day of the coronation of William and Mary. Newton retained his seat only about a year.G.. On February 12. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. Never at Rest.

the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. colour. rarity. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. 1661. Some headings were followed by vast entries. Additional information This octavo notebook. place. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". 1664. and others. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. It is also definitely before December 9. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". but my best friend is truth). Following this. But following this he drew a line across the page. vision. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. Kenelm Digby. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. and other sensations. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. The initial notes. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. at the other. fluidity. whereby every question is put to experimental test. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. At the other end of the book. He entered notes from both ends. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. They began with the nature of matter. Galileo's Dialogue. in Greek. Aristotle is my friend. Thomas Hobbes. for example. These were followed by questions on violent motion. "Of ye Creation". They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. light. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. currently in the Cambridge University Library. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. hardness etc. Robert Boyle. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. which had . Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues.

on the contrary. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. Elsewhere. others were blank. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium.. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section.. including his idea that it is a wave. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere. . Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. Gassendi. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. such as when a heavy body falls. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo. would look coloured. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science. When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light.

Lohne. Cambridge University Press. References • "Portsmouth Papers". He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. by Richard S. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. Westfall. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. • J. A. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] . additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library.

looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. In mathematics. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. mathematician.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. plays. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. Newton became a scientific icon. In this work.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science." Newton was the runner-up. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. in 1795. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. published in 1687. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. Newton or Albert Einstein. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. Many books. Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. natural philosopher. alone. Cambridge . laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics.[1] In 1999. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. located in the chapel of Trinity College. Because of the resounding impact of his work.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton was deemed the more influential. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton.

It was there to be discovered.. But the catflap . Routledge. there is a very different matter. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent.) Sir Isaac Newton. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. 27–43. ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics. Invention. Science in Popular Culture [9]. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3. "(.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies.. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug.. pp. there was that as well. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10]. "They even keep it on at weekends. you see." "Yes. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. of course. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). you see. • A. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter... • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. pure creative invention. Oxford University Press. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr. including the famous apple. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason.. Though that." "Gravity. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). Someone was bound to notice sooner or later.. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. I suppose." . "yes. a . Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002). It is a door within a door. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). perspicuity and invention. "there was also the small matter of gravity. It is a door within a door. ah. Greenwood Press. was merely a discovery." . renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points." said Richard. "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt. set during the Great Recoinage.

Newton in popular culture

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Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

184

References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

186

Christopher B. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. 243. Science is the Tree of Death. page 328. [4] Burwick. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted. apparently at the bottom of the sea. Foster (1988). The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. . A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. pp. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. tate. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). who regularly experienced spiritual visions. Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. Walter de Gruyter.[5] References [1] Townsend. Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. S. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar.[3]. 1997. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. Hanover. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. retrieved 10 September 2009. org. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805.

2003. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press. London: Tate Publishing. Joyce (ed. Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. William Blake: The Painter at Work. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson.).Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault.

and rode at each other through the wheat. The house and park are not generally open to the public. no doubt. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire. England. which stunk and had worms swimming in it. when Young was expelled from the deanery. who married her daughter in 1665. and Coram drew their daggers. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park. or hay-making. when he let it to Dr John Young. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. although open days are occasionally held. Pye.[2] "..[1] During the Commonwealth era. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging.[5] . Mr.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. dean of Winchester.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. upon the lands of the lord of the manor. near Winchester. when it required the interference of Mr. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley. although his wife survived him until 1720.. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. with many distinct farms and cottages. Mr. Shoveller."[2] Following the death of Coram. So.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701.[1] Sir Charles. and generally to conclude with a merry-making. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work. He died in 1706. reaping. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. Sir Thomas Clarke.

Harriet.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass. the estate was left to his son. as granted to him in 1717. a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. retaining that position for four years. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. Cranbury Park. Conduitt. and the arms of Mr. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. then a circle marked "Watch slow. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. and a scaled-down gateway tower. the points alternately plain and embossed. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. remaining there until his death in 1727. Towards the end of his life. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task. next the hours. which he also owned. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. Catherine. etc.[5][6] On Newton's death. On his death. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross.[5] In May 1721. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park. Nearer the centre are degrees..[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" . and after his death. then the months divided into days. Hampshire. In 1747. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey.[9] The Castle. Bt). Shortly after his marriage. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774). which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. In 1770. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. but his election was declared invalid. all round the world.C. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). leaving a daughter. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. and within. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. Conduitt married Catherine Barton. a diagram of the compass. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday. the outermost divided into minutes. Watch fast". half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. built in 1780. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city. the owner."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles. Newton became resident at Cranbury. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras". Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate..[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. Thomas. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. John Rowley. the base of a pillar. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s. In 1734.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne. is below.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781).

In fact. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill. intersected by various springs. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)). the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights. a large red brick one. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel. set in arch-headed reserves. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom. which has a circular domed ceiling. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. flat as it fronts to the south. especially in the saloon on the south front. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. Tankerville Chamberlayne. but his wife survived him until 1825. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811. MP for Southampton. but in the rear descending rapidly. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald".[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. The house. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. built round a court.[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase. Whilst serving the town. is on the level ground at the top.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter.[11] on her death. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851. on that .[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer.[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. During the Second World War. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. In 1822. Arrow. William Chamberlayne.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior.[22] Writing in 1898. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. to the designs of George Dance the Younger.

[11] "Horninghold. (1898). . com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). close to The Castle.thepeerage. [9] Yonge. parliament. online-literature.ac.[26] References [1] Page. Retrieved 23 September 2009. . [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. pp. www. Winchester" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 24 September 2009. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www. upenn. specimen trees and pinetum. ISBN 0-116700-20-3. H.com. britannia. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). (1900). .uk. Retrieved 20 September 2009. and include fountains. publications. Lloyd. online-literature. Retrieved 23 September 2009. "History of Cranbury Park.thepeerage. Globe Cross and Star-Shaped. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ).K. William (1908). "Later changes" (http:/ / www. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. Charlotte M. [8] "The Buttercross. online-literature. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). ISBN 0-86146-041-3.G. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). Her Majesty's Stationery Office. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake.com. is situated in the southern corner of the park.[19] The folly known as "The Castle". John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3.online-literature. Facet-Headed. Retrieved 23 September 2009. htm). [14] Yonge. [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. [12] Leonard. html). "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. A. [6] Ford."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. built from material plundered from Netley Abbey. www.com. pdf). John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. www. and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame.britannia. though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. Margaret Scott.Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. Netley Abbey. . ac. 72 & 74. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. Stories of Southampton Streets. 22. aspx?compid=42018#s4). .com. a rose garden. Retrieved 23 September 2009. [4] Yonge. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. 68. 1998. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www. with a great deal of wall and very little glass. [2] Yonge. Retrieved 23 September 2009. "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. Hansard. htm#i46497). www.[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. p. . www. Paul Cave Publications." a word signifying a country dance. Eden. "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. com/ p4650. (1898).com. online-literature. . [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www.online-literature. . Victoria County History of Leicestershire. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. thepeerage. Retrieved 24 September 2009. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Charlotte M. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds. html). [10] Thompson. Hampshire" (http:/ / www. co.parliament. www. www. www.online-literature. Hamilton (1953). Charlotte M. html). . The English Country House. www. and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. . htm#i46495).online-literature. 9 October 2006. . The Book of Sun-dials. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. before joining Monks Brook. british-history. Retrieved 23 September 2009. [7] Gatty. (1984). uk/ report. Eleanor. p. com/ p4650.uk. Retrieved 20 September 2009. online-literature.com. A.online-literature. www. [5] Yonge. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 5 May 2004. 15 May 2005. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. (1898).british-history. Retrieved 20 September 2009. (1898). City of Winchester. . . library. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. Michael (1999). Charlotte M.K F. Charlotte M. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. cityofwinchester. horninghold. thepeerage. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. . edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102.com. org.[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. (1898).com.

. Retrieved 24 September 2009. amazon. Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www.. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. The lost country houses of England. "Papworth.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett.com. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. .633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. . fieldclub. Retrieved 2009-07-12.uk. Matthew (2009). html). www. matthewbeckett. s. 1971:93-95.000 (us$35. htm). . 8 and 15 November 1956. noted in Howard Colvin. "Stratton Park. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. . Micheldever. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. [21] Watkin. Retrieved 26 September 2009. Architect.online-literature. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. uk/ m35. Retrieved 26 September 2009. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects.co. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester.oldmaps. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. [22] Dorothy Stroud. oldmaps. Charlotte M. htm). . com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). 15 November 1956. . David (April 2004).700) in late 2001's terms. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). "Chandler’s Ford. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www.[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. www. George Dance. . Retrieved 24 September 2009. [20] Dorothy Stroud. online-literature. chandlersfordscouts. [19] "Cranbury Park. Christopher (Spring 2005). [23] Yonge. html). com/ gst/ abstract. The New York Times: 10. hants. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www.[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. alresford. in Country Life. (1898). org. nytimes. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. htm). Retrieved 2009-07-12. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. . April 2004. co. uk/ Campsite/ index. 1600-1840. Retrieved 26 September 2009. which would value approximately £25. 16 January 1881. 3rd ed. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury.v. see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. John Buonarotti". Retrieved 26 September 2009. plates 23-2. org. . 1741—1825. [25] Currie. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3. html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE). 1995. com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). Retrieved 26 September 2009.

[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge. Retrieved 22 july 2010. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword).[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. Alder admits however. or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. [3] Mike Adler. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. Mike Alder's Home Page. . The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. . Also available as Mike Alder (2004). So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. au/ people/ mike. uwa. au/ ~mike/ ). or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20).. That is. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". maths. . bbc. . and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". which he describes as pure reason. co. uwa. Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. alder). stm). .] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school.Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. philosophynow. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. University of Western Australia. amongst others. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). the question can be solved by experiment. to the scientist. According to Alder. University of Western Australia.[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". edu. as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. edu. uwa. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach. . "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. BBC news. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable.pdf). uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389. The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. Retrieved 22 july 2010. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword.[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. maths. edu.. [4] Mike Alder (2004).

it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. most notably his work on light and optics. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead). once private. with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). England. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. Woolsthorpe Manor. were opened up to the public in 2003. Lincolnshire. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. near Grantham. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. to the rear of the house. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. New areas of the house. taking into account modern living. and the old walled kitchen garden. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. being restored. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead.

uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ . nationaltrust.Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. org.

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