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His life and influence

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Contents

Articles

Overview

Isaac Newton 1 1 22 22 23 25 27 Early life Later life Occult studies Religious views 27 35 42 51 56 56 63 75 79 81 82 82 91 100 101 102 113 114 116 121 121 126 140

Family

Hannah Ayscough Catherine Barton John Conduitt

Life

**Influence and impact
**

Bucket argument Calculus Calculus controversy Clockwork universe theory Corpuscular theory of light Hypotheses non fingo Laws of motion Law of universal gravitation Newton's cannonball Newton disc Newton's method Newton's notation Newton's reflector Newtonian telescope Newtonianism Rotating spheres Theorem of revolving orbits

Works

Arithmetica Universalis De motu corporum in gyrum The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture Method of Fluxions Opticks Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Writing of Principia Mathematica Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae

140 141 147 148 150 151 154 171 178 181 181 185 187 189 189 193 194 195

**About Newton and his ideas
**

Newton in popular culture Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Newton (monotype)

Miscellany

Cranbury Park Isaac Newton's tooth Newton's flaming laser sword Woolsthorpe Manor

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 197 202

Article Licenses

License 204

1

Overview

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton

Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46) Born 25 December 1642 [1] [NS: 4 January 1643] Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84) [1] [NS: 31 March 1727] Kensington, Middlesex, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, alchemy, Christian theology University of Cambridge Royal Society Royal Mint Trinity College, Cambridge

Died

Residence Nationality Fields Institutions

Alma mater

Academic advisors Isaac Barrow[2] [3][4] Benjamin Pulleyn Notable students Roger Cotes William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Optics Binomial series Newton's method Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [5] Henry More [6] Polish Brethren

Known for

Influences

the subjects he is mainly associated with. 25 December 1642. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day. published in 1687. the Reverend Barnabus Smith. He was an unorthodox Christian. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem. At the time of Newton's birth. Margery Ayscough. When Newton was three. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders.[9] Life Early life Isaac Newton was born on what is retroactively considered 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth."[10] While Newton was once engaged in his late teens to a Miss Storey. Born prematurely. astronomer. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. being highly engrossed in his studies and work. he was a small child."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. mathematician.Isaac Newton 2 Influenced Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Signature Notes His mother was Hannah Ayscough. he never married. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. independently. In mathematics. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug (≈ 1. leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. and theologian. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws.1 litres). due. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. and contributed to the study of power series. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. natural philosopher. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum.[11][12][13] . Newton was also highly religious. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. alchemist. and for the style of the work. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of differential and integral calculus. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described. In this work. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband.

The problem became more severe later when Newton was elected for the prestigious Lucasian Chair.Isaac Newton 3 From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen. For such a significant appointment. He was removed from school. something Newton desired to avoid due to his unorthodox views. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. 1889) Middle years Mathematics Newton's work has been said "to distinctly advance every branch of mathematics then studied". (Leibniz's notation and "differential Method". the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. Crowell & Co. Newton was educated at The King's School.[16] The Cambridge psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen considers it "fairly certain" that Newton suffered from Asperger syndrome.) Such a . he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus.[17] In June 1661. also by British mathematicians. attempted to make a farmer of him. although with very different notations..[19] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. and Kepler. in a manuscript of October 1666. while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684.[21] Fellows were required to become ordained priests. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed infinitesimal calculus independently. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665.[20] optics and the law of gravitation (see "Apple incident" section below). In 1667. Grantham (where his alleged signature can still be seen upon a library window sill) [14]. were adopted by continental European mathematicians.[23] A related subject was infinite series. a fellow of our College. Sarah K.[18] At that time. He hated farming. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully. ordaining normally could not be dodged.[15] Henry Stokes. Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until 1693. where his mother. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers. widowed by now for a second time. he became the top-ranked student. Cambridge as a sizar – a sort of work-study role. there was no specific deadline for ordination and it could be postponed indefinitely. and of astronomers such as Copernicus. Famous Men of Science. and by October 1659. and very young .[22] His work on the subject usually referred to as fluxions or calculus is seen. Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller Isaac Newton (Bolton. and did not give a full account until 1704. for example. Newton managed to avoid it by means of a special permission from Charles II (see "Middle years" section below). NY: Thomas Y. Nevertheless.[24] Newton later became involved in a dispute with Leibniz over priority in the development of infinitesimal calculus. such as Descartes. Newton's manuscript "De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas" ("On analysis by equations infinite in number of terms") was sent by Isaac Barrow to John Collins in June 1669: in August 1669 Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr Newton. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. Luckily for Newton. Galileo. In 1665. and after 1820 or so. he was admitted to Trinity College. now published among Newton's mathematical papers. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. master at the King's School.. but of an extraordinary genius and proficiency in these things". nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth..

Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.[30] Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. such as De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in orbit"). This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. Because of this. and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). based on limiting values of the ratios of vanishing small quantities: in the Principia itself Newton gave demonstration of this under the name of 'the method of first and last ratios'[25] and explained why he put his expositions in this form. and Charles II. Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Principia. and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series.[28] His use of methods involving "one or more orders of the infinitesimally small" is present in his De motu corporum in gyrum of 1684[29] and in his papers on motion "during the two decades preceding 1684".[31] He had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. However. of 1684. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. but never finished it. made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences. any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford was required to become an ordained Anglican priest. in 1693 the relationship between the two men changed. the Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" in modern times[27] and "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul" ('nearly all of it is of this calculus') in Newton's time.[32] Starting in 1699. whose permission was needed. and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711.[34] 4 . He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669 on Barrow's recommendation. In 1691.[33] Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem. He discovered Newton's identities. In that day. But his work extensively uses an infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. The Principia is not written in the language of calculus either as we know it or as Newton's (later) 'dot' notation would write it. however. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted. accepted this argument. Newton's method. At the time. However. fails to notice the content of calculus which critics of Newton's time and modern times have pointed out in Book 1 of Newton's Principia itself (published 1687) and in its forerunner manuscripts. The Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labelled Leibniz a fraud. classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables).Isaac Newton suggestion.[26] remarking also that 'hereby the same thing is performed as by the method of indivisibles'. who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism. He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula). Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement. valid for any exponent.

the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. John Maynard Keynes. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas. when Hooke. revived his interest in alchemy. The contact with the theosophist Henry More. But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. In late 1668[40] he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. Newton published Opticks. it stayed the same colour. Props. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted. demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours. Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles.) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance.[42] which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles. using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes. he constructed a telescope using a mirror as the objective to bypass that problem. Today's quantum mechanics. and the general phenomenon of diffraction.and may . photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films (Opticks Bk.[5] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science.[43] Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles. today known as a Newtonian telescope. Newton lectured on optics.[39] Building the design. who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy. In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675. he did apparently abandon his alchemical researches. in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. the first known functional reflecting telescope. however. he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. 12).Isaac Newton Optics From 1670 to 1672. but still retained his theory of ‘fits’ that disposed corpuscles to be reflected or transmitted (Props. opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. he concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours (chromatic aberration). . which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. which he later expanded into his Opticks. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal. and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. This is known as Newton's theory of colour."[44] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science.[41] Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour. In 1671. Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns.. that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in 1679–80.[39] involved solving the problem of a suitable mirror material and shaping technique..[37] He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects.[38] 5 A replica of Newton's second Reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society [35] in 1672 From this work. As a proof of the concept. appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. he might not have developed his theory of gravity.II.13). across a vacuum.) In 1704.[36] During this period he investigated the refraction of light. Thus.

[47] After the exchanges with Hooke. 8th Query). the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World". Some 278 years after Newton's discussion. and defined the law of universal gravitation. prisms. wherever it was. i. gave the first analytical determination (based on Boyle's law) of the speed of sound in air. using a glass globe (Optics. and who opened a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions. with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion.e. Newton worked out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector (see Newton's law of universal gravitation – History and De motu corporum in gyrum). Newton made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system – developed in a somewhat modern way.[50] Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing "occult agencies" into science.[46] Mechanics and gravitation Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica In 1679. the use of these prismatic beam expanders led to the multiple-prism dispersion theory. who had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. The Principia was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness. and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame 6 . and much more. In the same work. Newton returned to his work on (celestial) mechanics. He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity. Also. Newton communicated his results to Edmond Halley and to the Royal Society in De motu corporum in gyrum. This followed stimulation by a brief exchange of letters in 1679–80 with Hooke.[49] For Newton. gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets. initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon. and this centre of gravity "either is at rest or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Newton adopted the "at rest" alternative in view of common consent that the centre. In an article entitled "Newton. multiple-prism beam expanders became central to the development of narrow-linewidth tunable lasers. inferred the oblateness of the spheroidal figure of the Earth. in the second edition of the Principia (1713). and the 'opticks' of tunable lasers[46] it is indicated that Newton in his book Opticks was the first to show a diagram using a prism as a beam expander. and are still the underpinnings of the non-relativistic technologies of the modern world. Newton firmly rejected such criticisms in a concluding General Scholium. as they did. but rather "the common centre of gravity of the Earth.. provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets.[51] Later. on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed. a tract written on about 9 sheets which was copied into the Royal Society's Register Book in December 1684. writing that it was enough that the phenomena implied a gravitational attraction. because already in the mid-1680s he recognised the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. In this work. In the same book he describes. via diagrams.[48] This tract contained the nucleus that Newton developed and expanded to form the Principia. but they did not so far indicate its cause. with matters received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the hand-written corrections for the second edition winter of 1680–1681. Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that enabled many of the advances of the Industrial Revolution which soon followed and were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. it was not precisely the centre of the Sun or any other body that could be considered at rest. was at rest). Newton presented a calculus-like method of geometrical analysis by 'first and last ratios'.Isaac Newton not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[45] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator.[42] Newton's reawakening interest in astronomical Newton's own copy of his Principia. the use of multiple-prism arrays.

This caused silver sterling coin to be melted and shipped out of Britain.[59] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London.[52] He acquired a circle of admirers.[1] and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His half-niece.[55] Isaac Newton in old age in 1712.[58] Newton died in his sleep in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726]. he Personal coat of arms of Sir Isaac [56] Newton . Cambridge. until his death in 1727. retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701. but Newton took them seriously. by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's Historia Coelestis Britannica. Queen Anne knighted Newton during a royal visit to Trinity College. Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above). somewhat treading on the toes of Lord Lucas. Catherine Barton Conduitt. and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. Governor of the Tower (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). Towards the end of his life. Henry More's belief in the Universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May 1705. rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed. In his position at the Royal Society. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. near Winchester with his niece and her husband. With the Principia. He took charge of England's great recoining. with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. when it abruptly ended. These appointments were intended as sinecures. the Astronomer Royal. a position Newton held until his death.[57] Newton was the second scientist to be knighted. portrait by Sir James Thornhill In April 1705. Newton became internationally recognised. a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu.[53] 7 Later life In the 1690s. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. 1st Earl of Halifax. after Sir Francis Bacon. John (1733) – were published after his death. Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701.[54] Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. which Newton had used in his studies. As Master of the Mint in 1717 in the "Law of Queen Anne" Newton moved the Pound Sterling de facto from the silver standard to the gold standard by setting the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in favour of gold. Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed. including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier. (Here Newton used what became his famous expression Hypotheses non fingo). then Chancellor of the Exchequer. at the same time that Newton suffered a nervous breakdown. Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon the death of Thomas Neale in 1699.Isaac Newton hypotheses of things that were not implied by the phenomena.

Isaac Newton was her "very loving Uncle,"[60] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Newton, a bachelor, had divested much of his estate to relatives during his last years, and died intestate. After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.[61]

8

After death

Fame French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish."[62] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Newton himself had been rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676: If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.[63][64] Two writers think that the above quote, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke (said to have been short and hunchbacked), rather than – or in addition to – a statement of modesty.[65][66] On the other hand, the widely known proverb about standing on the shoulders of giants published among others by 17th-century poet George Herbert (a former orator of the University of Cambridge and fellow of Trinity College) in his Jacula Prudentum (1651), had as its main point that "a dwarf on a giant's shoulders sees farther of the two", and so its effect as an analogy would place Newton himself rather than Hooke as the 'dwarf'. In a later memoir, Newton wrote: I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.[67] Albert Einstein kept a picture of Newton on his study wall alongside ones of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell.[68] Newton remains influential to today's scientists, as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of members of Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton or Einstein. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution.[69] In 1999, an opinion poll of 100 of today's leading physicists voted Einstein the "greatest physicist ever;" with Newton the runner-up, while a parallel survey of rank-and-file physicists by the site PhysicsWeb gave the top spot to Newton.[70]

Isaac Newton Commemorations Newton's monument (1731) can be seen in Westminster Abbey, at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb. It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack (1694–1770) in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent. The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design. Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of 1680. A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism.[71] The Latin inscription on the base translates as: Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, Newton statue on display at the explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, Oxford University Museum of the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no Natural History other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced. Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners. Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race! He was born on 25 December 1642, and died on 20 March 1726/7. — Translation from G.L. Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey (1826), ii, 703–4.[71] From 1978 until 1988, an image of Newton designed by Harry Ecclestone appeared on Series D £1 banknotes issued by the Bank of England (the last £1 notes to be issued by the Bank of England). Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System.[72] A statue of Isaac Newton, looking at an apple at his feet, can be seen at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

9

Religious views

According to most scholars, Newton was a monotheist who believed in biblical prophecies but was Antitrinitarian.[6][73] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[74] Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. But ... he never made a public declaration of his private faith — which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs."[6] Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an anti-trinitarian.[6] In an age notable for its religious intolerance, there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.[6]

[6]

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Arian view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans and most Protestants.[75] Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's

Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey

Isaac Newton best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done."[76] Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. He placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date.[77] He also tried unsuccessfully to find hidden messages within the Bible. Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity".[78] He saw evidence of design in the system of the world: "Such a wonderful uniformity in the planetary system must be allowed the effect of choice". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities.[79] For this, Leibniz lampooned him: "God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion."[80] Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence.

10

**Effect on religious thought
**

Newton and Robert Boyle's mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[81] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[82] and at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion". The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.[83] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[84] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.[85]

Newton, by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted critically as a "divine geometer".

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[86][87][88] His spokesman, Clarke, rejected Leibniz' theodicy which cleared God from the responsibility for l'origine du mal by making God removed from participation in his creation, since as Clarke pointed out, such a deity would be a king in name only, and but one step away from atheism.[89] But the unforeseen theological consequence of the success of Newton's system over the next century was to reinforce the deist position advocated by Leibniz.[90] The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.[91]

Isaac Newton

11

**End of the world
**

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[92]

Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors — Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally — as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.[93] It was Newton's conception of the Universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.[94] Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems; and sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

Counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20 percent of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage of 1696 were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by the felon's being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult. However, Newton proved to be equal to the task.[95] Disguised as a habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself.[96] For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties - there is a draft of a letter regarding this matter stuck into Newton's personal first edition of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica which he must have been amending at the time.[97] Then he conducted more than 100 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers, and suspects between June 1698 and Christmas 1699. Newton successfully prosecuted 28 coiners.[98] One of Newton's cases as the King's attorney was against William Chaloner.[99] Chaloner's schemes included setting up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turning in the hapless conspirators whom he had entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins.[100] Newton put Chaloner on trial for counterfeiting and had him sent to Newgate Prison in September 1697. But Chaloner had friends in high places, who helped him secure an acquittal and his release.[99] Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.[101]

Newton's physics is meant to be universal. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion.Isaac Newton 12 Laws of motion The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. Mathematically. If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0). in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. The SI unit of force is the newton. with time. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices. Unlike Aristotle's. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes.[102] Apple incident . Even many decades after the publication of the Principia. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. the first term vanishes. . Before Newton. named in Newton's honour. For example. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the sun. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum. this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted. this is expressed as . This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. they may be at rest). and by substitution using the definition of acceleration.

Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece. upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. that the earth draws it. but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. in an inverse-square proportion.[104] acquaintances of Newton (such as William Stukeley. published in 1752. Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727). whose manuscript account. if matter thus draws matter. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths centre. at the Cambridge University Botanic Garden and the Instituto Balseiro library garden Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. only he. Cambridge. also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. We went into the garden. as well as the earth draws the apple. & myself.." thought he to him self: occasion'd by the fall of an apple. the notion of gravitation came into his mind. Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth. one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions. or toward the centre. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so. he was just in the same situation. below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. "why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground.Isaac Newton 13 Reputed descendants of Newton's apple tree. though not the cartoon version that the apple actually hit Newton's head. as when formerly. Grantham. therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly.[108] The question was not whether gravity existed. but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance. A descendant of the original tree [109] can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College. has been made available by the Royal Society)[105] do in fact confirm the incident. had the first thought of his system of gravitation.[107] In similar terms. "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens. and get good agreement. The staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this. it must be in proportion of its quantity. which appears identical to Flower of Kent. claims that the tree was purchased by the school. and hence named it "universal gravitation". & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees. the reason is.[111] . Stukeley recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726: . a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. to the Moon. he told me. The King's School. there must be a drawing power in matter. therefore the apple draws the earth. amidst other discourse. not in any side of the earth."[106] John Conduitt. uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later..[103] Although it has been said that the apple story is a myth and that he did not arrive at his theory of gravity in any single moment. however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory. or upwards? but constantly to the earths centre? assuredly. whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[110] can supply grafts from their tree. and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. as he sat in a comtemplative mood: "why should it not go sideways. that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit." It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late 1660s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends.

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ISBN 978-1-4493-8962-8. pp. newscientist. W. Retrieved 20 December 2008. 130. 86 [104] Scott Berkun (27 August 2010). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18 (2): 136–145. "Isaac Newton – Crime Investigator".0017. Cambridge University Press. p. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. org/ ). p 229 [101] Westfall 1980. page 69 (University of Pittsburgh Press. in particular. Retrieved 7 September 2011. newtonproject. uk/ books?id=1xKFSqsDj0MC& pg=PT57)". 4. • White. pierre-marteau. lib. Gale (1984). org. ISBN 9780495557425. Bernard Cohen and George E. . jsp) transcribed and online at Indiana University. 18 January 2010. [105] Newton's apple: The real story (http:/ / www. uk/ image1. eds.182. Pan Macmillan. Calculus: Concepts and Contexts. Richard S. Isaac Newton. The Myths of Innovation (http:/ / books. ac. [108] I. Nature 182 (4629): 149–152. Cambridge University Press.149C. html 17 References • Ball. Martinez Science Secrets: The Truth about Darwin's Finches.. php?varietyid=1089).1963. google.. New York: Free Press. [112] Newton's alchemical works (http:/ / webapp1. 6 [109] Alberto A. The Life of Isaac Newton. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / cudl. O'Reilly Media. . google. Never at Rest. Newton and the Counterfeiter: The Unknown Detective Career of the World's Greatest Scientist. John (1963). • Westfall. doi:10. com/ books?id=kPCgnc70MSgC& pg=PA4). Einstein's Wife. valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics • Craig. indiana. New York: Dover. doi:10. Cambridge University Press. . Retrieved 30 August 2006. . Retrieved 10 January 2012. [113] http:/ / www. This well documented work provides. 2011). com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports.Isaac Newton [97] Newton. cam.W. ISBN 0486206300. Bibcode 1958Natur. (1980. 1998). Thomas (2010). Cengage Learning. pp. ISBN 9780547336046. ISBN 1-85702-416-8. Retrieved 10 January 2009. Richard (2011). "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". • Craig. p. New Scientist. ISBN 9781447204152. ISBN 978-0-8229-4407-2 [110] "Brogdale — Home of the National Fruit Collection" (http:/ / www. Mariner Books. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. Retrieved 10 May 2010 [106] Hamblyn. [111] "From the National Fruit Collection: Isaac Newton's Tree" (http:/ / www.1098/rsnr. Retrieved 11 January 2007.73 [99] White 1997. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). p 269 [100] Westfall 1994. brogdale. 337 [103] White 1997. " Newtonian Apples: William Stukeley (http:/ / books. Imperial College London.org. brogdale. . "Keynes Ms.1038/182149a0. • Christianson. Michael (1997). James (2009). John. 571–5 [102] Ball 1908. [98] Westfall 2007. Isaac. Rouse (1908). Richard S. p. p. . co. ac. The Art of Science. 265–266. (1994). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. Fourth Estate Limited. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (2002) p. Cambridge University Digital Library. • Westfall. • Levenson. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ THEM00167). dlib. ISBN 9780199213559. John (1958). Smith. • Stewart. ISBN 0521477379. php). and Other Myths. Newtonproject. ISBN 0-521-27435-4. sussex. . edu/ newton/ index. com/ blogs/ culturelab/ 2010/ 01/ newtons-apple-the-real-story. [107] Conduitt. • Westfall. (2007). Inc.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge" (http:/ / www. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. Richard S. Brogdale.

Gale (1984). The Calculus Wars: Newton. (1959).amazon. eds.1988. • Shamos. Stephen. ISBN 0521229642. ISBN 0-674-46853-8. London: S. JSTOR 531368.amazon. Newton's Gift: How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of the World.com/dp/1560259922) • Bechler. ISBN 0486253465. Great Experiments in Physics. complete edition online (http://www.amazon. • Berlinski. New York: Free Press. John Maynard (1963). (1988).amazon. W. On the Shoulders of Giants.Isaac Newton 18 Further reading • Andrade. ISBN 0792310543. 2001. "Newton's Principia and the Philosophers of the Enlightenment". . Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy. A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophy. I. Harvard University Press. Springer. Oxford University Press. 256 pp. Norton & Co. Palmer. the Man. Inc. "Newtonia" pp. ISBN 0486428052. and Cohen. doi:10. S. (2002). New York: Henry Holt and Company.com/read/105054986) • Cohen. I. The Cambridge Companion to Newton. Newton at the Mint. • Dampier. (1975). B. Cambridge.amazon. N. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. David. and H. Jed Z. • Newton. • Shapley.questia. The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". excerpt and text search (http://www.com/dp/0743217764) ISBN 0-684-84392-7 • Buchwald.1978.. M. • Halley. ed.. Isaac Newton. ISBN 019530070X. "Discoveries" pp. ed. W. I.com/dp/0262524252) • Casini. ISBN 0-02-905190-8. Isaac.1098/rsnr.0006. E. – Preface by Albert Einstein. • Keynes. William C. Bernard and Smith. Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers. (1946). (1965). Galileo and Einstein • Herivel. • Cohen. A Treasury of Science.. • Gjertsen. Gale E. Leibniz. Newton.. Alfred A. 1958. • Hawking. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus. New York: Harper & Row. B. and the Greatest Mathematical Clash of All Time. 277 pp. Jason Socrates. The Newtonian Revolution. London: G. E. (1687). Richard (1931). (1950). • Christianson. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation. New York. Wright. (2000). Isaac (1642–1727). Harlow. Isaac Newton. ISSN 0035–9149. P. Bernard. Philosophical Transactions 186: 291–297. George E. • Newton. New York: Chanticleer Press. James (2003). Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California (1999) • Pemberton. England: Cambridge University Press. New York (1972). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Readings in the Literature of Science. • Bardi. W. J. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. • Craig. ISBN 0841430144. The Newton Handbook. ISBN 0-393-00189-X. ISBN 0375422331. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Knopf.com/dp/019530070X) for excerpt and text search. 150–4. 354 pp. • Christianson. (1996). Essays in Biography. J. John (1946). Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 42 (1): 35–52. De C. Morris H. A. MIT Press. H. • Koyré. (1980). The Background to Newton's Principia. 2006. Dampier. In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. edited by I. Guide by I. Zev (1991).com/dp/0521656966). excerpt and text search (http://www. Harper & Bros. "Review of Newton's Principia". Isaac Newton's Natural Philosophy. Rapport. excerpt and text search (http://www. T. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • de Villamil.. 147–9. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2. • Gleick. excerpt and text search (http://www. Knox. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (1965). See this site (http://www. (1728). • Dobbs. focuses on philosophical issues only.D. Bernard Cohen. Kepler. 500 pp. (1959). Newton's Physics and the Conceptual Structure of the Scientific Revolution. The Principia: a new Translation. Newtonian Studies. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. Derek (1986).

microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&sourceid=ie7&rlz=1I7GGLJ&sa=X& oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail) • Newton. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Opticks (4th ed. I. Pp. 19 Religion • Dobbs. New York: Dover Publications. H.com/ books?id=DGksMzk37hMC&printsec=frontcover&dq="Arianism+through+the+Centuries"). J. (1971). Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World. H. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. rev.google. Maurice.google. (January 1997). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. Refractions. (1991). eds. R. T.com/search?q=newton+opticks& rls=com. • Newton. • Whiteside. University of California Press. pp. 627 pp. (1967–82).org/stable/301985) • Snobelen. (1936). • Stukeley. Bruce.. ISBN 0521077400. London: Macdonald. • Wiles. Popkin. (1999). (1934). links the alchemy to Arianism • Force. (1952). 13 papers by scholars using newly opened manuscripts • Ramati.google. Nature.org/stable/4028372).com/ books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ&dq=newton+opticks&pg=PP1&ots=Nnl345oqo_& sig=0mBTaXUI_K6w-JDEu_RvVq5TNqc&prev=http://www.Isaac Newton • Simmons. Stephen D.jstor. James E. The Giant Book of Scientists – The 100 Greatest Minds of all Time. W. 16. (1999). A. Florian Cajori. Berkeley: University of California Press. with chapter 4 on 18th century England. Isaac. Thomas C. Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite". Turnbull and others. Force in Newton's Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century. "The Hidden Truth of Creation: Newton's Method of Fluxions" British Journal for the History of Science 34: 417–438. 7 vols. Press. ed. – 8 volumes • Newton. doi:10. originally published in 1752) • Westfall. Cambridge U. Stephen "'God of Gods. Primary sources • Newton. W. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: Containing an English Translation of Sections 1. University of California Press. JSTOR 4027945. White. 2nd Series. 1: The Optical Lectures. London: Taylor and Francis. "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Isaac. The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. tr. and Richard H. • Pfizenmaier. argues that his calculus had a theological basis • Snobelen. Opticks. 1984. and Influence. (1999). xvii + 325. JSTOR 3653988.jstor. 169–208 in JSTOR (http://www. and Lord of Lords': The Theology of Isaac Newton's General Scholium to the Principia. (2001). Vol. J. in JSTOR (http://www. Isaac. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life. 2. I. or A Treatise of the Reflections. (edited by A. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Newton and Religion: Context. (1996). 1730) online edition (http://books. (1996) 214pp. 1670–1672. Arianism through the Centuries. Sydney: The Book Company. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (1): 57–80. Archetypal Heresy. 1996.1017/S0007087499003751. "Isaac Newton. The Janus Faces of Genius: The Role of Alchemy in Newton's Thought. Vol. and 3 of Book One from the First (1687) Edition of Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. pp 77–93 on Newton excerpt and text search (http://books. Inflections & Colours of Light. S. ISBN 0444196110." Osiris. D. Isaac. Motte. The correspondence of Isaac Newton. 342pp . • Newton. • Newton. (1959–77) . 299 pp. 974 pp. • Brackenridge. Ayval. Betty Jo Tetter.

Nourse. Schofield. Hall.dlib. Robertson. • Newton. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophy (http://plato. online edition (http:/ /www. • Newton.html) The "General Scholium" to Newton's Principia (http://hss. West Strand.mcs. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' (1702). B. An Account of Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical Discoveries.fmalive. Parker. R. C. • Newton. Sir. . (1962). Cambridge University Press.tqnyc.org/sandbox/lhl/dsb/page.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton.adherents.Isaac Newton • Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H. 20 External links • Chisholm.edu/entries/newton/).html) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www. University of St Andrews. J Edleston. – Google Books • Maclaurin.html) • Newton's Royal Mint Reports (http://www. eds. John J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.math.chlt.fullerton. Cohen and R.pbs.ac. Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes. (1958).archive. John Deighton.com/biography/Newton. Sir Isaac". London. com/predictions/newton. The Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton: A Selection from the Portsmouth Collection in the University Library.edu/entries/newton-stm/).stanford.php?id=1) • The Newton Project – Canada (http://www. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.rutgers.com/people/pn/Isaac_Newton. E.html) by Eric Weisstein • Dictionary of Scientific Biography (http://www.com/editions/1701-25-mint-reports. ed. London: Dawson... The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www.uk/ Biographies/Newton. Anand M.ca/) • Rebuttal of Newton's astrology (http://web.html) Newton's First ODE (http://www.html) – A study by on how Newton approximated the solutions of a first-order ODE using infinite series • • • • • • • • O'Connor. "Isaac Newton" (http://www-history.google.isaacnewton. Millar and J.org/web/20080629021908/http://www. Cambridge. by Andrew Janiak • Newton's views on space.php) • The Newton Project (http://www.org/NYC051308/index. and motion (http://plato. A. (1975). S. Thayer.pierre-marteau.org/snobelen.sussex.indiana.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) NOVA TV programme • from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: • Isaac Newton (http://plato.ac. by George Smith • Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (http://plato. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.html). time.com/books?as_brr=1&id=OVPJ6c9_kKgC& vid=OCLC14437781&dq="isaac+newton"&jtp=I). John W.com/) Newton's religious position (http://www. (1953).st-andrews. • ScienceWorld biography (http://scienceworld.stanford.).uk/prism.newtonproject. Edmund F. Hall and M.stanford. Cambridge. London: A. in Four Books. I.com/read/5876270) • Isaac Newton. Hugh.stanford.com/modules/historic/newton/index.org) • Newton's Religious Views Reconsidered (http://www. B. Isaac Newton's Papers and Letters on Natural Philosophy and Related Documents.edu/entries/newton-philosophy/). Roger Cotes.galilean-library.wolfram.htm) Educational material The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. including letters of other eminent men (http://books. I. by Robert Rynasiewicz Newton's Castle (http://www.questia.edu/entries/newton-principia/ ). "Newton.htm) (via archive. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. I.a.edu/collections/newton) Research on his Alchemical writings FMA Live! Program for teaching Newton's laws to kids (http://www. ed (1911). I.50.htm) Kandaswamy.phaser. (1748). 1850.edu/philosophy/GeneralScholium.skepticreport.

php?id=43) • Works by Isaac Newton (http://www.org/author/Isaac_Newton) at Project Gutenberg • Newton's Principia – read and search (http://rack1.ac.php?id=74313) at the Mathematics Genealogy Project. or a Treatise of the Reflections.st-andrews.uk/Mathematicians/ Newton.com/).gutenberg. physics. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl. and on his views on science and religion • Newton biography (University of St Andrews) (http://www-history. audio.org • Newton Papers. modernised readable versions by Jonathan Bennett • Opticks.ac.lib.ltrc.sussex.sussex.mcmaster. Space.ul.uk/home) Videos on Newton's biography. optics.newtonproject.edu/is/newton/) • Descartes.archive.org/ stream/opticksoratreat00newtgoog#page/n6/mode/2up).ac.ndsu. full text on archive.math. reception.cam.mcs.cs.Isaac Newton • Isaac Newton (http://genealogy. at the Newton Project (http://www.html) 21 Writings by him • Newton's works – full texts.uk/prism.uk/collections/newton) .earlymoderntexts. Refractions. animations and interactive segments • Enlightening Science (http://www.nodak.cmu.ac.enlighteningscience.edu/id. • The Mind of Isaac Newton (http://www. Inflexions and Colours of Light (http://www. and Body and A New Theory of Light and Colour (http://www.ca/newton/) Images.

James and Margery Ayscough. She and Rev. and nearly three months later their only child Isaac Newton was born. 1697 by her son. 1697) was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. By this time Isaac was ten years old. Her parents were James Ayscough and his wife Margery Blythe. Hannah seemed to be more interested in her farm than in Isaac's academic achievements. saw the abilities that her son had and was instrumental in Isaac's attending of Trinity College in June 1661. At that time she moved to North Witham (one mile away) to marry vicar Barnabas Smith. Motherhood Hannah married Isaac Newton. unlike her. He spent a year away from school on the farm. Isaac went back to school in autumn 1660. As his father had been a farmer. Later in his life. Smith died in 1653. . and returned to his mother's household. Isaac grew very resentful of how his mother had left him when he was young. at quite a critical time in his education. Smith had three children: Mary (born 1647). When Rev. He died in October 1642. the elder. Hannah returned to Woolsthorpe. Hannah left young Isaac in the care of her parents. Isaac spent much of the remainder of this year in Woolsthorpe. Benjamin (born 1651) and Hannah (born 1652). Hannah decided in 1659 that Isaac should also be a farmer.22 Family Hannah Ayscough Hannah Ayscough (pronounced Askew) (1623 – June 4. Death Hannah died in 1697 in Stamford. Lincolnshire. Hannah's brother William. Early life Hannah was born in Market Overton in Rutland in 1623. at the age of nineteen. She was buried at Colsterworth on June 4. who buried her next to his father. and thus took him away from his school studies. when Isaac was 54. when he was three years old. in April 1642.

[2] She was known as a brilliant conversationalist. regarding her contraction of smallpox: "Pray let me know by your next how your face is and if your fevour [sic] be going. and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire. Perhaps warm milk from ye Cow may help to abate it. the wife of John Conduitt. half-niece of Isaac Newton. Early life She was the second daughter of Robert Barton and his second wife. However. not before. an excerpt of an uncharacteristically warm letter from Newton survives. probable mistress of Charles Montague and later.[3] Her uncle Isaac was also fond of her. Is. I am Your loving Unkle (sic). witty and clever. Newton.[5] .Catherine Barton 23 Catherine Barton Catherine Barton Conduitt Catherine as a young woman Born Catherine Barton 1679 1739 (aged 59–60) John Conduitt Robert Barton (father) Hannah Smith (mother) Isaac Newton (uncle) Died Spouse Relatives Catherine Barton (1679–1739) was Isaac Newton's half-niece. it is clear that Catherine Barton came up to London and met Montague after the appointment."[4] Voltaire insinuated that Newton's preferment to the Royal Mint was the result of her alleged affair with Charles Montague. Hannah Smith.[1] She was remarked upon by several men to be beautiful. Sometime after her uncle Isaac moved to London to become Warden of the Mint in April 1696 she moved there to live with him. and baptized at Brigstock. Northampton on 25 Nov 1679. although it is true that Isaac was appointed under the patronage of Charles Montague.

p195. born in 1721. 1886. 1689. succeeded as second Earl of Portsmouth. Parish register. she died in 1739 and was buried with her uncle and husband in Westminster Abbey. died of an inflammation of the lungs in May. Keynes mss 129A & mss 130. National Archives. [4] Newton Correspondence Vol 4. There was much contemporary gossip on the subject. (1898). but actually married three days later at St Martin in the Fields. On 30 August. Marriage Licences issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury at London.[8] Later life The couple lived at Cranbury Park. html). and thinly disguised accusations appeared in print. She also has a role in Philip Kerr's novel Dark Matter: The Private Life of Sir Isaac Newton. National Archives. uk/ art/ portrait. entries in 1710 and 1711.ac. Harl Soc vol 24. His will contained two codicils: the first dated 12 April 1706. References [1] Robert Barton's will. Barton became his housekeeper and probably his mistress. his nephew George Montague. newton. near Winchester. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. [3] Swift. [11] The current one possesses the famous Isaac Newton portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller (http:/ / www. 1715. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. ac.com. . King's College Cambridge. Journal to Stella. [6] Will proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. On 9 July 1717 she became engaged to marry John Conduitt who had only set foot in England a few weeks earlier in May of that year. On 23 August they were issued a licence to marry at St Paul's Covent Garden. Retrieved 23 September 2009. towards the end of his life. however. the eldest son of the first Earl of Portsmouth. Charlotte M. Delariviere Manley's Memoirs of 1710 featured a character called Bartica who was widely taken to represent Barton."[6] Marriage Barton then returned to live with her uncle at his home in St Martin's Street.5. [10] Westminster Abbey registers. [8] St Martin in the fields register. Catherine. affection and esteem. Vol 4. [5] Newton Correspondence.php?id=15) . he revokes the first codicil and begs his executor. • The Newton Project (http://www. [9] Yonge. Harliean Society. PROB11/416.[7] The couple had one daughter. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). Westminster Record Office. Montague. not to make a dispute over her legacies.uk/prism. the final installment in Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. [2] By her own account she was at his house when he received and solved Bernoulli's problem on 30 January 1697. a second dated 1 February 1713 left her an additional £5000 plus his interest in the rangership of Bushey Park and his manor of Apscourt in Surrey to pay for the repairs to Bushey Lodge. by then Earl of Halifax.[10] Their only daughter and heir Catherine married John Wallop. I have long had for her person. p349. Newton Correspondence Vol 4 p220. www. Montague wrote that these bequests were "as a token of the sincere love. online-literature. and as a small recompense for the pleasure and happiness I have had in her conversation.[9] Her husband John Conduitt died on 23 May 1737.newtonproject. [7] Hants Record Office. & previous reference. Northampton Record Office. 1543–1869. Viscount Lymington. John Wallop.sussex.online-literature. PROB11/546. and their son. left the sum of £3000 and all his jewels to Barton.[11] In fiction A fictional Barton has a small role in Neal Stephenson's novel The System of the World.Catherine Barton 24 Relationship to Charles Montague Following the death of Charles Montague's wife in 1698.

During the following year he was made a captain in a regiment of the dragoons serving in Portugal. Early life. After what must have been a whirlwind romance they applied to the Faculty Office for a licence to marry which was granted 23 Aug 1717 to marry at St Paul's. Parliament and Mint In June 1721 Conduitt was elected. but after starting. Conduitt obtained for himself a grant of arms from the College of Heralds on 16 August. He was admitted to St Peter's College Westminster School as a King's scholar in June 1701. towards the end of his life. 161 pp. Despite the licence to marry in Covent Garden they instead married three days later on 26 August in her uncle's parish in the Russell Court Chapel. Chancery depositions) By the early 1730s Conduitt had become a relatively prominent parliamentary speaker. Newton: his friend. In 1728 he was somewhat unhelpful to John Newton the heir to Isaac's real estate. 1968. 8 March 1688 – 23 May 1737) was a British Member of Parliament and Master of the Mint. He was a 'very pretty gentleman' according to James Brydges [2]. including Walpole's maintenance of the Septennial Act. based on his own account he was 'travelling' in Holland and Germany. Covent Garden. He attempted to collect materials for a Life of Newton. then aged 38 years. London: Dawsons. and Newton resorted to the Chancery courts to get satisfaction. but did not graduate. During this time he kept the Earl of Dartmouth informed as to the Portuguese court. He was admitted there in June of that year and matriculated to the University. he quickly stopped. Hampshire. named after her mother.[1] By 1707. while at Westminster. Perhaps in an effort to dignify himself for his impending marriage to one of London's famous daughters. on 8 March 1688. He returned to London by October 1711 with Lord Portmore. The couple had one daughter. The posts appear to have been remunerative and in May 1717 he returned home to England a richer man.Catherine Barton 25 Further reading Augustus De Morgan. John Conduitt John Conduitt (c. London. education and family Conduitt was the son of Leonard and Sarah Conduitt. defending the government on a number of issues. and his uncle by marriage. 1st ed (reprinted). isbn 0712903305. From Oct 1710 he acted as the Earl of Portmore's secretary when the latter arrived in Portugal (N&Q). which he represented during the 1720s as a loyal supporter of Walpole's government. on petition. He took an active interest in the running of Isaac's Newton office of Master of the Mint in the latter years of Isaac's life. In 1705. Cambridge with three others. but by September 1713 he was appointed Deputy Paymaster General to the British forces in Gibraltar. in the church of St Martin in the Fields. Partly as a result of his antiquarian interests Conduitt was elected to be Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 December 1718. he was elected a Queen's scholar to Trinity College. In 1734 he was re-elected to his seat but chose to represent Southampton. Shortly after his arrival he became acquainted with Sir Isaac Newton and his niece Catherine Barton. Sir Isaac Newton took up residence at Cranbury with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. and he was appointed in his stead in March 1727 after Isaac's death. Conduitt more correctly as about 30. Arthur Cowper Ranyard. and was baptized at St Paul's. proposed by the president. Covent Garden. a whig member for Whitchurch. Sophia Elizabeth De Morgan. In 1720. described herself as 32 years old. Two years later (12 January 1736) he introduced a successful bill repealing an early seventeenth-century act against conjuration and witchcraft.[3] . Catherine. born 23 May 1721 and baptized in the same parish of St Martin's on 8 June. Sir Isaac Newton. near Winchester. and his niece. staying only two years. In September 1710 he became judge advocate with the British forces in Portugal. (PRO. Conduitt acquired the estate and house at Cranbury Park.

. He was the eldest son of John Wallop. California. www. near Southampton to Thomas Lee Dummer. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www.uk.ac. eds (1922–1958). who died in 1739. Catherine. 1749) in 1740. Charlotte M. uk/ report. fo 169 [3] Yonge. Venn. J.net/~mkelly/iansarticle. 1st Earl of Portsmouth. online-literature. uk/ cgi-bin/ search. Retrieved 27 September 2009. . who succeeded him as MP for Southampton Catherine later married John Wallop. british-history. succeeded as second earl of Portsmouth. Huntingdon Library.John Conduitt 26 Death and descendants Conduitt died on 23 May 1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 29 May to the right of Sir Isaac Newton. John (http:/ / venn. Retrieved 23 September 2009. www. and their son. " Conduitt. underage. In his will dated 1732 he left his estate to his wife and made her guardian of their daughter Catherine. cam.online-literature. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.com.). His wife. "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www.cyberbeach. Cambridge University Press.. On his death.. ac.htm) . ms 57. was buried with him. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=CNDT705J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". William (1908). com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). Catherine's trustees sold the estate at Cranbury Park[3][4] as well as estates at Weston and Netley. lib. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. • Dictionary of National Biography External links • The Condy/Condie Surname (http://www. aspx?compid=42018#s4). Viscount Lymington (d. [4] Page. vol 4. [2] Letter to Capt Leigh 3 Oct 1710.british-history. John Wallop. (1898). A. J. ac. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. References [1] Venn.

"[2] Later on his mother returned with her other three children after her husband died. Newton was born three months after the death of his father. In 1665. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him. he was a small child. optics and the law of gravitation. the English mathematician and scientist.27 Life Early life The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton. his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fitted inside a quart mug (≈ 1. leaving her son in the care of his maternal portrait grandmother.[5] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus. and Kepler. as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August 1665. and by October 1659. Margery Ayscough. He was removed from school. He hated farming. master at the King's School. he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus. At the time of Newton's birth. Galileo. This he did at the age of eighteen. his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband. widowed by now for a second time. Birth and education Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Cambridge as a sizar—a sort of work-study role. Newton was educated at The King's School. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen.[4] At that time. the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle. the Reverend Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Barnabus Smith. attempted to make a farmer of him. When Newton was three. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student. 25 December 1642.[6] . England had not adopted the Gregorian calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day.[3] Henry Stokes. but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus. he was admitted to Trinity College. Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). achieving an admirable final report. In June 1661. a prosperous farmer also named Isaac Newton. the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. In 1667 he returned to Cambridge as a fellow of Trinity. Born prematurely. he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. author of the Principia.1 litre). where his mother.

and introduced him to higher mathematics." . bought Schooten's Miscellanies and Cartes' Geometry (having read this Geometry and Oughtred's Clavis clean over half a year before). Next about the moon was a Circle of white. gives a further account of the nature of his work during the period when he was an undergraduate: July 4. 1699. 13: The like Crowns appear sometimes about the moon. for in the beginning of the Year 1664. found them so obvious that he dismissed it "as a trifling book". its acceleration a. February 19th. and the applied force F is F = ma. He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid's Elements which included an index of propositions. and formed a more favourable estimate of Euclid's merit. It is reported that in his examination for a scholarship at Trinity. At the same time there appeared a Halo about 22 Degrees 35' distant from the centre of the moon.Early life 28 Early influences Newton had stated that when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair. on the grinding of "spherical optic glasses". and that of the second about five Degrees and an half. which appear in his Optics. in Lincolnshire. in the years 1663 and 1664. The persons appointed (in conjunction with the proctors. Academic career In January 1665 Newton took the degree of Bachelor of science. and the squaring of curves and "crooked lines that may be squared". At such time I found the method of Infinite Series. in winter between the years 1664 and 1665. and applied himself to the study of René Descartes' Geometry. and by consequence made these annotations out of Schooten and Wallis. since the "ordo senioritatis" of the bachelors of arts for the year is omitted in the "Grace Book. and next about these Colours were blue and green on the inside of the Outward Crown. and. dated January 1664. Newton's tutor) to examine the questionists were John Eachard of Catharine Hall and Thomas Gipps of Trinity University. geometrical propositions from François Viète and Frans van Schooten. together with observations on refraction. several calculations about musical notes. verging below farthest from the moon. there are several articles on angular sections. to two and fifty figures by the same method. It is a curious accident that we have no information about the respective merits of the candidates for a degree in this year. 3rd For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. By consulting an account of my expenses at Cambridge. Isaac Barrow. near Cambridge. book ii. many years afterwards. and of a yellow and red without. The study of Descartes's Geometry seems to have inspired Newton with a love of the subject. to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in the book. I find that in the year 1664 a little before Christmas. annotations out of John Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities. 2nd The relationship between an object's mass m. which was of a bluish green within next the white. Newton was convinced to read the Elements again with care. I computed the area of the Hyperbola at Boothby. he was examined in Euclid by Dr. part iv. and in summer 1665. It was elliptical. on account of his ignorance of trigonometry. and Benjamin Pulleyn of Trinity College. particularly those "in affected powers. and red on the outside of it. That Newton must have begun early to make careful observations of natural phenomena is shown by the following remarks about halos. The Diameter of the first or innermost was about three Degrees. who was disappointed in Newton's lack of knowledge on the subject. having turned to two or three which he thought might be helpful. he was unable. and its long Diameter was perpendicular to the Horizon. and on the extraction of all kinds of roots. In a small commonplace book. in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. John Slade of Catharine Hall. and borrowed Wallis' works. He formulated the three laws of motion: 1st Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. I being then Senior Sophister. and next about that the inner Crown. obs. to which he was elected on 28 April 1664. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font). I saw two such Crowns about her." In this same book the following entry made by Newton himself. Cambridge. being forced from Cambridge by the plague. at night. on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them.

and was instrumental in securing Newton's election as his successor. into the hands of Isaac Barrow (then Lucasian Professor of Mathematics). as shown by entries in the "Conclusion Book" of the college. and signed by the master of the college. who is only in his second year since he took the degree of Master of Arts. He was elected a fellow of his college on 1 October 1667. statics. and he tells us himself in the extract from his commonplace book already quoted that he was "forced from Cambridge by the plague" in the summer of that year.A. who had a powerful genius for such matters. and did not return to Cambridge till the February following. as they were apparently remarkably sparsely attended. and added. There were nine vacancies. frequently leaving Newton to lecture at the walls of the classroom." Shortly afterwards Barrow resigned his chair. at the same time giving him permission to communicate its contents to their common friend John Collins (1624—1683). The subject which Newton chose for his lectures was optics. He wrote a paper. It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry. which he put. one caused by the death of Abraham Cowley the previous summer. arithmetic. optics. In a subsequent letter on 20 August Barrow expressed his pleasure at hearing the favourable opinion which Collins had formed of the paper. and 22 June 1666. mathematician. but he also employed part of his time on the theory of fluxions and other branches of pure mathematics. and also chemicals and a furnace. has made very great progress in this branch of mathematics. 29 . or some other mathematical subject. A few weeks after his election to a fellowship Newton went to Lincolnshire. degree. and the nine successful candidates were all of the same academic standing. astronomy. dated 7 August 1665. and merely told Collins that he was a friend staying at Cambridge. geography. and a young man. There are several papers in Newton's handwriting bearing dates 1665[7] and 1666 in which the method is described. It is known that he bought prisms and lenses on two or three occasions. During the years 1666 to 1669 Newton's studies were very diverse. in some of which dotted or dashed letters are used to represent fluxions. These lectures did little to expand his reputation. [see also James Gregory. "the name of the author is Newton. In March 1668 he took his M. apparently for chemical experiments. and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with. Analysu per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas. as his name does not appear in the list of those who received extra commons on that occasion. that all fellows and scholars who were dismissed on account of the pestilence be allowed one month's commons. Barrow did this on 31 July1669. Both in 1665 and in 1666 Trinity College was dismissed on account of the Great Plague of London. but kept the name of the author a secret. a fellow of our college. On each occasion it was agreed. An account of their content was presented to the Royal Society in the spring of 1672. Newton was elected Lucasian professor on 29 October 1670. with an unparalleled genius (exitnio quo est acumine). and in some of which the method is explained without the use of dotted letters. probably in June 1669. and who.] a mathematician of no mean order. Newton must have left college before August 1665. Dr Pearson.Early life It is supposed that it was in 1665 that the method of fluxións (his word for "derivatives") first occurred to Newton's mind.

as I found it. of so small a section as the object-glasses of long telescopes are. were light uniform.Early life 30 The composition of white light On 21 December 1671 he was proposed as a candidate for admission to the Royal Society by Dr Seth Ward. which induced me to the making of the said telescope. telescopes should arrive to that perfection they are now at. that every irregularity in a reflecting superficies makes the rays stray 5 or 6 times more out of their due course. and the art of communicating to it a parabolic figure be also attained. that seeing the difference of refrangibility was so great. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. on 6 February 1672." In his reply to the secretary on 18 January 1672. he read a description of a reflecting telescope which he had invented. than the like irregularities in a refracting one. so that a much . After he explained this to the Society. and finding them regular. But these seemed very great difficulties. would cause by the unfitness of its figure." This promise was fulfilled in a communication which Newton addressed to Henry Oldenburg. I left off my aforesaid glass works. 80 of the Philosophical Transactions. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture: which is an irregularity some hundreds of times greater. than a circularly figured lens. and on 11 January 1672 he was elected a fellow of the Society. would inform me for what time the society continue their weekly meetings. the secretary of the Royal Society. Newton writes: "I desire that in your next letter you A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope of 1672 presented to the Royal Society. were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point. because. and to assure him that the Society would take care that all right should be done him with respect to this invention. I wondered. and reflect as much light. that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited. He realised that objects are coloured only because they absorb some of these colours more than others." This "difference in refrangibility" is now known as dispersion. I am purposing them to be considered of and examined an account of a philosophical discovery. which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer a different refraction. so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence. and I have almost thought them insuperable. that by their mediation optic instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable. as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. he proceeded: "When I understood this. He then points out why "the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object. and which I doubt not but will prove much more grateful than the communication of that instrument being in my judgment the oddest if not the most considerable detection which hath hitherto been made into the operations of nature. At the meeting at which Newton was elected. provided a reflecting substance could be found. bishop of Salisbury." He adds: "This made me take reflections into consideration. and to thank him for the communication of his telescope. if they continue them for any time. which would polish as finely as glass. Nay. for I saw. and "it was ordered that a letter should be written by the secretary to Mr Newton to acquaint him of his election into the Society. and which was read before the society two days afterwards. So that. when I further considered. not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of Optics Authors (which all men have hitherto imagined). Newton's "philosophical discovery" was the realisation that white light is composed of a spectrum of colours. as glass transmits. it could not collect those also into the same point. The whole is printed in No. I understood.

And this analogy twist colours. but ever appear of the colour of the light cast upon them. at what distance the whiteness is most perfect but also see. or proportionally disagreeing in both. And therefore. the rays always either exactly agreeing in both. that the colours of all natural bodies have no other origin than this. but yet most luminous in red. and afterwards having crossed one another in that place where they compound whiteness. Further on. and by degrees so far perfected an instrument (in the essential parts of it like that I sent to London). for. And this I have experimented in a dark room by illuminating those bodies with uncompounded light of diverse colours. as I imagined. proper for metal." 31 Newton's theory of colour After a remark that microscopes seem as capable of improvement as telescopes. and refrangibility is very precise and strict. who. than in figuring glasses for refraction. which they had before they entered the composition. "From that time I was interrupted till this last autumn. I conceive. so I doubt not. he says: I might add more instances of this nature. if any of the colours at the lens be intercepted. the figure also would be corrected to the last. whereby. that none of the colours fall besides the lens. "Amidst these thoughts I was forced from Cambridge by the intervening Plague. you will see the colours converted into whiteness again by being mingled. If at that distance you intercept this light with a sheet of white paper. as I said. and made by its refraction to convene at a further distance of about ten or twelve feet. where in the intermediate degrees of refrangibility. and vanish into whiteness. I could also discern the Moon-like phase of Venus. that the composition of whiteness be perfect. He concludes his communication with the words: This. But then having thought on a tender way of polishing. will thereby be diffused into an oblong coloured image. Minium appears there of any colour indifferently. are again dissipated and severed. but not very distinctly. And as that was sensibly better than the first (especially for day-objects). you will not only find. I began to try. on which the colours are cast be moved to and fro. For by that means any body may be made to appear of any colour. but yet most luminous in blue. by which I could discern Jupiter's 4 Concomitants.Early life greater curiosity would be here requisite. and it was more than two years before I proceeded further. that they are most brisk and vivid in the light of their own daylight colour. and that the paper. he adds: I shall now proceed to acquaint you with another more notable deformity in its Rays. how the colours gradually convene. and in an inverted order retain the same colours. I should be very glad to be informed with what success: That. the whiteness will be changed into the other colours. through which all those colours may at once be transmitted. . with which 'tis illustrated. to refract the entering light towards the further part of the room. They have there no appropriate colour. as you inform me. if any thing seem to be defective. by such motion. after some remarks on the subject of compound colours. but yet with this difference. but I shall conclude with this general one. that the prism and lens be placed steady. but they will be still brought to a much greater perfection by their endeavours. Then place a lens of about three foot radius (suppose a broad object-glass of a three foot telescope). at the distance of about four or five foot from thence. You may also see. that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another. or of acknowledging my errors. nor without some niceness in disposing the instrument. care must be taken. if I have committed any. and so Bise appears indifferently of any colour with which 'tis illustrated. which. when I made the other. or to thwart this relation. I may have an opportunity of giving further direction about it. are taking care about it at London. and showed them diverse times to two others of my acquaintance. is enough for an introduction to experiments of this kind: which if any of the R. that. But it is requisite. Society shall be so curious as to prosecute. And there place a clear and colourless prism. what might be effected in this kind.

till after Newton's death. "whereas I understand that the whole university has chiefly consideration for Dr Henry Paman of St John's College and Mr Craven of Trinity College. but I find I shall scarce finish what I have designed. in which Newton had to contend with the eminent English physicist Robert Hooke. but he was not led thereby to the discovery of the different dispersive powers of different refractive substances. and are now almost universally rejected. The public oratorship fell vacant. and he wrote on double refraction. Others criticized the experiments. endeavored to effect a compromise which. but was not published. and the next day one hundred and twenty-one members of the senate recorded their votes for Craven and ninety-eight for Paman. or leave to come out after me. the objections of his opponents led him to measure carefully the lengths of spectra formed by prisms of different angles and of different refractive indices. George Villiers. "I hope may for the present satisfy both sides. or to become a slave to defend it.Early life 32 Controversies The publication of these discoveries led to a series of controversies which lasted for several years. Franciscus Linus (a physician in Liège). Anthony Lucas (mathematical professor at the University of Liège). and so ended the first contest of a non-scientific character in which Newton took part. The heads claimed the right of nominating two persons. however. He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics. yet interposing (if they think fit) a protestation concerning their plea that this election may not hereafter pass for a decisive precedent in prejudice of their claim". 2nd Duke of Buckingham. he says. for I see a man must either resolve to put out nothing new. one of whom was to be elected by the senate." The heads. but if I get free of Mr Lucas's business. This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 1700. The senate insisted that the proper mode was by an open election. or communicated to the Royal Society. and a contest arose between the heads of the colleges and the members of the senate as to the mode of electing to the office. But the vice-chancellor admitted Paman the same morning. who was the chancellor of the university. I do recommend them both to be nominated. I propose that the heads may for this time nominate and the body comply. saying that the length of the spectrum was never more than three and a half times the breadth. On the morning of the election a protest in which Newton's name appeared was read. He succeeded in explaining the colour of thin and of thick plates. but the amount of pain which these perpetual discussions gave to his sensitive mind may be estimated from the fact of his writing on 18 November 1676 to Oldenburg: "I promised to send you an answer to Mr Lucas this next Tuesday. Newton carried on the discussion with the objectors with great courtesy and patience. light polarization and binocular vision. Some of his opponents denied the truth of his experiments. refusing to believe in the existence of the spectrum. so as to get a copy taken of it by that time. his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value. and entered in the Regent House. He also invented a reflecting quadrant for observing the distance between the moon and the fixed stars—the same in every essential as the historically important navigational instrument more commonly known as Hadley's quadrant. nominated Dr Paman and Ralph Sanderson of St John's. and. whereas Newton found it to be five times the breadth. and. and the inflexion of light." It was a fortunate circumstance that these disputes did not so thoroughly damp Newton's ardour as he at the time felt they would. Conflict over oratorship elections In March 1673 Newton took a prominent part in a dispute in the university. when a description of it was found among his papers. I see I have made myself a slave to philosophy. although some of his views have been found to be erroneous. and many others. I will resolutely bid adieu to it eternally. excepting what I do for my private satisfaction. . It appears that Newton made the mistake of supposing that all prisms would give a spectrum of exactly the same length. and therefore I beg your patience a week longer.

Newton regarded the discrepancy between the results as a proof of the inaccuracy of his conjecture. whose centre occupies one of the foci of the orbit. by calculating from Kepler's laws. The most probable explanation of the reason why Newton wished to be excused from these payments is to be found in the fact that. if you have not done it already. Voltaire is the authority for the former version of the story. yet since I see I shall neither profit them. and one of Newton's intimate friends. Universal law of gravitation It is supposed that it was at Woolsthorpe in the summer of 1666 that Newton's thoughts were directed to the subject of gravity. the secretary of the Royal Society: "Sir. as in a letter of Newton's to Oldenburg. who married John Conduitt. the force at that distance would be of the exact magnitude necessary to retain the moon in its orbit. he says. He had his information from Newton's favourite niece Catherine Barton. Johannes Kepler had proved by an elaborate series of measurements that each planet revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. "For your proffer about my quarterly payments. They are said to be inspired by Newton's seeing an apple fall from a tree on his mothers farm. seems to have led Newton to conjecture that it was possible that the same tendency to fall to the earth was the cause by which the moon was retained in its orbit round the earth. but it is certain that tradition marked a tree as that from which the apple fell. I thank you. he found that the Earth's attraction at the distance of the moon would draw a body through 15 ft.57 metres) in one minute. Newton. when Oldenburg informed the Society that "Mr Newton is now in such circumstances that he desires to be excused from the weekly payments.Early life 33 Newton's poverty On 8 March 1673 Newton wrote to Oldenburg. a version for which there is reasonable historical evidence (see [8])." Oldenburg must have replied to this by an offer to apply to the Society to excuse Newton the weekly payments. The fact that heavy bodies have always a tendency to fall to the earth." On 18 February 1675 Newton was formally admitted into the Society. that the radius vector of each planet drawn from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. nor (by reason of this distance) can partake of the advantage of their assemblies. had already proved that the force of the sun acting upon the different planets must vary as the inverse square of the distances of the planets from the sun. when. since in November 1676 he donated £40 towards the building of the new library of Trinity College." Upon this "it was agreed to by the council that he be dispensed with. the apple is supposed to have fallen on Newton's head. and supposing the orbits of the planets to be circles round the sun in the centre. (4. owing to decay." Nothing further seems to have been done in the matter until 28 January 1675. this version appears to be invented by Isaac D'Israeli. as he was not in holy orders. I desire that you will procure that I may be put out from being any longer Fellow of the Royal Society: for though I honour that body. and by calculating from that on the supposition of the force diminishing in the ratio of the inverse square of the distance. He found that the moon by her motion in her orbit was deflected from the tangent in every minute of time through a space of thirteen feet. I desire to withdraw. But by observing the distance through which a body would fall in one second of time at the Earth's surface. the tree was cut down and its wood carefully preserved. He therefore was led to inquire whether." (See Newton's cannonball. dated 23 June 1673. but I would not have you trouble yourself to get them excused. allowing him as Lucasian professor to retain his fellowship without the obligation of taking holy orders. and "laid aside at that time any further thoughts of this matter. It is true that the loss to his income which this would have caused was obviated by a patent from the crown in April 1675. How much truth there is in what is a plausible and a favourite story can never be known. a fellow of the Royal Society. till 1860. This must have relieved Newton's mind from a great deal of anxiety about financial matters. as several others are. his fellowship at Trinity College would lapse in the autumn of 1675. no matter at what height they are placed above the Earth's surface. In one version of the story. if the Earth's attraction extended to the moon. and that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are in the same proportion as the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.) .

e. It is probable that Newton had become acquainted with this measurement of Picard's. put his hand upon his calculation. . in use in Roman Catholic Europe and elsewhere." He could not. yet this truth was not looked upon as established.[9] The correspondence later led to controversy. By the time he died. Newton set to work to reproduce the calculation. but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. taking the motion of the earth round its axis into consideration. After the latter had left Cambridge. and started for Cambridge. the secretary. Moreover. and was meant to be a short account of what that work was intended to embrace. which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register. a copy of his demonstration. Newton thanked him for "having entered on the register his notions about motion. By the middle of February Newton had sent his paper to Aston. and although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square. the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar. one of the secretaries of the Society. made the two results. one of the fellows of his own college. Oldenburg. or their views about the researches of others. who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu". It occupies twenty-four octavo pages. "Mr Halley was desired to put Mr Newton in mind of his promise for the securing this invention to himself. the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days. Newton replied promptly. to consult Newton on the subject. and consists of four theorems and seven problems. but Halley declared after a delay of some months that Hooke "had not been so good as his word" in showing his solution to Wren. I have calculated it. 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar. Sir Christopher Wren. he asked Newton what would be the curve described by a planet round the sun on the assumption that the sun's force diminished as the square of the distance. till such time as he could be at leisure to publish it".Early life In November 1679. i. and the Gregorian or 'New Style'. read a letter from Paris describing the procedure followed by Jean Picard in measuring a degree. and in a letter to Aston dated 23 February 1685. After making a mistake and producing a different result he corrected his work and obtained his former result. "Why. The estimate Newton had used for the radius of the earth. and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem. two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of northern Europe (Protestant) and eastern Europe. but he promised to send it to Halley. Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day. and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied. and that he was therefore led to make use of it when his thoughts were redirected to the subject. At Newton's birth. In January 1684." This treatise De Motu was the starting point of the Principia. however. and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital. some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia. Newton later acknowledged that the exchanges of 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomy. In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him. It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance. At a meeting of the Royal Society on 11 January 1672. in the month of August 1684. Unless otherwise noted.[10] It led Newton to revert to his former conjectures on the moon. was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the Earth's surface measured along a meridian was 60 nautical miles. the English new year began (for legal and some other civil purposes) on 25 March ('Lady Day'. to agree so exactly that he now regarded his conjecture as fully established. This estimate of the Earth's magnitude. Without mentioning the speculations which had been made. On his return to London on 10 December 1684. giving 691 miles (1112 km) to 10°. 34 Footnotes and references [1] During Newton's lifetime. the feast of the Annunciation: sometimes called 'Annunciation Style') rather than on 1 January (sometimes called 'Circumcision Style'). and specifically stating the precise length that he calculated it to be. which had been accepted by geographers and navigators. Hooke (after his appointment to manage the Royal Society's correspondence) began an exchange of letters with Newton: he wished to hear from members about their researches. he informed the Royal Society "that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge. "an ellipse". by the hand of Mr Paget. Hooke and Newton disagreed about the form of the path of a body falling from a height. and Paget was desired to join with Halley in urging Newton to do so. the discrepancy between which Newton had regarded as a disproof of his conjecture. prior to the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752. Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity.

Isaac Newton (1999) page 46 (http:/ / books. Montagu.) (1960). He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre remuneration of a college fellowship and a professorship. and the esteem the king has of your merits. ac.M1) [5] ed. pp. However. his hopes were spoiled by long delay. Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. In one Newton of his letters to Locke at the beginning of 1692. pl?sur=& suro=c& fir=& firo=c& cit=& cito=c& c=all& tex=RY644J& sye=& eye=& col=all& maxcount=50)". Newton wrote that he was "fully convinced that Montagu. but the college had offered a successful resistance on the grounds that the appointment would be illegal.B. cam. cited above. 159. Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed. (1994). and it was on his influence that Newton relied for promotion to some honourable and Engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of lucrative post. after being appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1694 finally put this right.297-314.43. Michael Hoskins (1997). 'Tis the chief office in the mint: 'tis worth five or six hundred pounds per annum. J. Cambridge University Press. p. Mr Overton. sfu. upon an old grudge which he thought had been worn out. [8] http:/ / www. In a letter to Newton announcing the news.. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. and took the opportunity to appoint Newton to the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. and the king has promised me to make Mr Newton warden of the mint. Lord Monmouth and Locke were exerting themselves to obtain some appointment for Newton. the warden of the mint. 35 References • Westfall. [10] H W Turnbull (ed.. Cambridge University Press [6] Venn. he still remained without any mark of national gratitude. lib. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03996/ ). The office is the most proper for you. Richard S. Isaac (http:/ / venn. its statutes required that the provost should be in priest's orders. google.) (1960)." Newton was now 55 years old. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA24& dq=storer+ intitle:isaac+ intitle:newton& lr=& num=30& as_brr=0& as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA46. is made one of the Commissioners of Customs. Montagu writes: "I am very glad that at last I can give you a good proof of my friendship. J. when Montagu. The Life of Isaac Newton. Locke had taken a very great interest in the new theories of the Principia. " Newton. 16–19 [4] Michael White. (Cambridge University Press. "Correspondence of Isaac Newton". Cambridge. eds (1922–1958). "Trinity College Notebook" (http:/ / cudl. [7] Newton. he had previously consulted Newton upon the subject of the recoinage. 11. Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy. A. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. Vol 2 (1676-1687). uk/ cgi-bin/ search. was a fellow of Trinity and an intimate friend of Newton. Later life During his residence in London. afterwards Earl of Halifax. Charles Montagu.Early life [2] Cohen. (1970).). at pp. Venn. p. was false to him. and has not . ca/ physics/ ugrad/ courses/ teaching_resources/ demoindex/ mechanics/ mech1l/ apple. I. html [9] H W Turnbull (ed. ISBN 0521477379. Appointment to the Mint At one time Newton's friend had nearly succeeded in getting him appointed provost of King's College. Isaac. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons [3] Westfall 1994. Vol. lib. ac. 1960). and whilst those of his own standing at the university had been appointed to high posts in church or state. cam. .435-440. Cambridge University Press.

and had been of great assistance to him in his mathematical investigations.[4] Newton also drew up a very extensive table of assays of foreign coins. Due to his income from the Mint Newton became very wealthy.[6] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this inadvertently resulted in a silver shortage as silver coins were used to pay for imports. Newton took it seriously. and the other Enumeratio linearum tertii ordinis.[2] Newton's chemical and mathematical knowledge proved of great use in carrying out this Great Recoinage of 1696. he never much liked to hear…"[7] This was a fortune at the time (equivalent to about £3 million in present day terms[8]). The first contains an explanation of the doctrine of fluxions. and it was not until 1693 that it was communicated to the scientific world in the second volume of John Wallis's works. Fluxions Up to the time of the publication of the Principia in 1687 the method of fluxions which had been invented by Newton. forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings. One of the most important rules of the method forms the second lemma of the second book of the Principia. effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard. but it is not clear whether it was a monetary loss or an opportunity cost loss. a post worth between £1.[2] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement. the one bearing the title Introductio ad Quadratura Curvarum. with an account of their properties. a process that was completed in about two years. Of this. a secret. To this work were added two treatises. entitled Accedunt tractatus duo ejusdem authoris de speciebus & magnitudine figurarum curvilinearum. 36 Achievements and influence Although the post was intended to be a sinecure. Newton used his experience from the English recoinage to direct the 1707-1710 Scottish recoinage. A further account was given in the first edition of Newton's Optics (1704). Newton's niece Catherine Conduitt reported that he "lost twenty thousand pounds. and of its application to the quadrature of curves.[3] but was salvaged by Newton's personal intervention. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. although he lost a substantial sum in the collapse of the South Sea Bubble.500 per annum. Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. Newton's admirers in the Netherlands informed Wallis that Newton's method of fluxions passed there under the name of Gottfried Leibniz's Calculus Differentials. was still. rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. the second. Newton continued in his position at the Royal Mint until his death in 1727." The letter must have convinced Newton of the sincerity of Montagu's good intentions towards him. while exports were paid for in gold. he did not exhibit it in the results.Later life too much business to require more attendance than you can spare. except to Newton and his friends. and this was why this method first appeared in Wallis's works. resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain.200 and £1. a classification of 72 curves of the third order. As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[5] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717. we find them living as friends on the most intimate terms until Halifax's death in 1715. It was therefore thought necessary that an early opportunity should be taken of asserting Newton's claim to be the inventor of the method of fluxions. The Principia gives no information on the subject of the notation adopted in the new calculus. By the time of his appointment the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping and counterfeiting during the Nine Years' War[1] to the extent that it had been decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation. Though this new and powerful method was of great help to Newton in his work. He was aware that the well known geometrical methods of the ancients would make his new creations seem less strange and uncouth to those not familiar with the new method. . however.

And some years ago I lent out a manuscript containing such theorems. and having since met with some things copied out of it. but he received a letter from Leibniz. and he gave a method of determining it. or other the simplest figures with which they might be compared. secretary to the Royal Society. (2) to determine a curve such that. and E. Newton stayed up to 4am before arriving at the solutions. two copies of the printed paper containing the problems. Domenico Guglielmini (1655—1710). I have on this occasion made it public. with improvements by the author. obtained leave to make it public. The six months elapsed without any solution being produced. He also solved the second problem. "tanquam. on the following day he sent a solution of them to Montague. In that year the Academy was remodelled. Tschirnhaus were appointed on 4 February. prefixing to it an introduction. Hartsoeker. sive de Compositione et Resolutione Arithmetica Liber. making it public. and published by Dr Wallis. Bernoulli adopted the suggestion. 's Gravesande published a tract. W. And I have joined with it another small tract concerning the curvilinear figures of the second kind. that the French and Italian mathematicians might have no reason to complain of the shortness of the period." and requesting that the period for their solution should be extended to Christmas next. from the subsequent editions of which they were omitted. who have solicited the. and Newton and Ole Rømer on 21 February. was published at London in 1712. Six months were allowed by Bernoulli for the solution of the problem. In 1699 Newton's position as a mathematician and natural philosopher was recognized by the French Academy of Sciences. thinking it a pity that so noble and useful a work should be doomed to a college confinement. This challenge was first made in the Ada Lipsiensia for June 1696. although Newton's solution was anonymous.Later life The reason for publishing these two tracts in his Optics. and a second edition of it. then president of the Royal Society for anonymous publication. then AP1m+AP2m [OCR garbled] will be constant. and in so doing showed that by the same method other curves might be found which cut off three or more segments having similar properties. In June 1696 Bernoulli addressed a letter to the mathematicians of Europe challenging them to solve two problems—(1) to determine the brachistochrone between two given points not in the same vertical line. With the view of stimulating mathematicians to write annotations on this admirable work. James Bernoulli and John Bernoulli on 14 February. by Dr Machin. under the title of Arithmetica Universalis. is thus stated in the advertisement: "In a letter written to Leibniz in the year 1679. 37 Bernoulli's mathematical challenge Newton's solution of the celebrated problems proposed by Johann Bernoulli and Leibniz deserves mention among his mathematical works." In 1707 William Whiston published the algebra lectures which Newton had delivered at Cambridge. and. I mentioned a method by which I had found some general theorems about squaring curvilinear figures on comparing them with the conic sections. if a straight line drawn through a fixed point A meet it in two points P1. Leibniz. P2." says he. he was recognized by Bernoulli as its author." It was soon afterwards translated into English by Raphson. and joining a Scholium concerning that method. entitled Specimen Commentarii in Arithmetican Universalem. and eight foreign associates were created. and Maclaurin's Algebra seems to have been drawn up in consequence of this appeal. He announced that the curve required in the first problem must be a cycloid. and in the event of none being sent to him he promised to publish his own. On 29 January 1697 Newton returned at 4pm from working at the Royal Mint and found in his post the problems that Bernoulli had sent to him directly. "ex ungue leonem" (we know the lion by his claw). stating that he had "cut the knot of the most beautiful of these problems. . and made known to some friends. which was also written many years ago. and publicly announced the postponement for the information of those who might not see the Ada Lipsiensia. Solutions were also obtained from Leibniz and the Marquis de l'Hôpital. but it is stated by one of the editors of the English edition "that Mr Whiston. We are not accurately informed how Whiston obtained possession of this work.

have been completely investigated. Dr Edleston." Whiston began his astronomical lectures as Newton's deputy in January 1701." he said. the longest term of office for any Royal Society president since except Sir Joseph Banks (at the time of writing. and after the spring of 1696 his time was occupied by his duties at the mint. In April 1705.. and then put into your hands one part of his book corrected for the press. Dr Bentley. The prince had offered. As president Newton was brought into close association with Prince George of Denmark." About the middle of July Cotes went to London. In February 1700 Leibniz writes of Newton. thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity. on Newton's recommendation. where (16 April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton. he retained his chair of mathematics at Cambridge. Whiston's claims to succeed Newton in the Lucasian chair were successfully supported by Newton himself. to cover the expense of printing Flamsteed's observations—especially his catalogue of the stars. but shortly after he was promoted to be master of the mint he appointed Whiston his deputy with "the full profits of the place.Later life 38 End of professorship and presidency of the Royal Society While Newton held the office of warden of the mint. the lunar theory would. however. who had been recently appointed the first Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy. On 11 November 1701 Newton was again elected one of the representatives of the university in parliament. In the autumn of 1703 Lord Somers retired from the presidency of the Royal Society. He held the office for 25 years. after speaking to Newton. the prince and the court were staying at the royal residence at Newmarket. On 21 May 1709. Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge. Bentley announced this arrangement to Cotes: "Sir Isaac Newton.. the master of Trinity College. but being a Whig. Newton was annually re-elected to this honourable post during the remainder of his life. had for a long time urged Newton to give his consent to the republication of the Principia. could not get the information he wanted from Flamsteed. where they were the guests of Dr Bentley. the queen's husband. and a number of honorary degrees conferred. they paid a visit to Cambridge. Roger Cotes. "will be glad to see you in June. who had been elected a fellow of the Royal Society.I forget from where . were heard from time to time. Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House. Rumours. and beaten by a large majority. but it was not till the spring of 1709 that he was prevailed upon to entrust the superintendence of it to a young mathematician of great promise. however." Newton. in his preface to Newton's correspondence with Cotes. He was warmly supported by the residents. In 1708 Newton's consent was obtained. He was anxious to improve the work by additions to the theory of the motion of the moon and the planets. the master of Trinity. of his work. no doubt expecting to bring down with him to Cambridge the . On 10 December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship. Second edition of the Principia As soon as the first edition of the Principia was published Newton began to prepare for a second. It was natural that the queen should form a high opinion of one whose merits had made such a deep impression on her husband. when the queen. but at the next dissolution in 1705 he stood for the university. and of a new edition. he was opposed by the non-residents. Newton does not seem to have been a candidate at this election. and a second edition of the Principia would probably have followed the execution of the task at no long interval. which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate. and on 30 November 1703 Newton was elected to succeed him. "J'ai appris aussi (je ne sais où) qu'il donnera encore quelque chose sur le mouvement de la Lune: et on m'a dit aussi qu'il y aura une nouvelle édition de ses principes de la nature. if its creator did not overrate his own powers. and discharged the duties of the post.that he will give further details on the movements of the Moon: and I've also been told that there will be a new edition of his Principia). fellow of Trinity College. in the first few months of 1695. so far as he could do it." (I have learnt . where a congregation of the senate was held. but he retained his seat only until the dissolution in the following July. 2002). justly remarks: "If Flamsteed the Astronomer-Royal had cordially co-operated with him in the humble capacity of an observer in the way that Newton pointed out and requested Of him.

true in theory but difficult to execute. "In hac secunda Principiorum Editione. Caroline of Ansbach. who called witnesses. was published the long and impatiently expected second edition of the Principia. 39 The longitude problem In 1714 the question of finding the longitude at sea. and shortly afterwards was converted into a Bill. The translation was printed under the title Abrege de chronologie de . He mentioned four: 1. Newton criticized all the methods. I believe it will not be amiss to print next after the old Praefatio ad Lectorem. to present her with a copy of the new edition. vii. however. it was nearly the end of September before the corrected copy was given to him. I must not see it. which had been looked upon as an important one for several years. an antiquary at Paris. Theoria resistentiac fluidorum accuratius investigatur & novis experimentis confirmatur. 4. Although Cotes was impatient to begin his work. He accordingly drew up an abstract of the system from his papers. facilior redditur et amplior. The cuts for ye Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier. pointing out their weak points. At last. on 27 July. He stated that for determining the longitude at sea there had been several projects. The report ran "that it is the opinion of this committee that a reward be settled by Parliament upon such person or persons as shall discover a more certain and practicable method of ascertaining the longitude than any yet in practice. by a watch to keep time exactly by the eclipses of Jupiter's moons by the place of the moon by a new method proposed by Mr Ditton. In Libro tertio Theoria Lunae & Praecessio Aequinoctiorum ex Principiis suis plenius deducuntur. and received the royal assent. "If you write any further preface. And therein he partly makes observations upon what I have written & partly improves it. N. about midsummer 1713." Newton was a very popular visitor at the Court of George I. for I find that I shall be examined about it. wife of George II. To prevent being blamed by him or others for any disingenuity in not acknowledging my oversights or slips in the first edition. 3. passed both Houses. and the said reward be proportioned to the degree of exactness to which the said method shall reach. 2. Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge. lent his copy to M Fréret. "28 Mar. and sent it to the Princess for her own private use. who translated it. she requested him to give her a copy. when the edition was nearly ready for publication. and it is due mainly to his evidence that the Committee brought in the report which was accepted by the House. The Princess of Wales. Newton wrote to Cotes: "I hear that Mr Bernoulli has sent a paper of 40 pages to be published in the Ada Leipsica relating to what I have written upon the curve lines described by projectiles in resisting media. was brought into prominence by a petition presented to the House of Commons by a number of captains of Her Majesty's ships and merchant ships and of London merchants. multa sparsim emendantur & nonnulla adjiciuntur. Newton appeared before them and gave evidence." Newton's desire to avoid writing the preface seems to have come from a knowledge that Cotes was considering alluding to the dispute about the invention of fluxions. During the printing of this edition a correspondence went on continuously between Newton and Cotes. et Theoria Cometarum pluribus et accuratius computatis Orbium exemplis confirmatur. On the 31st of March 1713. Newton waited on Queen Anne. and endeavoured to refute it.Later life corrected portion of the Principia. In Libri secundi Sect. The abbé. I. but he afterwards allowed a copy to be made for the Abbé Conti on the express understanding that it should not be communicated to any other person. took every opportunity of conversing with him. 1713. and. The petition was referred to a committee of the House. In Libri primi Sect. ii Inventio viriuni quibus corpora in Orbibus datis revolvi possint. the following account of this new Edition.

Another work Lexicon Propheticum published in 1737 was a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews. a nephew of Bentley. who was on the way to the continent. and answered the objections which Fréret had urged against his system." Newton charged the Abbé with a breach of promise. Upon receiving a copy of this work. Newton printed. which is in the form of a single letter to a friend. Newton and a relation Dr Newton of Grantham had put up furnaces and had wrought for several months in quest of the philosophers tincture. to have it translated into French and have it published there. Sir Isaac spent much time in the study of the alchemists including Jacob Boehme. John which was published in London in 1733.Later life M le Chevallier Newton. 40 Theological studies From an early period in life Newton paid great attention to theological studies. Sir Isaac also studied the manuscripts of Flamsteed's Explication of Hieroglyphic Figures and William Yworth's Processus Mysterii Magnii Magni Philosophicus. Newton also wrote a Church History and a History of Creation. Dr Horsley therefore published a genuine one. he became alarmed at the possible consequences. and published at Paris. Sir Isaac Newton also wrote Observation on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. and was taken from a manuscript in Sir Isaac's own hand. to suppress it". This was done. For example in 1716 Leibniz. In an earlier part of his life. . included in a letter to John Locke in November 1690. Father Étienne Souciet entered the field in defence of Fréret. The problem was to find the orthogonal trajectories of a series of curves represented by a single equation. and though he was fatigued from work. This edition had many errors.. His Tabula Quantilatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire. Alchemy Newton devoted much of his time to the study of chemistry. and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended. and in consequence of this controversy Newton was induced to prepare his larger work. in a letter to the Abbe Conti. Upon hearing this Newton responded "to stop the translation and publication as soon as he could. in 1756. That Newton was even then a powerful thinker was proved by his ability to attack the most difficult mathematical problems with success. On 20 January 1692 Leclerc announced his intention of publishing it in Latin. He wrote four letters to Bentley containing arguments for existence of a deity which were published by Cumberland. Locke copied the manuscript and sent it to Jean Leclerc on 11 April 1691. beginning his studies before 1690. He wrote another chemical paper De Natura Acidorum. Sir Isaac was anxious for its publication but because his argument deprived the Trinitarians of two passages in favour of the Trinity. but Leclerc sent the manuscript to the library of the Remonstrants. and it was later published in London in 1754 under the title Two Letters from Isaac Newton to M le Clerc. proposed a problem for solution "for the purpose of feeling the pulse of the English analysts". a paper entitled "Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton. translated into French by the observator. Paradoxical Questions regarding Athanasius. fait par lui-même et traduit sur le manuscrit anglais. in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725. One of the most remarkable of Newton's theological works is his Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures. after his death. which was published in 1728. a great number of his experiments still remain in manuscript. Newton received the problem at about 17:00 as he was returning from the mint. He therefore asked Locke. to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great. he solved it later the same evening.

[10] Woolsthorpe Manor passed to his heir-in-law. His duties from the mint were terminated and thus he seldom left home. com/ prod/ pdf/ reviews/ BJU4_jan2005. uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_129/ 129_861_886. Richard Kleer.x. Athol L Murray. ac. ahds. 1709-1836 (http:/ / ads. a John Newton ("God knows a poor representative of so great a man"). measuringworth. April 1842 . 1997 [5] On the Value of Gold and Silver in European Currencies and the Consequences on the World-wide Gold. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey His considerable liquid estate was divided equally between his eight half-nieces and half-nephews — three Pilkingtons. BJU International 95 (1): 24–26.[11] References [1] The 1696 Recoinage (1696-1699) (http:/ / www. pdf) (PDF). after six years of "cock[fight]ing. com/ editions/ 1701-25-mint-reports/ report-1717-09-25.January 1843 (http:/ / www. drinking and folly" was forced to mortgage and then sell the manor before dying in a drunken accident. html). Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park. archive. urotoday. org/ details/ numismaticser1v05royauoft) [7] William Seward. 1999 [4] Sir Isaac Newton and the Scottish recoinage. PMID 15638889. pdf). Athol L Murray.2005. Gilbert J.[10] Towards the end of his life. On 28 February 1727 he went to London to preside at a meeting of the Royal Society but his health condition forced him to return to Kensington on 4 March when it was determined he had a kidney stone. Charlotte M. Edward. A Proclamation Declaring the Rates at which Gold shall be current in Payments reproduced in the numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society. On 18 March he became delirious around 6pm and stayed in that state until Monday 20 March 1727 when he died between one and two in the morning. His body was taken to London and on Tuesday. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 21 September 1717. pierre-marteau. University of Regina. 1804 [8] UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. Vol V. "Celestial bodies and urinary stones: Isaac Newton (1641–1727) – health and urological problems" (http:/ / www. litencyc. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.. doi:10. org/ ukearncpi/ )" MeasuringWorth. and then was moved to his burial location in the Abbey. ISBN 9780151012787. Newton and the Counterfeiter. (2005). www. Anecdotes of Distinguished Men. Wise. 870 [11] Yonge. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6. The Literary Encyclopedia [2] Thomas Levenson (2009). online-literature. Retrieved 23 September 2009.05242. [9] Ostad. (Note: the date of Newton's death is 20 March 1727 in the "Old Style" Julian calendar and 31 March 1727 in the "New Style" Gregorian calendar). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. He endured great suffering. (1898). . com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). uk/ catalogue/ adsdata/ PSAS_2002/ pdf/ vol_127/ 127_921_944.1464-410X. 1707-10 (http:/ / ads. php?rec=true& UID=1304). three Smiths and two Bartons (including Catherine Barton Conduitt). [10] Westfall 1980.1111/j. Sir Isaac Newton. who. near Winchester with his niece and her husband until his death in 1727. horse racing. In January 1725 he was seized with violent cough and inflammation of the lungs which induced him to move to Kensington. pdf).online-literature. p.Later life 41 Sir Isaac Newton's final years In the last few years of Newton's life he was troubled by urinary incontinence[9] probably due to a kidney stone. .com. OCLC 276340857. . In the next month he had a case of gout and then had an improvement of health. [6] By The King. Officer (2010) " What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then? (http:/ / www. ahds. 28 March it lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber in Westminster Abbey.and Silver-Trade (http:/ / www. ac. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. com/ php/ stopics. Retrieved 2008-05-22. [3] The Scottish Mint after the recoinage.

some have commented that the common reference a "Newtonian Worldview" as being purely mechanistic is somewhat inaccurate. he was the last of the magicians. and pseudoscience were still being formulated. superstition.edu/~michael/koll. Newton's scientific work may have been of lesser personal importance to him.html) Review by Michael Nauenberg of Isaac Newton. alchemy. and criticism of Nicholas Kollerstrom.Later life 42 External links • Newton's Lunar Theory (http://physics. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory : His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude (Green Lion Press. and Biblical interpretation (especially of the Apocalypse). In this sense. so many of his experimental studies used esoteric language and vague terminology more typically associated with alchemy and occultism. 2000) Occult studies Colorized engraving after Enoch Seeman's 1726 portrait of Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). the noted English scientist and mathematician. Santa Fe. Newton was deeply interested in all forms of natural sciences and materials science. economist John Maynard Keynes. as he placed emphasis on rediscovering the occult wisdom of the ancients. an interest which would ultimately lead to some of his better-known contributions to science.". for example. the educated embraced a world view different from that of later centuries. After purchasing and studying Newton's alchemical works in 1942.[1] In the pre-Modern Era of Newton's lifetime.ucsc. It was not until several decades after Newton's death that experiments of . During Newton's lifetime the study of chemistry was still in its infancy. 1975). Bernard Cohen (Dawson. These occult works explored chronology. wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. Theory of the Moon's Motion (1702). opined that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason. and a devoutly Christian Biblical perspective permeated Western culture. Newton's alchemical research and writings Much of what are known as Isaac Newton's occult studies can largely be attributed to his study of alchemy. Distinctions between science. with a and historical introduction by I.

which is thought by some to have resulted from the psychological transformation alchemy was originally designed to induce. over a third of which were filled with content that appeared to be alchemical in nature.Occult studies stoichiometry under the pioneering works of Antoine Lavoisier were conducted. The English Crown. who had inherited them from Newton's great-niece. as evident from a 38-year gap from Newton's alleged conception of Calculus in 1666 and its final full publication in 1704. and analytical chemistry.[2] Newton's writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone (a material believed to turn base metals into gold). came to resemble modern chemistry as we know it today. thou little knowest the [3] mischief thou hast done. so the true extent of his work in this area may have been larger than is currently known. In the story. such as the numerous instances when he was criticized by Robert Hooke. The Jewish National and University Library has published a number of high-quality scanned images of various Newton documents. who was himself a vigorous collector of Isaac Newton's original manuscripts. lead. Many of the documents collected by Keynes and Yahuda are now in the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. and transcribe the fragmented collection of Newton's work on alchemical subjects and make them freely available for on-line access. Newton also suffered a nervous breakdown during his period of alchemical work. who throughout his life. though there is also speculation that it may have been some form of chemical poisoning (possibly from mercury. Newton is thought to have said.[2] Newton reportedly believed that a Diana's Tree. the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. and the potential scrutiny that he feared from his peers within the scientific community. Known as the "Portsmouth Papers". also fearing the potential devaluation of gold.K. Two of these are The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project [6] supported by the U. In recent years. Much of Newton's writing on alchemy may have been lost in a fire in his laboratory. "O Diamond. which would ultimately lead to the infamous Newton vs Leibniz Calculus Controversy.[5] At the auction many of these documents were purchased by economist John Maynard Keynes. collected many of Newton's alchemical writings. and The Newton Project [7] supported by the U. with its associated nomenclature. or some other substance)."[4] Some practices of alchemy were banned in England during Newton's lifetime." 43 In 1936. 9th Earl of Portsmouth. Newton was well known as being highly sensitive to criticism. several projects have begun to gather. Newton also refrained from publication of material that he felt was incomplete.[8] . An 1874 engraving showing a probably apocryphal account of Newton's lab fire. and his admitted reluctance to publish any substantial information regarding Calculus before 1693. At the time of Newton's death this material was considered "unfit to publish" by Newton's estate. should The Philosopher's Stone actually be discovered. In addition. In some cases the punishment for unsanctioned alchemy would include the public hanging of an offender on a gilded scaffold while adorned with tinsel and other items. Much of the Keynes collection later passed to eccentric document collector Abraham Yahuda. Arts and Humanities Research Board. made penalties for alchemy very severe. that Newton may have deliberately left his work on alchemical subjects unpublished. A perfectionist by nature. Diamond. to be evidence that metals "possessed a sort of life. and perhaps to a lesser extent. this material consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine lots of Newton's manuscripts. burning 20 years of research.S. and consequently fell into obscurity until their somewhat sensational re-emergence in 1936. due in part to unscrupulous practitioners who would often promise wealthy benefactors unrealistic results in an attempt to swindle them. an alchemical demonstration producing a dendritic "growth" of silver from solution. catalogue.[2] It was for this reason. a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished works were auctioned by Sotheby's on behalf of Gerard Wallop. Newton's dog started the fire. National Science Foundation.

This concept. "Nicholas Flammel. Published London. taken from Plate 1 of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. these are themselves a collection of excerpts from another work entitled. a volume often associated with the Turba Philosophorum and other early European alchemical manuscripts. dedicating an entire chapter of "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms" to his observations regarding the temple. Villalpando's work on the temple produced a great deal of interest throughout Europe and had a significant impact upon later architects and scholars. "The Epitome of the treasure of health written by Edwardus Generosus Anglicus innominatus who lived Anno Domini 1562". Artephius.[10] In addition to scripture. though mysterious figure. Newton also relied upon various ancient and contemporary sources while studying the temple.Occult studies 44 The Philosopher's Stone Of the material sold during the 1936 Sotheby's auction. His Exposition of the Hieroglyphicall Figures which he caused to be painted upon an Arch in St Innocents Church-yard in Paris. This belief would lead Newton to examine many architectural works of Hellenistic Greece. wherein he beareth witness of ye book of Artephius". Newton's primary source for information was the description of the structure given within 1 Kings of the Hebrew Bible. early forms of tarot. "Ezechielem Explanationes". and his "secret book".[12][13] . Together with The secret Booke of Artephius. in a search for their occult knowledge. including within this work his own interpretations and elaborate reconstructions of Solomon's Temple. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. And the Epistle of Iohn Pontanus: Containing both the Theoricke and the Practicke of the Philosophers Stone". This work may also have been referenced by Newton in its Latin version found within Lazarus Zetzner's. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. the Animal or Angelicall Stone. The treatise concludes with an alchemical poem. Biblical studies In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. Hieroglyphical Figures. In its time. were also subjects of interest to 17th century alchemists. and occultism.[11] Isaac Newton's diagram of part of the Temple of Solomon. as well as Roman sources such as Vitruvius. Also in the 1936 auction of Newton's collection was. and the vegetable or the growing stone. who just a few decades earlier had published an influential manuscript entitled. This is a twenty-eight page treatise on the Philosopher's Stone. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. 1728. Newton estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. Nicolas Flamel. was a common belief of many scholars during Newton's lifetime. often termed "prisca sapientia" (sacred wisdom). He believed that many ancient sources were endowed with sacred wisdom[2] and that the proportions of many of their temples were in themselves sacred. In predicting this he said. (one subject of the aforementioned work) was a notable. followed by "The Epistle of Iohn Pontanus. "Artephius his secret Book". several documents indicate an interest by Newton in the procurement or development of The Philosopher's Stone. the Prospective stone or magical stone of Moses. in which Villalpando comments on the visions of the biblical prophet Ezekiel. which he translated himself from the original Hebrew. Most notably are documents entitled."[9] Newton's studies of the Temple of Solomon Newton studied and wrote extensively upon the Temple of Solomon. A more contemporary source for Newton's studies of the temple was Juan Bautista Villalpando. "Theatrum Chemicum". often associated with the discovery of The Philosopher's Stone.

including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled. he developed a strong affinity and deep admiration for the teachings and works of Joseph Mede. In the knowledge of this philosophy. Isaac Newton's treatise. and in a larger sense that they were references to the size of the Earth and man's place and proportion to it. Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon's Temple. but also in the sacred scriptures. would reveal an unknown knowledge of how nature works. conic sections. related to solutions for and the volume of a hemisphere. Isaiah and others. God made Solomon the greatest philosopher in the world. scholars. "Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture". both speculative and active. Newton believed that the temple was designed by King Solomon with privileged eyes and divine guidance. 27 years after his death. when deciphered. Around 1692. and though it does not argue any prophetic meaning. the same was true of their architecture. and Biblical figures contained within them unknown sacred wisdom. such as golden sections. He believed that these men had hidden their knowledge in a complex code of symbolic and mathematical language that. [14] Job. Newton felt that just as the writings of ancient philosophers. and other harmonious constructions. there was great interest in the Temple of Solomon in Europe. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him.0 m) and 80-foot-around (24 m) model was later sold in 1725 and was exhibited in London as early as 1723. In addition. it does exemplify what Newton considered to be just one popular misunderstanding of Scripture. is not only to be found in the volume of nature. orthographic projection. Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word. Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code.Occult studies As a Bible scholar. an anonymous treatise which had been given to him by his fellow scholar Ezekiel Foxcroft. but he also believed that the dimensions and proportions represented more.[17] In 1754. and like many of his contemporaries in Protestant England. Gerhard Schott produced a highly detailed model of the temple for use in an opera in Hamburg composed by Christian Heinrich Postel. ” During Newton's lifetime.[11] In 1675 Newton annotated a copy of "Manna . only adding to the public interest in the temple. . In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation. and then later temporarily installed at the London Royal Exchange from 1729–1730. Psalms. spirals. Though he never wrote a cohesive body of work on prophecy. To Newton. as in Genesis. was published posthumously in 1728.[14] It was for this reason that he included a chapter devoted to the temple within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". it also provided a time-frame chronology of Hebrew history. This immense 13-foot-high (4.[16] He was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible. writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations. and augmented by a vogue for detailed engravings and physical models presented in various galleries for public viewing. He noted that the temple's measurements given in the Bible are mathematical problems. found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". In 1628. which was popular in its day. . a section which initially may seem unrelated to the historical nature of the book as a whole. Newton's belief led him to write several treatises on the subject. due to the success of Villalpando's publications.[15] Newton's prophecy Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. the geometry of the temple represented more than a mathematical blueprint. "An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture" would be published. Judah Leon Templo produced a model of the temple and surrounding Jerusalem.a disquisition of the nature of alchemy". In his annotation Newton reflected upon his reasons for examining Solomon's Temple by writing: 45 “ This philosophy. Sir Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple. where it could be viewed for half-a-crown.

Christ comes as a thief in the night. 1084 7 The diffence [sic] between the 1290 & 1335 days are a parts of the seven weeks. which ultimately would provide the 2060 time frame. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details. 3 The time times & half a time did not commence before the year 800 in wch the Popes supremacy commenced 4 They did not commence after the re[ig]ne of Gregory the 7th. 2060. indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than 2060. Newton at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. Canada's National Post. . The first document. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fancifull men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. part of the Yahuda collection. 7th.[D. but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them.] 70. but I see no reason for its ending sooner. 46 2060 In late February and early March 2003. The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem.[18] To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Isaac Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot. Nature.Occult studies Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach. 1. Newton probably means 2374] ” The second reference to the 2060 prediction can be found in a folio. he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research. 800. Furthermore. a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents. and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal. the period of 1260 days.C. ” Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture.[18] Television and Internet stories in the following weeks heightened the exposure and ultimately would include the production of several documentary films focused upon the topic of the 2060 prediction and some of Newton's less well known beliefs and practices. The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers including. evidently written by Isaac Newton. will end A. It may end later. an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for “long lived”] kingdoms.[20] in which Newton writes: “ So then the time times & half a time are 42 months or 1260 days or three years & an half. Britain's Daily Telegraph. if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy.C. & by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. The 2300 prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. Both of these lay essential to his calculations. The time times & half time do n[o]t end before 2060 nor after [2344] [18] The 1290 days do not begin [this should read: end] before 2090 nor after 1374 [sic. 1084 5 The 1290 days did not commence b[e]fore the year 842. in or after 1705. a time frame most notably established by the use of the full title of Sir Isaac Newton within portions of the documents. 6 They did not commence after the reigne of Pope Greg. recconing twelve months to a yeare & 30 days to a month as was done in the Calendar of the primitive year.[18] Both were believed to be written toward the end of Newton's life. on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand: “ Prop.[19] is a small letter slip. & it is not for us to know the times & seasons wch God hath put into his [18] own breast. Therefore the 2300 years do not end before ye year 2132 nor after 2370. 2 Those day [sic] did not commence a[f]ter the destruction of Jerusalem & ye Temple by the Romans A.

Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia. Sometime around 1701 he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled. a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis. though does not cite his reasons for believing so. themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. The marriage supper. ” Newton's chronology Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of Chronology. Egypt. with the earliest records focusing upon Greece. as he saw it. the daughter of Atlas (after whom Atlantis was named). In fact. an approximately 87. standards. As such. From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. Anatolia. Into this city the kings of the earth do bring their glory & that of the [18] nations & the saints reign for ever & ever. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within The Bible. The glory & felicity of the New Jerusalem is represented by a building of Gold & Gemms enlightened by the glory of God & ye Lamb & watered by ye river of Paradise on ye banks of wch grows the tree of life. this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronical which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in 896 BC. and poets.Occult studies Newton may not have been referring to the post 2060 event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants. and his successor Misphragmuthosis. was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In this entry he mentions Mephres. during 1125 BC the Pharaoh of Egypt is now understood to be Ramesses IX. the oldest actual historical date he provides is 1125 BC. Within the same material Newton mentions that according to ancient sources. but rather one in which he believed the world.[22] Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric. are several passages that directly mention the mythical land of Atlantis.000 word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. It is done. In a separate manuscript. Atlantis had been as big as all Europe. Plutarch. though the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died. Newton's Atlantis Found within "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time. Africa and Asia. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. In Greek Mythology. and available source material. but was sunk into the Sea. gives them of ye fountain of living water & creates all thin things new saying. and various other classical historians. The publication date of this work occurred after his death. authors. Pliny. "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding. and the Levant. In Christian and Islamic theology this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of The Kingdom of God on Earth. In 1728 "The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms". God dwells with men wipes away all tears from their eyes. or possibly the same island. Though some of the dates Newton provides for various events are inaccurate by modern standards. .[21] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post 2060 events by writing: 47 “ A new heaven & new earth. the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected. Ogygia was home to Calypso. However. Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. Homer.

Occult studies 48 Newton and Secret Societies Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. However. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations. the physical universe. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton. and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups. as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them.".[26] Though the Rosicrucian movement had caused a great deal of excitement within Europe's scholarly community during the early seventeenth century. lack of supportive publicized material. his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world.[26] Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. Furthermore. the level of their secrecy. Considering his esteemed social status. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative. by the time Newton had reached maturity the movement had become less sensationalized.[23] Regardless of his own membership status. and the spiritual realm. it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels. and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years. and highly politicised. Though Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing.[24][25] however. by Thomas Vaughan which represents an English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. It is unclear if these associations were a result of being a well established and prominently publicized scholar. it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization. the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of gold from the use of The Philosopher's Stone. anti-Catholic. Newton and The Rosicrucians Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. would seem to exclude Newton . a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint. Isaac Newton had 169 books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library. avowedly Christian. remains unclear. which they claimed to have in their possession. The organized level of this group (if in fact any existed). however. Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues. but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature. these are considered learned societies. Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime. the Rosicrucians were deeply religious. it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. In his library. as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research. Like Newton. Newton also possessed copies of "Themis Aurea" and "Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium" by the learned alchemist Michael Maier. during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking.[26] At the time of his death. though he may have sold them before moving to London in 1696. or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself. He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society.C. an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society (1703–1727). Newton left behind a heavily annotated personal copy of "The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R. both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought. the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton. For its time. not esoteric societies. Additionally. The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits. a recognized Knight. considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born.

com/ 2010/ jul-aug/ 05-isaac-newton-world. org/ web/ 20080506050720/ http:/ / www. During his own life. as were many members of The Royal Society. html) [9] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side. as many social and scholastic clubs bear his name. Newton's membership of The Royal Society and the fact that many Royal Society members have been identified as early Freemasons has led many to believe Newton was a Mason himself. Proceedings of the Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. Retrieved 2007-08-12. jnul. July/August. s-most-famous-alchemist)". 1999. newtonproject. J. Oxford University Press US.. There is currently a Freemason Lodge operating at Cambridge University named The Isaac Newton University Lodge. USA: PBS. and he never publicly identified himself as one. lists Newton as a member as does The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail many themes of which were used in Dan Brown's best-selling fictional book. [6] http:/ / webapp1. Jane Bosveld. google. a forgery and founding document of the Priory. Rabbi Chaim.M. "Temple Institute: Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple" (http:/ / www. ultimately there is no evidence to directly connect Newton to Freemasonry. org/ isaac_newton_holy_temple. Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / web. 144. jsp [7] http:/ / www. [4] " Isaac Newton and the Philosophers' Stone (http:/ / discovermagazine. htm). [11] Christianson. indiana. php?id=1 [8] gallery (http:/ / www._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. dlib. p. sacred geometry.[28] Despite this lack of evidence. ISBN 019530070X. Pope). 15–19 July 1946. 19 June 2007. Cambridge University Press (1947) [2] Nova: Newton's Dark Secrets (2005). Page 91. "Newton and Alchemy" (http:/ / webapp1. Oxford University Press. edu/ newton/ about. a subject that also interested many notable Freemasons of the era. Isaac Newton (http:/ / books. huji. and the fact that he was eulogized by Alexander Pope (A._Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. (http:/ / www. Temple Institute. Retrieved 1 July 2008. Since the Priory itself is considered to be a ludibrium. Isaac Newton's membership plays an important role in Brown's book as a plot puzzle mentioned as "the tomb of a knight a pope interred". referring not to a medieval knight. however this does not mean that Isaac Newton was a founder or even a member. References [1] Keynes. and the structure of the Temple of Solomon. Gale E. Associated Press. Newton's membership would naturally also be considered false. ac. . com/ ?id=lwcDZ0Ex4lYC). dlib.Occult studies from their membership. [10] Richman. christianpost. il/ dl/ mss/ newton/ gallery_eng. htm). Discover Magazine. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project. However. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. It is clear that Newton was deeply interested in architecture. Isaac Newton: Eighteenth Century Perspectives. (2005). Temple Institute (1991-2008). 175. . from his writings it does appear that he may have shared many of their sentiments and beliefs. [3] Alfred Rupert Hall. christianpost. there is continued speculation as to the role that Newton may have had in the formation of Masonic Orders in their modern context. templeinstitute. edu/ newton/ index. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. but rather to Newton's tomb in Westminster Abbey. ISBN 0-19-850364-4. 2010 [5] Newman. . ac. indiana. do). .[28] Newton and The Priory of Sion It has been claimed that Newton was a Grand Master of the mythical and exhaustively debunked Priory of Sion. The Man". The "Dossiers Secrets d'Henri Lobineau". org/ wgbh/ nova/ newton/ ). . htm) on 6 May 2008.[27] Though it is not known for sure if Isaac Newton was in fact a Rosicrucian. Newton was openly accused of being a Rosicrucian. p. William R. sussex. Isaac Newton is still frequently identified as being a member of several early Masonic Lodges including the Grand Lodge of England. Retrieved 2010-07-19. pbs.[29] Considering the lack of records concerning early Freemasonry and the belief that the modern structure of the organization was partly established during Newton's lifetime in and around London. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side. uk/ prism. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [12] Goldish. archive. 49 Newton and Freemasonry There is no verifiable record of Newton being a Freemason. (5 April 2007). "The Da Vinci Code". "Newton.

.uu. S.Occult studies [13] MacDonnell. . Rob Iliffe. Da Capo Press. 146. spalding-gentlemens-society.dcs. Henry (2004). newtonproject.gutenberg. newtonproject.F. f. Scott Mandelbrote.newtonproject. London: Routledge. [26] White. [17] Newton. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-26. edu/ jmac/ sj/ scientists/ villalpando. .niu. f. php?id=74). htm). isaac-newton. . 859" (http:/ / www.dlib. William (2010). 50 • White. ac.edu/collections/newton/) • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.J.htm#chron) at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms (http://www.org/wgbh/nova/newton/) PBS Nova episode.htm) • the volume of a hemisphere (http://mathforum.edu/ jmac/sj/scientists/villalpando.from Chapter 3. . . fairfield. org/ ). Isaac.edu/~rusin/known-math/index/40-XX. W. Michael." (http:/ / www.html) • The Chymistry of Isaac Newton (http://www. Retrieved 2007-08-15.nl/~gent0113/astrology/newton. sussex. Joseph. freemasons-freemasonry.2a. ISBN 073820143X. 1997. The Newton Project. com/ ?id=JTPcRXdUahQC& printsec=frontcover& dq=The+ Shadow+ of+ Solomon)..themathpage. ISBN 1578634040. htm).pbs. . newtonproject. . Retrieved 2008-06-25. The Models of the Temple and the English Craft" (http:/ / freemasonry. f. . The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. 496.3o. . Retrieved 2007-08-19. php?id=THEM00040& mode=normalized).il/dl/mss/newton/) • Isaac Newton used the works of Villalpando in his architectural studies. 2005: Weiser.staff.org/library/drmath/view/55191. Retrieved 1 July 2008. Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer. pp. google. University of Sussex: The Newton Project. inul.3g. [28] Baigent.freemasons-freemasonry. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized).sussex.html) • Exhibit at the Jewish National Library and University (http://www. Isaac Newton's Freemasonary: The Alchemy of Science and Mysticism (http:/ / www.M.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00183) (from the Newton Project (http://www.science. p. "The Original of Monarchies" (http:/ / www. uk/ view/ texts/ normalized/ OTHE00001) (transcipt ed. The Shadow of Solomon: The Lost Secret of the Freemasons Revealed (http:/ / books. (http://www. uk/ texts/ viewtext.uk)) • Newton's Dark Secrets (http://www.html) • unit fractions. Frances A.ac. (http://www. "Juan Bautista Villalpando. 13v [21] Yahuda MS 7. [14] Gardner. google. Book Excerpt .com/aReal/unit-fraction. Stephen D. [16] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. com/ book_bauer. Retrieved 20 April 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2008 [15] Crawley. ac. Lincoln. ed. William Stukeley 1752.sussex.ac.D.sussex.newtonproject.st-and. p.htm) • the math (http://www-groups. ac. Michael (1999). "Isaac Newton University Lodge No.htm) • harmonious and beautiful constructions (http://www. org). Retrieved 2007-08-15.indiana. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [24] Stukeley. AHRC Newton Papers Project.php?id=82& cat=Alchemy) (from the Newton Project (http://www.html) • the skills in math and science (http://www. sussex. Laurence (2007). . p. Holy Grail.huji. Originally published as: Aux origines de la franc-maçonnerie: Newton et les Newtoniens by Editions Dervy (2003): Inner Traditions. 8r [20] Yahuda MS 7. [18] Snobelen. uk/ prism. Delta Trade Paperbacks. uk/ texts/ viewtext. com/ ?id=l2C3NV38tM0C). Isaac (5 April 2007). [23] Bauer.uk/prism.ac. sussex. bcy. Alain (2007). Michael. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's life.newtonproject.fairfield.ac. . Isaac Newton: The Last Sorcerer (http:/ / books. Originally published: London : HarperElement. Retrieved 2008-06-25 [27] Yates.math.ac.jnul. • "The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy" by Sir William Sherrell of the Royal Society External links • "Catalogue of Newton's Alchemical Papers" (http://www. ac. html). 2060.uk)) . Chetwode." (http:/ / www. The Newton Project. & A. faculty.uk/~history/Extras/Graf_theory. [19] Yahuda MS 7.org/files/15784/15784-h/15784-h. ISBN 0385338457 [29] INUL. 117. ISBN 1-59477-172-3. html). Retrieved 2007-08-15. 31r [22] Newton. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon A. "Rabbi Jacob Jehudah Leon.sussex. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton. written at USA. "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www.faculty. ca/ aqc/ leon.. [25] "Spalding Gentlemen's Society" (http:/ / www. the Apocalypse and A. (http:/ / www. newtonproject. • Isaac Newton and Astrology (http://www.newtonproject.). sussex. Fairfield University. org/ newton_2060.ac.com/pillar_solomon_temple. (1972). J. Holy Blood.

theologian and alchemist. Newton's beliefs would lead him to write several treatises on the subject. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophecy for him.[4] in recent times he has been described as heretical to orthodoxy. by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that. astronomer. believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be. "so little understood". In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be. but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end. the Bible was Sir Isaac Newton's greatest passion. In predicting this he said. Rules for interpreting the words & language in Scripture. mathematician."[7] Prophecy Newton was a strong believer in prophetic interpretation of the Bible and considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity. I study the Bible daily. he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. After 1690. He used the book of Daniel and Revelation to work out the dates he used . natural philosopher. and he said. He devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science.[8] Though he would never write a cohesive body of work on Prophecy.[5] Biblical studies Sir Isaac Newton at 46 in Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait Though he is better known for his love of science. written by those who were inspired."[6] He spent a great deal of time trying to discover hidden messages within the Bible. as he considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. Newton saw a monotheistic God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. "I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God. including an unpublished guide for prophetic interpretation entitled.[1] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world. He also wrote many works that would now be classified as occult studies. and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.Religious views 51 Religious views Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English physicist.[2][3] Although born into an Anglican family.[1] Unlike a prophet in the classical sense of the word. In a manuscript Newton wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible. had it been made public.

Religious views

52

**Time of the end
**

In his posthumously-published Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John, Newton expressed his belief that Bible prophecy would not be understood "until the time of the end", and that even then "none of the wicked shall understand". Referring to that as a future time ("the last age, the age of opening these things, be now approaching"), Newton also anticipated "the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching" and "the Gospel must first be preached in all nations before the great tribulation, and end of the world".[9]

2060 A.D.

Over the years, a large amount of media attention and public interest has circulated regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, that indicate he believed the world could end in 2060 AD. (Newton also had many other possible dates e.g. 2034)[10] The juxtaposition of Newton, popularly seen by some as the embodiment of scientific rationality, with a seemingly irrational prediction of the "end of the world" would invariably lend itself to cultural sensationalism. To understand the reasoning behind the 2060 prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his nontrinitarian beliefs and those negative views he held about the Papacy. Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which are themselves based upon specific chronological dates which he believed had already transpired and had been prophesied within Revelation and Daniel, books within the Christian Bible. Despite the dramatic nature of a prediction of the end of the world, Newton may not have been referring to the 2060 date as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the earth and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace. In Christian theology, this concept is often referred to as The Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the establishment of Paradise by The Kingdom of God on Earth.[10] In Judaism it is often referred to as the Messianic era or the "Yamei Moshiach" (Days of the Messiah).

**God as masterful creator
**

Newton saw God as the masterful creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation.[11] Nevertheless he rejected Leibniz' thesis that God would necessarily make a perfect world which requires no intervention from the creator. In Query 31 of the Opticks, Newton simultaneously made an argument from design and for the necessity of intervention:

“ “

For while comets move in very eccentric orbs in all manner of positions, blind fate could never make all the planets move one and the same way in orbs concentric, some inconsiderable irregularities excepted which may have arisen from the mutual actions of comets and planets on [12] one another, and which will be apt to increase, till this system wants a reformation.

” ”

**This passage prompted an attack by Leibniz in a letter to his friend Caroline of Ansbach:
**

Sir Isaac Newton and his followers have also a very odd opinion concerning the work of God. According to their doctrine, God Almighty wants to wind up his watch from time to time: otherwise it would cease to move. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a [13] perpetual motion.

Leibniz' letter initiated the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, ostensibly with Newton's friend and disciple Samuel Clarke, although as Caroline wrote, Clarke's letters "are not written without the advice of the Chev. Newton".[14] Clarke complained that Leibniz' concept of God as a "supra-mundane intelligence" who set up a "pre-established harmony" was only a step from atheism: "And as those men, who pretend that in an earthly government things may go on perfectly well without the king himself ordering or disposing of any thing, may reasonably be suspected that they would like very well to set the king aside: so, whosoever contends, that the beings of the world can go on

Religious views without the continual direction of God...his doctrine does in effect tend to exclude God out of the world".[15] In addition to stepping in to re-form the solar system, Newton invoked God's active intervention to prevent the stars falling in on each other, and perhaps in preventing the amount of motion in the universe from decaying due to viscosity and friction.[16] In private correspondence Newton sometimes hinted that the force of Gravity was due to an immaterial influence:

53

“

Tis inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should (without the mediation of something else which is not material) operate upon & affect [17] other matter without mutual contact.

”

Leibniz jibed that such an immaterial influence would be a continual miracle; this was another strand of his debate with Clarke. Newton's view has been considered to be close to deism but differed in that he invoked God as a special physical cause to keep the planets in orbits.[18] He warned against using the law of gravity to view the universe as a mere machine, like a great clock. He said:

“

Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or [6] can be done. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. [...] This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called "Lord [2] God" παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or "Universal Ruler". [...] The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect. Opposition to godliness is atheism in profession and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind that it never had [19] many professors.

”

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.[20] Newton himself may have had some interest in millenarianism as he wrote about both the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelation in his Observations Upon the Prophecies [21]. In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world could end on 2060. In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail."[7] Newton’s conception of the physical world provided a stable model of the natural world that would reinforce stability and harmony in the civic world.[20]

Orthodoxy

Newton was born into an Anglican family, and remained part of the Anglican establishment for the majority of his life. However, Newton's private religious views were not in line with Anglican doctrine. According to most scholars, Newton was Arian, not holding to Trinitarianism.[5][18][22] 'In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry, to him the fundamental sin'.[23] As well as being antitrinitarian, Newton allegedly rejected the orthodox doctrines of the immortal soul,[5] a personal devil and literal demons.[5] Although he was not a Socinian he shared many similar beliefs with them.[5] A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Newton — like many contemporaries (e.g., Thomas Aikenhead) — faced the threat of severe punishment if he had been open about his religious beliefs. Heresy was a crime that could have been punishable by the loss of all property and status or even death (see, e.g., the Blasphemy Act 1697). Because of his secrecy over his religious beliefs, Newton has been described as a Nicodemite.[5]

Religious views In a minority view, T.C. Pfizenmaier argued Newton was neither "orthodox" nor an Arian,[24] but that, rather, Newton believed both of these groups had wandered into metaphysical speculation.[25] Pfizenmaier also argued that Newton held closer to the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics and Protestants.[25] However, S. D. Snobelen has argued against this from manuscripts produced late in Newton's life which demonstrate Newton rejected the Eastern view of the Trinity.[5]

54

Other beliefs

Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death.[26] Newton and Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox clergy as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.[20] The clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way in which to combat the emotional and mystical superlatives of superstitious enthusiasm, as well as the threat of atheism.[20] The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment magical thinking, and the mystical Newton's grave in Westminster elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical Abbey conception of the universe. Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs, and more importantly was very successful in popularizing them.[26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles.[27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed man to pursue his own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect himself with his own rational powers.[28]

References

[1] "Newton's Views on Prophecy" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ prism. php?id=74). The Newton Project. 2007-04-05. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [2] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953. [3] A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65. [4] Westfall, Richard S.. "Newton, Isaac" (http:/ / galileo. rice. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ newton. html). The Galileo Project. . Retrieved 2008-07-05. [5] Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite" (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ heretic. pdf) (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32 (4): 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. . [6] John H. Tiner. Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Mott Media. ISBN 0-91513406-3. [7] "Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse" (http:/ / www. christianpost. com/ article/ 20070619/ 28049_Papers_Show_Isaac_Newton's_Religious_Side,_Predict_Date_of_Apocalypse. htm). Associated Press. 19 June 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-01. [8] Newton, Isaac (2007-04-05). "The First Book Concerning the Language of the Prophets" (http:/ / www. newtonproject. sussex. ac. uk/ texts/ viewtext. php?id=THEM00005& mode=normalized). The Newton Project. . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [9] Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton, 1733, J. DARBY and T. BROWNE, Online (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm#NtpJohI_41) [10] Snobelen, Stephen D. "A time and times and the dividing of time: Isaac Newton, the Apocalypse and 2060 A.D." (http:/ / www. isaac-newton. org/ newton_2060. htm). . Retrieved 2007-08-15. [11] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.

Religious views

[12] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press. [13] Leibniz, first letter, in Alexander 1956, p. 11 [14] Caroline to Leibniz, 10th Jan 1716, quoted in Alexander 1956, p. 193. (Chev. = Chevalier i.e. Knight.) [15] Clarke, first reply, in Alexander 1956 p. 14. [16] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii [17] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693 [18] Avery Cardinal Dulles. The Deist Minimum (http:/ / www. firstthings. com/ article. php3?id_article=143). 2005. [19] Brewster, Sir David. A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton Edinburgh, 1850. [20] Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689-1720. [21] http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ files/ 16878/ 16878-h/ 16878-h. htm [22] Richard Westfall, Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, (1980) pp. 103, 25. [23] Westfall, Richard S. (1994). The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477379. [24] Pfizenmaier, T.C, "The Trinitarian Theology of Dr. Samuel Clarke" (1675-1729) [25] Pfizenmaier, T.C., "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?" Journal of the History of Ideas 68(1):57–80, 1997. [26] Westfall, Richard S. (1973) [1964]. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. U of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-047206190-7. [27] Fitzpatrick, Martin. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p64. [28] Frankel, Charles. The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. King’s Crown Press, New York: 1948. p1.

55

External links

• Isaac Newton Theology, Prophecy, Science and Religion (http://www.isaac-newton.org/) - writings on Newton by Stephen Snobelen

which established the foundations of classical mechanics and introduced his law of universal gravitation. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". It is one of five arguments from the "properties. Alternatively. natural philosophers of the seventeenth century continued to consider true motion and rest as physically separate descriptors of an individual body. It held that empty space is a metaphysical impossibility because space is nothing other than the extension of matter. appear in a Scholium at the very beginning of his great work. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies.[5][6] . and a discussion of the distinctions between absolute and relative time.[1] Background These arguments. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that. that when one speaks of the space between things one is actually making reference to the relationship that exists between those things and not to some entity that stands between them. The dominant view Newton opposed was devised by René Descartes. and was supported (in part) by Gottfried Leibniz. causes. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. which yielded the first quantitatively adequate dynamical explanation of planetary motion. 77–82. in other words. Despite their embrace of the principle of rectilinear inertia and the recognition of the kinematical relativity of apparent motion (which underlies whether the Ptolemaic or the Copernican system is correct). space. place and motion. or. any assertion about the motion of a body boils down to a description over time in which the body under consideration is at t1 found in the vicinity of one group of "landmark" bodies and at some t2 is found in the vicinity of some other "landmark" body or bodies.56 Influence and impact Bucket argument Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (also known as "Newton's bucket") was designed to demonstrate that true rotational motion cannot be defined as the relative rotation of the body with respect to the immediately surrounding bodies. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation [2] pp. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687). in general.[3][4] Concordant with the above understanding. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation".

and that there is no absolute motion.Bucket argument 57 Descartes recognized that there would be a real difference. and another situation in which the surrounding ring was given a contrary acceleration with respect to the central object. indicating that the parts of the water have no tendency to recede from the axis of relative motion. but in opposite direction. not only with respect to the experimenter. but in opposite directions. For contingent reasons having to do with the Inquisition. Initially you think it is your own train accelerating. Here is an everyday experience of the basic nature of the Descartes experiment: Consider sitting in your train and noticing a train originally at rest beside you in the railway station pulling away.[9] When.[11] In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[12] . despite the fact that the water is at rest relative to the pail. despite proximity to the pail. who contended that all motion was relative. but then notice with surprise that you feel no force. between a situation in which a body with movable parts and originally at rest with respect to a surrounding ring was itself accelerated to a certain angular velocity with respect to the ring. — Ernst Mach. we say that a body preserves unchanged its direction and velocity in space. Thus. D: Both are locked together and rotate in the same direction. however. Eventually. you would confirm your own train is accelerating if you sensed g-forces from the acceleration of your own train.) Possibly the concavity of the water shows rotation relative to something else: say absolute space? Newton says: "One can find out and measure the true and absolute circular motion of the water". C: Both rotate. With sole regard to the central object and the surrounding ring. but also in relation to the water it contains. his real position was that motion is absolute. our assertion is nothing more or less than an abbreviated reference to the entire universe. p. A: Central object rotates. the motions would be indistinguishable from each other assuming that both the central object and the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid objects. it is not the relative motion of the pail and water that causes concavity of the water.[10] If the cord is twisted up tightly on itself and then the bucket is released. In other words.) Although the relative motion at this stage is the greatest. accordingly. (This situation would correspond to diagram B above. but the neighboring train.[7] However. (This situation would correspond to diagram D. it is not your own train moving.[8] A contrasting position was taken by Ernst Mach. if neither the central object nor the surrounding ring were absolutely rigid then the parts of one or both of them would tend to fly out from the axis of rotation. the surface of the water assumes a concave shape as it acquires the motion of the bucket spinning relative to the experimenter. This concave shape shows that the water is rotating. The argument Newton discusses a bucket filled with water hung by a cord. B: Outer ring rotates. contrary to the idea that motions can only be relative. Descartes spoke of motion as both absolute and relative. it begins to spin rapidly. as the cord continues to unwind. 387 Detection of rotation: red flags pop out on flexible arms when either object actually rotates. On the other hand. the surface of the water remains flat. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. However.

— Isaac Newton. and recede by little and little. Occurrence of tension in the string is indicative of absolute rotation. it is whirled about in the contrary way. hung by a long cord. and may be measured by this endeavour. and the true and absolute circular motion of the water.. with no need for an additional centrifugal force. . and ascend to the sides of the vessel.. who finds the curvature is consistent with the rate of rotation of the water as they observe it.This ascent of the water shows its endeavour to recede from the axis of its motion. the surface of the water will at first be plain. the explanation of this curvature involves centrifugal force for all observers with the exception of a truly stationary observer. Here is a critique due to Mach arguing that only relative motion is established:[13] Newton's experiment with the rotating vessel of water simply informs us that the relative rotation of the water with respect to the sides of the vessel produces no noticeable centrifugal forces. p. . but that such forces are produced by its relative rotations with respect to the mass of the earth and other celestial bodies. a limitation that has not been established. as it limits the participants relevant to the experiment to only the pail and the water. nor can true circular motion be defined by such translation. not relative. because the parts of that immovable space in which these motions are performed. — Ernst Mach. and it is not necessary to ask "Stationary with respect to what?": The original question. However. which is here directly contrary to the relative. this endeavour does not depend upon any translation of the water in respect to ambient bodies. And therefore.It is indeed a matter of great difficulty to discover. as before the vessel began to move. Principia. In fact. forming itself into a concave figure.. and effectually to distinguish. 104 All observers agree that the surface of rotating water is curved. Thus. the vessel continues for some time this motion. 58 . is so often turned about that the cord is strongly twisted. then filled with water. "relative to what frame of reference do the laws of motion hold?" is revealed to be wrongly posed. and (in principle) a procedure for constructing them. and held at rest together with the water. but the vessel by gradually communicating its motion to the water. discovers itself.are altogether destitute of any real effect. is incomplete. do by no means come under the observations of our senses. after. see Rotating spheres.[14] A supplementary thought experiment with the same objective of determining the occurrence of absolute rotation also was proposed by Newton: the example of observing two identical spheres in rotation about their center of gravity and tied together by a string.. Bouquiaux in Leibniz. but relative motions... For the laws of motion essentially determine a class of reference frames. and while the cord is untwisting itself.. will make it begin sensibly to revolve. a stationary frame can be identified. . and by implication the Earth also is a participant.. Book 1: Scholium The argument that the motion is absolute.Bucket argument If a vessel. as quoted by L... the concavity of the water clearly involves gravitational attraction. the true motions of particular bodies from the apparent.. by the sudden action of another force.

Newton's laws of motion The shape of the surface of a rotating liquid in a bucket can be determined using Newton's laws for the various forces on an element of the surface. the co-rotating frame. the force of the water must point oppositely to the sum of the centrifugal and gravity forces.Bucket argument 59 Detailed analysis Of course. and the force normal to the surface of the water Fn due to the rest of the water surrounding the selected element of surface. radially outward centrifugal force FCfgl. the sum of all three forces must be zero. The interface of two immiscible liquids rotating around a vertical axis is an upward-opening circular paraboloid. is everywhere perpendicular to the lines of force. one might question just how rotation brings about this change. The slope of the surface adjusts to make all three forces sum to zero. where the slope of the turn is set so a car will not slide off the road. — William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett: Elementary Text-book of Physics.. because the element of water does not move. The force due to surrounding water is known to be normal to the surface of the water because a liquid in equilibrium cannot support shear stresses. For example. The height of the water h = h(r) is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of rotation Ω. p. The analogy in the case of rotating bucket is that the element of water surface will "slide" up or down the surface Force diagram for an element of water surface in co-rotating frame. .[15] The analysis begins with the free body diagram in the co-rotating frame where the water appears stationary. the horizontal. An element of water volume on the surface is shown to be subject to three forces: the vertical force due to gravity Fg.. see Knudsen and Hjorth. and the aim is to determine this function. the water. the tangential force would set up a motion of the fluid. Top: Radial section and selected point on water surface. and the radial section share a constant angular rate of rotation given by the vector Ω. if at rest. which is contrary to the statement that the fluid is at rest. Bottom: Force diagram at selected point on surface. the historic interest of the rotating bucket experiment is its usefulness in suggesting one can detect absolute rotation by observation of the shape of the surface of the water. 127 Moreover. the force at a point on the surface could be resolved into two components. Below are three approaches to understanding the concavity of the surface of rotating water in a bucket. (A very similar problem is the design of a banked turn. which means the surface of the water must adjust so its normal points in this direction. one perpendicular and the other tangent to the surface.. for if this were not so.[16] To quote Anthony and Brackett:[17] The surface of a fluid of uniform density. To sum to zero. But from the nature of a fluid. However.

were surface regions with lower energy available.) As r increases. the normal to the surface must have the same angle. the fictitious centrifugal force is conservative and has a potential energy of the form:[18][19] where r is the radius from the axis of rotation. the centrifugal force increases according to the relation (the equations are written per unit mass): 60 where Ω is the constant rate of rotation of the water. This result can be verified by taking the gradient of the potential to obtain the radially outward force: The meaning of the potential energy is that movement of a test body from a larger radius to a smaller radius involves doing work against the centrifugal force. that is. integrating: where h(0) is the height of the water at r = 0.Bucket argument unless the normal to the surface aligns with the vector resultant formed by the vector addition Fg + FCfgl. The potential energy is useful. equilibrium is attained. That is. To insure that this resultant is normal to the surface of the water. Potential energy The shape of the water's surface can be found in a different. in understanding the concavity of the water surface in a rotating bucket. In a reference frame uniformly rotating at angular rate Ω. Notice that at equilibrium the surface adopts a shape such that an element of volume at any location on its surface has the same potential energy as at any other. very intuitive way using the interesting idea of the potential energy associated with the centrifugal force in the co-rotating frame. the water occupying surface locations of higher potential energy would move to occupy these positions of lower energy. . inasmuch as there is no barrier to lateral movement in an ideal liquid. The gravitational force is unchanged at where g is the acceleration due to gravity. These two forces add to make a resultant at an angle φ from the vertical given by which clearly becomes larger as r increases. That being so. the surface of the water is parabolic in its dependence upon the radius. and therefore can be effectively nulled by the force of the water beneath. because all positions are equivalent in energy. leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape of the surface: or. no element of water on the surface has any incentive to move position. for example. On the other hand. In words.

archive. ISBN 0521358124.Bucket argument We might imagine deliberately upsetting this equilibrium situation by somehow momentarily altering the surface shape of the water to make it different from an equal-energy surface. with the consequence that the potential energy of the water at the greater radius is increased by the work done against gravity to achieve the greater height. University of Chicago Press. editors) (2002). p. 191. [6] Daniel Garber (1992). Cambridge University Press. Descartes' Metaphysical Physics (http:/ / books. Part ii. [2] http:/ / ia310114. because the reduction in potential energy from working with the centrifugal force is balanced against the increase in energy working against gravity. we obtain the parabolic form: where h(0) is the height at r = 0 (the axis). for example through friction. . In a static situation (no motion of the fluid in the rotating frame). At some small angular rate of rotation. google. google. . This change in shape would not be stable. com/ books?id=6tNxSphqAYkC& pg=PA191& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). If rotation is arrested. pdf [3] René Descartes. See Figures 1 and 2. ISBN 1606201433. google. let the height of the water be potential energy per unit mass contributed by gravity is surface is : then the 61 and the total potential energy per unit mass on the with the background energy level independent of r. com/ books?id=gNVB0QnZlXgC& pg=PA75& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). google. however. the more concave this surface. p. Bernard Cohen & George E. [4] Alexandre Koyre (1957). To implement a surface of constant potential energy quantitatively. p. . com/ books?id=ORGKw7CZMQAC& pg=PA170& dq=descartes+ space+ separation). us. 105. a concave surface represents the stable situation. From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe (http:/ / books. imagine gradually increasing the rate of rotation of the bucket from zero. . ISBN 0226282198. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PPA43. Because water is incompressible and must remain within the confines of the bucket. §25. Cambridge University Press.M1). at a given angular rate of rotation. [5] René Descartes (1664). The principle of operation of the centrifuge also can be simply understood in terms of this expression for the potential energy. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. The water surface is flat at first. Requiring the energy to be constant.M1). p. and the water would not stay in our artificially contrived shape. References [1] Robert Disalle (I. movement toward the periphery becomes no longer advantageous. To see the principle of an equal-energy surface at work. 43. The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. the energy stored in fashioning the concave surface must be dissipated. but engage in a transient exploration of many shapes until non-ideal frictional forces introduced by sloshing. google. Principia philosophiae. Thus. [7] Robert Disalle (2006). this energy is constant independent of position r. Forgotten Books. an element of surface water can achieve lower potential energy by moving outward under the influence of the centrifugal force. and lowering it at smaller radius. ISBN 0521656966. either against the sides of the bucket or by the non-ideal nature of the liquid. this outward movement increases the depth of water at the larger radius. Descartes: Selected Philosophical Writings (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=5rxYBvx7tW0C& pg=PA26& vq=at+ rest& dq=descartes+ space+ separation#PPA19. p. 170. John Cottingham translator (1988). which shows that it is favorable energetically when the volume far from the axis of rotation is occupied by the heavier substance. increasing the height of the surface at larger radius. and the more rapid the rotation. The surface of the water becomes slightly concave. . Understanding Space-time: The philosophical development of physics from Newton to Einstein (http:/ / books. killed the oscillations and the water settled down to the equilibrium shape. and clearly a surface of equal potential energy because all points on the surface are at the same height in the gravitational field acting upon the water. before an equilibrium flat surface is restored. 75. Smith. As the height of water increases.

com/books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA344&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+ "cosmic+background+radiation"#PPA324. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA45). The Universe and the Bucket". ISBN 0120598779. 119. 78. Am. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones.htm) see section on Space. Jones & Bartlett. 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http://books. 78–79.stanford. . 127. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (http:/ / books. 19. ISBN 354067652X. 325–348. Partridge (1995). ISBN 1402086679. com/ books?id=RttHAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA125& dq="pascal's+ law"#PPA127.com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C&pg=PA279&dq=Hawking+isotropy++rotation+"cosmic+background+ radiation"#PPA279. and Motion (http://plato. . ISBN 0867204796. ISBN 0375412883. Leibniz (http:/ / books. Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. pp. See: • R. 386–387.com/books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167&dq=rotating+tension+Newton#PPA167. time.M1). Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Bouquiaux (Marcelo Dascal. p. [12] See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. The Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. see Max Born & Günther Leibfried. . Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. stanford. p. . Cambridge University Press. google.utm. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"#PPA78. • Ralph A. Knudsen. Phil. vol. . 79. . 279–280. . Weber & George B. . pp. cit.M1). google. op. Princeton University Press. stanford. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. p. At the end of this article. pp.M1). Elementary Text-book of Physics (http:/ / books. html) [9] Ignazio Ciufolini. com/ books?id=LKAgAAAAMAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=fictitious+ Christoffel+ potential#PPA78. ISBN 0521621135. "Space and Time: Inertial Frames" (http:/ / plato. New York: Courier Dover Publications.). Time and Indiscernibles for Leibniz arguing against the idea of space acting as a causal agent. pp. google. editor) (2008). pdf) pp. [15] Jens M. Wiley. . [14] Robert DiSalle (Summer 2002). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 167. p. loss of fine distinctions in the translations as compared to the original Latin text is discussed. B. [11] Robert Disalle. google. Springer.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov.M1). archive. Bernard Cohen. article by Robert Rynasiewicz. google. [8] Spacetime Before Einstein from Stanford (http:/ / einstein.). 143. and the texture of reality. 79-81 [13] L. . no. 45. p. Essential mathematical methods for physicists (http:/ / books. 5 (1975) ed. [17] William Arnold Anthony & Cyrus Fogg Brackett (1884). [18] Robert Daniel Carmichael (1920). com/ books?id=k046p9v-ZCgC& pg=PA79& dq=reverse+ sign+ centrifugal). ISBN 0521656966. • D. ISBN 0521352541. External links • Newton's Views on Space. 62 Further reading • Brian Greene (2004). 104. google. The Fabric of the Cosmos: space. p. edu/ archives/ sum2002/ entries/ spacetime-iframes/ #Oth).edu/l/leib-met. ISBN 0521857902. google. Arfken (2003). 404. "Newton's philosophical analysis of space and time" (http:/ / books. [16] Lawrence S.google. In Edward N.). A A Knopf. com/ books?id=Da_oP3sJs1oC& pg=PA104& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton#PPA104. Lerner (1997).google. John Wiley & Sons. . google. Academic Press.edu/entries/newton-stm/) from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISBN 0486607690.M1).iep. • The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate.M1) (in Proc. google. edu/ SPACETIME/ spacetime1. Poul G. us. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:// books. Springer. com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA143& dq=rotating+ fluid+ bucket+ "centrifugal+ force") (3rd Edition ed. Draza Marković (Editors) ed.M1). [10] For a discussion of Newton's original argument. Time. In I. [19] Hans J. "Chapter 2.. Soc. Relativistic Astrophysics (http://books. p. Hjorth (2000). com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes#PRA1-PA387. ISBN 0691033234. Zalta.. org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. p.google. George Edwin Smith. • Life and Philosophy of Leibniz (http://www. com/ books?id=eJhkD0LKtJEC& pg=PA404& dq=shear+ stress+ "pascal's+ principle"). .Bucket argument p. Lynden-Bell (1996).

differential calculus and integral calculus. Historically. and join calculus. and some of them are wrong. term by term integration. pi calculus. variational calculus.[3] The method of exhaustion was later reinvented in China by Liu Hui in the 3rd century AD in order to find the area of a circle. which prefigures the concept of the limit. Eudoxus (c. to calculate areas and volumes. functions. Zu Chongzhi established a method which would later be called Cavalieri's principle to find the volume of a sphere. Calculus has widespread applications in science. but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous or systematic way. economics. broadly called mathematical analysis. a small stone used for counting) is a branch of mathematics focused on limits. 1820 BC). 408−355 BC) used the method of exhaustion. or "infinitesimal calculus". more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits. while Archimedes (c. and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone is insufficient. It has two major branches.[4] In the 5th century AD.[2] From the age of Greek mathematics.[1] in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. calculus (plural calculi) refers to any method or system of calculation guided by the symbolic manipulation of expressions. an integral test for convergence. In the 14th Century Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama and the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics stated many components of calculus such as the Taylor series. iterative methods for solutions of non-linear equations. calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals". integrals. and infinite series. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus. Calculus is the study of change. one goal of integral calculus. and the theory that the area under a curve is its integral. early forms of differentiation. lambda calculus. with no indication as to method. can be found in the Egyptian Moscow papyrus (c. A course in calculus is a gateway to other. inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral calculus.Calculus 63 Calculus Calculus (Latin. but the formulas are mere instructions. which are related by the fundamental theorem of calculus. infinite series approximations.[6] . More generally.[5] Medieval Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. derivatives. Some consider the Yuktibhāṣā to be the first text on calculus. Calculations of volumes and areas. History Ancient The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus. 287−212 BC) developed this idea further. calculus.

Pierre de Fermat. the latter two proving the second fundamental theorem of calculus around 1675. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities. When Newton and Leibniz first published their results. but this treatise was lost until the early part of the twentieth century. he developed series expansions for functions. and analytical functions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. second and higher derivatives. I think it defines more unequivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematics. Taylor series. He did not publish all these discoveries. the notion of higher derivatives." —John von Neumann In Europe. and the infinitesimal quantities he introduced were disreputable at first. which Newton had shared with a few members of the Royal . including fractional and irrational powers. claiming that he borrowed from Diophantus.[9] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. Newton claimed Leibniz stole ideas from his unpublished notes. Newton derived his results first. the fundamental theorem of calculus was known. the oblateness of the earth. Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism. The product rule and chain rule. but Leibniz published first. the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri. and the system of mathematical analysis. the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid. Cavalieri's work was not well respected since his methods could lead to erroneous results. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to publish his results on the development of calculus. who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. Newton rephrased his ideas to suit the mathematical idiom of the time. and it was clear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series. Unlike Newton. which is its logical [7] development. still constitutes the greatest technical advance in exact thinking. In his publications. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. often spending days determining appropriate symbols for concepts. and many other problems discussed in his Principia Mathematica (1687). replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalent geometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. The formal study of calculus combined Cavalieri's infinitesimals with the calculus of finite differences developed in Europe at around the same time. These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. there was great controversy over which mathematician (and therefore which country) deserved credit. The basic insights that both Newton and Leibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration. and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. which represented equality up to an infinitesimal error term. By Newton's time. Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibniz developed much of the notation used in calculus today. the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid. introduced the concept of adequality. in their differential and integral forms. and at this time infinitesimal methods were still considered disreputable. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion.[8] The combination was achieved by John Wallis.Calculus 64 Modern "The calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. In other work. The ideas were similar to Archimedes' in The Method. and James Gregory. allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives. Isaac Barrow. and providing the product rule and chain rule. who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton.

One of the first and most complete works on finite and infinitesimal analysis was written in 1748 by Maria Gaetana Agnesi. uses technical machinery from mathematical logic to augment the real number system with infinitesimal and infinite numbers. to the detriment of English mathematics. as in the original Newton-Leibniz conception. . Limits are not the only rigorous approach to the foundation of calculus. Henri Lebesgue invented measure theory and used it to define integrals of all but the most pathological functions. In modern mathematics. most notably Michel Rolle and Bishop Berkeley. Laurent Schwartz introduced Distributions. In Cauchy's writing. which contains full definitions and proofs of the theorems of calculus. it eventually became common to base calculus on limits instead of infinitesimal quantities. who gave the new discipline its name. including a definition of continuity in terms of infinitesimals. Following the work of Weierstrass. where a means was finally found to avoid mere "notions" of infinitely small quantities and the foundations of differential and integral calculus were made firm. Since the time of Leibniz and Newton. The resulting numbers are called hyperreal numbers. The reach of calculus has also been greatly extended. with Leibniz starting first with integration and Newton with differentiation. A careful examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton shows that they arrived at their results independently. Robinson's approach. An alternative is Abraham Robinson's nonstandard analysis. foundations refers to the rigorous development of a subject from precise axioms and definitions. and a (somewhat imprecise) prototype of an (ε. due to the Maria Gaetana Agnesi work of Cauchy and Weierstrass. however. Several mathematicians. δ)-definition of limit in the definition of differentiation. attempted to prove the soundness of using infinitesimals. we find a versatile spectrum of foundational approaches. Today.Calculus Society. Newton called his calculus "the science of fluxions". In his work Weierstrass formalized the concept of limit and eliminated infinitesimals. It was also during this period that the ideas of calculus were generalized to Euclidean space and the complex plane. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for developing calculus independently.[10] 65 Foundations In mathematics. Working out a rigorous foundation for calculus occupied mathematicians for much of the century following Newton and Leibniz and is still to some extent an active area of research today. including Maclaurin. and they can be used to give a Leibniz-like development of the usual rules of calculus. developed in the 1960s. In early calculus the use of infinitesimal quantities was thought unrigorous. Berkeley famously described infinitesimals as the ghosts of departed quantities in his book The Analyst in 1734. which can be used to take the derivative of any function whatsoever. and was fiercely criticized by a number of authors. many mathematicians have contributed to the continuing development of calculus. the foundations of calculus are included in the field of real analysis. but it would be 150 years later. Bernhard Riemann used these ideas to give a precise definition of the integral. This controversy divided English-speaking mathematicians from continental mathematicians for many years. It is Leibniz.

and pressure. The development of calculus was built on earlier concepts of instantaneous motion and area underneath curves. Iraq. in some sense. Applications of differential calculus include computations involving velocity and acceleration. which resolve the paradoxes. but less than any number in the sequence 1. and motion. Any integer multiple of an infinitesimal is still infinitely small. In the 19th century. volume. i. during the 17th century. the first method of doing so was by infinitesimals. time. and the infinitely small behavior of the function is found by taking the limiting behavior for smaller and smaller numbers. Limits are the easiest way to provide rigorous foundations for calculus. China. and for this reason they are the standard approach. From this point of view. work. 1/2. but use the ordinary real number system. Calculus is also used to gain a more precise understanding of the nature of space. just like infinitesimals. and Japan. More advanced applications include power series and Fourier series.. This approach fell out of favor in the 19th century because it was difficult to make the notion of an infinitesimal precise. which provided solid foundations for the manipulation of infinitesimals.Calculus 66 Significance While some of the ideas of calculus had been developed earlier in Egypt. For centuries.e. Infinitesimals get replaced by very small numbers. infinitesimals were replaced by limits. and optimization. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating infinitesimals. Greece. the concept was revived in the 20th century with the introduction of non-standard analysis and smooth infinitesimal analysis. . India. Historically. calculus is a collection of techniques for manipulating certain limits. "infinitely small". the slope of a curve. when Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz built on the work of earlier mathematicians to introduce its basic principles. They capture small-scale behavior. infinitesimals do not satisfy the Archimedean property. The ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea gave several famous examples of such paradoxes. In this treatment. the modern use of calculus began in Europe. especially the limit and the infinite series. However. Applications of integral calculus include computations involving area. These are objects which can be treated like numbers but which are. arc length. 1/3. Calculus provides tools. center of mass. . Persia. An infinitesimal number dx could be greater than 0. These questions arise in the study of motion and area.. Limits describe the value of a function at a certain input in terms of its values at nearby input.. mathematicians and philosophers wrestled with paradoxes involving division by zero or sums of infinitely many numbers. and less than any positive real number. Principles Limits and infinitesimals Calculus is usually developed by manipulating very small quantities.

f(a)). pronounced "f prime. f(a + h)). can take the squaring function as an input. then the derivative of f is how the position is changing in time. then a + h is a number close to a. Thus. outputs a second function. This is more abstract than many of the processes studied in elementary algebra. If the graph of the function is not a straight line. This means that the derivative takes all the information of the squaring function—such as that two is sent to four. the derivative at that point is a way of encoding the small-scale behavior of the function near that point. Derivatives give an exact meaning to the notion of change in output with respect to change in input. then the function can be written as y = mx + b. which is impossible. (The function it produces turns out to be the doubling function. three is sent to nine.Calculus 67 Differential calculus Differential calculus is the study of the definition. The secant line is only an approximation to the behavior of the function at the point a because it does not account for what happens between a and a + h. the derivative is a Tangent line at (x. the derivative of the function of f is f′. where functions usually input a number and output another number. then the derivative represents change with respect to time. then it outputs nine. b is the y-intercept. properties. For example. Therefore (a + h. it is possible to produce a new function. and: This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line." For instance. Given a function and a point in the domain. f(a + h)) is close to (a. A line through two points on a curve is called a secant line. the doubling function. however.) The most common symbol for a derivative is an apostrophe-like mark called prime. If a function is linear (that is. y is the dependent variable. if the graph of the function is a straight line). By finding the derivative of a function at every point in its domain. and if the squaring function is given the input three. if the doubling function is given the input three. then f′(x) = 2x is its derivative. In mathematical jargon. then the change in y divided by the change in x varies. (a. The derivative. f(x)). For example. four is sent to sixteen. called the derivative function or just the derivative of the original function. so m is the slope of the secant line between (a. The derivative is defined by taking the limit as h tends to zero. if f(x) = x2 is the squaring function. To be concrete. let f be a function. and applications of the derivative of a function. meaning that it considers the behavior of f . If h is a number close to zero. f(a)) is a point on the graph of the function. and so on—and uses this information to produce another function. that is. it is the velocity of the ball. f(a)) and (a + h. If the input of the function represents time. The slope between these two points is This expression is called a difference quotient. if f is a function that takes a time as input and gives the position of a ball at that time as output. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope (rise linear operator which inputs a function and over run) of the line tangent to that curve at that point. then it outputs six. where x is the independent variable. The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation. and fix a point a in the domain of f. It is not possible to discover the behavior at a by setting h to zero because this would require dividing by zero. however.

For this reason. The tangent line is a limit of secant lines just as the derivative is a limit of difference quotients. The slope of tangent line to the squaring function at the point (3.9) is 6. A similar computation to the one above shows that the derivative of the squaring function is the doubling function. Note that the vertical and horizontal scales in this image are different.Calculus for all small values of h and extracts a consistent value for the case when h equals zero: 68 Geometrically. it is going up six times as fast as it is going to the right. The limit process just described can be performed for any point in the domain of the squaring function. or just the derivative of the squaring function for short. Here the function involved (drawn in red) is f(x) = x3 − x. the derivative is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of f at a. The tangent line (in green) which passes through the point (−3/2. . This slope is determined by considering the limiting value of the slopes of secant lines. the derivative is sometimes called the slope of the function f. This defines the derivative function of the squaring function. Let f(x) = x2 be the squaring function. −15/8) has a slope of 23/4. that is to say. Here is a particular example. the derivative of the squaring function at the input 3. The derivative f′(x) of a curve at a point is the slope of the line tangent to that curve at that point.

However. then the speed will stay more or less the same. the inverse operation to the derivative. One such method is to approximate the distance traveled by breaking up the time into many short intervals of time.and lower-case letters for a function and its indefinite integral is common in calculus. called a Riemann sum. however. then we need a more powerful method of finding the distance. the symbol dy/dx is to be interpreted not as the quotient of two numbers but as a shorthand for the limit computed above. Integral calculus Integral calculus is the study of the definitions. We can also think of d/dx as a differentiation operator. Even when calculus is developed using limits rather than infinitesimals. properties. (This use of upper. and applications of two related concepts. F is an indefinite integral of f when f is a derivative of F. The basic idea is that if only a short time elapses. introduced by Leibniz. . We must take the limit of all such Riemann sums to find the exact distance traveled. for the derivative in the example above is In an approach based on limits. Leibniz. but if the speed changes. For example: In this usage. which gives the area between the graph of the input and the x-axis. In technical language. integral calculus studies two related linear operators.) The definite integral inputs a function and outputs a number. did intend it to represent the quotient of two infinitesimally small numbers. only multiplication is needed. which takes a function as an input and gives another function. it is common to manipulate symbols like dx and dy as if they were real numbers. as the output. then multiplying the time elapsed in each interval by one of the speeds in that interval. they are sometimes notationally convenient in expressing operations such as the total derivative. The process of finding the value of an integral is called integration. the derivative. If the speed is constant.Calculus 69 Leibniz notation A common notation. A motivating example is the distances traveled in a given time. dy being the infinitesimally small change in y caused by an infinitesimally small change dx applied to x. The indefinite integral is the antiderivative. although it is possible to avoid such manipulations. and then taking the sum (a Riemann sum) of the approximate distance traveled in each interval. The technical definition of the definite integral is the limit of a sum of areas of rectangles. the dx in the denominator is read as "with respect to x". a Riemann sum only gives an approximation of the distance traveled. the indefinite integral and the definite integral.

For each small segment. is y′ = 2x. the distance traveled (between the times represented by a and b) is the area of the shaded region s. the length of each segment represented by the symbol Δx. the area between the axis and the curve. or antiderivative. Call that value h. an elongated S (the S stands for "sum"). an intuitive method would be to divide up the distance between a and b into a number of equal segments. is written: Functions differing by only a constant have the same derivative. The sum Integration can be thought of as measuring the area under a curve.Calculus 70 If f(x) in the diagram on the left represents speed as it varies over time. Then the area of the rectangle with base Δx and height h gives the distance (time Δx multiplied by speed h) traveled in that segment. . defined by of all such rectangles gives an approximation of f(x). which is an approximation of the total distance traveled. A smaller value for Δx will give more rectangles and in most cases a better approximation. as an output. the area. the antiderivative of the latter is given by: An undetermined constant like C in the antiderivative is known as a constant of integration. but for an exact answer we need to take a limit as Δx approaches zero. f(x)=h. The indefinite integral. and therefore the antiderivative of a given function is actually a family of functions differing only by a constant. the notation is to be understood as an operator that takes a function as an input and gives a number." The Leibniz notation dx is intended to suggest dividing the area under the curve into an infinite number of rectangles. The definite integral is written as: and is read "the integral from a to b of f-of-x with respect to x. between two points (here a and b). we can choose one value of the function f(x). The symbol of integration is . and is not being multiplied by f(x). In a formulation of the calculus based on limits. To approximate that area. so that their width Δx becomes the infinitesimally small dx. Associated with each segment is the average value of the function above it. Since the derivative of the function y = x² + C. where C is any constant. dx is not a number.

it involves differential calculus because acceleration is the time derivative of velocity or second time derivative of trajectory or spatial position. Calculus can be used in conjunction with other mathematical disciplines. it relates the values of antiderivatives to definite integrals. who based their results on earlier work by Isaac Barrow. for every x in the interval (a. Or it can be used in probability theory to determine the probability of a continuous random variable from an assumed density function. business. we use calculus to derive its path. statistics. made by both Newton and Leibniz. Applications Calculus is used in every branch of the physical sciences.Calculus 71 Fundamental theorem The fundamental theorem of calculus states that differentiation and integration are inverse operations. For example. then Furthermore. In analytic geometry. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states: If a function f is continuous on the interval [a. all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are interrelated through calculus. This realization. actuarial science. demography. Chemistry also uses calculus in determining reaction rates and radioactive decay. b). slope. classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. The fundamental theorem provides an algebraic method of computing many definite integrals—without performing limit processes—by finding formulas for antiderivatives. b). In biology. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "rate of change" which refers to the derivative saying The rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. Commonly expressed today as Force = Mass × acceleration. and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. More precisely. was key to the massive proliferation of analytic results after their work became known. Starting from knowing how an object is accelerating. concavity and inflection points. and are ubiquitous in the sciences. engineering. population dynamics starts with reproduction and death rates to model population changes. b] and if F is a function whose derivative is f on the interval (a. It is also a prototype solution of a differential equation. Physics makes particular use of calculus. economics. The The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a mass of an object of known density. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa. it can be used with linear algebra to find the "best fit" linear approximation for a set of points in a domain. medicine. Differential equations relate an unknown function to its derivatives. the study of graphs of functions. It can also be interpreted as a precise statement of the fact that differentiation is the inverse of integration. Because it is usually easier to compute an antiderivative than to apply the definition of a definite integral. and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and Einstein's theory of general relativity are also expressed in the language of differential calculus. the moment of inertia of objects. the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a practical way of computing definite integrals. calculus is used to find high points and low points (maxima and minima). . computer science.

. F. and linear approximation. Liu. Kenelly. R. com/ books?hl=en& lr=& id=7d8_4WPc9SMC& oi=fnd& pg=PA3& dq=Gottfried+ Wilhelm+ Leibniz+ accused+ of+ plagiarism+ by+ Newton& ots=09h9BdTlbE& sig=hu5tNKpBJxHcpj8U3kR_T2bZqrY#v=onepage& q=plagairism& f=false|Online) [10] Unlu. Ltd. google.. I [3] Archimedes. allows fast calculation of sums of values in rectangular domains. . Dainian. ISBN 0-763-75995-3. ed. pp. in The Works of Archimedes ISBN 978-0-521-66160-7 [4] Dun. John W. google. Elif (April 1995). Chinese studies in the history and philosophy of science and technology. 130. For example. uk/ HistTopics/ Indian_mathematics. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C). 28.. A comparison of Archimdes' and Liu Hui's studies of circles (http:/ / books. it can be used to efficiently calculate sums of rectangular domains in images.. ISBN 0-792-33463-9. htm). . calculus can be used to find the optimal branching angle of a blood vessel so as to maximize flow. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times. pp.. "The Mathematician". 1984.. ISBN 0817645659. it's used to build models of radiation transport in targeted tumor therapies. Inc. Reed.. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C) (3 ed. [8] André Weil: Number theory.). Iris B. Vámos. Biggers. Calculus Concepts: An Applied Approach to the Mathematics of Change (http:/ / books. google. Sherry (2007). Copy (http:/ / books. Reprinted in Bródy. Boston. google. p.. . Extract of page 27 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=R3Hk4Uhb1Z0C& pg=PR27) [6] http:/ / www-history. Cohen. (2009). The Neumann Compedium. Pte. p. ISBN 0-618-78981-2. html [7] von Neumann. in Heywood. Method. Donald R. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC& pg=PA279) [5] Zill. Warren S. 279. Wright. p. google. spacecraft use a variation of the Euler method to approximate curved courses within zero gravity environments. Discrete Green's Theorem. Jones & Bartlett Learning. fixed point iteration. in order to rapidly extract features and detect object . Cengage Learning. st-andrews. google.. which gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. In nuclear medicine. [9] Leibniz. Gottfried Wilhelm. 1947. 72 References Notes [1] Latorre... The Early Mathematical Manuscripts of Leibniz. MA. Springer.. 279 (http:/ / books. 2. google. it can be used to calculate the amount of area taken up by an irregularly shaped flower bed or swimming pool when designing the layout of a piece of property. p. 180–196. p. ac. 2008. 618–626. is applied in an instrument known as a planimeter which is used to calculate the area of a flat surface on a drawing. Chapter 1. For example. mcs. calculus allows for the determination of maximal profit by providing a way to easily calculate both marginal cost and marginal revenue. Cosimo. it's used to derive dosing laws. The Works of the Mind. Page 228. agnesscott. Inc. in practice it's the standard way to solve differential equations and do root finding in most applications. which gives the relationship between a double integral of a function around a simple closed rectangular curve C and a linear combination of the antiderivative's values at corner points along the edge of the curve. com/ books?id=bQhX-3k0LS8C& pg=PA2) [2] Morris Kline. University of Chicago Press.. p 2 (http:/ / books. An approach through history. Vol. com/ books?id=jaQH6_8Ju-MC). . Birkhauser Boston.see also the summed area table algorithm. From the decay laws for a particular drug's elimination from the body. Calculus is also used to find approximate solutions to equations. T. eds.. Calculus: Early Transcendentals (http:/ / books. Examples are methods such as Newton's method. World Scientific Publishing Co. "Maria Gaetana Agnesi" (http:/ / www. xxvii. In economics. Agnes Scott College. 1995. For instance. edu/ lriddle/ women/ agnesi. Scott.. Dennis G. B. . J. ISBN 9810222017. Fan. Chapter . In the realm of medicine.Calculus Green's Theorem. Wright. From Hammurapi to Legendre. Robert Sonné (1966).

ISBN 978-0-914098-89-8 Calculus. ISBN 9780495011668 • Thomas. ED 300 252. Richard ISBN 978-3540650584 Introduction to calculus and analysis 1. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. 1998. • Silvanus P. • Thomas/Finney. Press. Volume 1. One-Variable Calculus with an Introduction to Linear Algebra. • Tom M. ISBN 9780547167022 • McQuarrie. Eric W. 1 (Sep. • Cliff Pickover." (http://mathworld. ISBN 9780471000051 Calculus. 2004. Wiley. Hafner.. Volume 2. Loftsgaarden. (1996). Apostol. Apostol. 25. 9th ed.Calculus 73 Books • Larson. George B. Bruce H. 6th ed. Cloud: "Approximating Perfection: a Mathematician's Journey into the World of Mechanics." Annals of Mathematics. Uses synthetic differential geometry and nilpotent infinitesimals. 1: The Tools of Calculus". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-8218-2830-4 Differential and Integral Calculus. The Association. Adams. Anderson and Don O. Lebedev and Michael J. • Weisstein. • Tom M. ISBN 978-0-471-26987-8 Calculus and Pizza: A Math Cookbook for the Hungry Mind. James (2008). Richard D. Carl Benjamin (1949). University Science Books. Vol. Weir. Mathematical Association of America No. Ron. 1–46. (1969).. No. • Florian Cajori.John Willey and Sons Pte. The History of the Calculus and its Conceptual Development (http://books. Wiley. Publish or Perish publishing. 11th ed. Multi-Variable Calculus and Linear Algebra with Applications. • Edmund Landau. (September 1994). Addison-Wesley. Brooks Cole Cengage Learning. A Pump.. ISBN 0-321-48987-X Other resources Further reading • Boyer. Maurice D.. Giordano (2008). ISBN 978-0-521-62401-5. • Leonid P.wolfram. ISBN 9781891389245 • Stewart. Calculus: Early Transcendentals. • Mathematical Association of America. • John Lane Bell: A Primer of Infinitesimal Analysis.Irl Bivens. google. 7. Thompson and Martin Gardner. "Calculus". Joel Hass.. Calculus for a New Century. • Albers. "Calculus". Dover edition 1959. ed. Edwards (2010). NY. ISBN 9780471000075 Calculus.com/books?id=KLQSHUW8FnUC&printsec=frontcover). Stony Brook.2002. ISBN 0-486-60509-4 • Courant. (1998). Ltd. (2003). Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. • Robert A.com/ SecondFundamentalTheoremofCalculus.Stephen Davis:"Calculus". (1999). 1923). (1986) Undergraduate Programs in the Mathematics and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. • Michael Spivak. (1967).ISBN 978-81-265-1259-1 . Not a Filter. Donald A. pp. Princeton Univ.. ISBN 978-0-201-53174-9 Calculus and Analytic geometry 9th. "The History of Notations of the Calculus. Addison Wesley.. • Howard Anton.html) From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource. "Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. ISBN 978-0-312-18548-0 Calculus Made Easy.. (2003). ISBN 978-0-201-39607-2 Calculus: A complete course. (1988). Donald J. 2nd Ser. American Mathematical Society. Ch. Frank R.

calculus.economics.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/ strangtext. ( listen now (http:// www. (2006).pdf) • Sloughter.edu/OcwWeb/Mathematics/index. William V. Fullerton. "Understanding Calculus" Retrieved 6 May 2007 from Understanding Calculus. • Calculus Made Easy (1914) by Silvanus P. mit.mit. URL http:// www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.math.math.cacr.com/calc/calc. Dan (2000).co. • Elements of Calculus I (http://ocw.org/index.htm) • Online Integrator (WebMathematica) (http://integrals.caltech. .edu/mathematics/elements-of-calculus-i) and Calculus II for Business (http://ocw.org: The Calculus page (http://www. (2000). Thompson (http://djm.math. • Topics on Calculus (http://planetmath.co.org/encyclopedia/TopicsOnCalculus.pdf (http://www. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://ocw.uk/staff/aldrich/Calculus and Analysis Earliest Uses.edu/~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc.D. P.pdf) • Garrett.html (http://www.org/drupal/de2de/) • Stroyan. External links • Weisstein. K.math. OpenCourseWare from the University of Notre . "A brief introduction to infinitesimal calculus" University of Iowa. H.edu/~garrett/calculus/first_year/notes. Eric W.edu/) at Temple University – contains resources ranging from pre-calculus and associated algebra • Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: Calculus & Analysis (http://www. Davis – contains resources and links to other sites • COW: Calculus on the Web (http://cow. pdf) Full text in PDF • Calculus (http://www.edu/mathematics/calculus-ii-for-business). in Encyclopedia of Mathematics.html) • Mauch.com/) from Wolfram Research • The Role of Calculus in College Mathematics (http://www.htm) from ERICDigests.wisc. lightandmatter.wisc. "Elementary Calculus: An Approach Using Infinitesimals" Retrieved 29 August 2010 from http://www.cc/library/Calculus_Made_Easy_Thompson..ac. B.caltech.uk/programmes/b00mrfwq) on In Our Time at the BBC. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. J.php?title=Infinitesimal_calculus& oldid=18648) – an article on its historical development.edu/~sean/applied_math. " Calculus (http://mathworld.edu/~garrett/calculus/ first_year/notes.bbc.temple. (2001). "Difference Equations to Differential Equations: An introduction to calculus".html) at PlanetMath.math.mit.edu/~smithw/ Calculus/) (HTML only).pdf) • Faraz. G.bbc.edu/~sean/applied_math.pdf (http://www.math. (2004).com/Calculus.htm) (HTML only) • Strang.umn.htm) • Smith.edu/ans7870/resources/Strang/strangtext.htm (http://www.htm (http://ocw. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www.math.wolfram.ericdigests.com/calc/calc.understandingcalculus.com/ (http://www.uiowa.html)" from MathWorld.org/pre-9217/calculus. Retrieved 17 March 2009 from http://synechism.edu/~keisler/calc. (2004). "The Calculus" Retrieved 4 July 2008 (http://www. "Sean's Applied Math Book" California Institute of Technology. H. Michiel Hazewinkel ed. (2003).nd.wolfram.uiowa.htm) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Infinitesimal Calculus (http://www.org • OpenCourseWare Calculus (http://ocw. Retrieved 6 May 2007 from http://www. "Notes on first year calculus" University of Minnesota. S.math.understandingcalculus.byu.cacr.umn.Calculus 74 Online books • Crowell.uk/iplayer/console/b00mrfwq/In_Our_Time_Calculus)) • Calculus.encyclopediaofmath. "Calculus" Light and Matter.nd.org) at University of California.edu/ ~stroyan/InfsmlCalculus/InfsmlCalc. (2006).org/drupal/de2de/ (http://synechism. soton. "Calculus" Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (1991).edu/~keisler/calc.pdf (http://www.com/) (HTML only) • Keisler.lightandmatter.

mit. Newton employed fluxions as early as 1666.math.ucdavis. and others. L'Hopital published a text on Leibniz's calculus in 1696 (in which he expressed recognition about Newton's Principia of 1687. though he explained his (geometrical) form of calculus in Section I of Book I of the Principia of 1687.Calculus Dame with activities. as noted above. were embittered by a long controversy with John Keill. but did not publish an account of his notation until 1693. 4. He had published a calculation of a tangent with the note: "This is only a special case of a general method whereby I can calculate curves and determine maxima. The earliest use of differentials in Leibniz's notebooks may be traced to 1675. Calculus for Beginners and Artists (http://math. and in 1684 published his first paper employing it. 3. Newton.[1]. The differential notation also appeared in Leibniz's memoir of 1684. Yet there was seemingly no proof beyond Newton's word. exams and interactive applets. and centers of gravity. MIT Calculus Problems and Solutions (http://www.html) by D. that Newton's work was "nearly all about this calculus". Published a description of his method some years before Newton printed anything on fluxions. one that began simmering in 1699 and broke out in full force in 1711. Rightly enjoyed the strong presumption that he acted in good faith. minima. Newton manipulated the quarrel. Always alluded to the discovery as being his own invention.edu/~kouba/ProblemsList. The claim that Leibniz invented the calculus independently of Newton rests on the fact that Leibniz 1. Newton. Kouba Solved problems in calculus (http://calculus. Newton claimed to have begun working on a form of the calculus (which he called "the method of fluxions and fluents") in 1666. The infinitesimal calculus can be expressed either in the notation of fluxions or in that of differentials. He employed this notation in a 1677 letter to Newton. as in the 'Principia' of 1687.) Gottfried Leibniz began working on his variant of the calculus in 1674. The quarrel The last years of Leibniz's life. CUNY 75 • • • • Calculus controversy The calculus controversy was an argument between 17th-century mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz (begun or fomented in part by their disciples and associates – see Development of the quarrel below) over who had first invented calculus.[2]) Meanwhile. Demonstrated in his private papers his development of the ideas of calculus in a manner independent of the path taken by Newton. . Moreover.com/) Raymond. when Leibniz's articles were already well-read. it was also expressed by Newton in geometrical form.com/) Video explanations and solved problems in calculus (http://cincalculus. over whether Leibniz had discovered calculus independently of Newton. but did not publish it except as a minor annotation in the back of one of his publications decades later. 2. The most remarkable aspect of this barren struggle was that no participant doubted for a moment that Newton had already developed his method of fluxions when Leibniz began working on the differential calculus. 1709–1716. or. at the age of 23. or whether he had merely invented another notation for ideas that were fundamentally Newton's. It is a question that had been the cause of a major intellectual controversy over who first discovered calculus.edu/~djk/calculus_beginners/) by Daniel Kleitman. (A relevant Newton manuscript of October 1666 is now published among his mathematical papers.solved-problems. this statement went unchallenged some years. Newton's manuscripts came to light only after his death." How this was done he explained to a pupil a full 20 years later.[3] did not explain his eventual fluxional notation for the calculus in print until 1693 (in part) and 1704 (in full). A.

which was not known at the time. it is not impossible that these extracts were made then. No attempt was made to rebut #4. especially if supplemented by the letter of 10 December 1672. 76 Development of the quarrel The quarrel was a retrospective affair. or whether he had previously invented the calculus. At that time there was no direct evidence that Leibniz had seen this manuscript before it was printed in 1704. whereas Newton began from derivatives. worth noting that the unpublished Portsmouth Papers show that when Newton went carefully (but with an obvious bias) into the whole dispute in 1711. but Fatio was not a person of consequence. but Leibniz also implied that they were of little or no value. Whether Leibniz made use of the manuscript from which he had copied extracts. that in 1676 Collins had shown him some of Newton's papers. but some deny this. It is also possible that they may have been made in 1676. the manuscript. when Leibniz discussed analysis by infinite series with Collins and Oldenburg. but which provides very strong evidence that Leibniz came to the calculus independently from Newton. and to the letter of 10 December 1672. a copy of which one or both of them surely possessed. a time when he and Leibniz were collaborating. extracts from which accompanied the letter of 13 June. In 1699 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had accused Leibniz of plagiarizing Newton. Presumably he was referring to Newton's letters of 13 June and 24 October 1676.Calculus controversy According to Leibniz's detractors. However. and L'Hopital's 1696 book about the calculus from a Leibnizian point of view had also acknowledged Newton's published work of the 1680s as 'nearly all about this calculus' ('presque tout de ce calcul'). are questions on which no direct evidence is available at present. the existence of which had been previously unsuspected. They see the fact that Leibniz's claim went unchallenged for some years as immaterial. and in fact worked together on some aspects. and (II) obtained the fundamental ideas of the calculus from those papers. there was no reason to suspect Leibniz's good faith. he picked out this manuscript as the one which had probably somehow fallen into Leibniz's hands. Both Leibniz and Newton could see by this exchange of letters that the other was far along towards the calculus (Leibniz in particular mentions it) but only Leibniz was prodded thereby into publication. I. In 1696. On the other hand it may be supposed that Leibniz made the extracts from the printed copy in or after 1704. Those who question Leibniz's good faith allege that to a man of his ability. C. already some years later than the events that became the subject of the quarrel. sufficed to give him a clue as to the methods of the calculus. It is. however. 1676 where he remarks that Leibniz had developed a number of methods. In 1849. But Gerhardt's discovery of a copy made by Leibniz tends to confirm its accuracy. one of which was new to him. anyone building on that work would have to invent a notation. while expressing preference for the convenience of Leibniz's notation. Since Newton's work at issue did employ the fluxional notation. the position still looked potentially peaceful: Newton and Leibniz had each made limited acknowledgements of the other's work. Hence when these extracts were made becomes all-important. It was not until the 1704 publication of an . It is known that a copy of Newton's manuscript had been sent to Tschirnhaus in May 1675. to view the development of calculus as entirely independent between the work of Newton and Leibniz misses the point that both had some knowledge of the methods of the other. along with notes re-expressing the content of these extracts in Leibniz's differential notation. That Leibniz saw some of Newton's manuscripts had always been likely. while going through Leibniz's manuscripts. Shortly before his death. Leibniz admitted in a letter to Abbot Antonio Conti. For instance Leibniz came first to integration. to rebut this case it is necessary to show that he (I) saw some of Newton's papers on the subject in or before 1675 or at least 1677. hence Newton's conjecture was not published. which he saw as a generalization of the summation of infinite series.[2] At first. It is a priori probable that they would have then shown him the manuscript of Newton on that subject. found extracts from Newton's De Analysi per Equationes Numero Terminorum Infinitas (published in 1704 as part of the De Quadratura Curvarum but also previously circulated among mathematicians starting with Newton giving a copy to Isaac Barrow in 1669 and Barrow sending it to John Collins[4]) in Leibniz's handwriting. Gerhardt. on the method of tangents. as is shown in a letter to Henry Oldenburg dated October 24. in particular power series.

which the author of that epistle. and references) of the case for Leibniz was issued by his friends. as it appeared to Newton's friends. I have enjoyed little leisure. Now that I am old. When pressed for an explanation. and when I did. His unacknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Newton's manuscripts may be explicable. Moreover. But Leibniz did not see it until the autumn of 1714. With respect to the review of Newton's quadrature work. but I am very desirous to preserve my character for honesty. but it appears that on more than one occasion. dont je ne me souvenois guère: il me falloit chercher mes vieilles lettres. was summed up in the Commercium Epistolicum [5] of 1712. Moreover. 77 . a bias favoring Newton tainted the whole affair from the outset. in the Acta Eruditorum). étant chargé présentement d'occupations d'une toute autre nature. Bernoulli most solemnly denied having written the letter. before publishing them.. and I have never tried to propagate my opinions over the world. To Newton's staunch supporters this was a case of Leibniz's word against a number of contrary. Leibniz deliberately altered or added to important documents (e. the debate persisted for many years. All this casts doubt on his testimony." he said. Several points should be noted. 30 years later. of which I remember little: I would have to search my old letters. in a letter to Conti dated 9 April 1716: Pour répondre de point en point à l'ouvrage publié contre moi. all admit that there was no justification or authority for the statements made therein. in the Charta Volans. forty years ago. as demonstrated by his other accomplishments. and doubts emerged. il falloit entrer dans un grand détail de quantité de minutiés passées il y a trente à quarante ans. he had more than the requisite ability to invent the calculus. but I have rather taken care not to involve myself in disputes on account of them. The report of the committee. dont plusiers se sont perdus. que je ne pouvois débrouiller qu'avec du temps et de la patience. but Johann Bernoulli attempted to indirectly weaken the evidence by attacking the personal character of Newton in a letter dated 7 June 1713. which I could sort through only with time and patience. 1716. which were rightly attributed to Leibniz. had endeavoured to wrest from me. No such summary (with facts. I would have to go into much minutiae that occurred thirty. of which many are lost. mais je n'en avois guère le loisir. 1713. suspicious details. a review implying that Newton had borrowed the idea of the fluxional calculus from Leibniz.g. the letter of June 7. That committee never asked Leibniz to give his version of the events. In any event. which referenced all allegations. being so weighted down of late with occupations of a totally different nature. The Royal Society set up a committee to pronounce on the priority dispute. Newton added in a private letter to Bernoulli the following remarks. [In order to respond point by point to all the work published against me.Calculus controversy anonymous review of Newton's tract on quadrature. and that of April 8." Leibniz explained his silence as follows. in response to a letter it had received from Leibniz. I have little pleasure in mathematical studies. In accepting the denial. What he is alleged to have received was a number of suggestions rather than an account of the calculus. and falsified a date on a manuscript (1675 being altered to 1673). Leibniz may have minimized. outre que le plus souvent je n'ai point gardé les minutes des miennes: et les autres sont ensevelies dans un grand tas de papiers. it is possible that since he did not publish his results of 1677 until 1684 and since the differential notation was his invention. he may have seen the question of who originated the calculus as immaterial when set against the expressive power of his notation. finding in favor of Newton. any benefit he may have enjoyed from reading Newton's work in manuscript. That document was thoroughly machined by Newton. was written by Newton himself and published as "Commercium Epistolicum" (mentioned above) early in 1713. as if by the authority of a great judge. in most cases I did not keep a copy. But the subsequent discussion led to a critical examination of the whole question. Newton's claimed reasons for why he took part in the controversy. the copy is buried in a great heap of papers. "grasped at fame among foreign nations. dates. Had Leibniz derived the fundamental idea of the calculus from Newton? The case against Leibniz.] While Leibniz's death put a temporary stop to the controversy. "I have never. Considering Leibniz's intellectual prowess. that any responsible mathematician doubted that Leibniz had invented the calculus independently of Newton.

other authors have emphasized the equivalences and mutual translatability of the methods: here N Guicciardini (2003) appears to confirm L'Hopital (1696) (already cited): . the differential and integral calculus. T. (Grattan-Guinness 1997: 247) On the other hand. "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736". at p. (1970). at page 149. a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41). for a similar view of another modern scholar see also Whiteside. 2003). not in the German-speaking world). The antagonistic nature of the dispute plays a role in Greg Keyes' steam punk alternate history series The Age of Unreason. "The Newton handbook". [3] Section I of Book I of the Principia. google. which were translatable one into the other. [5] http:/ / www. the fount of great developments flowing continuously from 1684 to the present day. (Cambridge University Press. com/ books?id=Og9azRoVmz8C& pg=PA250).. The Principia has been called "a book dense with the theory and application of the infinitesimal calculus" also in modern times: see Clifford Truesdell. part 7 "The October 1666 Tract on Fluxions".Calculus controversy The prevailing opinion in the 18th century was against Leibniz (in Britain. [4] D Gjertsen (1986).99. 1696). com/ books?id=1ZcYsNBptfYC& pg=PA400). was created independently by Gottfried Leibniz. Truesdell (1968) and Whiteside (1970) – is available online in its English translation of 1729. It was certainly Isaac Newton who first devised a new infinitesimal calculus and elaborated it into a widely extensible algorithm. and the differential and integral calculus. of equal certainty. at page 400. 1967). maths. (Guicciardini 2003. at page 250)[6] 78 References in fiction The Calculus Controversy is a major topic in Neal Stephenson's set of historical novels The Baroque Cycle (2003–04). in 2008 reprint (http:/ / books. Journal for the History of Astronomy 1: 116–138.. Today the consensus is that Leibniz and Newton independently invented and described the calculus in Europe in the 17th century. (Cambridge University Press.). the methods [of Newton and Leibniz] are profoundly different. They adopted two algorithms. explaining "the method of first and last ratios". The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton (Volume 1). tcd.. (London (Routledge & Kegan Paul) 1986). at page 250 (http:/ / books. the analytical method of fluxions. points of resemblance. google. especially at p. Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin.. References [1] D T Whiteside (ed. ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Newton/ CommerciumAccount/ [6] Niccolò Guicciardini. so making the priority row a nonsense. as recognized both in Newton's time and in modern times – see citations above by L'Hospital (1696). [2] Marquis de l'Hôpital's original words about the 'Principia': "lequel est presque tout de ce calcul": see the preface to his Analyse des Infiniment Petits (Paris. 120. 1968). the Newtonian and Leibnizian schools shared a common mathematical method. . at page 41 (http:/ / books. whose potentialities he fully understood. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". D. google. (Hall 1980: 1) One author has identified the dispute as being about "profoundly different" methods: Despite.

• W.ie/pub/ HistMath/People/Leibniz/RouseBall/RB_Gottfried_Leibniz. as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker.math. Canberra. with its gears governed by the laws of physics.. The Norton History of the Mathematical Sciences. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (http://www. W. Clarke wrote: "The Notion of the World's being a great Machine. and tends. could explain the behaviour of the solar system. though the theory has often been wrongly attributed to him. The Newton/Leibniz Conflict in Context (http://www.rutgers.edu/courses/436/ Honors02/newton. 1980. Tim Wetherell's Clockwork Universe sculpture at Questacon. Opposition Suggested arguments against this theory include: the concept of free will. Dated. • Hall. Philosophers at War: The Quarrel between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. going on without the Interposition of God. in the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. Rouse Ball. and from there the laws of science took hold and have governed every sequence of events since that time. 1997. Anand.html). or initiated by the Big Bang.html). as a perfect machine. approaching a maximum value). the second law of thermodynamics (the total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time. Press. Davis has acknowledged Newton's belief that the clockwork universe theory wrongly reduces God's role in the universe. Responding to Gottfried Leibniz. What sets this theory apart from others is the idea that God's only contribution to the universe was to set everything in motion. Bantam Books Clockwork universe theory The clockwork universe theory compares the universe to a mechanical clock wound up by a supreme being. making every single aspect of the machine completely predictable. a prominent supporter of the theory. when scientists realized that Newton's laws of motion. W W Norton. A thorough scholarly discussion. This idea was very popular among deists during the Enlightenment. Edward B. is the Notion of Materialism and Fate. and quantum physics with its mathematical description which some interpret as unpredictable. A.maths. 1988.) to exclude Providence and God's Government in reality out of the World. A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Australia (2009) Isaac Newton has been recognized as a prominent opponent of the clockwork universe theory. It continues ticking along. random behaviour. Before the emergence of quantum mechanics. including the law of universal gravitation. 1908. 4th ed. R. • Stephen Hawking. • Kandaswamy. as reflected in the writings of Newton-supporter Samuel Clarke.Calculus controversy 79 Sources • Ivor Grattan-Guinness. Cambridge Uni. (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence."[1] . many scientists believed that the Universe was completely deterministic in this way.tcd.

org/restless_universe/html/ru_2_11. God was the master-builder. Edinburgh. who created the perfect machine and let it run. 1. no. Clarke quotation taken from article. "Newton's rejection of the "Newtonian world view" : the role of divine will in Newton's natural philosophy. 201. "The Emergence of Rational Dissent. (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Edward B. Richard S. Webb. This steel artwork contains moving gears. the machine of the world. 19.[2] This conception of the universe consisted of a huge. God was the Prime Mover. manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life." Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. "A Short Scheme of the True Religion". who stood aside from his work and didn’t get involved directly with humanity. 65. regulated and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time. Westfall. John Bolton. cited in. 465.com/books?id=IJ-GgyfvKL8C&printsec=frontcover). Further reading • Dolnick. Sacrobosco spoke of the universe as the machina mundi. and the Birth of the Modern World (http://books. 2. and motion. ibid. 2011. Cambridge: 1996.Clockwork universe theory 80 World-machine A similar concept goes back. Knud Haakonssen. (http://physicalworld. who brought into being the world in its lawfulness. This view of God as the creator. The Clockwork Universe: Isaac Newton. 1850. p. Art In 2009 artist Tim Wetherell created a large wall piece for Questacon (The National Science and Technology centre in Canberra. regularity. a working clock. Robert Lambourne. A Source Book in Medieval Science. p. 1974). p. [2] John of Sacrbosco. ed. quoted in Edward Grant. 1991. Harper Collins. On the Sphere. Australia) representing the concept of the clockwork universe. Edward. p. space. the Royal Society. . Andrew Norton. Joy Manners.K. Pr. Cambridge University Press. and a movie of the moon's terminator in action. 3. and beauty. References [1] Davis. Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster." Science and Christian Belief 3.google.html) The Physical World. to John of Sacrobosco's early 13th-century introduction to astronomy: On the Sphere of the World. In this widely popular medieval text. suggesting that the reported eclipse of the Sun at the crucifixion of Jesus was a disturbance of the order of that machine. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England.. Ed. was called Deism (which predates Newton) and was accepted by many who supported the “new philosophy”. External links • "The Clockwork Universe". Alan Durrant. 2: 103-117. R.

corpuscular theory of light. 66-73 External links • Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory (http://people. the material point and force (interaction between material points). J. bartleby.The Wave.29-32. gutenberg. Particle. an appreciation by Albert Einstein. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. form. com/ 65/ li/ light. translation. Torrance (1982). set forward by Sir Isaac Newton.[3][4] References [1] http:/ / www. partly because of Newton’s great prestige. htm [2] bartleby. 1996 [4] Maxwell's influence on the development of the conception of physical reality . Eugene.com (http:/ / www. Translation).edu/~beckmk/ QM/grangier/grangier. retaining only inertia. The concept of the material point is obviously due to observable bodies. in James Clerk Maxwell : A Commemorative Volume 1831-1931 (Cambridge. Albert Einstein. 1210-1219 (2004) . interference and polarization of light it was abandoned in favour of Huygen's wave theory.whitman. time. Phys. html) .[2] Newton's corpuscular theory was an elaboration of his view of reality as interactions of material points through forces.Corpuscular theory of light 81 Corpuscular theory of light In optics. Note Albert Einstein's description of Newton's conception of physical reality: [Newton's] physical reality is characterised by concepts of space. The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865). Physical events are to be thought of as movements according to law of material points in space. and the additional concept of force. However when the corpuscular theory failed to adequately explain the diffraction. and Electromagnetic Theories of Light [3] Maxwell's Influence on the Development of the Conception of Physical reality (Sonja Bargmann's 1954 Eng. edited by Thomas F. Newton's theory remained in force for more than 100 years and took precedence over Huygens' wave front theory [1]. 1931). org/ files/ 14725/ 14725-h/ 14725-h.html) JJ Thorn et al. spatial locality. one conceived of the material point on the analogy of movable bodies by omitting characteristics of extension. The material point is the only representative of reality in so far as it is subject to change. pp. 72. James Clerk Maxwell. and all their 'inner' qualities. states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess kinetic energy.: Am.

or mechanical. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces.[6] in the sense that the extent of the body is neglected in the evaluation of its motion. or I contrive no hypotheses) is a famous phrase used by Isaac Newton in an essay General Scholium which was appended to the second (1713) edition of the Principia. Newton showed that these laws of motion.[2][3][3] 2. in the third volume of the text. . 3. and hypotheses. and I do not feign hypotheses. have no place in experimental philosophy. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal.e. University of California Press ISBN 0-520-08817-4. F = ma. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis.[4] Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. General Scholium. explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Therefore. or based on occult qualities. opposite and collinear. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman's 1999 translation. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.e. combined with his law of universal gravitation. Newton's First and Second laws.[1] and can be summarized as follows: 1. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F and inversely proportional to the mass m. i. The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Laws of motion Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. page 943 of I.[5] For example. or the deformation and rotation of the body is of no importance in the analysis. a planet can be idealized as a particle for analysis of its orbital motion around a star. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries. Overview Newton's laws are applied to bodies (objects) which are considered or idealized as a particle.Hypotheses non fingo 82 Hypotheses non fingo Hypotheses non fingo (Latin for I feign no hypotheses. in Latin. and afterwards rendered general by induction. Here is a recent translation (published 1999) of the passage containing this famous remark: I have not as yet been able to discover the reason for these properties of gravity from phenomena.. the object is small compared to the distances involved in the analysis. first published in 1687.. 974 pages. In this philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena. i. from the original 1687 Principia Mathematica. [1] References [1] Isaac Newton (1726). First law: The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force. Third edition. whether metaphysical or physical.

Galilean invariance or the principle of Newtonian relativity. Any reference frame that is in uniform motion with respect to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. momentum. but it is still useful as an approximation when the speeds involved are much slower than the speed of light. then Euler’s laws can be derived from Newton’s laws. the motion of a particle in a preferential reference frame Φ is determined by the action of forces whose total vanished for all times when and only when the velocity of the particle is constant in Φ. If a body is represented as an assemblage of discrete particles. In this sense. later applied as well for deformable bodies assumed as a continuum. In the given interpretation mass. Thus. That is. Euler’s laws can. Newtonian mechanics has been superseded by special relativity.[14] Newton's first law is a restatement of the law of inertia which Galileo had already described and Newton gave credit to Galileo. and therefore the first law cannot be proved as a special case of the second.[8][9] The explicit concept of an inertial frame of reference was not developed until long after Newton's death. and (most importantly) force are assumed to be externally defined quantities. each governed by Newton’s laws of motion. Aristotle had the view that all objects have a natural place in the universe: that heavy objects like rocks wanted to be at rest on the Earth and that light objects like smoke wanted to be at rest in the sky and the stars wanted . The first law of motion postulates the existence of at least one frame of reference called a Newtonian or inertial reference frame. a particle initially at rest or in uniform motion in the preferential frame Φ continues in that state unless compelled by forces to change it. the first law can be restated as: In every material universe.[12][8] Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia.[11] This law states that if the net force (the vector sum of all forces acting on an object) is zero. from this point of view. Some authors interpret the first law as defining what an inertial reference frame is.[7] Newton's Laws hold only with respect to a certain set of frames of reference called Newtonian or inertial reference frames. Newton's laws of motion are not adequate to characterize the motion of rigid bodies and deformable bodies. Leonard Euler in 1750 introduced a generalization of Newton's laws of motion for rigid bodies called the Euler's laws of motion. • An object that is in motion will not change its velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. Mathematically stated: Consequently: • An object that is at rest will stay at rest unless an unbalanced force acts upon it. a condition necessary for the uniform motion of a particle relative to an inertial reference frame is that the total net force acting on it is zero. relative to which the motion of a particle not subject to forces is a straight line at a constant speed. the second law only holds when the observation is made from an inertial reference frame. but not the only interpretation: one can consider the laws to be a definition of these quantities. Law I: Every body persists in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward.Laws of motion In their original form. nisi quatenus a viribus impressis cogitur statum illum mutare. be taken as axioms describing the laws of motion for extended bodies.e. independently of any particle structure. then the velocity of the object is constant.[10] 83 Newton's first law Lex I: Corpus omne perseverare in statu suo quiescendi vel movendi uniformiter in directum. This is the most common. except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by force impressed.[13] Newton's laws are valid only in an inertial reference frame. Other authors do treat the first law as a corollary of the second. acceleration. however. Newton placed the first law of motion to establish frames of reference for which the other laws are applicable. i.

He thought that a body was in its natural state when it was at rest. acceleration. but no force is needed to maintain its velocity. and it is given by[19][20] Since force is the time derivative of momentum. because at high speeds the approximation that momentum is the product of rest mass and velocity is not accurate. This insight leads to Newton's First Law —no force means no acceleration. The relationship also implies the conservation of momentum: when the net force on the body is zero. Thus. i. Any net force is equal to the rate of change of the momentum. Galileo. the momentum of the body is constant. otherwise it would stop moving. m is the mass of the body. where F is the net force applied. and hence the body will maintain its velocity. then there is a force on it. and for the body to move in a straight line at a constant speed an external agent was needed to continually propel it.[21] Impulse is a concept frequently used in the analysis of collisions and impacts. Impulse An impulse J occurs when a force F acts over an interval of time Δt. Newton's second law requires modification if the effects of special relativity are to be taken into account. Thus. such is the case with uniform circular motion. the time derivative of the momentum is non-zero when the momentum changes direction. it follows that This relation between impulse and momentum is closer to Newton's wording of the second law..[15] The 17th century philosopher René Descartes also formulated the law.e. Consistent with the first law. A different equation is necessary for variable-mass systems (see below).[22] .[16][17][18] the mass can be taken outside the differentiation operator by the constant factor rule in differentiation. including Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan. and a is the body's acceleration. however. Any mass that is gained or lost by the system will cause a change in momentum that is not the result of an external force. 84 Newton's second law The second law states that the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum p in an inertial reference frame: where. since the law is valid only for constant-mass systems. realized that a force is necessary to change the velocity of a body. if a body is accelerating. The law of inertia apparently occurred to several different natural philosophers and scientists independently. although he did not perform any experiments to confirm it.Laws of motion to remain in the heavens. the net force applied to a body produces a proportional acceleration. In other words. even if there is no change in its magnitude.

the equation becomes History Newton's original Latin reads: Lex II: Mutationem motus proportionalem esse vi motrici impressae. is defined as a force (the force exerted on the body by the changing mass.Laws of motion 85 Variable-mass systems Variable-mass systems. by substituting the definition of acceleration. M is the total mass of the system. in modern terms. and acm is the acceleration of the center of mass of the system. or gradually and successively. along with the relations between Newton's formulation and modern formulations. is added to or subtracted from the former motion. and how he understood the second law and intended it to be understood. given in An Introduction to Mechanics by Kleppner and Kolenkow and other modern texts. Motte's 1729 translation of Newton's Latin continued with Newton's commentary on the second law of motion. According to modern ideas of how Newton was using his terminology. The sense or senses in which Newton used his terminology. a double force will generate double the motion. reading: If a force generates a motion. Then.[24] . Variable-mass systems like a rocket or a leaking bucket cannot usually be treated as a system of particles. and happens along the straight line on which that impulse is impressed. have been extensively discussed by historians of science. a triple force triple the motion.[23] this is understood. And this motion (being always directed the same way with the generating force). the quantity (u dm/dt) on the left-hand side.[18] In classical mechanics. if the body moved before. and thus Newton's second law cannot be applied directly. known as the thrust. or obliquely joined. This was translated quite closely in Motte's 1729 translation as: Law II: The alteration of motion is ever proportional to the motive force impress'd. so as to produce a new motion compounded from the determination of both. In case of a well-defined system of particles. according as they directly conspire with or are directly contrary to each other. the general equation of motion for a body whose mass m varies with time by either ejecting or accreting mass is obtained by rearranging the second law and adding a term to account for the momentum carried by mass entering or leaving the system:[16] where u is the relative velocity of the escaping or incoming mass with respect to the center of mass of the body. Instead. such as rocket exhaust) and is included in the quantity F. is that Newton's second law applies fundamentally to particles. whether that force be impressed altogether and at once. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impress'd. when they are oblique. Under some conventions. et fieri secundum lineam rectam qua vis illa imprimitur. Newton's law can be extended by summing over all the particles in the system: where Fnet is the total external force on the system. particles by definition have constant mass.[17] The reasoning. as an equivalent of: The change of momentum of a body is proportional to the impulse impressed on the body. are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of time in the second law. like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases.

that body also (because of the equality of the mutual pressure) will undergo an equal change. as the motions are equally changed. The skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. For. the changes of the velocities made toward contrary parts are reciprocally proportional to the bodies. and by its force changes the motion of the other. the horse (if I may so say) will be equally drawn back towards the stone: for the distended rope. with F called the "action" and −F the "reaction". ” ” To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction: or the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are directed in opposite directions. as will be proved in the next scholium.[26][27] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body. as it does the stone towards the horse.g. hence his careful distinction between motion and velocity. and directed to contrary parts. toward the contrary part. The two forces in Newton's third law are of the same type (e.[25] In the above.. as usual. The Third Law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies. If a horse draws a stone tied to a rope. will draw the horse as much towards the stone. — Whatever draws or presses another is as much drawn or pressed by that other. the skaters' forces on each other are equal in magnitude. by the same endeavour to relax or unbend itself. This law takes place also in attractions. if the bodies are not hindered by any other impediments. As shown in the diagram opposite. Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body. If a body impinges upon another. A more direct translation than the one just given above is: LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. Although the forces are equal. This law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law. not in the velocities but in the motions of the bodies.Laws of motion 86 Newton's third law Newton's third law. in its own motion. that is to say. and will obstruct the progress of the one as much as it advances that of the other. but act in opposite directions. “ “ Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. if the road . motion is Newton's name for momentum. the second body exerts a force −F on the first body. the accelerations are not: the less massive skater will have a greater acceleration due to Newton's second law. the finger is also pressed by the stone. The changes made by these actions are equal. If you press a stone with your finger. F and −F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. but act in opposite directions. The action and the reaction are simultaneous.

87 where Fa. each exerting a force on the other. So each and every force has two ends. which says that the force is the derivative of the momentum of the object with respect to time. At speeds comparable to the speed of light. Newton's laws of motion. Newton's third law is a one-dimensional vector equation. . In quantum mechanics concepts such as force. and position are defined by linear operators that operate on the quantum state. then it is also a frictional force that Newton's third law predicts for the tires pushing backward on the road). errors in non-relativistically corrected GPS systems and superconductivity. the Lorentz factor must be included in the expression for momentum along with rest mass and velocity) or very strong gravitational fields. for instance when force fields as well as particles carry momentum.a are the forces from A acting on B. very high speeds (in special relativity. the laws cannot be used to explain phenomena such as conduction of electricity in a semiconductor. However. Put very simply: a force acts between a pair of objects. most notably at very small scales. including general relativity and quantum field theory. the second law holds in the original form F = dpdt. one might say. Each of the two ends is the same except for being opposite in direction. conservation of momentum is the more fundamental idea (derived via Noether's theorem from Galilean invariance). Given two objects A and B. and in quantum mechanics. Explanation of these phenomena requires more sophisticated physical theories.[28] however from a deeper perspective. and not on a single object. and they are excellent approximations at the scales and speeds of everyday life. optical properties of substances. The ends of a force are mirror images of each other. but some of the newer versions of the second law (such as the constant mass approximation above) do not hold at relativistic velocities. and holds in cases where Newton's third law appears to fail. and Newton used the third law to derive the law of conservation of momentum.Laws of motion exerts a forward frictional force on an accelerating car's tires. provided for the first time a unified quantitative explanation for a wide range of physical phenomena. momentum.b are the forces from B acting on A. Newton's laws (combined with universal gravitation and classical electrodynamics) are inappropriate for use in certain circumstances. These three laws hold to a good approximation for macroscopic objects under everyday conditions. Fb. at speeds that are much lower than the speed of light. which can be stated as follows. Importance and range of validity Newton's laws were verified by experiment and observation for over 200 years. From a mathematical point of view. Newton's laws are just as exact for these operators as they are for classical objects. Therefore. together with his law of universal gravitation and the mathematical techniques of calculus.

pdf) Andrew Motte translation of Newton's Principia (1687) Axioms or Laws of Motion (http:/ / members. In modern physics. I. com/ html_books/ 1np/ ch04/ ch04. Application of space derivative (which is a momentum operator in quantum mechanics) to overlapping wave functions of pair of fermions (particles with half-integer spin) results in shifts of maxima of compound wavefunction away from each other. Force and Motion" (http:/ / www. and Tait. Translations. google. html). ISBN 097046701X. "4. and by a modern text of the early 21st century. since they apply to both light and matter.. Halliday Browne. Other forces such as gravity and fermionic degeneracy pressure also arise from the momentum conservation. he was prepared for philosophical criticism of this action at a distance. Treatise on natural philosophy. the laws of conservation of momentum. etc." Because force is the time derivative of momentum. volume 1. com/ ?id=6LO_U6T-HvsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=essays+ in+ the+ History& cd=9#v=snippet& q="isolated points"). Newton's laws of motion (http:/ / books. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Galili.. . google. • Section 242. by the physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in the mid-19th century. Bibcode 2003Sc&Ed. general relativity. Newtonian Physics. springerlink. Science & Education 12 (1): 45–73. except for subtle effects involving quantum entanglement. p.. Tseitlin. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. Euler realized that the statements of Newton are generally correct only when applied to masses concentrated at isolated points. See the Principia on line at Andrew Motte Translation (http:/ / ia310114. Becchi. and to both classical and non-classical physics. archive. New York: Birkhäuser. and angular momentum are of more general validity than Newton's laws.. Newton stated the third law within a world-view that assumed instantaneous action at a distance between material particles. ce. Benvenuto. Dover Publications. com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC& pg=PA178) in Thomson. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19#v=onepage& q=& f=false) of the "Principia". the concept of action at a distance is used extensively. and is not used in fundamental theories (e. Plasticity Theory (Revised Edition) (http:/ / www. Jacob (2008). google. (1999-07) (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). tripod. "Newton's First Law: Text.).]while Newton had used the word 'body' vaguely and in at least three different meanings.. com/ content/ j42866672t863506/ ). the conservation of 4-momentum in inertial motion via curved space-time results in what we call gravitational force in general relativity theory. . The standard model explains in detail how the three fundamental forces known as gauge forces originate out of exchange by virtual particles.. quantum mechanics. energy and angular momentum cannot be created or destroyed. and • Benjamin Crowell (2000). ISBN 9780070084988. This can be stated simply. Essays on the history of mechanics: in memory of Clifford Ambrose Truesdell and Edoardo Benvenuto (http:/ / books. . com/ ?id=5gURYN4vFx4C& pg=PA58& dq=newton's+ first+ law+ of+ motion& q=newton's first law of motion). W (Lord Kelvin). Michael E. berkeley. . M. 58. ISBN 0486462900. and it was in this context that he stated the famous phrase "I feign no hypotheses". Lubliner. References and notes [1] For explanations of Newton's laws of motion by Newton in the early 18th century. 207. which is observable as "repulsion" of fermions.Laws of motion 88 Relationship to the conservation laws In modern physics. (2003). Newtonian Physics. (1867). energy. Interpretations and Physics Education" (http:/ / www. google. However.45G. Antonio. Edoardo (2003). org/ 2/ items/ newtonspmathema00newtrich/ newtonspmathema00newtrich. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (http:/ / books.Truesdell. pp. P G.g. htm) [. the concept of force is redundant and subordinate to the conservation of momentum.1023/A:1022632600805. lightandmatter. the long delay occurring because of the difficulty in understanding the role of microscopic and invisible forms of energy such as heat and infra-red light. Conservation of energy was discovered nearly two centuries after Newton's lifetime. edu/ ~coby/ plas/ pdf/ book. action at a distance has been completely eliminated.. .12. quantum electrodynamics. [9] Benjamin Crowell. pdf). "Momentum. Clifford A. However in modern engineering in all practical applications involving the motion of vehicles and satellites. McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN 3764314761. . us. doi:10. see:• Newton's "Axioms or Laws of Motion" starting on page 19 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books.. Indeed.

And because they find themselves subject after motion to pain and lassitude. I]t is essential to deal with the same set of particles throughout the time interval[.1088/0031-9120/27/2/011. pp. Corollary III to the laws of motion . s. Berkeley 1999.Laws of motion [10] In making a modern adjustment of the second law for (some of) the effects of relativity. 78–79. University of California press. doi:10. [26] C Hellingman (1992). pages 157–207. ISBN 0471037109.. John Wiley & Sons. Cohen and A. 1967).53.. Pacific Grove CA: Thompson-Brooks/Cole.. p221. producing the relativistic expression for momentum. [16] Plastino. Millard F. But [the proposition] that when a thing is in motion it will eternally be in motion unless somewhat else stay it. College Physics (http:/ / books.. ISBN 0534408966..': Historians Discuss Newton’s Second Law". "We may conclude emphasizing that Newton's second law is valid for constant mass only. google. Juan C. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. .5 of "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" in (online) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [24] See for example (1) I Bernard Cohen. [14] Thornton. The Principia. 27 (2): 112–115. Principles of engineering mechanics Volume 2 of Principles of Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics-The Analysis of Motion. ISBN 1-85233-426-6. google." [28] Newton. . Robert Kolenkow (1973). An Introduction to Mechanics. google. Whiteside (http:/ / books. ISBN 0070350485. [11] Isaac Newton. Serway." [27] Resnick and Halliday (1977). (http:/ / books. Hillier. Phys. ISBN 0521602890. Brooks/Cole. A new translation by I. is a truth that no man doubts. 53. pages 627–658. ISBN 052189266X.] Consequently. For men measure not only other men but all other things by themselves. [21] I Bernard Cohen (Peter M. 161. Pitman Paperbacks. p. Angel R. Principia. in 5. "Newton’s Second Law and the Concept of Force in the Principia". Harman & Alan E. 1 (1993). 1971 [20] Raymond A. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ index. (2) Stuart Pierson. p.M1). Shapiro.] We can use F = dP/dt to analyze variable mass systems only if we apply it to an entire system of constant mass having parts among which there is an interchange of mass. and another by which Jupiter attracts the Sun. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.. cited below. [23] According to Maxwell in Matter and Motion. . Daniel. p. com/ ?id=nHgcS0bfZ28C& pg=PA12& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). little considering whether it be not some other motion wherein that desire of rest they find in themselves. Whitman. [.227P. com/ ?id=oYZ-0PUrjBcC& pg=PA353& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change"+ -angular+ date:2000-2009). [they] think every thing else grows weary of motion and seeks repose of its own accord. "Any single force is only one aspect of a mutual interaction between two bodies. unless somewhat else stir it. m would be treated as the relativistic mass. it will lie still forever. J. pages 143–185. vol. p. Applied Mechanics.. Springer. [12] NMJ Woodhouse (2003). "Newton's Interpretation of Newton's Second Law". 6. ISBN 0534997244." [17] Halliday. 353. 1... M J.27. When the mass varies due to accretion or ablation. Archive for History of Exact Sciences. "Physics". . com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). google. google. google. ISSN 0923-2958. (1992).B. Classical dynamics of particles and systems (http:/ / books. "Newton’s third law revisited". Bibcode 1992CeMDA. (2006). "'Corpore cadente. Massachusetts: The MIT Press. google. pp. 12 ff. Jerry S. consists. . and the third law might be modified if possible to allow for the finite signal propagation speed between distant interacting particles. 133–134.. . . Special relativity (http:/ / books. and (3) Bruce Pourciau.112H. p. [13] Beatty. "It is important to note that we cannot derive a general expression for Newton's second law for variable mass systems by treating the mass in F = dP/dt = d(Mv) as a variable. "Quoting Newton in the Principia: It is not one action by which the Sun attracts Jupiter. Resnick. in "The Annus Mirabilis of Sir Isaac Newton 1666–1966" (Cambridge. is not so easily assented to. [25] This translation of the third law and the commentary following it can be found in the "Principia" on page 20 of volume 1 of the 1729 translation (http:/ / books. Eds) (2002). . "Recall that F = dP/dt was established for a system composed of a certain set of particles[. [22] WJ Stronge (2004). McGraw-Hill. but it is one action by which the Sun and Jupiter mutually endeavour to come nearer together. Bibcode 1992PhyEd. Faughn (2006). p. Newton meant by motion "the quantity of matter moved as well as the rate at which it travels" and by impressed force he meant "the time during which the force acts as well as the intensity of the force". Physics. Perspectives on Science. also an online discussion by G E Smith. com/ ?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6. . [an alternate equation explicitly accounting for the changing mass] should be used.." [Emphasis as in the original] [18] Kleppner. com/ ?id=wr2QOBqOBakC& lpg=PP1& pg=PA24#v=onepage& q). 24. stanford. The investigation of difficult things: essays on Newton and the history of the exact sciences in honour of D.60 (2006). pp. html#NewLawMot). Marion (2004). ISBN 0387237046. [15] Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan: 89 That when a thing lies still. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers) 53 (3): 227–232. 199.T. Impact mechanics (http:/ / books. com/ ?id=HOqLQgAACAAJ& dq=classical dynamics of particles and systems) (5th ed.1007/BF00052611. "On the use and abuse of Newton's second law for variable mass problems".). Muzzio. the mass of the system can not change during the time of interest." [19] Hannah. Newton's Laws of Motion (http:/ / plato. Educ. though the reason be the same (namely that nothing can change itself). See Harman and Shapiro. London/Berlin: Springer. doi:10. . 2007. com/ ?id=wDKD4IggBJ4C& pg=PA247& dq=impulse+ momentum+ "rate+ of+ change").

External links • MIT Physics video lecture (http://ocw. L.lightandmatter. (1867). volume 2. Elements of Engineering Mechanics. • NMJ Woodhouse (2003). Thornton. ISBN 0030973023. R. • Thomson.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-01Physics-IFall1999/VideoLectures/ detail/Video-Segment-Index-for-L-6.M1).com/books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC&pg=PA178).Laws of motion 90 Further reading and works referred to • Crowell. Vol. Treatise on natural philosophy (http://books. M.wolfram. Harcourt College Publishers.com/?id=ggPXQAeeRLgC& printsec=frontcover&dq=isbn=1852334266#PPA6.3). G.htm) • " Newton's Second Law (http://demonstrations. google. Leighton. especially at Section 4.google.com/html_books/lm/ ch04/ch04. • Fowles. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". • Newton. volume 1. (2005).com/html_books/lm/ch04/ch04..com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA19). Benjamin. Newton's Second Law (http://www. Special relativity (http://books.). W (Lord Kelvin). (1999).motionmountain.hk/wiki/englishhtm/firstlaw.lightandmatter. and Tait.htm) on Newton's three laws • Light and Matter (http://www. McGraw-Hill Book Company.com/lm/) – an on-line textbook • Motion Mountain (http://www. ISBN 0070378525.net) – an on-line textbook • Simulation on Newton's first law of motion (http://phy. Section 4.html#Section4. (1973).1). 6.google.google. ISBN 1-85233-426-6.mit. B. Saunders College Publishing. • Newton.lightandmatter. P G. (2011.google. • Newton's 3rd Law demonstrated in a vacuum (http://www.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ). Peter W. Newton's Third Law (http://www.google.1.3. P. Sands. Jerry. • Feynman. containing Book 1 (http://books. ISBN 0805390499. Newton's laws of motion (http://books. Isaac. especially at Section 242. R. R. 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). especially at the section Axioms or Laws of Motion starting page 19 (http://books.com/lm/). 1729 English translation based on 3rd Latin edition (1726). Analytical Mechanics (6th ed. volume 1. p.). Newton's First Law (http://www.com/ books?id=wwO9X3RPt5kC). html#Section4. (2011).. Pearson/Addison-Wesley.com/NewtonsSecondLaw/)" by Enrique Zeleny.com/ html_books/lm/ch05/ch05.lightandmatter.com/watch?v=9gFMObYCccU) .com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC). Light and Matter).youtube. 1 (2nd ed. Cassiday. containing Books 2 & 3 (http://books.2. ISBN 0030223172. • Marion. The Feynman Lectures on Physics.lightandmatter.. • Likins. Classical Dynamics of Particles and Systems. Wolfram Demonstrations Project.2). "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". Isaac. G. Light and Matter (http://www. Stephen (1995). London/Berlin: Springer. and Section 5.html#Section5.

first published on 5 July 1687. and r is the distance between the centers of the masses. (When Newton's book was presented in 1686 to the Royal Society. Newton's law of gravitation resembles Coulomb's law of electrical forces. The force is proportional to the [2] product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: . Coulomb's Law has the product of two charges in place of the product of the masses. so none of Newton's calculations could use the value of G. r in meters (m). instead he could only calculate a force relative to another force.Law of universal gravitation 91 Law of universal gravitation Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. or when dealing with gravitation for extremely massive and dense objects. but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity. Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him – see History section below. the law states the following: Every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. It took place 111 years after the publication of Newton's Principia and 71 years after Newton's death.) This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Newton called induction. which is used to calculate the magnitude of electrical force between two charged bodies. m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg).) In modern language. and the electrostatic constant in place of the gravitational constant. . and the constant G is approximately equal to 6. in which force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. m2 is the second mass. Both are inverse-square laws.[4] This experiment was also the first test of Newton's theory of gravitation between masses in the laboratory. Newton's law has since been superseded by Einstein's theory of general relativity. m1 is the first mass. (Separately it was shown that large spherically symmetrical masses attract and are attracted as if all their mass were concentrated at their centers. G is the gravitational constant. where: • • • • • F is the force between the masses. Assuming SI units. F is measured in newtons (N).[1] It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia").674 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2.[3] The value of the constant G was first accurately determined from the results of the Cavendish experiment conducted by the British scientist Henry Cavendish in 1798. although Cavendish did not himself calculate a numerical value for G. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme precision.

that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat." the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons". together with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal.[9] He also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. by how much the nearer the body wrought upon is to their own Centers".[7] It was later on. Hooke's work and claims Robert Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" in the 1660s. and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present". "prosecuting this Inquiry"). Robert Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism by claiming that he had taken from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity."[10] (The inference about the velocity was incorrect. of 24 November 1679. that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall. will so continue to move forward in a straight line. Hooke himself stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified". Thus Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets. if anything. in writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton. however.. when he read to the Royal Society on 21 March 1666 a paper "On gravity". and on which some points still excite some controversy. that Hooke communicated his "supposition .[7] Hooke announced in 1674 that he planned to "explain a System of the World differing in many particulars from any yet known". have an attraction or gravitating power towards their own Centers" [and] "they do also attract all the other Celestial Bodies that are within the sphere of their activity". and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.Law of universal gravitation 92 History Early history A recent assessment (by Ofer Gal) about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s. when the first book of Newton's Principia was presented to the Royal Society..". though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. based on three "Suppositions": that "all Celestial Bodies whatsoever.. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention.[11]) Hooke's correspondence of 1679-1680 with Newton mentioned not only this inverse square supposition for the decline of attraction with increasing distance.e. till they are by some other effectual powers deflected and bent.[6] In this way arose the question what. as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". did Newton owe to Hooke? – a subject extensively discussed since that time. but also. Plagiarism dispute In 1686. On the latter two aspects. in Hooke's opening letter to Newton. and he published them again in somewhat developed form in 1674. and that "these attractive powers are so much the more powerful in operating.. "concerning the inflection of a direct motion into a curve by a supervening attractive principle". in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body. but he treats Hooke's claim of priority on the inverse square point as uninteresting since several individuals besides Newton and Hooke had at least suggested it.[5] The same author does credit Hooke with a significant and even seminal contribution.[8] that "all bodies whatsoever that are put into a direct and simple motion. an approach of "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive . being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated thereby" was wholly Newton's. and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance. and he points instead to the idea of "compounding the celestial motions" and the conversion of Newton's thinking away from 'centrifugal' and towards 'centripetal' force as Hooke's significant contributions.

Newton recalled that the idea had been discussed with Sir Christopher Wren previous to Hooke's 1679 letter. according to Newton. Among the reasons. in which he showed that only where the law of force is accurately as the inverse square of the distance will the directions of orientation of the planets' orbital ellipses stay constant as they are observed to do apart from small effects attributable to inter-planetary perturbations. otherwise lacking. for applying the inverse square law to large spherical planetary masses as if they were tiny particles. In regard to evidence that still survives of the earlier history. that if the inverse square law applies to tiny particles. it cannot be beleived by a judicious Philosopher to be any where accurate. then even a large spherically symmetrical mass also attracts masses external to its surface. denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. but that did not mean. he would still have some rights to it in view of his demonstrations of its accuracy.. that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance). also without demonstration. but without demonstration. faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law. in all editions of the 'Principia'. a copy of which was in Newton's library at his death.[15] (who suggested. that there was a centrifugal tendency in counterbalance with a gravitational attraction towards the Sun so as to make the planets move in ellipses).Law of universal gravitation motion towards the central body". Newton acknowledged Wren. and Borelli[16] (who suggested. that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis. manuscripts written by Newton in the 1660s show that Newton himself had arrived by 1669 at proofs that in a circular case of planetary motion. a sensitive test of the accuracy of the inverse square law."[14] . 'endeavour to recede' (what was later called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center. Newton's acknowledgment On the other hand.[21] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke.[19] In addition. The lesson offered by Hooke to Newton here. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge. even close up. there were so many a-priori reasons to doubt the accuracy of the inverse-square law (especially close to an attracting sphere) that "without my (Newton's) Demonstrations.[12] 93 Newton's work and claims Newton. supported by mathematical demonstration. Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force.[20] and associated sections of Book 3.[14] including Bullialdus.. while the 'Principia' was still at pre-publication stage.[22] This background shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. D T Whiteside has described the contribution to Newton's thinking that came from Borelli's book.[13] Newton also pointed out and acknowledged prior work of others. as between centrifugal or centripetal forces.[17] Newton further defended his work by saying that had he first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke. Newton had formulated in Propositions 43-45 of Book 1. the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. without evidence in favor of the supposition. although significant. that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. which Newton was making in the 1660s. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements.[23] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters."[18] This remark refers among other things to Newton's finding. Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1. was one of perspective and did not change the analysis. Hooke. could only guess that the inverse square law was approximately valid at great distances from the center. Newton did accept and acknowledge. which inclined me to try it . Thus Newton gave a justification. although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view. exactly as if all its own mass were concentrated at its center. According to Newton.

The theorem tells us how different parts of the mass distribution affect the gravitational force measured at a point located a distance r0 from the center of the mass distribution:[30] • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r < r0 causes the same force at r0 as if all of the mass enclosed within a sphere of radius r0 was concentrated at the center of the mass distribution (as noted above). about thirty years after Newton's death in 1727. That is. Nevertheless.[2] (This is not generally true for non-spherically-symmetrical bodies. and that they were related in such a way that the observational evidence and the mathematical demonstrations.) For points inside a spherically-symmetric distribution of matter. the individual gravitational forces exerted by the elements of the sphere out there. In the limit. then the gravitational force between them is calculated by summing the contributions of the notional point masses which constitute the bodies. Newton's manuscripts of the 1660s do show him actually combining tangential motion with the effects of radially directed force or endeavour.[26][27] In the light of the background described above. see below) over the extents of the two bodies. for example in his derivation of the inverse square relation for the circular case. As a consequence. he did not claim to think it up as a bare idea. They also show Newton clearly expressing the concept of linear inertia—for which he was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644 (as Hooke probably was).Law of universal gravitation 94 Modern controversy Since the time of Newton and Hooke. of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory". even though that was not a claim actually voiced by Hooke at the time..[24] These matters do not appear to have been learned by Newton from Hooke. As described above.. for example. a number of authors have had more to say about what Newton gained from Hooke and some aspects remain controversial. Alexis Clairaut. and that "the example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". • The portion of the mass that is located at radii r > r0 exerts no net gravitational force at the distance r0 from the center. wrote after reviewing what Hooke published.[28][29] Bodies with spatial extent If the bodies in question have spatial extent (rather than being theoretical point masses). . this entails integrating the force (in vector form. In this way it can be shown that an object with a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass exerts the same gravitational attraction on external bodies as if all the object's mass were concentrated at a point at its centre. gave reason to believe that the inverse square law was not just approximately true but exactly true (to the accuracy achievable in Newton's time and for about two centuries afterwards – and with some loose ends of points that could not yet be certainly examined.[25] The fact that most of Hooke's private papers had been destroyed or disappeared does not help to establish the truth. on the point at r0. cancel each other out. that "One must not think that this idea . within a shell of uniform thickness and density there is no net gravitational acceleration anywhere within the hollow sphere. scholarly discussion has also touched on the question of whether Hooke's 1679 mention of 'compounding the motions' provided Newton with something new and valuable. taken together. where the implications of the theory had not yet been adequately identified or calculated). Newton's role in relation to the inverse square law was not as it has sometimes been represented. a mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies. it becomes understandable how. What Newton did was to show how the inverse-square law of attraction had many necessary mathematical connections with observable features of the motions of bodies in the solar system. Newton's Shell theorem can be used to find the gravitational force. as the component point masses become "infinitely small".

further outward the gravity increases again. then the gravity initially decreases outwardly beyond the boundary.5 times the decrease due to the larger distance from the center. quantities in bold represent vectors. inside a uniform sphere the gravity increases linearly with the distance from the center. Thus. the increase due to the additional mass is 1.Law of universal gravitation 95 Furthermore. |r12| = |r2 − r1| is the distance between objects 1 and 2. and is the unit vector from object 1 to 2. if a spherically symmetric body has a uniform core and a uniform mantle with a density that is less than 2/3 of that of the core. and if the sphere is large enough. where F12 is the force applied on object 2 due to object 1. and eventually it exceeds the gravity at the core/mantle boundary. Field lines drawn for a point mass using 24 field lines . In this formula. Gravitational field strength within the Earth Gravity field near earth at 1. The gravity of the Earth may be highest at the core/mantle boundary.2 and A Vector form Newton's law of universal gravitation can be written as a vector equation to account for the direction of the gravitational force as well as its magnitude. G is the gravitational constant. m1 and m2 are respectively the masses of objects 1 and 2.

It is a generalization of the vector form. and the force lines can be approximated as being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth . it can be seen that F12 = −F21. Gravitational field The gravitational field is a vector field that describes the gravitational force which would be applied on an object in any given point in space. and the right hand side is multiplied by the appropriate unit vector. Also. per unit mass. we simply write r instead of r12 and m instead of m2 and define the gravitational field g(r) as: Gravity field surrounding Earth from a macroscopic perspective. object 1 the Earth). which becomes particularly useful if more than 2 objects are involved (such as a rocket between the Earth and the Moon). For 2 objects (e. object 2 is a rocket. Gravity field lines representation is arbitrary as illustrated here represented in 30x30 grid to 0x0 grid and almost being parallel and pointing straight down to the center of the Earth Gravity in a room: the curvature of the Earth is negligible at this scale.Law of universal gravitation 96 It can be seen that the vector form of the equation is the same as the scalar form given earlier. except that F is now a vector quantity.g. It is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration at that point.

e. so Newton's law of gravitation is often said to be the low-gravity limit of general relativity.Law of universal gravitation 97 so that we can write: This formulation is dependent on the objects causing the field. General relativity reduces to Newtonian gravity in the limit of small potential and low velocities.[31] For example. in SI. and c is the speed of light. since where rorbit is the radius of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. although considerable headway has been made over the last 50 years (See: Theory of everything and Standard Model). this is m/s2. Newtonian gravity provides an accurate description of the Earth/Sun system. . Given the classical assumptions of the nature of space and time before the development of General Relativity. Theoretical concerns with Newton's theory • There is no immediate prospect of identifying the mediator of gravity. but that there was nothing more that he could do at the time. a significant propagation delay in gravity leads to unstable planetary and stellar orbits. Newton himself felt that the concept of an inexplicable action at a distance was unsatisfactory (see "Newton's reservations" below). that is.. In that case Problems with Newton's theory Newton's description of gravity is sufficiently accurate for many practical purposes and is therefore widely used. then general relativity must be used to describe the system. In situations where either dimensionless parameter is large. Gravitational fields are also conservative. This has the consequence that there exists a gravitational potential field V(r) such that Gravitational field determined using Newton's law of universal gravitation. The field has units of acceleration. Attempts by physicists to identify the relationship between the gravitational force and other known fundamental forces are not yet resolved. : If m1 is a point mass or the mass of a sphere with homogeneous mass distribution. depends only on the distance r from the center of the sphere. where φ is the gravitational potential. the work done by gravity from one position to another is path-independent. i. Deviations from it are small when the dimensionless quantities φ/c2 and (v/c)2 are both much less than one. the force field g(r) outside the sphere is isotropic. • Newton's Theory of Gravitation requires that the gravitational force be transmitted instantaneously. v is the velocity of the objects being studied.

the forces and energies that are required to accelerate various masses is completely dependent upon their different inertial masses. and the observed precession. independent of the quantities of matter involved." He never. and assume a point mass for each. but is made up of half its mass at the centre and the other half distributed at a third of the Sun's radius in twelve separate point masses and then calculate the gravitation force exerted by each component of the mass. he refused to even offer a hypothesis as to the cause of this force on grounds that to do so was contrary to sound science. but in the case of gravity. Calculations using General Relativity are in much closer agreement with the astronomical observations. The problem is that Newton's Theories and his mathematical formulas explain and permit the (inaccurate) calculation of the effects of the precession of the perihelions of the orbits and the deflection of light rays.Law of universal gravitation 98 Observations conflicting with Newton's theory • Newton's Theory does not fully explain the precession of the perihelion of the orbits of the planets. F = ma.. In all other cases. but shows an error when put to the extreme test of planetary precession over a century. they did not and do not explain the equivalence of the behavior of various masses under the influence of gravity. This uses only Newton's inverse square law for the force of gravity. In 1692. is to me so great an absurdity that. The observed fact that the gravitational mass and the inertial mass is the same for all objects is unexplained within Newton's Theories. This model also works for the orbits of the other planets."[33] . the experiments of Galileo Galilei. I believe. And in Newton's 1713 General Scholium in the second edition of Principia: "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity from phenomena and I feign no hypotheses.[32] There is a 43 arcsecond per century discrepancy between the Newtonian calculation. which was detected long after the life of Newton. These fundamental phenomena are still under investigation and. especially of planet Mercury. no man who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking could ever fall into it. General Relativity takes this as a basic principle. This shows that although the gravitational force between two point masses is reasonably accurate for most purposes. though hypotheses abound. However. he was deeply uncomfortable with the notion of "action at a distance" which his equations implied. he used the phenomenon of motion to explain the origin of various forces acting on bodies. Now if you modify this so that the Sun's mass is not a point mass. It is enough that gravity does really exist and acts according to the laws I have explained. in his words. regardless of their different inertial masses. you get an orbit with no precession. See the Equivalence Principle. as the Sun looks more like a point mass the further you are from it. He lamented that "philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of nature in vain" for the source of the gravitational force. Yet. in his third letter to Bentley. but the precession decreases with the distance of the planet from the Sun. if you create a computer model of the planet Mercury in orbit around the Sun. which arises only from the gravitational attractions from the other planets. the orbit now will have a precession of around 43 arcseconds per century. • The predicted angular deflection of light rays by gravity that is calculated by using Newton's Theory is only one-half of the deflection that is actually observed by astronomers. "assigned the cause of this power". In point of fact. and that it abundantly serves to account for all the motions of celestial bodies. he wrote: "That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else. made with advanced telescopes during the 19th Century. established that objects that have the same air or fluid resistance are accelerated by the force of the Earth's gravity equally. the definitive answer has yet to be found. as can be seen from Newton's Second Law of Motion.. as he was convinced "by many reasons" that there were "causes hitherto unknown" that were fundamental to all the "phenomena of nature". Newton's reservations While Newton was able to formulate his law of gravity in his monumental work. Moreover. by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one another. he was unable to experimentally identify the motion that produces the force of gravity (although he invented two mechanical hypotheses in 1675 and 1717). However. decades before Newton.

CUP 1989. Vol 2 (1676-1687).. in which gravitation is an attribute of curved spacetime instead of being due to a force propagated between bodies. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. see particularly page 431.. 27 May 1686. document #286. 168.). Vol 2 (1676-1687). [17] D T Whiteside. David B. especially at page 13. document #239. pages 5-19. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. (2008). Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google. Journal for the History of Astronomy. [8] Purrington. Laurent Hodges [5] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. Vol. In general relativity. nist. i (1970).). Bibcode 2008RvMP. 1960). edu/ ~lhodges/ Michell. Theorem 35: p. (Cambridge University Press. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. (Cambridge University Press. Direct link to value (http:/ / www. [15] Bullialdus (Ismael Bouillau) (1645). [14] Pages 435-440 in H W Turnbull (ed.. [22] See J.633. Springer. by I. especially at 13-20. Mod. In Einstein's theory. Phys. 80: 633–730. Ofer Gal.13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". mpg. nist. document #288. [21] D T Whiteside.Bernard Cohen. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg). This allowed a description of the motions of light and mass that was consistent with all available observations. [11] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia. University of California Press 1999 ISBN 0-520-08816-6 ISBN 0-520-08817-4 [3] Mohr. Peter J. p. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. . 45 (1991). masses distort spacetime in their vicinity. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?bg). Book 3. [4] The Michell-Cavendish Experiment (http:/ / www. [24] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. pages 5-19. start at page 263 (http:/ / books. google. G. (University of California Press. (Cambridge University Press.Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. iastate. 1960). start at page 177 (http:/ / books. The First Professional Scientist: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society of London (http:/ / books. google. [19] Propositions 70 to 75 in Book 1. . gov/ cuu/ Constants/ codata.). because the gravitational acceleration of a body in free fall is due to its world line being a geodesic of spacetime. Journal for the History of Astronomy. google. com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. physics. [16] Borelli. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263#v=onepage& q=& f=false). [7] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".80. 1666. already cited. 1995). [10] Page 309 in H W Turnbull (ed. Newell. google. 24 November 1679. public. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestial Motions of the Planets'".. doi:10. [12] Page 297 in H W Turnbull (ed. i (1970). (Cambridge University Press. "Theoricae Mediceorum Planetarum ex causis physicis deductae".633M. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". "Astronomia philolaica". for example in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. Vol 2 (1676-1687). htm). [20] Propositions 43 to 45 in Book 1. 1645.Law of universal gravitation 99 Einstein's solution These objections were rendered moot by Einstein's theory of general relativity.80. General Scholium. pages 11-61. at page 66 (http:/ / books. Rev. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177#v=onepage& q=& f=false). "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686". com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66#v=onepage& q=& f=false). A. [13] Page 433 in H W Turnbull (ed.956 .2. Bruce Brackenridge. . com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC& pg=PA168) [9] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989).. 1664-1684". [2] . "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 1960). Robert D. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. Paris. Barry N.392 in Volume 2 of Andrew Motte's English translation published 1729..). 1960). [18] Page 436. Florence. google.Proposition 75. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). in the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'.1103/RevModPhys. 1960). document #235. ISBN 3-034-60036-4. (2009).. (Cambridge University Press. Taylor. pdf). 20 June 1686. Correspondence. google.431-448. ch. Notes [1] Isaac Newton: "In [experimental] philosophy particular propositions are inferred from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction": "Principia".I.). at p. the gravitational force is a fictitious force due to the curvature of spacetime. mpiwg-berlin. and other particles move in trajectories determined by the geometry of spacetime. translators: Isaac Newton. [23] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. [6] H W Turnbull (ed. Extract of page 168 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=tJu97S3BtGIC). Vol 2 (1676-1687). 1664-1684". 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy".

in Early Science and Medicine.. ph. cited above. edu/ teaching/ 336k/ lectures/ node109. Rouse Ball. If a gravitational force acts on the cannon ball. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. [30] Equilibrium State (http:/ / farside. but not high enough to leave Earth altogether (lower than the escape velocity) it will continue revolving around Earth along an elliptical orbit.W. John Archibald (1973). utexas.. Ofer Gal. It appeared in his 1728 book A Treatise of the System of the World. at Introduction (section IX). 10 (2005). Newton" (1759). [27] See also G E Smith. it will follow a different path depending on its initial velocity. 1978 100 External links • Feather & Hammer Drop on Moon (http://www. 518-528. "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". in Early Science and Medicine. 511-517. in Early Science and Medicine. de Hook diminue la gloire de M.The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanisms and Mechanics. in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Kip S.pythia. (D) 4.com/watch?v=5C5_dOEyAfk&feature=related) • Newton‘s Law of Universal Gravitation Javascript calculator (http://www. The experiment In this experiment Newton visualizes a cannon on top of a very high mountain. 10 (2005). stanford.Law of universal gravitation [25] Discussion points can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. If there were no forces of gravitation or air resistance. 529-534. page 348 lists a table documenting the observed and calculated values for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury..youtube. html) [31] Misner. Thorne.ar/?id=gravlaw) Newton's cannonball Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (The 1962 Dover edition. Venus. Westfall. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Page 1049.Max Born (1924). "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". (C) 3. [26] See for example the results of Propositions 43-45 and 70-75 in Book 1. H. 10 (2005). New York: W. at page 69. then the cannonball should follow a straight line away from Earth.. Gravitation. 1893). M Nauenberg. and it was the key force for planetary motion. by Richard S. Cambridge University Press. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serve] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". If the speed is low. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée . Wheeler. [28] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. 1.) [33] . Charles W. Newton".com. [32] . If the speed is the orbital velocity at that altitude it will go on circling around the Earth along a fixed circular orbit just like the moon. If the speed is very high. If the speed is higher than the orbital velocity. it will simply fall back on Earth. and the Earth. "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results".Freeman and Company. (E) . (A and B) 2. it will indeed leave Earth. edu/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). [29] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M.

Notes [1] Sagan. It can easily be made at home using a card board piece It was an important discovery as it proves that light is not colourless. A Newton Disc can be created by painting a disc with the seven different colours.de/books?id=DXE9AAAAcAAJ&ots=e9UwdajVlO&dq=A Treatise of the System of the World& pg=PA6-IA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false) • Newton's Cannon animation (http://galileoandeinstein. Carl et al. When the disc is rotated. the colors fade to white. green and blue in the circular disc will yield the same result.edu/physics/astronomy/astr101/specials/newtscannon.virginia. (1978) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record. ISBN 0-394-41047-5 (hardcover). This property is based on the principles of dispersion of light. net/ index. eg.html) Newton disc A Newton disc is a disc with segments in rainbow colours.but has colour in it which together converge to give a faded white colour which we consider colourless. New York: Random House. php?p=2_23 .physics.edu/more_stuff/Applets/newt/ newtmtn. A combination of red. net23.html) • Drawing in the 1731 (2nd) edition of 'A Treatise of the System of the World' @ Google books (http://books.bucknell. google.Newton's cannonball 101 Other appearances • An image of the page from the System of the World showing Newton's diagram of this experiment was included on the Voyager Golden Record [1] (image #111). External Links • Flash illustrates how Newton's Disk works [1] References [1] http:/ / tdflashzone. This is due to the phenomenon called persistence of vision.edu – Astronomy 101 Specials: Newton's Cannonball and the Speed of Orbiting Objects (http://www. In this way Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light is a combination of the seven different colours found in a rainbow. ISBN 0-345-28396-1 (paperback) External links • Bucknell.

and one computes the x-intercept of this tangent line (which is easily done with elementary algebra). and the method can be iterated. Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method).Newton's method 102 Newton's method In numerical analysis. The formula better approximation than xn for the root x of the function f. 0) is the intersection with the x-axis of a line tangent to f at (x0. we begin with a first guess x0 for a root of the function f. b] with The function ƒ is shown in blue and the tangent line is in red. f ' denotes the derivative of the function f. Suppose we have some current approximation xn. f (x0)). Then we can derive the formula for a better approximation. The Newton-Raphson method in one variable is implemented as follows: Given a function ƒ defined over the reals x. (x1. The algorithm is first in the class of Householder's methods. We see that xn+1 is a values in the real numbers R. Then by simple algebra we can derive . That is Here. The method can also be extended to complex functions and to systems of equations. is a method for finding successively better approximations to the roots (or zeroes) of a real-valued function. We know from the definition of the derivative at a given point that it is the slope of a tangent at that point. xn+1 by referring to the diagram on the right. Description The idea of the method is as follows: one starts with an initial guess which is reasonably close to the true root. then the function is approximated by its tangent line (which can be computed using the tools of calculus). succeeded by Halley's method. This x-intercept will typically be a better approximation to the function's root than the original guess. and its derivative ƒ '. for converging on the root can be easily derived. b] → R is a differentiable function defined on the interval [a. named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson. Provided the function is reasonably well-behaved a better approximation x1 is Geometrically. Suppose ƒ : [a. The process is repeated as until a sufficiently accurate value is reached.

he arrives at an approximation for the root x. Isaac Newton probably derived his method from a similar but less precise method by Vieta. Thomas Simpson described Newton's method as an iterative method for solving general nonlinear equations using fluxional calculus. Newton's method was first published in 1685 in A Treatise of Algebra both Historical and Practical by John Wallis. his description differs substantially from the modern description given above: Newton applies the method only to polynomials. He does not compute the successive approximations . Joseph Raphson published a simplified description in Analysis aequationum universalis.) The method will usually converge. but computes a sequence of polynomials and only at the end. for a zero of multiplicity 1. However. published in 1711 by William Jones) and in De metodis fluxionum et serierum infinitarum (written in 1671. Arthur Cayley in 1879 in The Newton-Fourier imaginary problem was the first who noticed the difficulties in generalizing the Newton's method to complex roots of polynomials with degree greater than 2 and complex initial values. though the connection with calculus was missing. In the same publication. But. the extra computations required for each step can slow down the overall performance relative to Newton's method. but he describes the method in terms of the successive approximations xn instead of the more complicated sequence of polynomials used by Newton. Newton's method was used by 17th century Japanese mathematician Seki Kōwa to solve single-variable equations. (The closer to the zero. However. the better. essentially giving the description above. This opened the way to the study of the theory of iterations of rational functions. particularly if f or its derivatives are computationally expensive to evaluate. provided this initial guess is close enough to the unknown zero. Newton views the method as purely algebraic and fails to notice the connection with calculus. Finally. in 1740. Finally.Newton's method We start the process off with some arbitrary initial value x0. In 1690. the convergence is at least quadratic (see rate of convergence) in a neighbourhood of the zero. . which intuitively means that the number of correct digits roughly at least doubles in every step. Simpson also gives the generalization to systems of two equations and notes that Newton's method can be used for solving optimization problems by setting the gradient to zero. 103 History Newton's method was described by Isaac Newton in De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas (written in 1669. A special case of Newton's method for calculating square roots was known much earlier and is often called the Babylonian method. The essence of Vieta's method can be found in the work of the Persian mathematician. while his successor Jamshīd al-Kāshī used a form of Newton's method to solve to find roots of N (Ypma 1995). More details can be found in the analysis section below. Raphson again viewed Newton's method purely as an algebraic method and restricted its use to polynomials. and that ƒ'(x0) ≠ 0. a "guess and check" method might narrow the possibilities to a reasonably small interval by appealing to the intermediate value theorem. The Householder's methods are similar but have higher order for even faster convergence. Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. Furthermore. in the absence of any intuition about where the zero might lie. translated and published as Method of Fluxions in 1736 by John Colson).

one can use the following modified algorithm that preserves the quadratic convergence rate: . it may be appropriate to approximate the derivative by using the slope of a line through two nearby points on the function. and combine the method with a more robust root finding method. Difficulty in calculating derivative of a function Newton's method requires that the derivative be calculated directly. there are some difficulties with the method. In these situations. Mitigation of non-convergence In a robust implementation of Newton's method. one should review the assumptions made in the proof. Furthermore. For situations where the method fails to converge. Specifically. Failure of the method to converge to the root It is important to review the proof of quadratic convergence of Newton's Method before implementing it. if the multiplicity of the root is known. However. the convergence rate is merely linear (errors reduced by a constant factor at each step) unless special steps are taken. the derivative is zero and the method will terminate due to division by zero. the difference between the root and the approximation is squared (the number of accurate digits roughly doubles) at each step. it is because the assumptions made in this proof are not met. bound the solution to an interval known to contain the root. and diverge from that root. An analytical expression for the derivative may not be easily obtainable and could be expensive to evaluate. if a stationary point of the function is encountered. Using this approximation would result in something like the secant method whose convergence is slower than that of Newton's method. Poor initial estimate A large error in the initial estimate can contribute to non-convergence of the algorithm. However. the method may overshoot. When there are two or more roots that are close together then it may take many iterations before the iterates get close enough to one of them for the quadratic convergence to be apparent. Slow convergence for roots of multiplicity > 1 If the root being sought has multiplicity greater than one. it is common to place limits on the number of iterations. Overshoot If the first derivative is not well behaved in the neighborhood of a particular root.Newton's method 104 Practical considerations Newton's method is an extremely powerful technique—in general the convergence is quadratic: as the method converges on the root.

Suppose this root is Then the expansion of f(α) about xn is: (1) where the Lagrange form of the Taylor series expansion remainder is where ξn is in between xn and Since is the root. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. then. If the function is continuously differentiable and its derivative is not 0 at α and it has a second derivative at α then the convergence is quadratic or faster.6). α being a zero of multiplicity r. if f is twice differentiable in U+ and if .e. the sequence of iterates converges linearly. But there are also some results on global convergence: for instance. i. any function f(x) which has a continuous second derivative can be represented by an expansion about a point that is close to a root of f(x). If f is continuously differentiable and its derivative is nonzero at α. x in a neighborhood U of α. ƒ(α) = 0. then the convergence is usually only linear. for each x0 in U+ the sequence xk is monotonically decreasing to α. However. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Proof of quadratic convergence for Newton's iterative method According to Taylor's theorem. if ƒ is twice continuously differentiable. (1) becomes: (2) Dividing equation (2) by and rearranging gives (3) Remembering that xn+1 is defined by (4) one finds that . and the neighborhood of convergence is not known in advance. Specifically. ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ ''(α) ≠ 0. In practice these results are local. with rate log10 2 (Süli & Mayers. then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. Exercise 1. even linear convergence is not guaranteed in pathological situations.Newton's method 105 Analysis Suppose that the function ƒ has a zero at α. and if ƒ ∈ Cr(U) then there exists a neighborhood of α such that for all starting values x0 in that neighborhood. the sequence {xn} will converge to α. If the second derivative is not 0 at α then the convergence is merely quadratic. If the third derivative exists and is bounded in a neighborhood of α. in U+.. then: where If the derivative is 0 at α. Alternatively if ƒ '(α) = 0 and ƒ '(x) ≠ 0 for x ≠ 0. given a right neighborhood U+ of α.

where the third condition Basins of attraction The basins of attraction — the regions of the real number line such that within each region iteration from any point leads to one particular root — can be infinite in number and arbitrarily small. (b) (c) Finally. 2. 2. 2. 2. sufficiently close to the root The term sufficiently close in this context means the following: (a) Taylor approximation is accurate enough such that we can ignore higher order terms. 2. the following initial conditions are in successive basins of attraction: 2.35283735 converges to 4. (6) can be expressed in the following way: where M is the supremum of the variable coefficient of on the interval defined in the condition 1. 3.352836323 converges to 1.Newton's method 106 That is.35287527 converges to 4.35284172 converges to –3.352836327 converges to –3.[1] for the function . that is: The initial point requires that has to be chosen such that conditions 1 through 3 are satisfied. . For example. (5) Taking absolute value of both sides gives (6) Equation (6) shows that the rate of convergence is quadratic if following conditions are satisfied: 1.

The tangent lines of x3 - 2x + 2 at 0 and 1 intersect the x-axis at 1 and 0 respectively. the next iteration will be a far worse approximation. should be used to obtain a better estimate for the zero to use as an initial point. for example. In general.1) is parallel to the x-axis: The same issue occurs if. If the assumptions made in the proof of quadratic convergence are met. such as bisection. x1 will be undefined. failure of the method to converge indicates that the assumptions made in the proof were not met. the behavior of the sequence can be very complex (see Newton fractal). If we start iterating from the stationary point x0=0 (where the derivative is zero). . In fact. since the tangent at (0. illustrating why Newton's method oscillates between these values for some starting points. In such cases a different method. unless the solution is guessed on the first try. This can happen. if the function whose root is sought approaches zero asymptotically as x goes to or . any iteration point is stationary. Iteration point is stationary Consider the function: It has a maximum at x=0 and solutions of f(x) = 0 at x = ±1. Starting point enters a cycle For some functions. but the point chosen as the initial point is not in the interval where the method converges. Bad starting points In some cases the conditions on the function that are necessary for convergence are satisfied. The first iteration produces 1 and the second iteration returns to 0 so the sequence will alternate between the two without converging to a root. Derivative issues If the function is not continuously differentiable in a neighborhood of the root then it is possible that Newton's method will always diverge and fail. Let and take 0 as the starting point.Newton's method 107 Failure analysis Newton's method is only guaranteed to converge if certain conditions are satisfied. the method will converge. preventing convergence. this 2-cycle is stable: there are neighborhoods around 0 and around 1 from which all points iterate asymptotically to the 2-cycle (and hence not to the root of the function). some starting points may enter an infinite cycle. For the following subsections. instead of the starting point. Even if the derivative is small but not zero.

even though the function is infinitely differentiable everywhere. Similar problems occur even when the root is only "nearly" double. So f(x)/f'(x) is unbounded near the root. then convergence will not be quadratic.Newton's method Derivative does not exist at root A simple example of a function where Newton's method diverges is the cube root. and the derivative is bounded in a neighborhood of the root (unlike f(x)/f'(x)). where its derivative is undefined (this. which is continuous and infinitely differentiable. however. In fact. does not affect the algorithm. let then and consequently . where . Discontinuous derivative If the derivative is not continuous at the root. Consider the function Its derivative is: Within any neighborhood of the root. since it will never require the derivative if the solution is already found): 108 For any iteration point xn. f is infinitely differentiable except at the root. Zero derivative If the first derivative is zero at the root. the iterations will alternate indefinitely between points x0 and −x0. the derivative at the root is nonzero. then convergence may fail to occur in any neighborhood of the root. farther away than it initially was. In these cases simpler methods converge just as quickly as Newton's method. So convergence is not quadratic. the iterations diverge to infinity for every . except for x = 0. applying Newton's method actually doubles the distances from the solution at each iteration. so they do not converge in this case either. even though: • • • • the function is differentiable (and thus continuous) everywhere. In the limiting case of (square root). let . For example. Indeed. this derivative keeps changing sign as x approaches 0 from the right (or from the left) while f(x) ≥ x − x2 > 0 for 0 < x < 1. and Newton's method will diverge almost everywhere in any neighborhood of it. Non-quadratic convergence In some cases the iterates converge but do not converge as quickly as promised. the next iteration point will be: The algorithm overshoots the solution and lands on the other side of the y-axis.

This is less than the 2 times as many which would be required for quadratic convergence. 0. the set of all starting values that cause the method to converge to that particular zero. . then convergence may fail to be quadratic. Basins of attraction for x5 . No second derivative If there is no second derivative at the root. Generalizations Complex functions When dealing with complex functions. darker means more iterations to converge.Newton's method Then the first few iterates starting at x0 = 1 are 1. 0.127507934. meaning the iterates do not converge.1 = 0.031642362. 0. So the convergence of Newton's method (in this case) is not quadratic. Each zero has a basin of attraction in the complex plane. Given . These sets can be mapped as in the image shown. even though: the function is continuously differentiable everywhere. since both roots are non-real.067671976. 0.[2] if one uses a real initial condition to seek a root of . 0. which has approximately 4/3 times as many bits of precision as has.500250376. In this case almost all initial conditions lead to chaotic behavior. the boundaries of the basins of attraction are fractals. it takes six iterations to reach a point where the convergence appears to be quadratic. the derivative is not zero at the root. In some cases there are regions in the complex plane which are not in any of these basins of attraction. let 109 Then And except when where it is undefined. Newton's method can be directly applied to find their zeroes. Indeed. 0. For many complex functions. For example. all subsequent iterates will be real numbers and so the iterations cannot converge to either root.032741218.251062828. 0. and is infinitely differentiable except at the desired root. while some initial conditions iterate either to infinity or to repeating cycles of any finite length.041224176.

One needs the Fréchet derivative to be boundedly invertible at each in order for the method to be applicable. The iteration becomes: Digital division An important and somewhat surprising application is Newton–Raphson division. which amounts to finding the zeroes of continuously differentiable functions F : Rk → Rk. Nonlinear equations over p-adic numbers In p-adic analysis. In this case the formulation is where is the Fréchet derivative computed at . one then has to left multiply with the inverse of the k-by-k Jacobian matrix JF(xn) instead of dividing by f '(xn). . A condition for existence of and convergence to a root is given by the Newton–Kantorovich theorem.Newton's method 110 Nonlinear systems of equations k variables. so minima and maxima can be found by applying Newton's method to the derivative. Applications Minimization and maximization problems Newton's method can be used to find a minimum or maximum of a function. convergence in Hensel's lemma can be guaranteed under much simpler hypotheses than in the classical Newton's method on the real line. k functions One may use Newton's method also to solve systems of k (non-linear) equations. which can be used to quickly find the reciprocal of a number using only multiplication and subtraction. Because of the more stable behavior of addition and multiplication in the p-adic numbers compared to the real numbers (specifically. k variables. Nonlinear equations in a Banach space Another generalization is Newton's method to find a root of a functional F defined in a Banach space. the standard method to show a polynomial equation in one variable has a p-adic root is Hensel's lemma. > k equations The к-dimensional Newton's method can be used to solve systems of >k (non-linear) equations as well if the algorithm uses the generalized inverse of the non-square Jacobian matrix J+ = ((JTJ)−1)JT instead of the inverse of J. one can save time by solving the system of linear equations for the unknown xn+1 − xn. the methods attempts to find a solution in the non-linear least squares sense. the unit ball in the p-adics is a ring). If the nonlinear system has no solution. which uses the recursion from Newton's method on the p-adic numbers. The derivative is zero at a minimum or maximum. Rather than actually computing the inverse of this matrix. In the formulation given above.

With an initial guess of 10. (Note that a starting value of 0 will lead to an undefined result. the sequence given by Newton's method is Where the correct digits are underlined.5. showing the importance of using a starting point that is close to the zero. we know that our zero lies between 0 and 1. Examples Square root of a number Consider the problem of finding the square root of a number. if one wishes to find the square root of 612. Given the equation with g(x) and/or h(x) a transcendental function.) . one writes The values of x that solves the original equation are then the roots of f(x). Solution of cos(x) = x3 Consider the problem of finding the positive number x with cos(x) = x3. There are many methods of computing square roots. and Newton's method is one. which may be found via Newton's method. We try a starting value of x0 = 0. Since cos(x) ≤ 1 for all x and x3 > 1 for x > 1. For example. We can rephrase that as finding the zero of f(x) = cos(x) − x3. this is equivalent to finding the solution to The function to use in Newton's method is then. with derivative. We have f'(x) = −sin(x) − 3x2. With only a few iterations one can obtain a solution accurate to many decimal places.Newton's method 111 Solving transcendental equations Many transcendental equations can be solved using Newton's method.

4 [5]. Frédéric.1137/1037125. 112 References • Tjalling J. ISBN 3-540-21099-7. ISBN 0-521-00794-1. • C. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Vetterling. Springer.. Classics in Applied Mathematics. 2004. Claudia A. Maple. Mathcad. 9. SIAM. Gilbert. Lemaréchal. Cambridge University Press. Mathews Animations for Newton's method [12] by Yihui Xie using the R package animation [13] Newton-Raphson Method Notes. • Press.1007/978-3-540-35447-5. Kelley. M. illustrating the quadratic convergence.Source provides for C++ function and examples [19] Java code by Behzad Torkian [20] Matlab implementation of Newton's method [21] Implementation in Ruby [22] . doi:10. J. Eric W. WH. of translation of 1997 French ed. Affine Invariance and Adaptive Algorithms.). Numerical Methods with Applications (1st ed. 1995. Root Finding and Nonlinear Sets of Equations Importance Sampling" [4]. Ortega. Sagastizábal. Teukolsky. Claude. We see that the number of correct digits after the decimal point increases from 2 (for x3) to 5 and 10. • Endre Süli and David Mayers. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. BP (2007). In particular. WT. and 9. Newton Methods for Nonlinear Problems. ISBN 0-89871-546-6. An Introduction to Numerical Analysis. Kalu. Flannery. MR2265882. Universitext (Second revised ed. • J. (2006). Autar. no 1 in Fundamentals of Algorithms. • Bonnans. Newton's method [9] -. Deuflhard. 531–551. C. Ypma. 2003. • P. "Newton's Method [8]" from MathWorld. ISBN 3-540-35445-X. Egwu (2008).Newton's method The correct digits are underlined in the above example. doi:10. W. Mathews [16] Worked example [17] The Newton-Raphson algorithm [18] coded in C++ as a template class which takes a function object Newton's Method for finding roots .).6 [6]. Rheinboldt.. New York: Cambridge University Press. Vol. Iterative Solution of Nonlinear Equations in Several Variables. J. Solving Nonlinear Equations with Newton's Method. xiv+490. • Kaw. SA. PPT. ISBN 0-89871-461-3. SIAM. 35. 2000. See especially Sections 9. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (3rd ed. Berlin.section from an online textbook Newton-Raphson online calculator [10] Animations for Newton's method [11] by Prof. Historical development of the Newton-Raphson method. "Chapter 9. Charles. Springer Series in Computational Mathematics. pp. Numerical optimization: Theoretical and practical aspects [3]. 2003. External links • • • • • • • • • • • • • Weisstein.). x6 is correct to the number of decimal places given. John H. Matlab. T.7 [7]. SIAM Review 37 (4). Mathematica [14] at Holistic Numerical Methods Institute [15] Module for Newton’s Method by John H.

torkian. Thomas. maccery. com/ TechNotes/ NewtonRaphson/ html/ [19] http:/ / www. 1 [10] http:/ / www. yihui. nrbook. html#pg=477 [8] http:/ / mathworld. heroku.Newton's method 113 References [1] Dence. html [12] http:/ / animation. Gilbert. the use of higher than second-order derivatives is limited. 3-12 (esp. html [15] http:/ / numericalmethods. "A chaotic search for i". html#Section4. p. fullerton. html [18] http:/ / acumensoftwareinc. edu/ topics/ newton_raphson. php [11] http:/ / math. lightandmatter. macroeconomics and other fields. usf. r-project. html [21] http:/ / www. however. edu [16] http:/ / math. It is defined as: and so on. or dot notation. html [17] http:/ / plus. info/ Site/ Research/ Entries/ 2008/ 2/ 28_Root-finding_algorithm_Java_Code_(_Secant%2C_Bisection%2C_Newton_). November 1997. com/ maths/ newton_raphson. com/ empanel/ index. springer. nrbook. com/ html_books/ calc/ ch04/ ch04. Dot notation is not very useful for higher-order derivatives. [2] Strang. com/ mathematics/ applications/ book/ 978-3-540-35445-1 [4] http:/ / apps. "Cubics. com/ matlabcentral/ fileexchange/ 29370-newton-method-in-n-dimensions [22] http:/ / ryandotsmith. wolfram. com/ empanel/ index. nrbook. com/ NewtonsMethod. [3] http:/ / www. html Newton's notation Newton's notation for differentiation. In physics. html#pg=456 [6] http:/ / apps. com/ empanel/ index. but in mechanics and other engineering fields. usf. Newton's notation is used mostly for time derivatives. . January 1991. com/ empanel/ index. pp. fullerton. eng. edu/ mathews/ n2003/ Newton'sMethodMod. name/ compstat:newton_s_method [13] http:/ / cran. as opposed to slope or position derivatives. chaos and Newton's method". maths. ''The College Mathematics Journal 22. html#pg=442 [5] http:/ / apps. Isaac Newton's notation is mainly used in mechanics. ca/ blog/ computer-science/ newtons-method-for-finding-roots/ [20] http:/ / www. mathworks. Newton did not develop a standard mathematical notation for integration but used many different notations. eng. the widely adopted notation is Leibniz's notation for integration. edu/ mathews/ a2001/ Animations/ RootFinding/ NewtonMethod/ NewtonMethod. html#pg=473 [7] http:/ / apps. nrbook. Mathematical Gazette 81. html [9] http:/ / www. org/ package=animation [14] http:/ / numericalmethods. Newton referred to this as a fluxion. org/ issue9/ puzzle/ solution. 6). 403-408. uses a dot placed over a function name to denote the time derivative of that function. amcgowan. com/ 2009/ 03/ newtons-method-to-ruby.

mount. and by consequence it magnified between 30 and 40 times. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a "Newtonian telescope". and partly because my Instrument was overcharged. formed the chief faults of refracting telescopes. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. an early composition of speculum metal. cam. it would have made the Object appear more brisk and pleasant. Cambridge University Digital Library [1] References [1] http:/ / cudl. uk/ collections/ newton Newton's reflector The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668[2] is a landmark in the history of telescopes. The concave Metal bore an Aperture of an Inch and a third part.Newton's notation 114 External links • Newton's original papers and notebooks showing the development of his work. and by consequence the length of the Instrument about six Inches and a quarter. I could read at a greater distance with my own Instrument than with the Glass. metal consisting of six parts copper to two parts tin. but the Aperture was limited not by an Opake Circle. and not the spherical aberration. and fittings.[3] He devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[6] to polish the optical surface. being the first known successful reflecting telescope. Description Isaac Newton built his reflecting telescope as a proof for his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. Newton described his invention as: The diameter of the sphere to which the Metal was ground concave was about 24 English Inches. than by Refraction in the Glass. stopp'd much of the erroneous Light. and that partly because more Light was lost by Reflexion in the Metal. or a little less. He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction: he had satisfied himself that the chromatic. a secondary "diagonal" mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. The telescope he A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented to the Royal Society in 1672 constructed used mirrors as the objective which bypass that problem. which other wise would have disturbed the Vision. ac. Had it magnified but 30 or 25 times. By another way of measuring I found it magnified 35 times.[5] He had concluded that the lens of any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colors (chromatic aberration).[3][4] It was the prototype for a design that later came to be called a newtonian telescope. Yet Objects appeared much darker in it than in the Glass. lib. described as the better of the two instruments To create the primary mirror Newton used a custom composition of [1] Newton built. . covering the limb of the Metal round about. The Eye-glass was Plano-convex. and the diameter of the Sphere to which the convex side was ground was about 1/5 of an Inch. and perforated in the middle with a little round hole for the Rays to pass through to the Eye. For this Circle being placed here. placed between the Eyeglass and the Eye. By comparing it with a pretty good Perspective of four Feet in length. but be an opake Circle. He also made all the tube. made with a concave Eye-glass.

com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168.University of Florida (http:/ / www.[1] It was recorded as having been seen for a while at an instrument makers shop (Mr. p. page 67 (http:/ / books.Work .M1) [6] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. It had a flat diagonal secondary mirror bouncing the light at a 90° to a Plano-convex eyepiece. .Publication. google. Telescopes in History.M1) [2] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought. Hatch .[1] The practical potential of Newton's first telescope was made more clear by the end of the 18th century. The last record Newton made of having it was in 1704. com/ image. 400 [1] The History of the Telescope By Henry C.[7] Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed the telescope to small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671. King.Newton's reflector Newton describes a telescope with an objective concave primary mirror diameter of about 1.6 References • Smith. Heath's) in Strand. htm) [9] "Original mirror for William Herschel's 40 foot telescope. Retrieved 22 November 2008. stsci. ufl.[7] Newton completed this reflecting telescope in late 1668 and first wrote about it in a February 23.3 inches (33 mm) ground to fit a sphere that was 24 inches in diameter giving it a radius of 12 inches and a focal length of 6 inches (152 mm). 9783540401063.3 inches (33 mm) Optical focal length — 6 inches (152 mm) Optical f/4. Warren J. 1966. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [3] http:/ / amazing-space. co. google.[8] Newton found that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with his new little telescope. php?imgref=10408672). ssplprints. uk/ lens. craig-telescope. London before 1723 but nothing further is known about it. Wilson Published by Springer. Peter Bond [5] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books.. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result#PPA74.. [10] http:/ / www. google. clas.[10] 115 Specifications • • • • Reflector — custom speculum metal composition Optical aperture — 1. edu/ users/ rhatch/ pages/ 13-NDFE/ newton/ 05-newton-timeline-m. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. when the largest reflector had grown to nearly 50 inches aperture (126 cm)[9] while the largest achromatic lens objective was not more than about 5 inches (13 cm). Page 74 (http:/ / books. Modern Optical Engineering. google. [7] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 168 (http:/ / books. by Alfred Rupert Hall. Dr Robert A. html . google. edu/ resources/ explorations/ groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ newton/ index. 2004 ISBN 3540401067. 1669 letter to Henry Oldenburg (Secretary of the Royal Society).".M1) [8] NEWTON TIMELINE . com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. Science & Society Picture Library. McGraw-Hill Inc. 1785" (http:/ / www. php [4] Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics.A Chronology of Isaac Newton's Life . They were so impressed with it they demonstrated it for Charles II in January 1672. but the final fate of Newton's first reflecting telescope is unknown.

[4] Newton may even have read James Gregory's 1663 book Optica Promota which described reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors[5] (a telescope Gregory had been trying unsuccessfully to build).edu/~picard/personal/Newton. and there were many theories as to what caused it.[2] Newtonian Telescope History Newton’s idea for a reflecting telescope was not a new one. such as Niccolò Zucchi.media.stsci. During the mid 1660s with his work on the theory of colour. A replica of Newton's second reflecting telescope that he presented [7] to the Royal Society in 1672.edu/resources/explorations/groundup/lesson/scopes/newton/ index. Newton’s first reflecting telescope was completed in 1668 and is the earliest known functional reflecting telescope. In late 1668 Isaac Newton built his first reflecting telescope.Newton's reflector 116 External links • Newton's Reflector (http://amazing-space. Newton came to the conclusion that this defect was caused by the lens of the refracting telescope behaving the same as prisms he was experimenting with.[1] The Newtonian telescope's simple design makes them very popular with amateur telescope makers.[8] Color distortion (chromatic aberration) was the primary fault of refracting telescopes of Newton's day. then chromatic aberration could be eliminated by building a telescope that did not use a lens – a reflecting telescope. He chose an alloy (speculum metal) of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his objective mirror. breaking white light into a rainbow of colors around bright astronomical objects.[3] and others. Galileo Galilei and Giovanni Francesco Sagredo had discussed using a mirror as the image forming objective soon after the invention of the refracting telescope.php) • Newton's TIMELINE (http://web.[6] Newton built his reflecting telescope because he suspected that it could prove his theory that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors. using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.[9][10] If this was true. He later devised means for shaping and grinding the mirror and may have been the first to use a pitch lap[11] .mit.php) Newtonian telescope The Newtonian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727). claimed to have experimented with the idea as far back as 1616.

• A short focal ratio can be more easily obtained.[12] He found that the telescope did work without color distortion and that he could see the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and the crescent phase of the planet Venus with it. cassegrains. Like Gregory before him. with designs doubling in primary mirror diameter about every 50 years. They were so impressed with it that they demonstrated it to Charles II in January 1672.[13] Hadley had solved many of the problems of making a parabolic mirror. overall fabrication is far simpler than other telescope designs (Gregorians. Because of these difficulties in construction. Later achromatic refractor objectives had four surfaces that have to be figured). leading to wider field of view.[14] The size of reflecting telescopes would subsequently grow rapidly. and fittings. Combined with short f-ratios this can allow for a much more compact mounting system. mount. This unique addition allowed the image to be viewed with minimal obstruction of the objective mirror. even though it would introduce spherical aberration. and the secondary diagonal mirror support (also called a "spider support") (3). He chose a spherical shape for his mirror instead of a parabola to simplify construction. His Newtonian with a mirror diameter of 6 inches (~15 cm) compared favorably with the large aerial refracting telescopes of the day. Newtonian optical assembly showing the tube (1). and early refractors had two surfaces that need "figuring". namely a secondary diagonally mounted mirror near the primary mirror's focus to reflect the image at a 90° angle to an eyepiece mounted on the side of the telescope. the Newtonian reflecting telescope was initially not widely adopted. The surface also tarnished rapidly. it would still correct chromatic aberration. • Since there is only one surface that needs to be ground and polished into a complex shape. the consequent low reflectivity of the mirror and also its small size meant that the view through the telescope was very dim compared to contemporary refractors. He added to his reflector what is the hallmark of the design of a Newtonian telescope.3 inches and a focal ratio of f/5. Newton's friend Isaac Barrow showed a second telescope to a small group from the Royal Society of London at the end of 1671.[15] 117 Advantages of the Newtonian design • They are free of chromatic aberration found in refracting telescopes. He also made the tube. It wasn't until 50 years later in 1721 that John Hadley showed a much-improved model to the Royal Society. . the primary mirror (2). Newton was admitted as a fellow of the society in the same year. Newton's first version had a primary mirror diameter of 1. It was difficult to grind the speculum metal to a regular curvature. reducing cost and adding to portability. • The eyepiece is located at the top end of the telescope.Newtonian telescope to polish the optical surface. Newton found it hard to construct an effective reflector. • Newtonian telescopes are usually less expensive for any given objective diameter (or aperture) than comparable quality telescopes of other types.

where θ is the angle off axis to the image in radians and F is the focal ratio. and larger telescopes require ladders or support structures to access it. and is linear with increasing field angle and inversely proportional to the square of the mirror focal ratio (the mirror focal length divided by the mirror diameter).[21] Some designs provide mechanisms for rotating the eyepiece mount or the entire tube assembly to a better position. The formula for third order tangential coma is 3θ / 16F². low-power imagery. counterbalancing very heavy instruments mounted at this focus has to be taken into consideration. Other designs such as refractors and catadioptrics (specifically Maksutov cassegrains) have fixed collimation. Visually. A large Newtonian reflector from 1873 with structure to access the eyepiece. This flare is zero on-axis. Commercial lenses are also available for Newtonian telescopes that correct for coma from low focal ratio primary mirrors and restore image sharpness over the field. • For portable Newtonians collimation can be a problem. • The focal plane is at an asymmetrical point and at the top of the optical tube assembly. This obstruction and also the diffraction spikes caused by the support structure (called the spider) of the secondary mirror reduce contrast.[17][18][19] • Newtonians have a central obstruction due to the secondary mirror in the light path. an off-axis aberration which causes imagery to flare inward and towards the optical axis (stars towards edge of the field of view take on a "comet-like" shape). For visual observing. . suffer from coma. This reduces the diffraction sidelobe intensities by a factor of about four and helps to improve image contrast. For research telescopes.[20] tube orientation can put the eyepiece in a very poor viewing position.[16] Newtonians having a focal ratio of less than f/4 have considerable coma but are the most compact systems. Although a four-legged spider causes less diffraction than a three-legged curved spider. most notably on equatorial telescope mounts. This means the telescope may need to be re-aligned (collimated) every time it is set up. Newtonians with a focal ratio of f/6 or lower (f/5 for example) are considered to have increasingly serious coma for visual or photographic use. and can still yield beautiful wide-field. the three-legged curved spider often gives a more aesthetically pleasing view. these effects can be reduced by using a two or three-legged curved spider. The primary and secondary can get out of alignment from the shocks associated with transportation and handling. with the potential penalty that circular spiders are more prone to wind-induced vibration.Newtonian telescope 118 Disadvantages of the Newtonian design • Newtonians. like other reflecting telescope designs using parabolic mirrors.

2001 (http:/ / telescopemaking. by Alfred Rupert Hall. com/ books?id=cqIOAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA562& dq=newton+ James+ Gregory+ reflecting#v=onepage& q=newton James Gregory reflecting& f=false) [6] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 169 (http:/ / books. google. google. Inc NetLibrary. org/ basics. The Newton handbook. rice.Mark T. html) [5] Derek Gjertsen. VandeWettering. Page 108 (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=32IDpTdthm4C& pg=PA67& lpg=PA67& dq=newton+ reflecting+ telescope+ + 1668+ letter+ 1669& source=bl& ots=PKABaGwPaN& sig=rPS8w23_nAp3kH5YMYGZ7JHhOaI& hl=en& ei=0QC1Svf7AsWb8Aa3nqGTDw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5#v=onepage& q=newton reflecting telescope 1668 letter 1669& f=false) [2] Telescope Basics .M1) [4] The Galileo Project > Science > Zucchi. King.By Fred Watson. page 562 (http:/ / books. Niccolo (http:/ / galileo. html) [3] Stargazer . com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. google. google. edu/ Catalog/ NewFiles/ zucchi. com/ books?id=2LZZginzib4C& pg=PA40& dq=intitle:Stargazer+ digges+ coins& lr=& as_brr=0& ei=BIwrSc6pB4OClQT4zfyxBg#PPA108. com/ books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC& dq=history+ of+ the+ telescope& printsec=frontcover& source=bn& hl=en& ei=4kK3SZWjC5-atwf6vOG-CQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& .M1) [7] The History of the Telescope By Henry C. a commercial wide-field Newtonian reflector Diagram of a commercial Newtonian reflector Amateur commercial Newtonian diagram Notes [1] Isaac Newton: adventurer in thought.Newtonian telescope 119 Gallery Newtonian Reflector Very large trailer mounted Newtonian and its ladder Newtonian (Truss-tube Dobsonian) Altazimuth mounted Newtonian Newtonian eyepiece mount Amateur built 150mm Newtonian telescope Astroscan. google. page 67 (http:/ / books. Page 74 (http:/ / books.

Vladimir (2006-07-14). net/ newtonian_off_axis_aberrations. com/ pdf/ mpcc_e. Rolin J. com/ books?id=mds4BpM3hdYC& pg=PA258& dq="newtonian+ telescope"+ placement+ eyepiece& hl=en& ei=ZAD1TKC1J8OBlAfi2dzyBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q="newtonian telescope" placement eyepiece& f=false) [21] Antony Cooke. 1966. "Tele Vue Paracor Coma Corrector for Newtonians" (http:/ / www. harvard. 9783540401063. telescope-optics. whose diameter is the 50th part of the diameter of its aperture” [10] Treatise on Optics.M1) [9] Newton thought that there was little that could be done to correct aberration short of making lenses that were f/50 or more. Cloudy Nights Telescope Review.M1) [8] Isaac Newton By Michael White Page 170 (http:/ / books. Retrieved 29 November 2010. baader-planetarium. [12] telescope-optics. com/ books?id=isH9fTnpc7YC& pg=PA9& dq=pitch+ lap+ newton+ invented) By Ray N. [20] Alexius J.Newtonian telescope ct=result#PPA74. . Newtonian off-axis aberrations" (http:/ / www. "Make Time for the Stars: Fitting Astronomy Into Your Busy Life".. p. edu/ abs/ 2004PASP. Gebelein. 112 [11] Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic Design Theory and Its Historical Development (http:/ / books. espacenet. com/ documents/ paracorr. so as to make them convene at its focus in less room than in a circular space. net/ reflecting. The Physics of Metrology: All about Instruments: From Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks. page 258-259 (http:/ / books. google. html) [15] http:/ / adsabs. 77R [16] Sacek.and three-mirror systems (http:/ / www. . "8. htm) [13] amazing-space. Warren J. 116. 2004 ISBN 3-540-40106-7.1. Modern Optical Engineering.net REFLECTING TELESCOPES: Newtonian. p. pdf). com/ books?id=ARS84_3BMTMC& pg=PA21& dq=newtonian+ reach+ eyepiece& lr=#v=onepage& q=newtonian reach eyepiece& f=false) 120 References • Smith. . pdf) (pdf). cloudynights. 400 us:newtoniantelescopical .1. com/ books?id=l2C3NV38tM0C& pg=PA169& lpg=PA169& dq=Isaac+ Newton+ demonstration+ reflecting+ telescope+ in& source=web& ots=WywdET8NGz& sig=pYhWHIuO2rDBQAsoSn39jpq90xg& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=3& ct=result#PPA168. com/ Telescopes/ Hadley.stsci. telescope-optics. google. php) [14] The complete Amateur Astronomer . & David Shafer. Retrieved 2009-09-29. [18] US a coma-correcting meniscus lens 4571036 (http:/ / worldwide.edu . . Hebra. McGraw-Hill Inc. edu/ resources/ explorations/ / groundup/ lesson/ scopes/ hadley/ index. htm). "off-axis performance of the paraboloidal mirror drops so quickly with the increase in relative aperture beyond ~ƒ/6" [17] "Baader Multi Purpose Coma Corrector" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-10-03. published 02/18/1986 [19] Knisely.John Hadley's Reflector (http:/ / labbey. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US4571036). Wilson Published by Springer. . "Reflecting telescope with correcting lens". google. stsci. two."the object-glass of any telescope cannot collect all the rays which come from one point of an object.. David (2004). .Hadley’s Reflector (http:/ / amazing-space. page 14 (http:/ / books. google.

Only for the truly stationary observer will the tension in the string be explained using only the observed rate of rotation. Alternatively. Also. 30. While Newton's influential contributions were primarily in physics and mathematics. pp. if two globes. floating in space. For all other observers a "correction" is required (a centrifugal force) that accounts for the tension calculated being different than the one expected using the observed rate of rotation. true motion and rest cannot be defined as special instances of motion or rest relative to other bodies. Cambridge. David Hume. the tension). Introduction: Philosophical Background pp. Yehuda Elkana. he says. laying the groundwork for modern science (both the natural and social sciences). CO. forces) and not simply the apparent motions of bodies relative to one another (as in the bucket argument).[1] It is one of five arguments from the "properties. Rotating spheres Isaac Newton's rotating spheres argument attempts to demonstrate that true rotational motion can be defined by observing the tension in the string joining two identical spheres. . Mass.[2] Background Newton was concerned to address the problem of how it is that we can experimentally determine the true motions of bodies in light of the fact that absolute space is not something that can be perceived. Ronald S.[1][2] As examples of his far-flung influence. Journal of the History of Ideas. in general.Sep.2-4& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). 1974. alone suffices to indicate how fast the two objects are revolving around the common center of mass. Leibnizianism and Wolffianism. while Colin Maclaurin wrote an MA thesis on the application of the calculus in morality. Notes [1] The Discovery of the Conservation of Energy. these experiments provide an operational definition of what is meant by "absolute rotation". causes. for one.. with no other clues to assess the situation. in addition to influencing philosophy. Such determination. Newtonianism became an enormously influential intellectual program that applied Newton's principles in many avenues of enquiry. are connected by a cord. Vol. 3 (Jul. but instead can be defined only by reference to absolute space. . the sense of the rotation —whether it is in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction— can be discovered by applying forces to opposite faces of the globes and ascertaining whether this leads to an increase or a decrease in the tension of the cord (again involving a . measuring the amount of tension in the cord. and effects" of true motion and rest that support his contention that.: Harvard University Press. can be accomplished by observing the causes of motion (that is. 0. 1969). org/ sici?sici=0022-5037(196907/ 09)30:3<319:TNC1>2. and do not pretend to address the question of "rotation relative to what?". The religious philosophy Deism is strongly Newtonian. (This experiment involves observation of a force. Newtonian doctrine can be contrasted with several alternative sets of principles and methods such as Cartesianism. his broad conception of the universe as being governed by rational and understandable laws laid the foundation for many strands of Enlightenment thought. The basis of the argument is that all observers make two observations: the tension in the string joining the bodies (which is the same for all observers) and the rate of rotation of the spheres (which is different for observers with differing rates of rotation). 1-22 [2] "The Newtonian-Wolffian Controversy: 1740-1759. As an example where causes can be observed. Calinger. 319-330" (http:/ / links. was keen to make use of Newtonian experimental principles in the examination of moral subjects.Newtonianism 121 Newtonianism Newtonianism is a doctrine that involves following the principles and using the methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton. Retrieved 2008-03-26. No. political thought and theology. jstor.

discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion. centrifugal forces are produced. — Ernst Mach.[2] Formulation of the argument This sphere example was used by Newton himself to discuss the detection of rotation relative to absolute space. instead. the matter is more subtle. according to Newton. you do not need much convincing that you are rotating. where possibly Newton's laws do not apply. were revolved about their common center of gravity. 387 An interpretation that avoids this conflict is to say that the rotating spheres experiment does not really define rotation relative to anything in particular (for example. the mathematical details behind this observation are presented. then. absolute space or fixed stars). may indicate only rotation relative to the entire mass of the universe.[8] (Of course. they are not rotating. as quoted by Ciufolini and Wheeler: Gravitation and Inertia. partly from the apparent motions. In the 1846 Andrew Motte translation of Newton's words:[3][4] We have some arguments to guide us. the centrifugal forces [presently attributed to the earth's rotation] would not occur. Because of the rotation. here is a quote from Born: [5] 122 If the earth were at rest. partly from the forces. — Isaac Newton. if two globes kept at a given distance one from the other. — Max Born: Einstein's Theory of Relativity. the fixed stars. And thus we might find both the quantity and the determination of this circular motion. . . by means of a cord that connects them.. from the tension of the cord. but standing on the Earth's surface. no centrifugal forces are produced. in an extreme case like the gravitron amusement ride. The axis of rotation is shown as a vector Ω with direction given by the right-hand rule and magnitude equal to the rate Figure 1: Two spheres tied with a string and rotating at an angular rate ω. which are the differences of the true motions. as an example from Newton's time. Scholium To summarize this proposal. only relative motions exist…When a body rotates relatively to the fixed stars. rather the experiment is an operational definition of what is meant by the motion called absolute rotation. Principia. pp. so the experiment really only shows what happens when the spheres rotate in our universe. we might. when it rotates relatively to some different body and not relative to the fixed stars.) Below. and therefore. the sense of the rotation can be determined by measuring the apparent motion of the globes with respect to a background system of bodies that. Alternatively. p. For instance.[2][6] For me. according to the preceding methods. and if. Book 1. the whole stellar system were to rotate in the opposite sense once around the earth in twenty-four hours. for example.Rotating spheres force). Figure 1 shows two identical spheres rotating about the center of the string joining them.. the string tying the spheres together is under tension. have been established already as not in a state of rotation. 81-82 Mach took some issue with the argument.[7] Checking the fictitious force needed to account for the tension in the string is one way for an observer to decide whether or not they are rotating – if the fictitious force is zero. which are the causes and effects of the true motions. where there was nothing external or sensible with which the globes could be compared. pointing out that the rotating sphere experiment could never be done in an empty universe. even in an immense vacuum.

|xB| = R. However. not just these spheres.Rotating spheres 123 of rotation: |Ω| = ω. Rotating frame Adopt a rotating frame at the midpoint of the string. so the string should be relaxed. observers say they are at rest. Inertial frame Adopt an inertial frame centered at the midpoint of the string. along the direction of the string. so the balls appear stationary in this rotating frame. Suppose the frame rotates at the same angular rate as the balls. and should require an inward force to do that. the tying string. locating one or the other of the spheres). and is called a centripetal force. which would stretch. but circular motion at constant speed. according to the rotating observer the spheres now are moving. According to the article fictitious force. If they now apply Newton's law of inertia. despite the fact that the spheres are at rest. they propose that in their frame a centrifugal force acts on the two balls. Because the balls are not moving. but being on the opposite end of the string. and the Coriolis force (which depends upon velocity) is activated. To travel in a circular path. with magnitude ω and direction normal to the plane of rotation given by the right-hand rule. putting the string under tension. which depends on the velocity of a moving object. the string is under tension. The other ball has the same requirement. Look first at inertial frame of reference showing the centripetal one of the two balls. These two forces are provided by the string. pulling them apart. In resisting this ubiquitous centrifugal force. But how can that be? The spheres in the rotating frame now appear to be rotating. the Coriolis force is:[11] . the string is placed under tension. accounting for their observation. requires a force to act on the ball so as to continuously change the direction of its velocity.)[9] To account for this tension. The angular rate of rotation ω is assumed independent of time (uniform circular motion). The balls Figure 2: Exploded view of rotating spheres in an move in a circle about the origin of our coordinate system. Because of the rotation. and Ω is a vector representing the angular rotation. shouldn't the tension in the string be twice as big as before (the tension from the centrifugal force plus the extra tension needed to provide the centripetal force of rotation)? The reason the rotating observer sees zero tension is because of yet another fictitious force in the rotating world. See Figure 2. This force is directed inward. According to the rotating observer. requires a centripetal force of the same size. In this zero-tension case. and acts on everything they observe. but opposite in direction.) The description of this system next is presented from the viewpoint of an inertial frame and from a rotating frame of reference. they clearly see the string is under tension. they would say no force acts on the balls. (For example.[10] Coriolis force What if the spheres are not rotating in the inertial frame (string tension is zero)? Then string tension in the rotating frame also is zero. the Coriolis force. which is not uniform forces on the spheres provided by the tension in motion with constant velocity. (See reactive centrifugal force. also shown in Figure 2. This force originates from nowhere – it is just a "fact of life" in this rotating world. According to the analysis of uniform circular motion:[11] [12] where uR is a unit vector pointing from the axis of rotation to one of the spheres. they could split the string and put a spring in its center. and R is the distance from the axis of rotation to the spheres (the magnitude of the displacement vector. m is the mass of the ball.

while for a more rapidly moving frame. ωS > 0 and the spheres advance counterclockwise around a circle. To evaluate the other terms we need the position of one of the spheres: and the velocity of this sphere as seen in the rotating frame: where uθ is a unit vector perpendicular to uR pointing in the direction of motion. |vB| = ωR. the fictitious force must increase the tension (point outward). so they measure a tension in the string that actually is larger than they expect. hence. In the geometry of this example. When ωI < ωS. things are reversed so the fictitious force has to decrease the tension. General case What happens if the spheres rotate at one angular rate. For constant angular rate of rotation the last term is zero. and goes a step further to provide exactly the centripetal force demanded by uniform circular motion. so the rotating observer calculates there is no need for tension in the string − the Coriolis force looks after everything. Full notational details are in Fictitious force. However. That is. we might ask: "Does this solution fit in with general experience with other situations. and vB is the velocity of the object subject to the Coriolis force. say ωI (I = inertial). In either case. The reason for the sign change is that when ωI > ωS. the spheres actually are moving faster than the rotating observers measure.Rotating spheres where R is the distance to the object from the center of rotation. and the frame rotates at a different rate ωR (R = rotational)? The inertial observers see circular motion and the tension in the string exerts a centripetal inward force on the spheres of: 124 This force also is the force due to tension seen by the rotating observers. or is it simply a "cooked up" ad hoc solution?" That question is answered by seeing how this value for FFict squares with the general result (derived in Fictitious force):[13] The subscript B refers to quantities referred to the non-inertial coordinate system. ωS < 0. this force is not the tension in the string. and the spheres appear to retreat clockwise around a circle. if the frame rotates more slowly than the spheres. it cancels out the ubiquitous centrifugal force found in the first example. Therefore. this Coriolis force has twice the magnitude of the ubiquitous centrifugal force and is exactly opposite in direction. The fictitious force changes sign depending upon which of ωI and ωS is greater. The rotating observers see the spheres in circular motion with angular rate ωS = ωI − ωR (S = spheres). . and therefore has the opposite sign (points inward). the rotating observers see circular motion and require a net inward centripetal force: However. So the rotational observers conclude that a force exists (which the inertial observers call a fictitious force) so that: or. Is the fictitious force ad hoc? The introduction of FFict allows the rotational observers and the inertial observers to agree on the tension in the string.

com/ books?id=Urumwws_lWUC& pg=PA161& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1zK8HORJgVi2tuilW280ogciSIww). The Cambridge companion to Newton (http:/ / books. google. p. ωS is the greater. com/ definitions. com/ books?id=UYIs1ndbi38C& pg=RA1-PA386& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0xOM1OCQs8N3I8lPfGDgETh25QGQ#PRA1-PA387. editors) (2002). 175. Sausalito CA: University Science .M1). Courier Dover Publications. 43. The Principia. Cambridge University Press. Janet D. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. ISBN 0521656966. [6] Ignazio Ciufolini. Theoretical Physics (http:/ / books. . Knudsen & Poul G. google. [3] See the Principia on line at "Definitions" (http:/ / gravitee. Time and Space (http:/ / books.M1). Princeton University Press. . com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA44& dq=centrifugal+ Einstein+ rotating+ globes& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U3jJ17ym_ZZ3cNMJl9oTjzKVyQCRQ#PPA43. Courier Dover Publications. Rotation and cosmic background radiation The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. p. google. 80. ISBN 0521621135. 167. . . [10] Jens M. google. [2] Robert Disalle (I. com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. Figure 43. [12] John Robert Taylor (2004). Hjorth (2000). Draza Marković. htm). p.Rotating spheres The frame rotates at a rate ωR. Hand. Lynden-Bell (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov.). [8] D. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA80& vq=tension& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& source=gbs_search_s& sig=ACfU3U1EU8_hilsGndZGV316wgtiVsCYNA). [7] Max Born (1962). ISBN 0486607690. Analytical Mechanics (http:/ / books. . Springer. com/ books?id=vIw5m2XuvpIC& pg=PA233& dq=inauthor:joos+ coriolis& ei=EpgtSMitA4vcywSokozNAw& sig=wveOPKIvSGTCKQSpw-2jFQRe79M#PPA233. New York: Courier Dover Publications. com/ books?lr=& as_brr=0& q="include+ when+ you+ want+ to+ use+ Newton's+ second+ law+ in+ a+ rotating+ frame. + This+ is+ the+ Coriolis"& btnG=Search+ Books). ISBN 0486652270. .M1).M1). ISBN 0521656966. 324. Ω × uθ = −ωR uR. Cambridge University Press. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books.M1) (Greatly revised and enlarged ed.M1). com/ books?id=1J2hzvX2Xh8C& pg=PA324). p. google. com/ books?id=3wIzvqzfUXkC& pg=PA43). 82. p. the fictitious force found above for this problem of rotating spheres is consistent with the general result and is not an ad hoc solution just "cooked up" to bring about agreement for this single example. The Coriolis force is 125 and has the ability to change sign. Retrieved 2010-05-13. p. . p. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA79. Finch (1998). Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (http:/ / books. ISBN 0691033234. Moreover. . Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. it is the Coriolis force that makes it possible for the fictitious force to change sign depending upon which of ωI. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. ISBN 0773523065. google. Cambridge University Press. Classical Mechanics (http:/ / books. google. ISBN 0486607690. p. . Bernard Cohen. p. pp.[16] References and notes [1] See Louis N.[14] Combining the terms:[15] Consequently. and Ω × uR = ωR (uz × uR) = ωR uθ . and I. . Freeman (1986). being outward when the spheres move faster than the frame ( ωS > 0 ) and being inward when the spheres move slower than the frame ( ωS < 0 ). google. 161. 79. [9] Barry Dainton (2001). ISBN 354067652X. McGill-Queen's Press. tripod. Einstein's Theory of Relativity (http:/ / books. . Bernard Cohen & George E. ISBN 0521575729. google. editors) (1996). Gravitation and Inertia (http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press. p.M1). google. Courier Dover Publications. John Archibald Wheeler (1995). google. George Edwin Smith (2002). 386–387. [4] Max Born (1962). The Cambridge Companion to Newton (http:/ / books. . com/ books?id=FZIpo06bdCsC& pg=PA175& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U1yoIf8yYdFe7Ulf41wde63EO0_JA#PPA175. [5] Max Born (1962). [11] Georg Joos & Ira M. ISBN 0486607690. 233. com/ books?id=Afeff9XNwgoC& pg=PA76& dq="inertial+ forces"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=0kiN27BqUqHaZ9CkPdqLIjr-Nnw#PPA82. so the vector of rotation is Ω = ωR uz (uz a unit vector in the z-direction). The centrifugal force is then: which naturally depends only on the rate of rotation of the frame and is always outward. Smith. 43. p. inasmuch as the centrifugal force contribution always is outward. google.

(3. google. Bernard Jean Trefor Jones. 5 (1975) ed. . showing that it was an inverse-cube force. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975).M1). Nothingness (http:/ / books. ISBN 0231066368. 99ff. Henning Genz (2001). [13] Many sources are cited in Fictitious force. B. . their Eq. com/ books?id=Cn_Q9wbDOM0C& pg=PA275& lpg=PA275& dq=cosmic+ background+ "rotation+ of+ the+ universe"& source=web& ots=rm3S3h9Vzx& sig=8l2bEDx4AnBfgnQmfVQ2yS7CO00& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=8& ct=result). Moore (1989). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (http:/ / books. pp. Mechanics (http:/ / books. 43. 325–348. Isaac Newton derived this theorem in Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. com/ books?id=-JQx_t3yGB4C& printsec=frontcover& dq=coriolis+ inauthor:Stommel& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0gX4wrzVzo7bwD7I8HJ_bd24e2Rg#PPA55. google. Newton applied his theorem to understanding the overall rotation of orbits (apsidal precession. p. google. first published in 1687. 119. and Ralph A. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits identifies the type of central force needed to multiply the angular speed of a particle by a factor k without affecting its radial motion (Figures 1 and 2).).). com/ books?id=KgyIGHqueFsC& pg=PA167& dq=rotating+ tension+ Newton& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=ACfU3U0I1UsK2DzTVsN3vxPCxhdpN0sI4g#PPA167. com/ books?id=yCw_Hq53ipsC& pg=PA46& dq=spheres+ rotating+ + Coriolis& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=XJ1Xl2Qs1_j5RkLN70wxyUO6Vgc#PPA43. one that varies as the inverse cube of r. Am. ISBN 0521621135.M1). vol. Phil. google. he derived a formula for the force. As noted by astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. Da Capo Press. this theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. See Henry Stommel. In Proposition 45 Newton extended his theorem to arbitrary central forces by assuming that the particle moved in nearly circular orbit. ISBN 0074603159. whereas the angular motion is perpendicular to the radial motion. Partridge (1995). Dennis W.M1). Lynden-Bell (1996). An Introduction to the Coriolis Force (http:/ / books. 167. [16] R. Examples of such orbits are shown in Figures 1 and 3–5. [15] This result can be compared with Eq. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.4) for the azimuthal acceleration is zero because the radius is fixed and there is no angular acceleration. Soc. Figure 3) that is observed for the Moon and planets. no.. The term "radial motion" signifies the motion towards or away from the center of force. com/ books?id=1T0LAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA344& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA324. In Proposition 43. p. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers. ISBN 0521352541. ISBN 0738206105. google. They obtain the equation and where in their notation. . 275. (3. Draza Marković (Editors) ed. fixed in space (the center). and NC Rana and PS Joag (2004). one whose magnitude depends only Figure 2: The radius r of the green and blue planets are the same. 348–349. Columbia University Press. 55. Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (http:/ / books. pp. . . In this example. Cambridge University Press. google. . google.M1) (Igorʹ Dmitrievich Novikov. p. . pp. and the left-hand side is the radial acceleration in polar coordinates according to the rotating 126 observers. Relativistic Astrophysics (http:/ / books. [14] The case ωS < 0 applies to the earlier example with spheres at rest in the inertial frame.Rotating spheres Books. Mechanics (http:/ / books.M1) (in Proc. In Proposition 44. . ISBN 189138922X. the theorem has been .M1). 279–280. Here are two more: PF Srivastava (2007). p. com/ books?id=dptKVr-5LJAC& pg=PA28& dq=connected+ rotating+ "two+ spheres"& lr=& as_brr=0& sig=Hu4brsD2Jkc25AOPwZLPuQ28uPE#PPA99. he showed that the added force must be a central force. Theorem of revolving orbits In classical mechanics. ISBN 978-81-224-1905-4.. but upon the distance r between the particle and a point their angular speed differs by a factor k.3) in Stommel and Moore. p. D. com/ books?id=JJc7b-0Riq4C& pg=PA279& dq=Hawking+ isotropy+ + rotation+ "cosmic+ background+ radiation"& lr=& as_brr=0#PPA279.[1] Since 1997.

Theorem of revolving orbits studied by Donald Lynden-Bell and collaborators. and the square of their orbital periods equals a fixed constant times the cube of their semi-major axis. Isaac Newton provided a physical theory that accounted for all three of Kepler's laws. Although they generally move in the same direction along a path across the sky (the ecliptic). this rotation is known as apsidal precession. Ptolemy adopted the geocentric cosmology of Aristotle. specifically an ellipse if it does not go to infinity. Newton proposed that the gravitational force between any two bodies was a central force F(r) that varied as the inverse square of the distance r between them. The modern understanding of planetary motion arose from the combined efforts of astronomer Tycho Brahe and physicist Johannes Kepler in the 16th century. Tycho is credited with extremely accurate measurements of planetary motions. most such bodies were called planets after the Greek word "πλανήτοι" (planētoi) for "wanderers". according to which planets were confined to concentric rotating spheres. Apollonius of Perga (ca. To describe this forward-and-backward motion. this conclusion holds only when two bodies are present (the two-body problem). the apses correspond to the perihelion (closest) and aphelion (furthest). The apses of an orbit are the points at which the orbiting body is closest or furthest away from the attracting center. since this approach corresponds to a modern Fourier transform. to first approximation.[6][7] although solutions to a few special cases were discovered. the elliptical orbit of the Moon about the Earth was . Newton showed that the orbit of any particle acted upon by one such force is always a conic section. planets move on ellipses (not epicycles) about the Sun (not the Earth). the motion of three bodies or more acting under their mutual gravitation (the n-body problem) remained unsolved for centuries after Newton. By analogy. Any orbit can be described with a sufficient number of judiciously chosen epicycles. in which he developed this system to match the best astronomical observations of his era. However. from which Kepler was able to derive his laws of planetary motion. According to these laws. according to which the planets are carried on rotating circles that are themselves carried on other rotating circles. 262 BC – ca. Claudius Ptolemaeus published his Almagest. With the publication of his Principia roughly eighty years later (1687). other bodies were observed to wander against the background of the fixed stars.[2][3] Its first exact extension came in 2000 with the work of Mahomed and Vawda. Kepler's second and third laws make specific quantitative predictions: planets sweep out equal areas in equal time.[4] 127 Historical context The motion of astronomical bodies has been studied systematically for thousands of years. However.[8] Newton proposed that the orbits of planets about the Sun are largely elliptical because the Sun's gravitation is dominant. Arguing from his laws of motion. for planets orbiting the Sun. 190 BC) developed the concept of deferents and epicycles. This model of the universe was authoritative for nearly 1500 years.[5] Roughly 350 years later. always maintaining the same relative positions to one another. exhibiting retrograde motion. the presence of the other planets can be ignored. and so on. To explain the epicycles. The stars were observed to rotate uniformly. In particular. a theory based on Newton's laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. Retrograde motion of Mars as viewed from the Earth. individual planets sometimes reverse their direction briefly. Subsequent observations of the planetary orbits showed that the long axis of the ellipse (the so-called line of apsides) rotates gradually with time.

elliptical orbits of low eccentricity. and Newton never published an accurate gravitational model of the Moon's apsidal precession. this theorem is restricted to a specific type of force that may not be relevant. to first approximation.[11] Brown.[9] This approximation allowed Newton to estimate the rate of precession for arbitrary central forces. that is. However. However. Newton applied this approximation to test models of the force causing the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. Newton stated that the gradual apsidal precession of the planetary and lunar orbits was due to the effects of these neglected interactions. Newton's theorem is more general than merely explaining apsidal precession. Newton found the best approximation of an arbitrary central force F(r) to an inverse-cube potential in the limit of nearly circular orbits.[13] However. r(t) and θ1(t). several perturbing inverse-square interactions (such as those of other planets) seem unlikely to sum exactly to an inverse-cube force.[10] analytical models of the Moon's motion were developed in the late 19th century by Hill. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits was his first attempt to understand apsidal precession quantitatively. To find this approximation. the addition of a particular type of central force—the inverse-cube force—can produce a rotating orbit. To make his theorem applicable to other types of forces. Newton's theorem simplifies orbital problems in classical mechanics by eliminating inverse-cube forces from consideration. According to this theorem. However. its effect can be calculated by multiplying the angular speed of the particle 128 . in particular. as is indeed true for most orbits in the Solar System. After a more accurate model by Clairaut in 1747. the problem of the Moon's motion is dauntingly complex.Theorem of revolving orbits dominated by the Earth's gravity. It describes the effects of adding an inverse-cube force to any central force F(r). he stated that the precession of the Moon's orbit was due to the perturbing effects of gravitational interactions with the Sun. not only to inverse-square forces such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law. whereas the radial motion is left unchanged. can be calculated without the inverse-cube force. The radial and angular motions. the Sun's gravity and those of other bodies of the Solar System can be neglected. Newton developed an infinite series that can be viewed as the forerunner of the Taylor expansion. afterwards.[12] and Delaunay. the angular speed is multiplied by a factor k.

let the path of the first particle be an ellipse where A and B are constants. rather. For example. such as r(t) and θ1(t). If the path of the first particle is described in the form r = g(θ1). where L1 is the magnitude of the first particle's angular momentum. the azimuthal angles of the two particles are related by the equation θ2(t) = k θ1(t). the added inverse-cube force is attractive. For this purpose. the angle variable is defined as the integral of the angular speed A similar definition holds for θ2. F2−F1 is a positive number. since θ2 = k θ1. the position of the particle can be described by polar coordinates (r. The paths followed by the green and blue planets are shown in Figure 10. as observed in the green planet of Figures 1–4 and 9. For example. By contrast. thus. r(t) and θ1(t). In other words. Both of these coordinates. the angle variable is unrestricted and can increase indefinitely as the particle revolves around the central point multiple times. the path of the second particle is given by the function r = g(θ2/k). Since the motion of a particle under a central force always lies in a plane. the radius and angle of the particle relative to the center of force (Figure 1). F2 − F1 is a negative number. the added inverse-cube force is repulsive. the angle of the second particle. but one whose angular speed is k times faster than that of the first particle. θ1). it completes one orbit for every three blue orbits. change with time t as the particle moves. A GIF version of this animation is found here. rather. it relates the radius and angle variables to one another. Alteration of the particle path The addition of such an inverse-cube force also changes the path followed by the particle. If k2 is greater than one. its final angle is not the same as its initial angle. then. The path of the particle ignores the time dependencies of the radial and angular motions. Newton showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by adding an inverse-cube central force to whatever force F1(r) acts on the first particle[14] Figure 5: The green planet moves angularly one-third as fast as the blue planet (k = 1/3). Imagine a second particle with the same mass m and with the same radial motion r(t). if the particle revolves twice about the central point and returns to its starting position.Theorem of revolving orbits 129 Mathematical statement Consider a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r) whose magnitude depends only on the distance r between the particle and a fixed center. as observed in the green planet of Figures 5 and 10. it has increased by 2×360° = 720°. Formally. and in the red planet of Figures 4 and 5. if k2 is less than one. which is a constant of motion (conserved) for central forces. where k is any constant. the path of the second particle is given by .

. θ1) as where θ0 is the angle at which the distance is minimized (Figure 6). the angular speeds would satisfy the equation ω2 = ω1 + Ω. The distance r begins at infinity (when θ1 – θ0 = −90°). which is defined as the length of the perpendicular from the fixed center to the line of motion. at a constant angular speed. Ω is constant only if ω1 is constant. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits states that the angular speeds are related by multiplication: ω2 = kω1. Combining these two equations shows that the angular speed of the precession equals Ω = (k − 1)ω1. If it travels in a straight line that does not pass through the origin (blue line in Figure 6) the equation for such a line may be written in the polar coordinates (r. . According to the conservation of angular momentum. the second orbit resembles the first. but revolves gradually about the center of force.. the orbit does not change as it precesses. i. when the distance reaches a minimum. where k is a constant. the first particle is stationary or travels in a straight line. In this case. Hence. the orbit precesses in the opposite direction. then gradually increases again to infinity at θ1 – θ0 = 90°. but not equal. If k is greater than one. The same radial motion is possible when an inverse-cube central force is added.e. Figure 6: For the blue particle moving in a straight line. Although the orbit in Figure 3 may seem to rotate uniformly. i. if k is less than one. The minimum distance b is the impact parameter. However. F1(r) = 0. Illustrative example: Cotes' spirals The simplest illustration of Newton's theorem occurs when there is no initial force. this is true only for circular orbits.Theorem of revolving orbits 130 Orbital precession If k is close. ω1 is constant only if the radius r is constant. when the orbit is a circle. to one.[2][3] If the orbit rotates at an angular speed Ω. this is known as orbital precession (Figure 3).. the radius r from a given center varies with angle according to the equation b = r cos(θ − θ0). i. the orbit precesses in the same direction as the orbit (Figure 3). ω1 changes with the radius r where m and L1 are the first particle's mass and angular momentum. in other words. Hence. both of which are constant. and decreases gradually until θ1 – θ0 = 0°. respectively. in that case.e. shown in red). the angular speed of the second particle is faster or slower than that of the first particle by Ω.e. However. where b is the distance of closest approach (impact parameter.

3. the solution corresponds to an epispiral. which corresponds to values of μ ranging from negative infinity up to the positive upper limit.0 (blue). Taking the limit of k or λ going to zero yields the third form of a Cotes' spiral. Poinsot spiral motion only occurs for repulsive inverse-cube central forces. When k is less than one. the so-called reciprocal spiral or hyperbolic spiral. When the argument θ1 – θ0 equals ±90°×k. when k is less than one. as illustrated in Figure 7. and applies in the case that L is not too large for the given μ. the force is attractive. When the right-hand side of the equation is a positive real number. as for some repulsive ones (μ < L12/m).0 (cyan) and 6. One of the other solution types is given in terms of the hyperbolic cosine: where the constant λ satifies Figure 8: Poinsot spirals (cosh spirals) corresponding to λ equal to 1. the orbit of the particle can even wrap around the center several times. Stronger repulsive forces correspond to a faster linear motion. 1. corresponding to an attractive force (green. which corresponds to values of μ greater than the positive number L12/m. the range of allowed angles increases. cyan and blue curves on left in Figure 7). whereas when k is greater than one. the range of allowed angles becomes small and the force is repulsive (red curve on right in Figure 7).0 (blue). Newton's theorem says that the corresponding solutions have a shape called Cotes' spirals. These are curves defined by the equation where the constant k equals Figure 7: Epispirals corresponding to k equal to 2/3 (red). 1.0 (black). This form of Cotes' spirals corresponds to one of the two Poinsot's spirals (Figure 8). The possible values of the parameter k may range from zero to infinity. If such an inverse-cube force is introduced. the cosine goes to zero and the radius goes to infinity. as a solution where A and ε are arbitrary constants.0 (cyan) and 6. Thus. L12/m. Thus. 3.Theorem of revolving orbits 131 An inverse-cube central force F2(r) has the form where the numerator μ may be positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).5 (green). Such curves result when the strength μ of the repulsive force exactly balances the angular momentum-mass term . for all attractive inverse-cube forces (negative μ) there is a corresponding epispiral orbit. when k is greater than one. On the other hand. the inverse-cube force is repulsive. Thus.0 (green). The possible values of λ range from zero to infinity.

2 (magenta) and 3 (green). and inverse-square forces. Newton extends his theorem to an arbitrary central forces F(r) by restricting his attention to orbits that are nearly circular. the long axis of most orbiting bodies rotates gradually. A closed trajectory is called a harmonic orbit if k is an integer. the path of a bound particle is always closed and its motion repeats indefinitely. because of gravitational perturbations from other bodies. An animation of the blue and green orbits is shown in Figure 4. The long axis is defined as the line connecting the positions of minimum and maximum distances to the central point. However. those ellipses can determined accurately from astronomical measurements. i. green orbit in Figure 10).. if k = 3 (green planet in Figures 1 and 4. such as Hooke's law. 1/2 (magenta) and 1/3 (green). A particle moving under either type of force always returns to its starting place with its initial velocity. the addition of the inverse-cubic force causes the particle to complete m rotations about the center of force in the same time that the original particle completes n rotations. the closed trajectory is called a subharmonic orbit if k is the inverse of an integer. and other effects. because the added inverse-cubic force depends on the initial velocity of the particle. the line connecting the two apses. if k = 1/3 (green planet in Figure 5. no matter what its initial position or velocity. if n = 1 in the formula k = m/n. Newton applies his theorem of revolving orbits to develop a method for finding the force laws that Figure 10: Subharmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). i. they are helpful for illustrating Newton's theorem.e. Although such orbits are unlikely to occur in nature. Figure 9: Harmonic orbits with k = 1 (blue). a particle will not return to its starting point with the same velocity. i. this property is not true for other types of forces. such as . For example. the long axis of the planet Mercury is defined as the line through its successive positions of perihelion and aphelion. oblateness in the attracting body. In other words. Over time. the resulting orbit is the third harmonic of the original orbit. However. F = C/r2. such as Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law—have a very unusual property. As shown by Bertrand's theorem. provided that it lacks sufficient energy to move out to infinity. F = Cr. provided that k equals a rational number. general relativistic effects. Newton's theorem describes only the effects of adding an inverse-cube central force. Newton's theorem shows that an inverse-cubic force may be applied to a particle moving under a linear or inverse-square force such that its orbit remains closed. in general. where m and n are integers.e. green orbit in Figure 9). This method for producing closed orbits does not violate Bertrand's theorem. For illustration. the resulting orbit is called the third subharmonic of the original orbit.. An govern the motions of planets.) In such cases.e.[2] Limit of nearly circular orbits In Proposition 45 of his Principia.. For example. (A number is called "rational" if it can be written as a fraction m/n. and the long axis of shown in Figure 5. generally no more than a few degrees per complete revolution. Johannes Kepler had noted that the orbits animation of the blue and green orbits is of most planets and the Moon seemed to be ellipses. Newton's method uses this apsidal precession as a sensitive probe of the type of force being applied to the planets.Theorem of revolving orbits 132 Closed orbits and inverse-cube central forces Two types of central forces—those that increase linearly with distance. Harmonic and subharmonic orbits are special types of such closed orbits. if m = 1 in the formula k = m/n. Conversely.

In the first two. and suggested that it may pertain to Halley's comet. this implies that.[15] which has an eccentricity ε of roughly 21%. i. As noted above. in the gradual rotation of the long axis of the ellipse (Figure 3). The formula above indicates that the angular motion is multiplied by a factor k = 1/√n. the orbit as a whole rotates with a mean angular speed Ω=(k−1)ω. Newton considers a sum of two power laws which multiplies the angular speed by a factor . whose orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 97%. hence. α will equal 180° only for isolated values of ε. the particle rotates about the center of force by 180° as it moves from one end of the long axis to the other (the two apses). and the elliptical orbit is stationary (Ω = β = 0). the central force is a power law. α equals 180°.e. 133 Quantitative formula To simplify the equations. For the inverse-square force. using the general law θ2 = k θ1.Theorem of revolving orbits ellipses with low orbital eccentricity (ε ≤ 10%).[17] By equating the resulting inverse-cube force term with the inverse-cube force for revolving orbits. the apsidal angle α is 180°. If an elliptical orbit is stationary. If α is initially not 180° at low ε (quasi-circular orbits) then. the corresponding apsidal angle α for a general central force equals k×180°. Newton expands C(r) in a series—now known as a Taylor expansion—in powers of the distance r. Newton considered the apsidal precession angle α (the angle between the vectors of successive minimum and maximum distance from the center) to be a smooth. If the particle requires a time T to move from one apse to the other. Newton also applied his theorem to the planet Mercury. For an inverse-square law such as Newton's law of universal gravitation. in general. As a final illustration. This angular scaling can be seen in the apsidal precession.[16] According to their argument. Examples Newton illustrates his formula with three examples..[16] A qualitative justification for this extrapolation of his method has been suggested by Valluri. one of the first appearances of such a series. the application of an arbitrary central force F(r) to a nearly circular elliptical orbit can accelerate the angular motion by the factor k without affecting the radial motion significantly. where ω equals the mean angular speed of the particle about the stationary ellipse. continuous function of the orbital eccentricity ε. the observed slow rotation of the apsides of planetary orbits suggest that the force of gravity is an inverse-square law. Newton derives an equivalent angular scaling factor k for nearly circular orbits[18] In other words. which is true of seven of the eight planetary orbits in the solar system. Thus. Newton writes F(r) in terms of a new function C(r) where R is the average radius of the nearly circular orbit. Wilson and Harper. in the same time.C(r) is proportional to rn. F(r) = rn−3 and. the vectors to the positions of minimum and maximum distances lie on the same line. where n equals 1. a randomly chosen value of ε would be very unlikely to give α = 180°. Therefore. so that the apsidal angle α equals 180°/√n. there is no angular scaling (k = 1). the long axis will rotate by an angle β = ΩT = (k − 1)ωT = (k − 1)×180°.

mainly due to the competing gravitational pulls of the Earth and the Sun.[23] in Newton's time.0165)[26] In 1894.[21][22] An sufficiently accurate and simple method for predicting the Moon's motion would have solved the navigational problem of determining a ship's longitude.e.[24] Horrocks' model predicted the lunar position with errors no more than 10 arc-minutes.85 years. Asaph Hall adopted this approach of modifying the exponent in the inverse-square law slightly to explain an anomalous orbital precession of the planet Mercury. These oscillations generally occur on a once-monthly or twice-monthly time-scale. one that varies as the inverse fourth power of distance.[30] As a second approach to explaining the Moon's precession.Theorem of revolving orbits Newton applies both of these formulae (the power law and sum of two power laws) to examine the apsidal precession of the Moon's orbit. Hall's theory was ruled out by careful astronomical observations of the Moon. the goal was to predict the Moon's position to 2' (two arc-minutes). 134 Precession of the Moon's orbit The motion of the Moon can be measured accurately.[19] such as small oscillations in its orbital eccentricity and the inclination of its orbit to the plane of the ecliptic. Hipparchus and Ptolemy. and is noticeably more complex than that. which would correspond to a 1° error in terrestrial longitude.[28] Ironically. Jeremiah Horrocks published a reasonably accurate model of the Moon's motion in which the Moon was assumed to follow a precessing elliptical orbit.[24] for comparison.[20] This accounts for the roughly 18-year periodicity of eclipses.[25] First. of the planets. both lines experience small fluctuations in their motion.6 years.[27] which had been observed in 1859 by Urbain Le Verrier. The line of its apses precesses gradually with a period of roughly 8. However. the diameter of the Moon is roughly 30 arc-minutes. i. had noted several periodic variations in the Moon's orbit.[19] The ancient Greek astronomers. which (to first approximation) adds an inverse-quartic force. he showed that the Moon's observed apsidal precession could be accounted for by changing the force law of gravity from an inverse-square law to a power law in which the exponent was 2 + 4/243 (roughly 2. In 1673.[29] The currently accepted explanation for this precession involves the theory of general relativity.. Newton used his theorem of revolving orbits in two ways to account for the apsidal precession of the Moon. again on the monthly time-scale. 18. while its line of nodes turns a full circle in roughly double that time. the so-called Saros cycle. Newton suggested that the perturbing influence of the Sun on the Moon's motion might be approximately equivalent to an additional linear force . The Moon's motion is more complex than those of the planets.

Rather. . If the path of the first particle is written r1 = g(θ1). they assumed that the angular motion of the second particle was k times faster than that of the first particle. the second particle's path can be written as If the motion of the first particle is produced by a central force F1(r). the inverse-cube force is added. as astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar noted in his 1995 commentary on Newton's Principia. consistent with the formula given above. might represent the average perturbing force of the Sun's gravity of the Earth-Moon system.Theorem of revolving orbits 135 The first term corresponds to the gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth. In this case. as well as by adding inverse-square and inverse-cube central forces. the long axis would rotate 1. Also. as Propositions 43–45 of Book I of his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and estimates of A and B. the path of the second particle is r2 = g(θ2/k). however. where r is the Moon's distance from the Earth. Newton's theorem of revolving orbits corresponds to the case a = 1 and b = 0. the original force is not scaled. For comparison. Mahomed and Vawda did not require that the radial motion of the two particles be the same.5°. and its argument is unchanged.[1] The first generalization of Newton's theorem was discovered by Mahomed and Vawda in 2000. θ2 = k θ1.[4] As Newton did. they required that the inverse radii be related by a linear equation This transformation of the variables changes the path of the particle. In contrast to Newton. For every revolution. Mahomed and Vawda showed that the motion of the second particle can be produced by the following force According to this equation. The second term. the theorem remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries. r1 = r2. the second force F2(r) is obtained by scaling the first force and changing its argument.525°). so Newton reasoned. roughly half of the observed 3. so that r1 = r2.76°) rather than the observed α (≈ 181. However. since the predicted apsidal angle α was (≈ 180.[31] Using the formula for k for nearly circular orbits. but the inverse-square term is not.0°[25] Generalization Isaac Newton first published his theorem in 1687. Newton showed that this force law could not account for the Moon's precession. Such a force law could also result if the Earth were surrounded by a spherical dust cloud of uniform density.

the rate of sweeping out area is constant This constant areal velocity can be calculated as follows. derived earlier in the Principia.Theorem of revolving orbits 136 Derivations Newton's derivation Newton's derivation is found in Section IX of his Principia. therefore. the velocity and radius vectors are perpendicular. All three planets (red.[34] Proposition 2 provides a geometrical test for whether the net force acting on a point mass (a particle) is a central force. Newton showed that a force is central if and only if the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal times as measured from the center. the second particle also sweeps out equal areas in equal times. by Newton's Proposition 2. The blue planet follows the dashed elliptical orbit. Expressed another way. the angular momentum L1 per mass m of the particle (written as h1) can be related to the rate of sweeping out areas Now consider a second particle whose orbit is identical in its radius. This is the conclusion of Proposition 43. Proposition 43. whereas the green planet follows the solid elliptical orbit. Proposition 44 . which equals θ2 = k θ1. which equals (k−1) θ1. Problem 30 It is required to make a body move in a curve that revolves about the center of force in the same manner as another body in the same curve at rest. the second particle is also acted upon by a central force F2(r). The solid ellipse has rotated relative to the dashed ellipse by the angle UCV.[32] His derivations of these Propositions are based largely on geometry. but whose angular variation is multiplied by a constant factor k The areal velocity of the second particle equals that of the first particle multiplied by the same factor k Since k is a constant. At the apapsis and periapsis. whereas the black arc represents the angle UCQ. by Proposition 2. Therefore. specifically Propositions 43–45.[33] Newton's derivation of Proposition 43 depends on his Proposition 2. the two ellipses share a common focus at the point C. blue and green) are at the same distance r from the center of force C. Newton's derivation begins with a particle moving under an arbitrary central force F1(r). and also its angle θ1(t). the particle sweeps out equal angles in equal times. the motion of this particle under this force is described by its radius r(t) from the center as a function of time. the positions of closest and furthest distance from the attracting center. In an infinitesimal time dt. Since the force acting on the particle is assumed to be a central force. the particle sweeps out an approximate right triangle whose area is Diagram illustrating Newton's derivation. The angles UCP and VCQ both equal θ1.

which is defined for central forces The radial force equation can be written in terms of the two potential energies Integrating with respect to the distance r. to offset this. specifically by the formula given above.[36] In this Proposition. Newton's theorem can be expressed equivalently in terms of potential energy. the second angular speed is k times faster than the first Since the two radii have the same behavior with time. varies inversely as the cube of their common altitudes. the conserved angular momenta are related by the same factor k The equation of motion for a radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V(r) is given by Lagrange's equations Applying the general formula to the two orbits yields the equation which can be re-arranged to the form This equation relating the two radial forces can be understood qualitatively as follows. Newtons's theorem states that a k-fold change in angular speed results from adding an inverse-square potential energy to any given potential energy V1(r) . in angular momenta) causes a difference in the centripetal force requirement. Newton calculated their difference F2(r) − F1(r) using geometry and the definition of centripetal acceleration. The difference in angular speeds (or equivalently. not merely inverse-square and inverse-cube force laws. Problem 31 To find the motion of the apsides in orbits approaching very near to circles. r(t).Theorem of revolving orbits The difference of the forces. Newton derives the consequences of his theorem of revolving orbits in the limit of nearly circular orbits. Modern derivation Modern derivations of Newton's theorem have been published by Whittaker (1937)[37] and Chandrasekhar (1995). the other in the same orbit revolving. one in a fixed. This approximation also allows Newton to consider a great variety of central force laws. the radial force must be altered with an inverse-cube force. by which two bodies may be made to move equally.[33] By assumption. This approximation is generally valid for planetary orbits and the orbit of the Moon about the Earth.[35] To find the magnitude of F2(r) from the original central force F1(r). he showed that the difference is proportional to the inverse cube of the radius. In Proposition 44 of his Principia. h1 and h2 137 Proposition 45. which Newtons writes in terms of the two constant areal velocities.

"Analytic central orbits and their transformation group". Mémoires Acad. fr/ CadresFenetre?O=NUMM-3543& M=chemindefer). [7] Sundman KF (1912). "Newton's Apsidal Precession Theorem and Eccentric Orbits". pp.2307/2369812.2008. 52: 71. Proposition 45. [10] Clairaut.. doi:10. Am. 192. McNamara DJ (2008) Copernicus’s epicycles from Newton’s gravitational force law via linear perturbation theory in geometric algebra (http:/ / arxiv. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 386 (1): 245–260. 183. Simon Newcomb.1111/j. Propositions 43–45. [27] Hall A (1894). Bibcode 1894AJ. American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 33 (1/4): 337–362. Harper W (1997). 339–385. [24] Smith.1086/102055. Bibcode 2008MNRAS. section IX of Book I. 187. Mémoires Acad.1098/rsnr. JSTOR 2369812.: 237. Principia.. [35] Chandrasekhar. pp. [11] Hill GW (1895). pp. [32] Chandrasekhar. p. p. Reading. 184.. "Memoire sur le probleme de trois corps". doi:10.13018...0016. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. In Norman Thrower.. Principia. Imp. Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (4): 307–315. [37] Whittaker.18. [18] Chandrasekhar. p. [22] Wilson C (1987). org/ abs/ 0807. doi:10. 147. [21] Horrocks J (1673). CA: University of California Press. JSTOR 2369997. Sc.: 451. [5] Sugon QM.14.1023/A:1008317327402. Oxford. 83. Section IX. "Unknown title". Math. pp. 135–147. "Théorie du mouvement de Mercure".245L. pp. Wilson C. p. Astron. esp. p. Lynden-Bell RM (1997). [30] Roseveare N (1982). editor. p.1007/BF02422379. AC (1745). Am. Jeremia Horocii opera posthuma. "On the Problem of Two Fixed Centres and Certain of its Generalizations". "On the Shapes of Newton’s Revolving Orbits". 91–108. [6] Whittaker. pp. "On the degree of accuracy in the new lunary theory". Proposition 2. 193–194. J. Journal of the History of Astronomy 28: 13–27. [28] Le Verrier UJJ (1859). "Unknown title". Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences avec les mémoires de mathématique et de physique 1749: 329–364. [9] Cohen. 254. [12] Brown EW (1891). Mercury's perihelion from Le verrier to Einstein. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 64: 524–534. MA: Addison–Wesley. [26] Chandrasekhar. pp. Acta Mathematica 36 (1): 105–179. bnf. 198. Jin S (2008). [36] Chandrasekhar. 252. Delaunay C (1867). 2708v1). "Halley's Two Essays on Newton's Principia".1365-2966. p.386. 141–147. .. ISBN 978-0520065895. ISBN 978-1888009088. Imp. "Success and Failure in Newton's Lunar Theory". [31] Symon KR (1971). [15] Newton. . "Discussion and Results of Observations on Transits of Mercury from 1677 to 1881". "Unknown title". [14] Newton. Bibcode 1987JHA. Journal for the History of Astronomy 18: 77–94. 267 (Chapter 6. doi:10. 98–106. [17] Cohen IB (1990). [33] Chandrasekhar. [8] Hiltebeitel AM (1911). doi:10.1997..Theorem of revolving orbits 138 References [1] Chandrasekhar. [20] Smith. "Unknown title". p. Bragais S.). Monthly Notices Roy.. D. Green Lion Press. pp. p. [13] Delaunay C (1862). "On the Origin of Horrock's Lunar Theory". Math. problem 7).. [19] Cook A (2000). [4] Mahomed FM.49H. [2] Lynden-Bell. [16] Valluri SR. Annales de l'Observatoire Impériale de Paris 5: 1–196. Brown EW (1891). 67–70. Sc. doi:10. Astronomy and Geophysics 41: 21–25. doi:10. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac 1: 473. [29] Brown EW (1903). "Du Système du Monde dans les principes de la gravitation universelle" (http:/ / visualiseur. Book III.. 9: 31. "A suggestion in the theory of Mercury". London: G Godbit for J Martyn. Book I.. 406. [34] Chandrasekhar.2307/2369997. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley. The Astronomical Journal 14: 49–51. [25] Newton.77W. Berkeley. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 51 (2): 195–198. Vawda F (2000). "Unknown title".x. "Application of Symmetries to Central Force Problems". Soc. [23] Kollerstrom N (2000). [3] Lynden-Bell D. Mechanics (3rd ed. (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 13 (2): 159. Newton's Forgotten Lunar Theory: His Contribution to the Quest for Longitude. Principia. 183–192. p.

Oxford University Press. 83. Cambridge University Press. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des Sciences xxvii/10: 849–853. ISBN 0914098896.. CA: University of California Press.google. A Treatise on Analytical Dynamics. ISBN 978-0918024077 (1981 reprint by Ox Bow Press). 147–148. Publish or Perish. Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader. "Planetary Motion". 534–545. Berkeley. Further reading • Bertrand J (1873). ISBN 978-0520088160.scholarpedia. translated by Andrew Motte (1729) and revised by Florian Cajori (1934) ed. ISBN 978-0520009288. Berkeley. pp. Alternative translation of earlier (2nd) edition of Newton's Principia. ISBN 978-1-60386-012-3. Bibcode 2007AmJPh. (reprint. Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736 (http://books. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. • Guicciardini. pp. ISBN 0-85274-348-3.org/article/Three_body_problem) discussed by Alain Chenciner at Scholarpedia . External links • Three-body problem (http://www. pp. • Pars LA (1965). 147–148. 252–257. Principia Vol.com/?id=kmYSAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA84).). Berkeley.google. pp. Niccolò (1999). 135–147 (Section IX of Book I). • Smith GE (1999).). MM (2007).1119/1. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-521-35883-5. American Journal of Physics 75 (4): 352–355. pp. • Chandrasekhar S (1995). 56. Macmillan and Co. ISBN 978-0-19-852675-9. ISBN 978-0548965214 (2008 reprint). with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies (4th ed.). 257–264. Michael (1994). ISBN 9780521544030. pp.352D. doi:10. A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies. pp. The Motion of the Moon. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press. • Routh EJ (1960). Berkeley.. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. • Spivak. Bristol: Adam Hilger. "Théorème relatif au mouvement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe". CA: University of California Press. 246–264. • Cook A (1988). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (3rd edition (1726). 84–85. I The Motion of Bodies (based on Newton's 2nd edition (1713). ISBN 978-0520088160. (séance du lundi 20 Octobre 1873) • Cohen IB (1999). "Motion of the Lunar Apsis". "Newton and the Problem of the Moon's Motion". translated by I. 246–252. • Newton I (1966). • Whittaker ET (1937). • D’Eliseo.). CA: University of California Press. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". • Rouse Ball WW (1893). Calculus (3rd ed.75. ISBN 978-0520088160.2432126. New York: Dover Publications. Merchant Books). 230–233 (sections §356–359). A Treatise on Dynamics of a Particle (reprint of 1898 ed. 183–200. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. pp. p. ISBN 978-0520088160. LCCN 64-24556. "The first-order orbital equation".). assisted by Julia Budenz ed. New York: Dover Publications. An Essay on Newton’s "Principia" (http://books. • Smith GE (1999).Theorem of revolving orbits 139 Bibliography • Newton I (1999). pp. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman.com/?id=Og9azRoVmz8C). CA: University of California Press.

Whiston's original edition was published in 1707. who published it in 1720 as the Universal Arithmetick. and so refused to have his name appear. the relationship between geometry and algebra. babson. without proof. pdf . In fact. Newton was unhappy with the publication of the Arithmetica. Babson Collection. published in 1865). Newton was so upset he considered purchasing all of the copies so he could destroy them. None of these editions credits Newton as author. Newton's successor as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. published 1707 References • The Arithmetica Universalis from the Grace K. a rule to determine the number of imaginary roots of polynomial equations. It was translated into English by Joseph Raphson. He also offered. edu/ web/ library/ Newton_two. The Arithmetica was based on Newton's lecture notes. including links to PDFs of English and Latin versions of the Arithmetica [1] • Centre College Library information on Newton's works [2] The English translation by Raphson was published in 1720 References [1] http:/ / www3. and the solution of equations.140 Works Arithmetica Universalis Arithmetica Universalis is a mathematics text by Isaac Newton. The Arithmetica touches on algebraic notation. cfm [2] http:/ / www. Newton also applied Descartes' rule of signs to imaginary roots. it was edited and published by William Whiston. edu/ Archives/ museums_collections/ Universal-Arithmatic. arithmetic. Title page of the Arithmetica. John Machin published a second Latin edition in 1722. centre. Written in Latin. when Whiston's edition was published. Not for another 150 years would a rigorous proof to Newton's counting formula be found (by James Joseph Sylvester.

) 3: Forces combine by a parallelogram rule. some with corollaries.) 2: 'Inherent force' of a body is defined in a way that prepares for the idea of inertia and of Newton's first law. (Definition 3 of the Principia is to similar effect.) 3: 'Resistance': the property of a medium that regularly impedes motion. when Halley had questioned Newton about problems then exercising the minds of Halley and his scientific circle in London. It followed a visit by Halley earlier in that year. and its first occurrence is in this document) impels or attracts a body to some point regarded as a center. a body continues in its state of motion either at rest or in uniform motion along a straight line). but not to be confused with several other Newtonian papers carrying titles that start with these words) gave important mathematical derivations relating to the three relations now known as "Kepler's laws". Law 3 in the Principia. (Before Newton's work.De motu corporum in gyrum 141 De motu corporum in gyrum De motu corporum in gyrum (Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the (presumed) title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684. Contents One of the surviving copies of De Motu was made by being entered in the Royal Society's register book. the distance is proportional to the square of the time. It contains 11 propositions. labeled as 'theorems' and 'problems'. Law 1 in the Principia. Newton begins with some preliminaries: • 3 Definitions: 1: 'Centripetal force' (Newton originated this term. After further encouragement from Halley. Before reaching this core subject-matter.[4] as well as in Latin. Its contents are inferred from surviving documents.)[2] Halley reported the communication from Newton to the Royal Society on 10 December 1684 (Julian calendar).[3] For ease of cross-reference to the contents of De Motu that appeared again in the Principia.) This . which are two contemporary copies and a draft. resistance is assumed nil. both copies are without title. Only the draft has the title now used. (The context indicates that Newton was dealing here with infinitesimals or their limiting ratios. The title of the document is only presumed because the original is now lost. This point reappears in Corollaries 1 and 2 to the third law of motion.[5] De motu corporum in gyrum is short enough to set out here the contents of its different sections. Newton went on to develop and write his book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (commonly known as the Principia) from a nucleus that can be seen in 'De Motu' – of which nearly all of the content also reappears in the Principia. 2: By its intrinsic force (alone) every body would progress uniformly in a straight line to infinity unless something external hinders that. there are online sources for the 'Principia' in English translation. then for the remaining (2) propositions.[1] This manuscript (De Motu for short. including Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke. 4: In the initial moments of effect of a centripetal force. and its (Latin) text is available online. these had not been generally regarded as laws. resistance is assumed proportional both to the speed of the body and to the density of the medium. Newton treats them in effect as we now treat vectors. (Newton's later first law of motion is to similar effect. (This reappears in Definition 5 of the Principia. • 4 Hypotheses: 1: Newton indicates that in the first 9 propositions below. (in the absence of external force.

while their number increases without limit. Theorem 1. Then follows Newton's main subject-matter. the centripetal force is proportional to (1/P2) * R where P is the orbital period. and the centripetal force at any point is avaluated from the speed and the curvature of the local infinitesimal arc.[6] in which the area swept out by the radius vector is divided into triangle-sectors. drawn from the body to the attracting center. A scholium points out that if the orbiting body were to reach such a center. A scholium then points out that the Corollary 5 relation (square of orbital period proportional to cube of orbital size) is observed to apply to the planets in their orbits around the Sun. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/(R2).) Corollary 1 then points out that the centripetal force is proportional to V2/R. treated here as a center of attraction) is proportional to the square of the arc-length traversed. Then follow two more preliminary points: • 2 Lemmas: 1: Newton briefly sets out continued products of proportions involving differences: if A/(A-B) = B/(B-C) = C/(C-D) etc. it follows that a radius vector. Theorem 3 Theorem 3 now evaluates the centripetal force in a non-circular orbit. then A/B = B/C = C/D etc. and to the Galilean satellites orbiting Jupiter. then the centripetal force would be independent of R. Corollary 4 shows that if P2 is proportional to R2. Lemma 10 in the 'Principia'. (This subject reappears as Proposition 4. involving ratios of vanishingly small line-segments. with expanded explanation. (Proposition 7 in the 'Principia'. and inversely proportional to the radius. as Proposition 1. This subject reappears in the Principia as Proposition 6 of Book 1. problems.De motu corporum in gyrum reappears in Book 1. The demonstration comes down to evaluating the curvature of the orbit as if it was made up of infinitesimal arcs. Theorem 4 in the Principia. A corollary then points out how it is possible in this way to determine the centripetal force for any given shape of orbit and center. Corollary 3 shows that if P2 is proportional to R. sweeps out equal areas in equal times (no matter how the centripetal force varies with distance). it would then depart along the tangent. putting this in another way. where V is the orbital speed and R the circular radius.) This theorem appears again. using another geometrical limit argument. the centripetal force (directed towards the center of the circle. then the centripetal force would be proportional to 1/R. They are of small and decreasing size considered to tend towards zero individually. 2: All parallelograms touching a given ellipse (to be understood: at the end-points of conjugate diameters) are equal in area. Problem 1 then explores the case of a circular orbit. corollaries and scholia: 142 Theorem 1 Theorem 1 demonstrates that where an orbiting body is subject only to a centripetal force. Corollary 2 shows that.) . Theorem 2 Theorem 2 considers a body moving uniformly in a circular orbit. as well as in many parts of the later Principia – a limit argument of infinitesimal calculus in geometric form. labeled as theorems. and shows that for any given time-segment. Corollary 5 shows that if P2 is proportional to R3. and the corollaries here reappear also. (Newton uses for this derivation – as he does in later proofs in this De Motu. assuming the center of attraction to be on the circumference of the circle. of the 'Principia'.

. the time of revolution of a body in an elliptical orbit with a given major axis is the same as it would be for the body in a circular orbit with the same diameter as that major axis. "A body orbits in an ellipse: there is required the law of centripetal force tending to a focus of the ellipse. altogether (Latin: 'omnino') as Kepler supposed. Problem 5 in the Principia. amounting to a straight-line fall towards or ejection from the attracting center.') (This conclusion is reached after taking as initial fact the observed proportionality between square of orbital period and cube of orbital size. if the atmospheric resistance could be assumed nil. that is. speed and direction of the orbiting body.De motu corporum in gyrum Problem 2 explores the case of an ellipse.e. (Proposition 15 in the Principia. but now treats the further case where the center of attraction is at one of its foci. Lastly. the orbit will no longer be an ellipse. how to determine the orbital ellipse for a given starting position." Here Newton finds the centripetal force to produce motion in this configuration would be inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector. He also identifies a geometrical criterion for distinguishing between the elliptical case and the others. .) A scholium points out how this enables the planetary ellipses and the locations of their foci to be determined by indirect measurements.) (A controversy over the cogency of the conclusion is described below. square] of the distance . Newton attempts to extend the results to the case where there is atmospheric resistance.) A scholium points out how problems 4 and 5 would apply to projectiles in the atmosphere and to the fall of heavy bodies. but will instead be a parabola or hyperbola. (Proposition 32 in the Principia. based on the calculated size of the latus rectum. in the Principia. that if the speed is high enough. as a proportion to the distance the orbiting body at closest approach to the center. and then (Problem 7) the combined effects of resistance and a uniform centripetal force on motion towards/away from the center in a homogeneous medium. (This material becomes Proposition 10. considered in corollary 5 to Theorem 1. . (reciprocally) in the doubled ratio [i. therefore. Problem 5 discusses the case of a degenerate elliptical orbit.. (Translation: 'The major planets orbit. and finds that the centripetal force to produce motion in that configuration would be directly proportional to the radius vector. 143 Theorem 4 Theorem 4 shows that with a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector.) Problem 3 again explores the ellipse. Then a final scholium points out how problems 6 and 7 apply to the horizontal and vertical components of the motion of projectiles in the atmosphere (in this case neglecting earth curvature). Some practical difficulties of implementing this are also discussed. (Proposition 17 in the 'Principia'. Finally in the series of propositions based on zero resistance from any medium. Both problems are addressed geometrically using hyperbolic constructions. Problem 6. where the center of attraction is at its center. Problem 4 then explores. for the case of an inverse-square law of centripetal force. and with their radii (vectores) drawn to the Sun describe areas proportional to the times. considering first (Problem 6) the effects of resistance on inertial motion in a straight line.) A scholium then remarks that a bonus of this demonstration is that it allows definition of the orbits of comets. Newton points out here. (Translation: 'Therefore the centripetal force is reciprocally as L X SP². These last two 'Problems' reappear in Book 2 of the 'Principia' as Propositions 2 and 3. and enables an estimation of their periods and returns where the orbits are elliptical.') This becomes Proposition 11 in the Principia. in ellipses having a focus at the centre of the Sun.) The subject of Problem 3 becomes Proposition 11. A scholium then points out that this Problem 3 proves that the planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus.

Newton did not specifically state a basis for extending the proofs to the converse. but any certainty is clearly hard to obtain on this point. i. when Newton's 'Principia' had been presented to the Royal Society. or that they were not stated by Newton.[14] Hooke therefore wanted to hear from members about their researches. ". and other items.[15] . In 'De Motu'. that in any given setup. as in the first edition of the Principia. only one orbit corresponds to one given and specified set of force/velocity/starting position..)[8][9][10] Halley's question The details of Edmund Halley's visit to Newton in 1684 are known to us only from reminiscences of thirty to forty years later. he appeared to assume that certain steps would be found self-evident or obvious. it clearly is hard to be certain exactly what words were used by Halley. Halley asked Newton. mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planetts of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body". Newton added a mention of this kind into the second edition of the Principia. and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse".[7] A significant scholarly controversy has existed over the question whether and how far these extensions to the converse. and said Newton owed the idea of an inverse-square law of attraction to him – although at the same time.e.what he thought the Curve would be that would be described by the Planets supposing the force of attraction towards the Sun to be reciprocal to the square of their distance from it. and a short correspondence developed. and as if to whet Newton's interest. and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys."[11] Another version of the question was given by Newton himself. Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the falling body would move. are self-evident and obvious or not. Newton depends on matters proved being used in practice as a basis for regarding their converses as also proved. Newton replied with "a fansy of my own" about determining the Earth's motion. According to one of these reminiscences. the argument has been over whether Newton's proofs were satisfactory or not. The proof of the converse here depends on its being apparent that there is a uniqueness relation.. and then gave a whole list.De motu corporum in gyrum 144 Commentaries on the contents At some points in 'De Motu'. Role of Robert Hooke Newton acknowledged in 1686 that an initial stimulus on him in 1679/80 to extend his investigations of the movements of heavenly bodies had arisen from correspondence with Robert Hooke in 1679/80. as a Corollary to Propositions 11-13. and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length). It has been sometimes suggested that Newton answered a question different from the one Halley had asked. to tell Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence. in response to criticism of this sort made during his lifetime. and the associated uniqueness statements. Hooke disclaimed any credit for the curves and trajectories that Newton had demonstrated on the basis of the inverse square law. This has been seen as especially so in regard to 'Problem 3'. using a falling body. Hooke claimed from this correspondence the credit for some of Newton's content in the 'Principia'.[13] Hooke had started an exchange of correspondence in November 1679 by writing to Newton. or their views about the researches of others. Newton's style of demonstration in all his writings was rather brief in places. in 1686. the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge. and both of them produced from very old memories. he asked what Newton thought about various matters. asking him "if I knew what figure the Planets described in their Orbs about the Sun was very desirous to have my Demonstration"[12] In the light of these differing reports. Later. (There is no suggestion that the converses are not true. but also about thirty years after the event: he wrote that Halley.

1971. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA30)-91.297.2 already cited. M Nauenberg. [9] For further discussion of the point see Curtis Wilson. 10 (2005). [4] English translations are based on the third (1726) edition.431-448.1 (1970).). who called it a 'petitio principii'. apart from the stimulus that Newton acknowledged.101. who heard of this from Halley. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679|80) at pp. [5] Newton's 'Principia' in its original 1687 edition is online in text-searchable form (in the original Latin) here (http:/ / www. "On Newton's proof that inverse-square orbits must be conics". but the point was disagreed by R. Historia Math. [12] Newton's note is now in the Cambridge University Library at MS Add. [16] Aspects of the controversy can be seen for example in the following papers: N Guicciardini. Westfall's Never at Rest.). but note that the title was added by Rigaud. but had failed to produce it even under the incentive of a prize.57. in Archives for History of the Exact Sciences. p. it is available here as 'Isaaci Newtoni Propositiones De Motu' (http:/ / books. Ofer Gal. and the 1686 correspondence at pp. especially at p.).297-314. 529-534.[15] Newton did acknowledge some prior work of others. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). A Historian's Response". and the original copy had no title: online. vol. also D T Whiteside. wrote after reviewing Hooke's work that it showed "what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated". and the first English translation. in Early Science and Medicine. recalling an occasion when Hooke had claimed to have a derivation of planetary motions under an inverse square law. see e. or to other predecessors of them both such as Bullialdus and Borelli.De motu corporum in gyrum Newton. Chapter 10. giving the Halley-Newton correspondence of May to July 1686 about Hooke's claims at pp. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. [15] H W Turnbull (ed. "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". Weinstock. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. google. to Universal Gravitation: Empirical Factors".[16] About thirty years after Newton's death in 1727.6 (1684-1691). at p. google.). Page 403.193-200.293. and printed by I Bernard Cohen. [13] H W Turnbull (ed. as far as Book 1. (Cambridge University Press.196. but that the elements Hooke claimed were due either to Newton himself. and Bruce Pourciau. Correspondence of Isaac Newton.120. gutenberg. pp. so-called. in "Introduction to Newton's 'Principia'". pp. google. in Early Science and Medicine. about the Principia.g. Journal for the History of Astronomy. [11] Quoted in Richard S. [6] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the Principia was recognized. of 1729. com/ books?id=uvMGAAAAcAAJ& pg=PA111). including Bullialdus. "Newton's 'Principia' and inverse-square orbits: the flaw reexamined". [14] 'Correspondence' vol.6.[17] 145 References [1] D T Whiteside (ed.193-200. giving the version of the question in John Conduitt's report. 1960).89-170.431-448. Mathematical Papers of Isaac newton. concurring that Newton had given the outline of an argument. College Mathematics Journal (1994) 25(3). in "Newton's Orbit Problem. Papers vol. at pages 30 (http:/ / books. See also D T Whiteside (1970). at pp. 38 (2007). pp. Vol 2 (1676-1687). 511-517. 19(1) (1992).195-6. acknowledging only an occasion of reawakened interest.56-83. at p. org/ etext/ 28233). (Cambridge University Press. pp. "Hooke's and Newton's Contributions to the Early Development of Orbital mechanics and Universal Gravitation". Vol 2 (1676-1687). 10 (2005). Wren and Halley were both sceptical of Hooke's claims. both in Newton's lifetime and later. google. one of Newton's early and eminent successors in the field of gravitational studies. but not Hooke. vol. com/ books?id=lIZ0v23iqRgC& pg=PA56)-57. [7] See D T Whiteside (ed. at pages 56 (http:/ / books. A Historian's Response". and Borelli. vol. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). Annals of Science 48 (1991) 159-172. [3] The surviving copy in the Royal Society's register book was printed in S P Rigaud's 'Historical Essay' of 1838 (in the original Latin). who suggested (but without demonstration) that there was an attractive force from the Sun in the inverse square proportion to the distance.[15] There has been scholarly controversy over exactly what if anything Newton really gained from Hooke. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA65). 6 (1684-1691). f.60-70. pp. 6 (1970). . rebutted Hooke's claim in letters to Halley. [2] Curtis Wilson: "From Kepler's Laws. 116-138. Alexis Clairaut.3968. Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton. Math. [8] The criticism is recounted by C Wilson in "Newton's Orbit Problem. who suggested (again without demonstration) that there was a tendency towards the Sun like gravity or magnetism that would make the planets move in ellipses. in Early Science and Medicine. [10] The argument is also spelled out by Bruce Pourciau in "From centripetal forces to conic orbits: a path through the early sections of Newton's Principia". is available here (http:/ / books. at p. 1974). "The Invention of Celestial Mechanics". "Reconsidering the Hooke-Newton debate on Gravitation: Recent Results". 10 (2005). footnote 73. 1960). 518-528. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science. (Cambridge University Press.

Rouse Ball. Vol. 6. 1893). 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] • The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.De motu corporum in gyrum [17] W. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. Cambridge University Press. 30–91. 1974 [ISBN 0-521-08719-8] .W. S. T. pp. at page 69. Whiteside. by D. 146 Bibliography • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton. ed. Cambridge University Press. Westfall. by R.

diverge widely from presently accepted dates. II. King of Egypt. Chap. and that his Temple the first ever built. I. Chap. in order to prove that Solomon was the earliest king in the world. Some of its subject material and contents have led many people to categorize this work as one of Isaac Newton's occult studies. The treatise is composed of eight primary sections.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 147 The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms The Chronology Of Ancient Kingdoms Amended Author(s) Country Language Subject(s) Genre(s) Publisher Publication date Media type ISBN OCLC Number Isaac Newton England English Chronology Non-fiction Kessinger Publishing 1728 Print 978-0766186835 76924958 [1] The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87. Chap. Of the two Contemporary Empires of the Babylonians and Medes. These chapters are titled: • • • • • • Chap. VI. The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology. often more widely than the system that he attempted to displace. Of the Empire of the Persians. Of the Chronology of the First Ages of the Greeks. IV. Newton's results. however. Of the Assyrian Empire. Chap. followed by a short advertisement. A Description of the Temple of Solomon. therefore. first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply. III. followed by others. beginning with the earliest listed date of 1125BC and the most recent listed at 331BC. . V. but since republished in mass paperback format. After this is found a section entitled "A Short Chronicle" which serves as a brief historical list of events listed in chronological order. The majority of the treatise. The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms was Isaac Newton's last personally reviewed work before his death. Chap. Of the Empire of Egypt. detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity. First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt. According to John Conduitt's introductory letter. with all others being copies. is in the form of six chapters that explore the history of specific civilizations.000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton. The book attempts to revise the accepted ancient chronology of Newton's day. beginning with Sesostris.

newtonproject. Newton considered the sense and context of the verse. Armenian. the Greek and Latin manuscripts and the testimony of the first versions of the Bible. 1 John 5:7 reads: For there are three that bear record in heaven. Armenia. first as a marginal note. the Father. Finally. Egypt." in support of the Trinity doctrine. and some others. as Luther. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. He then attempts to demonstrate that the purportedly spurious reading crept into the Latin versions. uk/ catalogue/ viewcat. Using the handpicked writings of the early Church Fathers. or retain it as only a marginal reading. Ethiopia. the Word. are strangers to this reading".[3] and "a criticism concerning a text of Scripture". Newton claims to have demonstrated that the words "in heaven. org/ files/ 15784/ 15784-h/ 15784-h.The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms 148 External links • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [2] at Project Gutenberg • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms [3] at The Newton Project [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / worldcat.[4] He blames "the Roman church" for many abuses in the world[3] and accuses it of "pious frauds". uk An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Sir Isaac Newton."[8] Today most versions of the Bible omit this verse. still in use in the several Eastern nations. and later into the text itself. He noted that "the Æthiopic. 27 years after his death.[6] He argued[7] that it was first taken into a Greek text in 1515 by Cardinal Ximenes on the strength of a late Greek manuscript 'corrected' from the Latin. ac. newtonproject. Erasmus. Syria.[5] 1 John 5:7 In the King James Version Bible. php?id=THEM00183 http:/ / www. sussex. Syriac. . org/ oclc/ 76924958 http:/ / www. it claimed to review all the textual evidence available from ancient sources on two disputed Bible passages: 1 John 5:7 [1] and 1 Timothy 3:16 [2]. the Father. but if you insert the testimony of 'the Three in Heaven' you interrupt and spoil it. the Word. and Slavonic versions. and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. First published in 1754. did not appear in the original Greek Scriptures. htm#chron http:/ / www. gutenberg. and what steps it has been changed. and the argument full and strong. Arabic. Newton describes this letter as "an account of what the reading has been in all ages. ac. Grotius. Mesopotamia. concluding that removing the interpolation makes "the sense plain and natural. Muscovy. Bullinger. as far as I can hitherto determine by records".[4] He adds that "the more learned and quick-sighted men. would not dissemble their knowledge". and some others. sussex.

Aramaic version (http:/ / www. biblegateway. Scotland. preached unto the Gentiles. believed on in the world. p. p. with a comment indicating that 'it is not found in the earliest manuscripts'. aramaicpeshitta.[11] Modern translations of 1 Timothy 3:16 now typically replace "God" with the correct "He". punishable with loss of office and employment on the first occasion. 1 [4] An Historical Account. com/ passage/ ?search=1 Tim 3:16. knew nothing of these two texts.& version=31. why we should be so fond of them now the debates are over. Cp. 32 [8] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. In 1693 a pamphlet attacking the Trinity was burned by order of the House of Lords. aramaicpeshitta. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 23_1John/ 1John5. com/ passage/ ?search=1 John 5:6-8. justified in the Spirit. Cp. biblegateway. biblegateway. seen of angels. [10] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture.[9] Summary of both passages Newton concludes: "If the ancient churches in debating and deciding the greatest mysteries of religion. and imprisonment without hope for bail on the third occasion. an eighteen-year-old student charged with denying the Trinity." instead of "He was manifest in the flesh. which reads (in the King James Version): And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh. [2] http:/ / www. The Blasphemy Act 1697 made it an offence to deny one of the persons of the Trinity to be God. was hanged at Edinburgh. htm) . Aramaic version (http:/ / www. [3] An Historical Account. I understand not. com/ passage/ ?search=1John%205:7. 88 [11] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. received up into glory.[12] Historical background Newton did not publish these findings during his lifetime.). p. and the next year its printer and author were prosecuted. by a small alteration in the Greek text. 55 [9] In 1731 Johann Jakob Wettstein turned his attention to this passage. com/ passage/ ?search=1Timothy%203:16. Newton argued that. 2 [5] An Historical Account. p." He demonstrated that early Church writers in referring to the verse knew nothing of such an alteration. Newton's friend William Whiston (translator of the works of Josephus) lost his professorship at Cambridge for this reason in 1711. In 1697 Thomas Aikenhead.& version=31. com/ AramaicNTtools/ Lamsa/ 15_1Timothy/ 1Timothy3. 1-2 [6] An Historical Account.& version=31. but some place it in a footnote.An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 149 1 Timothy 3:16 The shorter portion of Newton's dissertation was concerned with 1 Timothy 3:16. 25 [7] An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. further legal ramifications on the second occasion.& version=31.). Modern versions of the Bible usually omit the addition to 1 John 5:7. pp. Those who wrote against the doctrine of the Trinity were subject to persecution in England. htm) [12] Biblegateway (http:/ / www. biblegateway."[10] It was only in the nineteenth century that Bible translations appeared correcting these passages. p. likely due to the political climate. the word "God" was substituted to make the phrase read "God was manifest in the flesh. p. References [1] http:/ / www.

The book was completed in 1671. Newton's Method of Fluxions was formally published posthumously. his findings which eventually became the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica were developed at this time and hidden from the world in Newton's notes for many years). although Newton's dot notation for differentiation for denoting derivatives with respect to time is still in current use throughout mechanics. archive.co.uk/catalogue/record/ THEM00099). but did not choose to make his findings known (similarly. Gottfried Leibniz developed his calculus around 1673. He originally developed the method at Woolsthorpe Manor during the closing of Cambridge during the Great Plague of London from 1665 to 1667. Google Books • Transcription of the manuscript source (http://www. fifty years before Newton. The calculus notation we use today is mostly that of Leibniz. and published in 1736. org/ details/ methodoffluxions00newt .sussex. Fluxions is Newton's term for differential calculus (fluents was his term for integral calculus). External links • Method of Fluxions [1] at the Internet Archive References [1] http:/ / www.google. and published it in 1684.ac. The Newton Project Method of Fluxions Method of Fluxions is a book by Isaac Newton. but following Leibniz's publication of the calculus a bitter rivalry erupted between the two mathematicians over who had developed the calculus first and so Newton no longer hid his knowledge of fluxions.uk/ books?id=cIoPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture 150 External links • An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture (http://books.newtonproject.

refractions. this work is not a geometric discussion of catoptrics or dioptrics. different from but in some ways rivaling the Principia. into another. became central to the design of the tunable laser more than 275 years later thus encouraging the development of the multiple-prism dispersion theory. and is considered one of the great works of science in history. first reported in 1672[1] . as beam expanders. covering a wide range of topics in what was later to be known as physical optics. Opticks was Newton's second major book on physical science. Multiple-prism arrays. 1704. inflections and colours of light In this book Newton sets forth in full his experiments. He shows how colours arise from selective absorption. such as water or glass. That is. the traditional subjects of reflection of light by mirrors of different shapes and the exploration of how light is "bent" as it passes from one medium. or transmission of the various component parts of the incident light. or the separation of light into a spectrum of its component colours. Rather. Opticks is largely a record of experiments and the deductions made from them. His experiments on these subjects and on the problems of diffraction (which he never fully mastered) set the subject of optics on a new level. Newton's contribution to prismatic dispersion was remarkable since he outlined qualitatively multiple-prism configurations. on dispersion. the Opticks is a study of the nature of light and colour and the various phenomena of diffraction. reflection. It is about optics and the refraction of light.Opticks 151 Opticks Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. which Newton called the "inflexion" of light.[2] . edition of Opticks or a treatise of the reflections. such as air. Overview The publication of Opticks represented a major contribution to science. The first.

" Other scientists followed Newton's lead. over the next two hundred years. but the later ones became short essays." In the first edition. A 1730 fourth edition The Queries See main: The Queries Opticks concludes with a set of "Queries. They saw that he had been setting forth a kind of exploratory natural philosophy in which the primary source of knowledge was experiment. Rather. and it was the famous "31st Query" that. Opticks established a kind of Newtonianism that in the eighteenth century rivaled in importance the mathematical natural philosophy of . these were sixteen such Queries. These Queries are not really questions in the ordinary sense. Newton does not ask whether light "is" or "may be" a "body. published in 1706. as Stephen Hales (a firm Newtonian of the early eighteenth century) declared. or the tools of mathematics. unlike the Principia. this work is a vade mecum of the experimenter's art. The first set of Queries were brief. In this sense." In many ways. but that it may go on for many pages." Rather. That is. It does not prove its propositions by the use of ratios or equations. the way in which God created matter in "the Beginning. he declares: "Is not Light a Body?" Not only does this form indicate that Newton had an answer. there were 31 Queries. that number was increased in the Latin edition. it is not presented in a strictly geometric form. They are almost all posed in the negative. and even the ethical conduct of human beings. Clearly. far transcending any narrow interpretation of the subject matter of "optics. electrical phenomena. These Queries. stimulated a great deal of speculation and development on theories of chemical affinity. this was Newton's mode of explaining "by Query." the proper way to do science. and then in the revised English edition. therefore. especially the later ones. with propositions proved by mathematics from either previous propositions or lemmas or first principles (or axioms). the nature of chemical action. the possible cause of gravity.Opticks 152 Opticks and the Principia Opticks differs in many aspects from the Principia. This Newtonian tradition of experimental natural philosophy was different from the one based on mathematical deductions. filling many pages. Second. published in 1717/18. the proofs generally proceed "by Experiments. by the use of fluxions. displaying in many examples the way to make experiments and to draw proper conclusions from them. First of all. deal with a wide range of physical phenomena." They concern the nature and transmission of heat. In the fourth edition of 1730. it is written in English rather than Latin. as rhetorical questions.

: Octavo.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k3362k) • Google Books. ac.lib. uk/ view/ MS-ADD-03970/ ). Sound and Heat (http://cudl. Isaac. lib. refractions.com/books?id=GnAFAAAAQAAJ) Manuscript papers by Isaac Newton containing draft of "Opticks" • Cambridge University Digital Library. cam. First edition (http://www. Papers on Hydrostatics.).google. Retrieved 10 January 2012. and James Black. Palo Alto. ISBN 1-891788-04-3. inflexions and colours of light : also two treatises of the species and magnitude of curvilinear figures. Calif. . 43. Some of the primary adepts in this new philosophy were such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin. Opticks or. Fourth edition (http://books. Opt. Duarte and J.ac. uk/view/MS-ADD-03970/) . 153 References [1] Newton. Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers. Piper. [2] F. "Hydrostatics.org/Control/nwtopt/index. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Sound and Heat" (http:/ / cudl.cam. Isaac (1998). a treatise of the reflexions. Commentary by Nicholas Humez (Octavo ed. J. 303–307 (1982). Optics. Commun.html) • Gallica.rarebookroom. A.bnf. External links Full and free online editions of Newton's Opticks • Rarebookroom. • Newton. Optics.Opticks the Principia. First edition (http://gallica.

and then from these forces to demonstrate the other phenomena [. is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton.] ."[6] A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate. The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science".] And therefore we offer this work as mathematical principles of philosophy.[5] The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. and of the forces required to produce any motions. by the end of a century after publication in 1687. so far exceeded anything that had ever gone before that it stood alone as the ultimate exemplar of science generally. Newton wrote[10] [. "no one could deny that" (out of the 'Principia') "a science had emerged that. often referred to as simply the Principia. at least in certain respects...Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 154 Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Title page of 'Principia'. forming the foundation of classical mechanics. Newton also published two further editions.. Newton gave many of his proofs in a geometric form of infinitesimal calculus.. But the language of calculus as we know it was largely absent from the Principia.. Contents Expressed aim and topics covered In the preface of the Principia. also Newton's law of universal gravitation.[4] The Principia states Newton's laws of motion. Newton used his expression that became famous. and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses. accurately proposed and demonstrated [.[1][2] After annotating and correcting his personal copy of the first edition[3].. in 1713 and 1726. For all the difficulty of philosophy seems to consist in this—from the phenomena of motions to investigate the forces of Nature. Newton developed and used mathematical methods now included in the field of calculus. based on limits of ratios of vanishing small geometric quantities. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton ..] Rational Mechanics will be the science of motions resulting from any forces whatsoever. first edition (1687) Original title Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Hypotheses non fingo ("I contrive no hypotheses"[9])..[8] In a revised conclusion to the Principia (see General Scholium). Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". first published 5 July 1687."[7] In formulating his physical theories.

The opening sections of the 'Principia' contain. and includes Proposition 66 [20] along with its 22 Corollaries [21]: here Newton took the first steps in the definition and study of the problem of the movements of three massive bodies subject to their mutually perturbing gravitational attractions. by observations.. shows how the theory of gravity can account for irregularities in the motion of the Moon. subtitled De motu corporum (On the motion of bodies) concerns motion in the absence of any resisting medium. Sections III [17] to VI (Propositions 11-31) establish properties of motion in paths of eccentric conic-section form including ellipses. initially under a variety of conditions and hypothetical laws of force in both non-resisting and resisting media. near-parabolic orbits. that caused this method to become synonymous with physics.[8] Section II [15] (Propositions 1-10) establishes relationships between centripetal forces and the law of areas now known as Kepler's second law (Proposition 1-3). thus offering criteria to decide. Its third and final book deals with the interpretation of observations about the movements of planets and their satellites. even as it is practiced almost three and a half centuries after its beginning. Book 1 contains some proofs with little connection to real-world dynamics. and gives theoretical basis for numerous phenomena about comets and their elongated. a problem which later gained name and fame (among other reasons.. for its great difficulty) as the three-body problem.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The 'Principia' deals primarily with massive bodies in motion. It attempts to cover hypothetical or possible motions both of celestial bodies and of terrestrial projectiles. and include Newton's theorem about ovals (lemma 28). a geometrical form of infinitesimal calculus. It explores difficult problems of motions perturbed by multiple attractive forces. a steady nonmoving orientation of the line of apses is an indicator of an inverse-square law of force. and relates circular velocity and radius of path-curvature to radial force[16] (Proposition 4). and relationships between centripetal forces varying as the inverse-square of the distance to the center and orbits of conic-section form. accounts approximately for marine tides including phenomena of spring and neap tides by the perturbing (and varying) gravitational attractions of the Sun and Moon on the Earth's waters. Today the two methodological aspects that Newton outlined could be called analysis and synthesis. . It shows how astronomical observations prove the inverse square law of gravitation (to an accuracy that was high by the standards of Newton's time). explains the precession of the equinoxes as an effect of the gravitational attraction of the Moon on the Earth's equatorial bulge. De motu corporum Book 1. Section IX [18] includes Newton's demonstration (Propositions 43-45) that in an eccentric orbit under centripetal force where the apse may move. which revealed so many different things about the natural world with such economy. But there are also sections with far-reaching application to the solar system and universe:Section XI [19] (Propositions 57-69) deals with the "motion of bodies drawn to one another by centripetal forces". identifies the oblateness of the figure of the Earth. in revised and extended form. This section is of primary interest for its application to the solar system. nearly all of the content of Newton's 1684 tract 'De motu. The 'Principia' begins with 'Definitions' [11] and 'Axioms or Laws of Motion' [12][13] and continues in three books: 155 Book 1. which laws of force are operating in phenomena that may be observed. It opens (Section I) [14] with a mathematical exposition of "the method of first and last ratios".' (see article De motu corporum in gyrum which summarises the topics and indicates where they reappear in the 'Principia'). and their relation with inverse-square central forces directed to a focus. offers estimates of relative masses for the known giant planets and for the Earth and the Sun. defines the very slow motion of the Sun relative to the solar-system barycenter. It was perhaps the force of the 'Principia'.

He also gives starting at Lemma 4 [35] and Proposition 40 [36]) the theory of the motions of comets (for which much data came from John Flamsteed and from Edmond Halley). Book 3. Less of Book 2 has stood the test of time than of Books 1 and 3.[28] Newton wrote at the end of Book 2 (in the Scholium to proposition 53 [29]) his conclusion that the hypothesis of vortices was completely at odds with the astronomical phenomena. and it has been said that Book 2 was largely written on purpose to refute a theory of Descartes which had some wide acceptance before Newton's work (and for some time after). De mundi systemate Book 3. to try to find out some characteristics of air resistance in reality by observing the motions of pendulums under different conditions. that the Sun is fix'd in that centre". Newton lists the astronomical observations on which he relies (in 'The Phaenomena' [32]). planetary motions were produced by the whirling of fluid vortices that filled interplanetary space and carried the planets along with them. attempts to derive the speed of sound. Newton compares the resistance offered by a medium against motions of bodies of different shape. and applies them with further specificity than in Book 1 to the motions observed in the solar system. and Section 2 [24] goes on to examine the implications of resistance in proportion to the square of velocity. and that this centre "either is at rest. and establishes in a stepwise manner that the inverse square law of mutual gravitation applies to solar system bodies. here he examines different conceivable laws of resistance. thus Section 1 [23] discusses resistance in direct proportion to velocity. others. while some contend that the Earth. which largely concerns motion through resisting mediums. The effects of air resistance on pendulums are studied in Section 6 [26]. "the common centre of gravity of the Earth. In Book 3 Newton also made clear his heliocentric view of the solar system. Here (introduced by Proposition 22 [30]. and gives accounts of experimental tests of the result. It builds upon the propositions of the previous books. modified in a somewhat modern way. since already in the mid-1680s he recognized the "deviation of the Sun" from the centre of gravity of the solar system. Book 2 also discusses (in Section 5 [25]) hydrostatics and the properties of compressible fluids. starting with the satellites of Jupiter [33] and going on by stages to show that the law is of universal application [34]. (Newton rejected the second alternative after adopting the position that "the centre of the system of the world is immoveable". and motion in arbitrary force laws. and offers the first theory of the precession of the equinoxes [40].Newton).Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Section XII [22] (Propositions 70-84) deals with the attractive forces of spherical bodies.[45] .[41] For Newton. which "is acknowledg'd by all.) Newton estimated the mass ratios Sun:Jupiter and Sun:Saturn (Proposition 8. the Sun and all the Planets is to be esteem'd the Centre of the World" (Proposition 12. Corollary 2 [44]). and pointed out that these put the centre of the Sun usually a little way off the common center of gravity. Book 3 also considers the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions. This section contains Newton's proof that a massive spherically symmetrical body attracts other bodies outside itself as if all its mass were concentrated at its centre. or moves uniformly forward in a right line" (Proposition 11 & preceding Hypothesis [43]). the distance at most "would scarcely amount to one diameter of the Sun" (Proposition 12 [43]). 156 Book 2 Part of the contents originally planned for the first book was divided out into a second book. and served not so much to explain as to confuse them. subtitled De mundi systemate (On the system of the world) is an exposition of many consequences of universal gravitation. especially the variation. According to this Cartesian theory of vortices. especially its consequences for astronomy. and accounts for the tides [37]. Just as Newton examined consequences of different conceivable laws of attraction in Book 1. but only a little. This fundamental result enables the inverse square law of gravitation to be applied to the real solar system to a very close degree of approximation. along with Newton's account of experiments [27] that he carried out. and continuing in Propositions 25 [31]-35) are developed several of the features and irregularities of the orbital motion of the Moon (see Lunar theory -. corollary [42]). attempting quantitative estimates of the contributions of the Sun [38] and Moon [39] to the tidal motions. Proposition 11.

as far as possible. distinct from what are only perceptible measures of them.] instead of absolute places and motions. or liable to exceptions. are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all bodies whatsoever.. Instead. which admit neither intensification nor remission of degrees. the concept of an attractive force acting at a distance received a cooler response. but refused to speculate on the origin of the law. till such time as other phenomena occur. this was a faulty theory. This quantity I designate by the name of body or of mass. From a Cartesian point of view. However.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The sequence of definitions used in setting up dynamics in the Principia is recognisable in many textbooks today. In the four rules. mathematical and common. but in philosophical discussions. and that without any inconvenience in common affairs. Newton effectively offers a methodology for handling unknown phenomena in nature and reaching towards explanations for them. for example. The mathematical aspects of the first two books were so clearly consistent that they were easily accepted. The four Rules of the 1726 edition run as follows (omitting some explanatory comments that follow each): Rule 1: We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. we use relative ones. as they came finally to stand in the 1726 edition. Newton wrote that the inverse square law arose naturally due to the structure of matter. true and apparent. we ought to step back from our senses. where he stated that the motion of planets is consistent with an inverse square law. He defined space and time "not as they are well known to all". and the principle of inertia in which mass replaces the previous Cartesian notion of intrinsic force. And it will be convenient to distinguish them into absolute and relative. 157 Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy Perhaps to reduce the risk of public misunderstanding. This was then used to define the "quantity of motion" (today called momentum). and he refused to speculate further on the basic nature of gravity. Newton first set out the definition of mass6 The quantity of matter is that which arises conjointly from its density and magnitude. [. Rule 2: Therefore to the same natural effects we must. and which are found to belong to all bodies within the reach of our experiments. Locke asked Huygens whether he could trust the mathematical proofs. by which they may either be made more accurate. Rule 4: In experimental philosophy we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from phenomena as accurately or very nearly true. In his notes. that the vulgar conceive those quantities under no other notions but from the relation they bear to perceptible objects.. The sheer number of phenomena that could be organised by the theory was so impressive that younger "philosophers" soon adopted the methods and language of the Principia. the exposition looks dimensionally incorrect. and consider things themselves. he retracted this sentence in the published version. not withstanding any contrary hypothesis that may be imagined. Huygens and Leibniz noted that the law was incompatible with the notion of the aether. since Newton does not introduce the dimension of time in rates of changes of quantities. Curiously. However. Newton included at the beginning of Book 3 (in the second (1713) and third (1726) editions) a section entitled "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy". Rule 3: The qualities of bodies. therefore. assign the same causes. and was assured about their correctness. he defined "true" time and space as "absolute" and explained: Only I must observe. This then set the stage for the introduction of forces through the change in momentum of a body. To some modern readers it can appear that some dynamical quantities recognized today were used in the 'Principia' but not named. A body twice as dense in double the space is quadruple in quantity. . Newton's defence has been adopted since by many famous physicists—he pointed out that the mathematical form of the theory had to be correct since it explained the data. for today's readers.

pointing to its incompatibility with the highly eccentric orbits of comets. but the phenomena did not so far indicate the cause of this gravity. with a caution against making up fancies contrary to experiments.[47] Newton firmly rejected such criticisms and wrote that it was enough that the phenomena implied gravitational attraction. The re-creation of Galileo’s method has never been significantly changed and in its substance. He was able to use his new analytical method to replace that of Aristotle. It has been suggested that Newton gave "an oblique argument for a unitarian conception of God and an implicit attack on the doctrine of the Trinity". The second rule states that if one cause is assigned to a natural effect. Rule 4 made its appearance in the third (1726) edition. An extensive explanation is given of the third rule. but rather in the first (1687) edition the predecessors of the three later 'Rules'. "I frame no hypotheses". he inferred the existence of a Lord God. . of Descartes. Rules 1-3 were present as 'Rules' in the second (1713) edition. had led to criticism that he had introduced "occult agencies" into science. in which are listed a number of mainly astronomical observations. 1726). in contrast to the proper way in which "particular propositions are inferr'd from the phenomena and afterwards rendered general by induction". and it was both unnecessary and improper to frame hypotheses of things not implied by the phenomena: such hypotheses "have no place in experimental philosophy". From this textual evolution. along lines similar to what is sometimes called the argument from intelligent or purposive design. Isaac Newton’s statement of the four rules revolutionized the investigation of phenomena. it appears that Newton wanted by the later headings 'Rules' and 'Phenomena' to clarify for his readers his view of the roles to be played by these various statements.[48] Newton also underlined his criticism of the vortex theory of planetary motions. fires in the home and in the Sun. scientists use it today.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica This section of Rules for philosophy is followed by a listing of 'Phenomena'. Both the 'Rules' and the 'Phenomena' evolved from one edition of the 'Principia' to the next. and he was able to use his method to tweak and update Galileo’s experimental method.[46] Here Newton used what became his famous expression 'Hypotheses non fingo'. Newton explains each rule in an alternative way and/or gives an example to back up what the rule is claiming. 158 General Scholium The General Scholium is a concluding essay added to the second edition. that Newton used as the basis for inferences later on. ('Fingo' is sometimes nowadays translated 'feign' rather than the traditional 'frame'. Newton could in principle begin to address all of the world’s present unsolved mysteries. were all lumped together under a single heading 'Hypotheses' (in which the third item was the predecessor of a heavy revision that gave the later Rule 3).[49][50] but the General Scholium appears to say nothing specifically about these matters.) Newton's gravitational attraction. Newton also gave theological argument. From the system of the world. In the third (1726) edition of the Principia.[] in response to criticisms of the first edition of the 'Principia'. but there they had a different heading: they were not given as 'Rules'. as they did. as if adopting a consensus set of facts from the astronomers of his time. then the same cause so far as possible must be assigned to natural effects of the same kind: for example respiration in humans and in animals. or the reflection of light whether it occurs terrestrially or from the planets. which carry them "through all parts of the heavens indifferently". and of most of the later 'Phenomena'. and Newton discusses here the generalization of observational results. an invisible force able to act over vast distances. The first rule is explained as a philosophers' principle of economy. 1713 (and amended in the third edition. concerning the qualities of bodies. and use of the rules to illustrate the observation of gravity and space. and predecessors of them were also present in the first edition of 1687. With these rules.

[56] Newton's single-minded attention to his work generally. how he sometimes forgot his food. The contents of 'De motu. but that he could not find the papers. and they seem to have provided Newton with the incentive and spur to develop and write what became Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). but also all the laws of planetary motion.. (Matching accounts of this meeting come from Halley and Abraham De Moivre to whom Newton confided. not even waiting to sit before beginning to write it down. This took the form of a 9-page manuscript. but for a period from May 1684 to April 1686. to ask Newton to let the Royal Society have more of such work. Wren was unconvinced. but concentrated on developing and writing what became his great work. although the (lost) original may have been without title. Newton's chemical notebooks have no entries at all.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 159 Writing and publication Halley and Newton's initial stimulus In January 1684. and how when he took a walk in his garden he would sometimes rush back to his room with some new thought. and did very little else for well over a year and a half.[58] So it seems that Newton abandoned pursuits to which he was normally dedicated. or his sleep...[57] Other evidence also shows Newton's absorption in the Principia: Newton for years kept up a regular programme of chemical or alchemical experiments. Humphrey Newton. or the state of his clothes. Halley. and generalized the result to conic sections. and he normally kept dated notes of them.[55] The results of their meetings clearly helped to stimulate Newton with the enthusiasm needed to take his investigations of mathematical problems much further in this area of physical science. Hooke and Wren.[54] Newton surprised Halley by saying that he had already made the derivations some time ago.'. in November 1684. Wren and Hooke had a conversation in which Hooke claimed to not only have derived the inverse-square law. . Halley was at that time a Fellow and Council member of the Royal Society in London.[51] Halley's visits to Newton in 1684 thus resulted from Halley's debates about planetary motion with Wren and Hooke. It also extended the methodology by adding the solution of a problem on the motion of a body through a resisting medium.. and Halley.) Halley then had to wait for Newton to 'find' the results.[53] When Halley asked Newton's opinion on the problem of planetary motions discussed earlier that year between Halley. and he did so in a period of highly concentrated work that lasted at least until mid-1686. but in November 1684 Newton sent Halley an amplified version of whatever previous work Newton had done on the subject. resolved to ask Newton. derived what are now known as the three laws of Kepler. and to his project during this time. (positions that in 1686 he resigned in order to become the Society's paid Clerk). who could derive the inverse-square law for the restricted circular case (by substituting Kepler's relation into Huygens' formula for the centrifugal force) but failed to derive the relation generally. Newton's tract 'De motu. His account tells of Isaac Newton's absorption in his studies. "De motu corporum in gyrum" ("Of the motion of bodies in an orbit"): the title is shown on some surviving copies.[52] Halley's visit to Newton in Cambridge in 1684 probably occurred in August. is shown by later reminiscences from his secretary and copyist of the period. that he immediately went to visit Newton again. Hooke did not produce the claimed derivation although the others gave him time to do it. assuming an inverse square law of force.' so excited Halley by their mathematical and physical originality and far-reaching implications for astronomical theory. which he sent to Halley in late 1684.

the relatively accessible character of its writing encouraged the publication of an English translation in 1728 (by persons still unknown. What it covers is the application of the results of 'Liber primus' to the earth. but it is written much less formally and is more easily read. because in the meantime. After Newton's death in 1727. A fair-copy draft of Newton's planned second volume 'De motu Titlepage and frontispiece of the third edition. the moon. corporum. and during the period of composition he exchanged a few letters with Flamsteed about observational data on the planets. This had some amendments relative to Newton's manuscript of 1685. The complete work. But the 'Liber secundus' of 1685 can still be read today.' to Flamsteed. The result was numbered Book 3 of the 'Principia' rather than Book 2. drafts of 'Liber primus' had expanded and Newton had divided it into two books. making it look . eventually to produce Book 3 of the 'Principia' as we know it. and the other two books somewhat later. and the universe: in this respect it has much the same purpose as the final Book 3 of the 'Principia'. others are lost except for fragments and cross-references in other documents. Newton frankly admitted that this change of style was deliberate when he wrote. the solar system. he had "reduced" it "into the form of propositions (in the mathematical way) which should be read by those only. also in 1728. with contents that later appeared (in extended form) as Book 1 of the 'Principia'.. that it might be read by many". under the (new) title De Mundi Systemate. and some of the perturbations of the motions of the Moon.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 160 The first of the three constituent books was sent to Halley for the printer in spring 1686. who had first made themselves masters of the principles established in the preceding books". but to "prevent the disputes" by readers who could not "lay aside the[ir] prejudices". tighter. Newton's own first edition copy of his Principia. It appeared under the English title A Treatise of the System of the World [63]. especially about the theory of the motions of comets. in the introduction to Book 3 [61]..[62] The final Book 3 also contained in addition some further important quantitative results arrived at by Newton in the meantime. Liber secundus' of 1685. (Newton had also communicated 'De motu. citations and diagrams to those of the later editions of the Principia. Even after it was superseded by Book 3 of the Principia. published by Halley at his own financial risk. amended to update cross-references. the tides. and less accessible mathematical style. and its completion has been London. It is not known just why Newton changed his mind so radically about the final form of what had been a readable narrative in 'De motu corporum. Newton's heirs shortly afterwards published the Latin version in their possession. but he largely started afresh in a new.[60] Surviving preliminary materials show that Newton (up to some time in 1685) conceived his book as a two-volume work: The first volume was to be 'De motu corporum. in more than one manuscript. 1726 (John Rylands Library) dated to about the summer of 1685. eventually acknowledging Flamsteed's contributions in the published version of the 'Principia' of 1687. Liber primus'. it survived complete.[59] appeared in July 1687. The new and final Book 2 was concerned largely with the motions of bodies through resisting mediums. Liber secundus' still survives. with handwritten corrections for the second edition.) Preliminary version The process of writing that first edition of the Principia went through several stages and drafts: some parts of the preliminary materials still survive. mostly to remove cross-references that used obsolete numbering to cite the propositions of an early draft of Book 1 of the Principia. not authorised by Newton's heirs). that he had (first) composed this book "in a popular method.

[64] The System of the World was sufficiently popular to stimulate two revisions (with similar changes as in the Latin printing). velocity or distance for uniform and uniformly accelerated motion of bodies. rather than before. At this time. Samuel Pepys. Work on calculus is shown in various papers and letters. Rather. and taken notes entitled Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Questions about philosophy) during his days as an undergraduate. gave his imprimatur on 30 June 1686. to hypothesize a universal medium as the carrier of interactions such as light and gravity—the aether. . This law sets out a proportionality between the third power of the characteristic distance of a planet from the sun and the square of the length of its year. which forced him to sharpen his ideas to the point where he already composed sections of his later book Opticks by the 1670s in response. but Halley. setting out the evidence that planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. When Hooke's claim was made known to Newton. Galileo's experiments with inclined planes had yielded precise mathematical relations between elapsed time and acceleration. causing some delay. The structure was completed when Johannes Kepler wrote the book Astronomia nova (A new astronomy) in 1609. and performed the first experiments in the optics of colour. Cambridge. and a 'corrected' reprint of the second edition [65] (1740). his proof that white light was a combination of primary colours (found via prismatics) replaced the prevailing theory of colours and received an overwhelmingly favourable response. and that planets do not move with constant speed along this orbit. and occasioned bitter disputes with Robert Hooke and others. Another mistake was his treatment of circular motion. To these two laws he added a third a decade later. but this was more fruitful in that it led others to identify circular motion as a problem raised by the principle of inertia. He became a fellow of the Royal Society and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (succeeding Isaac Barrow) at Trinity College. a second edition (1731). During this period (1664–1666) he created the basis of calculus. In addition. Newton threatened to withdraw and suppress Book 3 altogether. in some cases. their speed varies so that the line joining the centres of the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.[67] Historical context Beginnings of the scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus had firmly moved the Earth away from the center of the universe with the heliocentric theory for which he presented evidence in his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) published in 1543. 1686. Descartes' book of 1644 Principia philosophiae (Principles of philosophy) stated that bodies can act on each other only through contact: a principle that induced people.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica superficially as if it had been written by Newton after the Principia. showing considerable diplomatic skills. The foundation of modern dynamics was set out in Galileo's book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo (Dialogue on the two main world systems) where the notion of inertia was implicit and used. Hooke made some priority claims (but failed to substantiate them). among them himself. Christiaan Huygens solved this problem in the 1650s and published it much later as a book. in his book Harmonices Mundi (Harmonies of the world). or.[66] and the cost of publication was borne by Edmund Halley (who was also then acting as publisher of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society): the book appeared in summer 1687. 161 Halley's role as publisher The text of the first of the three books of the Principia was presented to the Royal Society at the close of April. secondary sources based on them. as President. including two to Leibniz. tactfully persuaded Newton to withdraw his threat and let it go forward to publication. who hated disputes. The Society had just spent its book budget on a History of Fishes. Newton's role Newton had studied these books. licensing the book for publication.

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**Newton's early work on motion
**

In the 1660s Newton studied the motion of colliding bodies, and deduced that the centre of mass of two colliding bodies remains in uniform motion. Surviving manuscripts of the 1660s also show Newton's interest in planetary motion and that by 1669 he had shown, for a circular case of planetary motion, that the force he called 'endeavour to recede' (now called centrifugal force) had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] After his 1679-1680 correspondence with Hooke, described below, Newton adopted the language of inward or centripetal force. According to Newton scholar J Bruce Brackenridge, although much has been made of the change in language and difference of point of view, as between centrifugal or centripetal forces, the actual computations and proofs remained the same either way. They also involved the combination of tangential and radial displacements, which Newton was making in the 1660s. The difference between the centrifugal and centripetal points of view, though a significant change of perspective, did not change the analysis.[69] Newton also clearly expressed the concept of linear inertia in the 1660s: for this Newton was indebted to Descartes' work published 1644.[70]

**Controversy with Hooke
**

Hooke published his ideas about gravitation in the 1660s and again in 1674 (see Robert Hooke - Gravitation). He argued for an attracting principle of gravitation in Micrographia of 1665, in a 1666 Royal Society lecture "On gravity", and again in 1674, when he published his ideas about the "System of the World" in somewhat developed form, as an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".[71] Hooke clearly postulated mutual attractions between the Sun and planets, in a way that increased with nearness to the attracting body, along with a principle of linear inertia. Hooke's statements up to 1674 made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions. Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses.[72] Hooke also did not provide accompanying evidence or mathematical demonstration. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in 1674: "Now what these several degrees [of gravitational attraction] are I have not yet experimentally verified" (indicating that he did not yet know what law the gravitation might follow); and as to his whole proposal: "This I only hint at present", "having my self many other things in hand which I would first compleat, and therefore cannot so well attend it" (i.e., "prosecuting this Inquiry").[71] In November 1679, Hooke began an exchange of letters with Newton (of which the full text is now published.[73]). Hooke told Newton that Hooke had been appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence,[74] and wished to hear from members about their researches, or their views about the researches of others; and as if to whet Newton's interest, he asked what Newton thought about various matters, giving a whole list, mentioning "compounding the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent and an attractive motion towards the central body", and "my hypothesis of the lawes or causes of springinesse", and then a new hypothesis from Paris about planetary motions (which Hooke described at length), and then efforts to carry out or improve national surveys, the difference of latitude between London and Cambridge, and other items. Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment (not a proposal about celestial motions) which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall. The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way (on a spiral path to the centre). Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move.[75] A short further correspondence developed, and towards the end of it Hooke, writing on 6 January 1679|80 to Newton, communicated his "supposition ... that the Attraction always is in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall, and Consequently that the Velocity will be in a subduplicate proportion to the Attraction and Consequently as Kepler Supposes Reciprocall to the Distance."[76] (Hooke's inference about the velocity was actually incorrect.[77])

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica In 1686, when the first book of Newton's 'Principia' was presented to the Royal Society, Hooke claimed that Newton had obtained from him the "notion" of "the rule of the decrease of Gravity, being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the Center". At the same time (according to Edmond Halley's contemporary report) Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's.[73] A recent assessment about the early history of the inverse square law is that "by the late 1660s," the assumption of an "inverse proportion between gravity and the square of distance was rather common and had been advanced by a number of different people for different reasons".[78] Newton himself had shown in the 1660s that for planetary motion under a circular assumption, force in the radial direction had an inverse-square relation with distance from the center.[68] Newton, faced in May 1686 with Hooke's claim on the inverse square law, denied that Hooke was to be credited as author of the idea, giving reasons including the citation of prior work by others before Hooke.[73] Newton also firmly claimed that even if it had happened that he had first heard of the inverse square proportion from Hooke, which it had not, he would still have some rights to it in view of his mathematical developments and demonstrations, which enabled observations to be relied on as evidence of its accuracy, while Hooke, without mathematical demonstrations and evidence in favour of the supposition, could only guess (according to Newton) that it was approximately valid "at great distances from the center".[73] The background described above shows there was basis for Newton to deny deriving the inverse square law from Hooke. On the other hand, Newton did accept and acknowledge, in all editions of the 'Principia', that Hooke (but not exclusively Hooke) had separately appreciated the inverse square law in the solar system. Newton acknowledged Wren, Hooke and Halley in this connection in the Scholium to Proposition 4 in Book 1.[79] Newton also acknowledged to Halley that his correspondence with Hooke in 1679-80 had reawakened his dormant interest in astronomical matters, but that did not mean, according to Newton, that Hooke had told Newton anything new or original: "yet am I not beholden to him for any light into that business but only for the diversion he gave me from my other studies to think on these things & for his dogmaticalness in writing as if he had found the motion in the Ellipsis, which inclined me to try it ...".[73]) Newton's reawakening interest in astronomy received further stimulus by the appearance of a comet in the winter of 1680/1681, on which he corresponded with John Flamsteed.[80] In 1759, decades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairaut, mathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation. "One must not think that this idea ... of Hooke diminishes Newton's glory", Clairaut wrote; "The example of Hooke" serves "to show what a distance there is between a truth that is glimpsed and a truth that is demonstrated".[81][82]

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Location of copies

Several national rare-book collections contain original copies of Newton's Principia Mathematica, including: • The Martin Bodmer Library[83] keeps a copy of the original edition that was owned by Leibniz. In it, we can see handwritten notes by Leibniz, in particular concerning the controversy of who discovered calculus (although he published it later, Newton argued that he developed it earlier). • The library of Trinity College, Cambridge, has Newton's own copy of the first edition, with handwritten notes for the second edition.[84] • The Whipple Museum of the History of Science [85] in Cambridge has a first-edition copy which had belonged to Robert Hooke. • The Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge, has Samuel Pepys' copy of the third edition. • Fisher Library in the University of Sydney has a first-edition copy, annotated by a mathematician of uncertain identity and corresponding notes from Newton himself.

A page from the Principia

• The University College London library holds a copy in 'Strong Room E' of its Rare Books collection. • The University of Wisconsin - Madison, Memorial Library at Special Collections • The Harry Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin holds two first edition copies, one with manuscript additions and corrections. • The Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William & Mary has a first edition copy of the Principia [86] • The Frederick E. Brasch Collection of Newton and Newtoniana in Stanford University also has a first edition of the Principia.[87] • A first edition is also located in the archives of the library at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Georgia Tech library is also home to a second and third edition. • A first edition forms part of the Crawford Collection [88], housed at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. The collection also holds a third edition copy. • The Uppsala University Library owns a first edition copy, which was stolen in the 1960s and returned to the library in 2009. [89] • The University of Michigan Special Collections Library [90] owns several early printings, including the first (1687), second (1713), second revised (1714), unnumbered (1723), and third (1726) editions of the Principia. • The Royal Society in London holds John Flamsteed's first edition copy, and also the manuscript of the first edition. The manuscript is complete containing all three books but does not contain the figures and illustrations for the first edition. • The Burns Library at Boston College contains a 1723 copy published between the second and third editions. • The George C. Gordon Library at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute holds a third edition copy. [91] • The Gunnerus Library at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim holds a first edition copy of the Principia. • Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows Library at Winchester College owns a first edition of the Principia. • The Fellows' Library at Jesus College, Oxford, owns a copy of the first edition. • The Old Library of Magdalen College, Oxford owns a first edition copy. • The Library of New College, Oxford owns a first edition copy.

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica A facsimile edition (based on the 3rd edition of 1726 but with variant readings from earlier editions and important annotations) was published in 1972 by Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen.[4]

165

Later editions

Two later editions were published by Newton:

**Second edition, 1713
**

Newton had been urged to make a new edition of the 'Principia' since the early 1690s, partly because copies of the first edition had already become very rare and expensive within a few years after 1687.[92] Newton referred to his plans for a second edition in correspondence with Flamsteed in November 1694:[93] Newton also maintained annotated copies of the first edition specially bound up with interleaves on which he could note his revisions; two of these copies still survive:[94] but he had not completed the revisions by 1708, and of two would-be editors, Newton had almost severed connections with one, Fatio de Duillier, and the other, David Gregory seems not to have met with Newton's approval and was also terminally ill, dying later in 1708. Nevertheless, reasons were accumulating not to put off the new edition any longer.[95] Richard Bentley, master of Trinity College, persuaded Newton to allow him to undertake a second edition, and in June 1708 Bentley wrote to Newton with a specimen print of the first sheet, at the same time expressing the (unfulfilled) hope that Newton had made progress towards finishing the revisions.[96] It seems that Bentley then realised that the editorship was technically too difficult for him, and with Newton's consent he appointed Roger Cotes, Plumian professor of astronomy at Trinity, to undertake the editorship for him as a kind of deputy (but Bentley still made the publishing arrangements and had the financial responsibility and profit). The correspondence of 1709-1713 shows Cotes reporting to two masters, Bentley and Newton, and managing (and often correcting) a large and important set of revisions to which Newton sometimes could not give his full attention.[97] Under the weight of Cotes' efforts, but impeded by priority disputes between Newton and Leibniz,[98] and by troubles at the Mint,[99] Cotes was able to announce publication to Newton on 30 June 1713.[100] Bentley sent Newton only six presentation copies; Cotes was unpaid; Newton omitted any acknowledgement to Cotes. Among those who gave Newton corrections for the Second Edition were: Firmin Abauzit, Roger Cotes and David Gregory. However, Newton omitted acknowledgements to some because of the priority disputes. John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, suffered this especially.

**Third edition, 1726
**

The third edition was published 25 March 1726, under the stewardship of Henry Pemberton, M.D., a man of the greatest skill in these matters ...; Pemberton later said that this recognition was worth more to him than the two hundred guinea award from Newton.[101]

**Annotated and other editions
**

In 1739-42 two French priests, Pères Thomas LeSeur and François Jacquier (of the 'Minim' order, but sometimes erroneously identified as Jesuits) produced with the assistance of J-L Calandrini an extensively annotated version of the 'Principia' in the 3rd edition of 1726. Sometimes this is referred to as the 'Jesuit edition': it was much used, and reprinted more than once in Scotland during the 19th century.[102] Gabrielle Emilie le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet also made a translation of Newton's Principia into French. Unlike LeSeur and Jacquier's edition, hers was a complete translation of Newton's three books and their prefaces. She also included a Commentary section where she fused the three books into a much clearer and easier to understand summary. She included an analytical section where she applied the new mathematics of calculus to Newton's most controversial theories. Previously, geometry was the standard mathematics used to analyze theories. Du Chatelet's translation is the only complete one to have been done in French and hers remains the standard French translation to this day. See "Translating Newton's 'Principia': The Marquise du Châtelet's Revisions and Additions

tripod. [2] Volume 1 of the 1729 English translation is available as an online scan (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA41 . stanford. among them a widely used modernized English version of 1934. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA1 [12] http:/ / books. .[103] The 1729 version was the basis for several republications. [7] G E Smith.1 (1970). into modern English. The background to Newton's "Principia". Vol. Oxford University Press. that 'nearly all of it is of this calculus' ('lequel est presque tout de ce calcul'). No. 166 English translations Two full English translations of Newton's 'Principia' have appeared. com/ ~gravitee/ axioms. 227-245. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ). google. p. [8] The content of infinitesimal calculus in the 'Principia' was recognized both in Newton's lifetime and later. cam.[105] William H. google. 1999). 116-138. The first.1 (1729) (http:/ / books. it was published in 1999 with a guide by way of introduction. which appeared under the editorial name of Florian Cajori (though completed and published only some years after his death). at page 19 of vol. [11] http:/ / books. ca/ brms/ Reviews/ Reading-Steele. See also D T Whiteside (1970). [9] Or "frame" no hypotheses (http:/ / books. is the work that resulted from this decision by collaborating translators I. org/ details/ newtonspmathema00newtrich).[104] The second full English translation. google. cap. by Andrew Motte.[106] The book was developed as a textbook for classes at St. lib. along with expansion of included proofs and ample commentary. and see also J.329. Journal for the History of Astronomy. 1729 translation. among others by the Marquis de l'Hospital. often incorporating revisions. limited parts of the 1729 translation (misidentified as based on the 1687 edition) have also been transcribed online (http:/ / members. [6] (in French) Alexis Clairaut.329 (according to a note on p. at p. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition). in the 1729 English version). from 1729. both based on Newton's 3rd edition of 1726. "Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Newton's personally annotated 1st edition)" (http:/ / cudl. published in 1996.120. google." Author(s): Judith P. edu/ archives/ win2008/ entries/ newton-principia/ ). MA.[107] References [1] Among versions of the Principia online: (http:/ / www. [14] http:/ / books. 1965.2. in "Histoires (& Memoires) de l'Academie Royale des Sciences" for 1745 (published 1749). [3] Newton. 1972.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica for a French Audience. Isaac. Clairaut's paper was read at a session of November 1747). Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. Harvard UP) [5] J M Steele. by Alexandre Koyré and I Bernard Cohen with the assistance of Anne Whitman (Cambridge. and it is generally faithful to the original: clear. assembled and ed. Cohen pointed out ways in which the 18th-century terminology and punctuation of the 1729 translation might be confusing to modern readers. whose 1696 book "Analyse des infiniment petits" (Infinitesimal analysis) stated in its preface. 2 (May. htm). "The mathematical principles underlying Newton's Principia Mathematica". archive. google. and well written". pp.). Zinsser Source: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392) (as traditionally translated at vol. E N Zalta (ed. dans les principes de la gravitation universelle". but he also made severe criticisms of the 1934 modernized English version. a book which also states (summary before title page) that the "Principia" "is considered one of the masterpieces in the history of science". 2001). [10] From Motte's translation of 1729 (at 3rd page of Author's Preface).392. "Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica" (http:/ / plato. (review online from [[Canadian Association of Physicists (http:/ / www. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA19 [13] Online 'Principia'. ac. 55. also demonstrating gross errors "that provided the final impetus to our decision to produce a wholly new translation". about the 'Principia'. vol. University of Toronto. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234). Herivel. W. [4] [In Latin] Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica: the Third edition (1726) with variant readings. "Du systeme du monde. John's College in Annapolis and the aim of this translation is to be faithful to the Latin text. Bernard Cohen (in 1968) as "still of enormous value in conveying to us the sense of Newton's words in their own time. especially at p. and showed that the revisions had been made without regard to the original. Donahue has published a translation of the work's central argument. html)])] of N Guicciardini's "Reading the Principia: The Debate on Newton’s Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736" (Cambridge UP.[2] was described by Newton scholar I. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=Newton+ mathematical+ principles+ Motte& lr=& as_drrb_is=b& as_minm_is=12& as_miny_is=1720& as_maxm_is=12& as_maxy_is=1800& num=20& as_brr=3).

p. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. n° 2. google. 431-448. at p. google. [51] Paraphrase of 1686 report by Halley. google. in H. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA95 [28] Eric J Aiton. by D. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA64 [26] http:/ / books. 33. Cook. eds. 1980. at p. at p. be/ steffen/ GS. [56] Cook. Vol. [29] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA79 [18] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200 [62] ( 1729 translation. speed and radial force. google. at p. [59] Westfall. at pp. (Cambridge. at p. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA200). [57] Westfall.). Cambridge University Press. org/ scholium. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA228 [45] Newton's position is seen to go beyond literal Copernican heliocentrism practically to the modern position in regard to the solar system barycenter. Steffen. pp. 147. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA206 [33] http:/ / books. n. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. google. pages 233-274 in R Taton & C Wilson (eds) (1989) The General History of Astronomy.2.47-142. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA213 [34] http:/ / books. at page 392 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books." (http:/ / logica. [50] Ducheyne. [48] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. at part 2: "The writing and first publication of the 'Principia' ". google.404. [53] As dated e. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA234 [21] http:/ / books. "The General Scholium to Isaac Newton's Principia mathematica" (http:/ / isaac-newton. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA255 [38] http:/ / books. "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". vol. 153-156. 1998': A. 1980. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA392). [54] Cook. 406. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA233)).15. google.2. google. Bernard Cohen's Introduction to Newton's 'Principia' . Matter and Mind. Whiteside. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA262 [32] http:/ / books. . google. [52] 'Cook. Retrieved 2008-05-31. Stephen.207-221. The Cartesian vortex theory. in The Prehistory of the Principia from 1664 to 1686. Turnbull (ed.2. at page 233 (http:/ / books. ISBN 0-940262-45-2. google. 1980': R S Westfall. [46] See online 'Principia' (1729 translation) vol. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA320 [41] See Curtis Wilson. 54. 1998. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA305 [39] http:/ / books. 151. 45 (1991) 11-61. Books 2 & 3. [58] Westfall. google. Books 2 & 3. 1980. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA263 [23] http:/ / books. Book 3 (http:/ / books. google. google. [61] http:/ / books. starting at page 387 of volume 2 (1729) (http:/ / books. pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA80 [27] http:/ / books. google. chapter 11 in Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics. T. [42] http:/ / books.. Cambridge (Cambridge University press) 1989. at pp. Oxford University Press 1998. google.) 167 . google.g. vol.147 and 152. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA57 [16] This relationship between circular curvature. .2. [55] 'Westfall. 191-2. 1971). com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA233 [43] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA323 [36] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA387). Lias: Sources and Documents Relating to the Early Modern History of Ideas. [60] The fundamental study of Newton's progress in writing the Principia is in I. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA177 [19] http:/ / books. Cambridge University Press 1980. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA252 [31] http:/ / books.406. google. google. [47] Edelglass et al. htm). 223-274. Edmond Halley. Retrieved 2008-11-19. google. Volume. google. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA239 [22] http:/ / books. [49] Snobelen. google.This was given by Isaac Newton through his Inverse Square Law.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [15] http:/ / books. google. [17] http:/ / books. ugent. at pp. was independently found by Newton (in the 1660s) and by Huygens in the 1650s: the conclusion was published (without proof) by Huygens in 1673. 2A'. R Taton & C Wilson. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA220 [35] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA218 [20] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA1 [24] http:/ / books. cited above. pp. google. W. google. pdf). 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'. google. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA332 [37] http:/ / books. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA197 [30] http:/ / books. "The General Scholium: Some notes on Newton’s published and unpublished endeavours. Charting the Heavens and the Seas. 1998. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA306 [40] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA232 [44] http:/ / books. Part A: Tycho Brahe to Newton. now often known as Huygens' formula. google. google. also pp. com/ books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC& pg=PA12 [25] http:/ / books.

at page 241 showing Newton's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. but there are also the following facts: (a) that Hooke left out of account Newton's specific statement that the motion resulted from dropping "a heavy body suspended in the Air" (i. 1995). Vol 2 cited above. is available in online facsimile here (http:/ / echo. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London. pages 5-19. Vol 2 (1676-1687). "The Newtonian achievement in astronomy". 28 November 1679. com/ books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ& pg=PA66). [65] http:/ / books. uu.. [80] R S Westfall. mpiwg-berlin. at page 259). Introduction to Newton's A Treatise of the System of the World (facsimile of second English edition of 1731). com/ books?id=02xbAAAAQAAJ& pg=PP7 [66] Richard Westfall (1980). [83] http:/ / www. Bernard Cohen. php?typ=pm& id=470 [90] http:/ / www. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 [67] Museum of London exhibit including facsimile of title page from John Flamsteed's copy of 1687 edition of Newton's Principia (http:/ / www.297. a resisting medium). et explication des principaux phénomenes astronomiques tirée des Principes de M. html [88] http:/ / www. google. cited above. document #237. see D Gjertsen.. "An Essay on Newton's 'Principia'" (London and New York: Macmillan. uk/ roe/ library/ crawford/ index. giving the Hooke-Newton correspondence (of November 1679 to January 1679/80) at pp. pages 11-61. 1893). Newton". London (Dawsons of Pall Mall) 1969.e. umich. Newton" (1759). com/ books?id=ovOTK7X_mMkC& pg=PA20#v=onepage& q=& f=false). "The key to Newton's dynamics: the Kepler problem and the Principia". Rouse Ball. has a power of impeding and destroying its motion the curve in wch it would move would be some what like the Line AIKLMNOP &c and . cam. Bruce Brackenridge. at p. 2003 at page 9 (http:/ / books. 1980. vol. ac. especially at 13-20. org/ pss/ 531520) [69] See J. google. see Newton to Hooke. page 6: "Il ne faut pas croire que cette idée .). (http:/ / www. "The pre-history of the 'Principia' from 1664 to 1686".2. de Hook diminue la gloire de M.2 cited above. se/ press/ pm. uk/ cambuniv/ libmuseums/ whipple. com/ books?id=rEYUAAAAQAAJ& pg=PR1 [64] I. at Introduction (section IX). uk/ archive/ exhibits/ pepys/ pages/ largeImage. [71] Hooke's 1674 statement in "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations". google. roe. p. and the 1686 correspondence over Hooke's priority claim at pp. edu/ uhtbin/ cgisirsi/ L01hlkXRNn/ SWEM/ 272760064/ 9 [87] http:/ / www-sul. wm. de/ ECHOdocuView/ ECHOzogiLib?mode=imagepath& url=/ mpiwg/ online/ permanent/ library/ XXTBUC3U/ pageimg)..13 (pages 233-274) in "Planetary astronomy from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics: 2A: Tycho Brahe to Newton". would terminate in the center C". at pages 391-2.297-314. uk/ view/ PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ [85] http:/ / www. [77] See Curtis Wilson (1989) at page 244. 45 (1991). 1664-1684". ac. [73] H W Turnbull (ed. [81] The second extract is quoted and translated in W. document #236 at page 301. ac. 'Never at Rest'. Tycho Brahe to Newton". html [86] http:/ / lion. i (1970). (University of California Press. Newton pointed out in his later correspondence over the priority claim that the descent in a spiral "is true in a resisting medium such as our air is". [72] See page 239 in Curtis Wilson (1989). (Cambridge UP 1989). google. jstor. lib. at document #239. and compare Hooke's report to the Royal Society on 11 December 1679 where Hooke reported the matter "supposing no resistance". [75] Several commentators have followed Hooke in calling Newton's spiral path mistaken. and extract of his letter. [and] "L'exemple de Hook" [serves] "à faire voir quelle distance il y a entre une vérité entrevue & une vérité démontrée". asp?id=101& size=3& nav=none) [68] D T Whiteside. (Cambridge University Press. lib.2 already cited. at pages 304-306. CUP 1989. and (b) that Hooke's reply of 9 December 1679 to Newton considered the cases of motion both with and without air resistance: The resistance-free path was what Hooke called an 'elliptueid'. [78] See "Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke. edu 168 . though elongated. 'Newton Handbook' (1986).2 cited above. [74] 'Correspondence' vol. chapter 13 in "Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics. at page 69. [82] The original statements by Clairaut (in French) are found (with orthography here as in the original) in "Explication abregée du systême du monde. html [89] http:/ / www. edu/ depts/ spc/ rbc/ history_science/ newton.431-448. or even a 'blunder'. [76] See page 309 in 'Correspondence of Isaac Newton'.. mpg.W. com/ books?id=0nKYlXxIemoC& pg=RA1-PA9#v=onepage& q=& f=false). stanford. 453.. google.. [79] See for example the 1729 English translation of the 'Principia'. also at page 242 showing Hooke's 1679 diagram (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA242) including two paths. but a line in Hooke's diagram showing the path for his case of air resistance was. [70] See page 10 in D T Whiteside. Never at Rest. ch. museumoflondon. Correspondence of Isaac Newton. also another inward-spiralling path ending at the Earth's centre: Hooke wrote "where the Medium .Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [63] http:/ / books. google. 'Correspondence' vol. com/ books?id=rkQKU-wfPYMC& pg=PA241) with spiral. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Ofer Gal. especially at pages 20-21 (http:/ / books. google. Hooke's path including air resistance was therefore to this extent like Newton's (see 'Correspondence' vol. "Before the Principia: the maturing of Newton's thoughts on dynamical astronomy. cam. Newton and the 'Compounding of the Celestiall Motions of the Planetts'". org/ fr/ bibliotheque_tableau. with accompanying figure). asp/ 3-0-79-9-3-1/ [84] http:/ / cudl. closed curve and spiral. org. fondationbodmer. at page 433. at page 66 (http:/ / books. document #286. Part A. 1960). see 'Correspondence'. The diagrams are also available online: see Curtis Wilson.

4. Cotes too much trouble: he has more esteem for you.2. ISBN 978-1888009231 [107] Densmore and Donahue.519. • François De Gandt. [97] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. [101] Westfall. vol. 3rd edition.712–716. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. I.42. Chandrasekhar. University of California Press..7-8) describes Cotes' perhaps unenviable position in relation to his master Bentley: "You need not be so shy of giving Mr. R.4. xv-xvi. Westfall. (Pittsburgh: University Pittsburgh Press. vol. Introduction to the Principia. c1995). at p. cgi?v1=8& ti=1. than to think that trouble too grievous: but however he does it at my Orders. Bernard Cohen. [96] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. ISBN 978-0-520-08817-7. as annotated in 1740-42 by Thomas LeSeur & François Jacquier.A. preceded by "A Guide to Newton's Principia" by I Bernard Cohen. . Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. Newton's Principia: The Central Argument: Translation. NY: Doubleday and Company. published as an introduction to "Isaac Newton: The Principia." [98] Westfall. a study of Newton’s dynamical researches in the years 1664-84 (Oxford. Cambridge U. Force in Newton’s physics. Colodny. • E. 1971). Press. pp. • S. Clarendon Press. 1965).750.4. Cambridge University press 1967. Cambridge University press 1967. [106] Dana Densmore and William H.802 [102] [In Latin] Isaac Newton. to whom he owes more than that. google. pp. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. 1995). Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science (Garden City. 29-68. Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics. Newtonian studies (London: Chapman and Hall. [100] Westfall. p. 169 Further reading • Alexandre Koyré. Elsevier: 59-87. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica volume 1 of a facsimile of a reprint (1833) of the 3rd (1726) edition. • Brian Ellis. ISBN 978-0-520-08816-0. "A Guide to Newton's Principia". Notes. vol. p. 1954). 1965). N. Bentley's letter to Newton of October 1709 (at p. edu/ cgi-bin/ Pwebrecon. vol. ed. and Expanded Proofs (Green Lion Press. 2005. Newton’s Principia for the common reader (New York: Oxford University Press. "Philosophia Naturalis.751–760... 2003) ISBN 9781888009231. a new translation" by I Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. The background to Newton’s Principia. 1971). 1965). [95] Richard S. [94] I Bernard Cohen. G. • Richard S. com/ books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C& printsec=frontcover& dq=Isaac+ Newton's+ Philosophiae+ naturalis+ principia+ mathematica) [103] I Bernard Cohen (1968). 1980 ISBN 0-521-23143-4. Force and geometry in Newton’s Principia trans. Cambridge 1971. University of California Press. Donahue. n. ed. at pp. • Andrew Janiak. Introduction to Newton's Principia (Harvard University Press. Cambridge University Press 1967. Cambridge University press 1975. pp. the science of dynamics in the seventeenth century (New York: American Elsevier. [104] See pages 29-37 in I. at pp. Dawsons of Pall Mall). "The Origin and Nature of Newton's Laws of Motion" in Beyond the Edge of Certainty.. at p. 1999.. [105] "Isaac Newton: The Principia. NJ: Princeton University Press. and obligations to you. [93] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Bernard Cohen (1999).8& Search_Arg=principia& SL=None& Search_Code=GKEY^*& CNT=25& PID=nlL9nOaQfGtxUi2ddsqvgcHrLD3V2D& SEQ=20081029204615& SID=1 [92] The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. • I. • John Herivel. "Introduction" (at page i) to (facsimile) reprint of 1729 English translation of Newton's "Principia" (London (1968). wpi.699.518-20. Newton as Philosopher (Cambridge University Press. with the assistance of J-L Calandrini (http:/ / books. 1999. Westfall. [99] Westfall.5. Burtt.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica [91] http:/ / library." in Grattan-Guinness. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. 2008). Curtis Wilson (Princeton. • Guicciardini.

in Latin) (http://books.cam.org #1 (http://www.uk/view/PR-ADV-B-00039-00001/ ) High resolution digitised version of Newton's own copy of the first edition.org #2 (http://www.org/details/sirisaacnewtons01newtgoog) English translations • Andrew Motte.google.200 (http://books. interleaved with blank pages for his annotations and corrections.org (http://www. • Wikisource • Archive. • Partial HTML (http://gravitee.archive.html).babson. 1729. first edition (1687.com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA200).org/ebooks/28233) • Archive. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'. 1713. Partial • Google books.2 with Books 2 and 3 (http://books.no/ub/spesialsamlingene/ebok/ 02a019654.org/details/newtonspmathema00newtrich) • Archive. • Principia (in Latin. regarding online editions . vol. Cambridge Digital Library (http://cudl..com/toc. largely the Motte translation of 1729. (Book 3 starts at p.ac.) (Google's metadata wrongly labels this vol. first edition (1687. ed.org (http://www. • Project Gutenberg (http://www.com/books?id=XJwx0lnKvOgC& pg=PP2).google.google.google.net/~bjn/principia/). 1846 "American Edition" a partly modernized English version. Jacquier and Calandrini 1739-42 (described above). in Latin) (http://www. 1726).archive.1).cfm) has all three Latin editions (1687. Chittenden. High-resolution presentation of the Gunnerus Library's copy.org/details/100878576) • Percival Frost 1863 translation with interpolations Archive. annotated) (http://books.ntnu. 1833 Glasgow reprint (volume 1) with Books 1 & 2 of the Latin edition annotated by Leseur.archive.gutenberg. • 1687: Newton's 'Principia'.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1).com/books?id=6EqxPav3vIsC&pg=PA1).lib.archive. W.Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 170 External links Latin versions • Cambridge University.org/details/ newtonsprincipi04newtgoog) • Florian Cajori 1934 modernization of 1729 Motte and 1802 Thorpe translations Other links • In Search of Principia (http://nordist. first English translation of third edition (1726) • WikiSource. • Babson College Archives & Special Collections (http://www3.1 with Book 1 (http://books. • Google books.google. vol.htm) • Robert Thorpe 1802 translation • N.com/books?id=WqaGuP1HqE0C&printsec=titlepage).edu/Archives/museums_collections/ Principia-Mathematica.tripod.

" and that the law of the inverse square "is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally. "Dr Vincent presented to the Society a manuscript treatise entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica." Although there could be no doubt as to the intention of this report. Except for correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until April 21. which he had enlarged and completed. he seems to have devoted himself to the preparation of his work. the work underlies much of the technological and scientific advances from the Industrial Revolution (usually dated from 1750) which its tools helped to create. and thus completed the law of universal gravitation. no step was taken towards the publication of the work. the first book being the treatise De motu corporum in gyrum. and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council. with hand written corrections disturb the sesquialtera proportion. 1686. that I may see how the sesquiplicate proportion fills the heavens. and dedicated to the Society by Mr Isaac Newton. I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might Newton's own copy of his Principia. yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given "that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton. he says." At the next meeting of the Society. In the spring he had determined the attractions of masses. In the summer he had finished the second book of the Principia. would conduce much to the stating the reasons of the precession of the equinoxes). 1687 and began changing the world. assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables.[1] and it was published in a first edition on July 5th. if certain. Widely regarded as one of the most important works in both the science of physics and in applied mathematics during the Scientific revolution. that its truth is past dispute. some dissatisfaction seems to have been expressed at the ." Although this manuscript contained only the first book. on May 19. the rise and fall of the spring and neap tides at the solstices and the equinoxes. Authoring Principia Work begins In the other letters written in 1685 and 1686. 1686. in which he states "that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press.Writing of Principia Mathematica 171 Writing of Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. together with another small proportion which must be allowed for. 1686. on April 28. though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it. of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough. For the influences for the second edition. to make a report thereof to the council. he asks Flamsteed for information about the orbits of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. At the next meeting of the Society. about the flattening of Jupiter at the poles (which. "Your information for Jupiter and Saturn has eased me of several scruples. It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties. and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley." [2] Upon Newton's return from Lincolnshire in the beginning of April 1685. and about the universal application of Kepler's third law.

that Sir Chr. In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society. Hooke was offended because Sir John did not mention what he had told him of his own discovery. and therefore justice demanded that Hooke especially should receive credit for having maintained it as a truth of which he was seeking the demonstration. instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge." acknowledging at the same time that. On June 20. but I thought it my duty to let you know it. whom the good weather had drawn out of town". Halley obviously wished that Newton should acknowledge Hooke in some way. and consequently Mr Hooke could not from my letters. Hooke and Wren and himself had spoken of it and discussed it. and I do not know that I have seen them since. and printing it at his own charge." Halley adds. and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society. At the next meeting of the council. Halley only communicated to Newton the fact "that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre. but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause. the heads of it in short. and praised the novelty and dignity of the subject. and before a certain demonstration I found the last year. which 'tis possible you may see reason to prefix. Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable financial risk to himself. which he engaged to do. Wren knew the duplicate proportion when I gave him a visit. and that a letter should be written to him to signify the Society's resolutions. and therefore in the doctrine of projectiles never used it nor considered the motions of the heavens. and then Mr Hooke (by his book Cometa written afterwards) will prove the last of us three that knew it. so far as I could remember. Indeed. so likewise what you have to do in this matter." Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton. I A page from the Principia intended in this letter to let you understand the case fully. they added "that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it. on June 2. 1686 Newton wrote to Halley the following letter: "Sir. even though none of them had given a demonstration of the law. 1686 alleges that it arose from "the president's attendance on the king. and to desire his opinion as to the print. I shall content myself to give you. Halley in his letter of May 22. cuts and so forth. he knew that before Newton had announced the inverse law. I give you an account of what passed between us in our letters. though Newton had the notion from him. "yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton." In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay. for 'tis long since they were writ. volume." but. In order to let you know the case between Mr Hooke and me. only Mr Hooke seems to expect you should make some mention of him in the preface. which 172 . Sir John Hoskyns was in the chair when Dr Vincent presented the manuscript. 1686. you know best. but it being a frivolous business. I am almost confident by circumstances. as it was ordered "that Mr Newton's work should be printed forthwith in quarto.Writing of Principia Mathematica delay. "is so. I must beg your pardon that 'tis I that send you this ungrateful account. have suspected it did not reach accurately enough down so low. being in myself fully satisfied that nothing but the greatest candour imaginable is to be expected from a person who has of all men the least need to borrow reputation. and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society." In thus appealing to Newton's honesty. so that you might act accordingly. it was again ordered "that Mr Newton's book be printed. and the absence of the vice-president's. viz." "How much of this. that I never extended the duplicate proportion lower than to the superficies of the earth.

but I am sure some time before I had any correspondence with Mr Oldenburg. the proportion of the forces of the planets from the sun. Between ten and eleven years ago there was an hypothesis of mine registered in your books. if I had not known the duplicate proportion before. conclude me ignorant of the theory of the heavens. for no other reason but because he had told it me in the case of projectiles. in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy. I could not but have found it now. I designed the whole to consist of three books. and earth from the sun. whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipse. 173 . reciprocally duplicate of their distances from him. in print. thought no further of philosophical matters than. and only wants transcribing. in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth. but that the proportion was duplicate quam proximè at great distances from the centre. and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness. could scarce persuade myself to answer his second letter. and guessed it to be elliptical. which I can as well let alone. in compliment to sweeten my answer. and drawing the cuts fairly. told him I had laid philosophy aside. so Mr Hooke. only the experiment of projectiles (rather shortly hinted than carefully described). when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly. But.. in print. namely. the second was finished last summer being short. and therefore on this account also he must at least moderate his pretences. wherein I hinted a cause of gravity towards the earth. without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me. did not answer his third. he may as well conclude me ignorant of the rest of that theory I had read before in his books. That in one of my papers writ (I cannot say in what year. "There is so strong an objection against the accurateness of this proportion. is expressed. that I understood not the obvious mathematical condition of my own hypothesis. Mr Hooke found less of the proportion than Kepler of the ellipse. and the proportion of our gravit to the moon's conatus recedendi a centro terrae is calculated. And I hope I shall not be urged to declare. sun and planets. I do pretend to have done as much for the proportion as for the ellipsis. and so upon mistaken grounds. "The proof you sent me I like very well. that without my demonstrations. And so. a copy being presented to me. in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth. yet have I as great a right to it as to the ellipse. that it reached down from hence to the centre of the earth. as to the other from Kepler. and that's above fifteen years ago). For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval. it cannot be believed by a judicious philosopher to be any where accurate. so that a while after. with the dependence of the celestial motions thereon. though not accurately enough. That what he told me of the duplicate proportion was erroneous. That by the same reason he concludes me then ignorant of the rest of the duplicate proportion. "That it is not candid to require me now to confess myself. And so. to which Mr Hooke is yet a stranger. which shows that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion. accused me of that ignorance. That when Hugenius put out his Horol. grant I received it afterwards from Mr Hooke. The third wants the theory of comets. and putting a limit to the sun's parallax. and therefore may be allowed not to have had my thoughts of that kind about me so well at that time. Some new propositions I have since thought on. sent him. can know no more. and to have as much right to the one from Mr Hooke and all men. That in my answer to his first letter I refused his correspondence. then ignorant of the duplicate proportion in the heavens. and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre.Writing of Principia Mathematica were about projectiles and the regions descending hence to the centre. and only guessed it to be so accurately. expected to hear no further from him. was upon other things. his letters put me upon it. in determining a problem about the moon's phase. in which the proportion of the decrease of gravity from the superficies of the planet (though for brevity's sake not there expressed) can be no other than reciprocally duplicate of the distance from the centre. Oscill. in stating this business. and understood it.

E. he concludes: "But I found that they were all of opinion that nothing thereof appearing in print.[3] It was dedicated to the Royal Society. "But. as to deprive us of your third book. and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author. 1686 the council resolved to license Newton's book." After this letter of Newton's the printing of the Principia was begun. he ought not to blame any but himself for having taken no more care to secure a discovery. The articles are with the largest to be called by that name. I retain the former title. I have struck out the words uti posthac docebitur as referring to the third book. In the first page. though ready for the press in the autumn of 1686. It will be more convenient. 1687. I found it so formerly. on April 6. I have sometimes had thoughts of having the cuts neatly done in wood. Halley wrote to Newton: "I am heartily sorry that in this matter. in the honour you do them." This scholium was "The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions. If it please you to have it so. which. and humble servant. but I am sure that the Society have a very great satisfaction. as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren. and the whole work published about midsummer in that year. 174 . and then. as I guess by what you write. you should meet with anything that should give you unquiet". was not sent to the printers until March 1687. which are much the greater number. and the whole of the impression was very soon sold. so as to stand in the page with the demonstrations." On June 30. caused a great deal of excitement throughout Europe. though it be not material. and now I am no sooner come near her again. The two first books. but she gives me warning. I must now again beg you. wherein all mankind ought to acknowledge their obligations to you. Sir. I will push on the edition vigorously. which made me afterwards return to the first book. Philosophy is such an impertinently litigious lady. I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters. 1686. wherein the application of your mathematical doctrine to the theory of comets and several curious experiments. I am. Sir. What application he has made in private. that a man has as good be engaged in lawsuits. Hooke and Halley. It will help the sale of the book. otherwise I will have them in somewhat a larger size than those you have sent up. by the dedication of so worthy a treatise. and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition. not to let your resentments run so high. I know not.Writing of Principia Mathematica In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method. as might have been expected. Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress. with her. And if in truth he knew it before you. ought to compose it." On June 20. entitled Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. as have to do. after an account of Hooke's claim to the discovery as made at a meeting of the Royal Society. "If you please you may change the word to sections. The third I now design to suppress. will undoubtedly render it acceptable to those. without the third. "And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me. and not much more charge. I will try how well it can be done. which I ought not to diminish now it's yours. July 5. De Motu Corporum libri duo. Now you approve of the character and paper. The third book was presented to the Society. "Is. In 1691 a copy of the Principia was hard to obtain. found out last winter. 1686. On July 14. I have considered how best to compose the present dispute. and adding. NEWTON. which is all at present. upon second thoughts. and enlarge it with diverse propositions some relating to comets others to other things. from your affectionate friend. HALLEY. and therefore I had altered it to this. who will call themselves Philosophers without Mathematics. The second book. you ought to be considered as the inventor. will not so well bear the title of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. your most affectionate humble servant. The work. nor on the books of the Society. stating clearly the differences which he had from Hooke. which he puts so much value on.

While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley. or at 5 sh. A compromise which was put forward by one of them was resisted by Newton. or else at some short time. James II had in 1686 conferred the deanery of Christ Church at Oxford on John Massey. and attempt the perfection of the lunar theory. I hope you will not repent you of the pains you have taken in so laudable a piece. a very great part of which is extant. and if there be any else in town that you design to gratify that way. On April 21 the deputation. but the university showed no sign of compliance. that starts from town tomorrow. bound in calves' leather. July 5. and feebly defended by the vice-chancellor. and hope it will please you. Lord Jeffreys presided at the board. and the king had boasted to the pope's legate that "what he had done at Oxford would very soon be done at Cambridge. and was dismissed. which I entreat you to accept. and I am contented to let them go halves with me. who was vice-chancellor. Mr Boyle. The deputies. When recalled the deputies were reprimanded. so much to your own and the nation's credit. appeared before the court. and lettered. and I have sent you to bestow on your friends in the University 20 copies. The deputation appeared as a matter of course before the commissioners. I will present from you the book you desire to the Royal Society. which having no acquaintance in Cambridge. which will be of prodigious use in navigation. and of his salary as master of Magdalene. You will receive a box from me on Thursday next by the wagon. to take my money as they are sold. On May 7 it was discussed. rather than have your excellent work smothered by their combinations. to request him to get the mandamus recalled. an event occurred at Cambridge which had the effect of bringing him before the public. I must entreat you to put into the hands of one or more of your ablest booksellers to dispose of them." In February 1687 James issued a mandate directing that Father Alban Francis." . a person whose sole qualification was that he was a member of the Church of Rome. before starting for London. Upon receiving the mandamus John Pechell. In the same parcel you will receive 40 more. announcing the completion of the Principia. but rather. and ordered them out of court.Writing of Principia Mathematica 175 Conflict between the University and James II While Newton was writing the second and third books of the Principia. and Pechell was deprived of his office as vice-chancellor. for I am satisfied there is no dealing in books without interesting the booksellers. as well as of profound and public speculation. sent a messenger to the Duke of Albemarle. Jeffreys spoke with his accustomed insolence to the vice-chancellor. for ready. should be admitted a master of arts of the University of Cambridge. after you shall have a little diverted yourself with other studies. the master of Magdalene College. the chancellor. and that no degree had ever been conferred without the oaths having been previously taken. Newton was one of the eight deputies appointed by the senate for this purpose. is of particular interest: "I have at length brought your book to an end. Mr Flamsteed. dated London. 1687. The following letter from Halley. that you will resume those contemplations wherein you had so great success. The vice-chancellor and deputies from the senate were summoned to appear before the High commission court at Westminster. nor suggested a compromise. The deputies maintained that in the late reign several royal mandates had been withdrawn. without taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. On April 27 they gave their plea. Those I send you I value in quires at 6 shillings. Newton returned to Trinity College to complete the Principia. and the registrary and the bedell waited upon Francis to offer him instant admission to the degree if only he would take the necessary oaths. I intend the price of them. with their case carefully prepared. held a meeting to prepare their case for the court. Mr Paget. a Benedictine monk. silenced the other deputies when they offered to speak. The last errata came just in time to be inserted. to be [OCR error] shillings here. A menacing letter was despatched by Sunderland—respectful explanations were returned.

and dated the 15th of October 1693. which upon occasion he desired I would represent to you. which lasted eighteen months. I was averse. "I do not know if you are acquainted with the accident which has happened to the good Mr Newton. from the concern I have for him. and beg your pardon. He is now very well. and before I had time to ask him any question." The illness of Newton was very much exaggerated by foreign contemporary writers. For I was 10th at first dash to tell you that I had lately received a letter from him so surprising to me for the inconsistency of every part of it. and see neither you nor the rest of my friends any more. and at times so wholly engrossed in his scientific pursuits that he even neglected to take food. or. I got an ill habit of sleeping. he pressed me to see you the next time I went to London." ." On September 20. Christiaan Huygens. as far at least as comes within your knowledge. must necessarily have led to a very great deal of nervous excitability. Pepys must have heard such rumours. and so I am sure all ought to wish that love learning or the honour of our nation. to let me know the very truth of the matter. and rest your most humble and obedient servant. namely. or mind. that it had actually done so. 1693. that it was in a distemper that much seized his head. dated September 26. replied. which it is a sign how much it is looked after. in a letter dated June 8. nor have my former consistency of mind. upon his own accord. which this summer has been epidemical. as in a letter to his friend Millington. lest it should arise from that which of all mankind I should least dread from him and most lament for I mean a discomposure in head. that he has had an attack of phrenitis. and a distemper. and for five days together not a wink. if I may but have them quietly. for I am extremely troubled at the embroilment I am in. wrote to Leibniz. whose mind was never at rest. added. in a letter dated the 22nd of June. at which he was much concerned. and I hope never will. I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together. till upon the 28th I met him at Huntingdon. nor by icing James's favour." The loss of sleep to a person of Newton's temperament. when such a person as Mr Newton lies so neglected by those in power. he told me that he had written to you a very odd letter. beg you. or both. put me farther out of order. Sir. but what I said of your book I remember not. 1693. he being very much ashamed he should be so rude to a person for whom he hath so great an honour. "I have not seen him. concerning whom (methinks) your answer labours under the same kind of restraint which (to tell you the truth) my asking did. and since. It is not astonishing that rumours got abroad that there was a danger of his mind giving way. I will give you an account of it if I can. I remember I wrote to you. In a letter dated the September 13. 1694." And in a letter written to John Locke in reply to one of his about the second edition of his book. and that kept him awake for above five nights together. and of which they say his friends have cured him by means of remedies. 1693. and keeping him shut up. but upon his pressing consented. Newton wrote: "The last. having now told you the true ground of the trouble I lately gave you." To which Leibniz. where. the tutor of Magdalene College at Cambridge. but that "he was out of town. Let me. yet I think there is no reason to suspect it hath at all touched his understanding. the nature of which has given rise to very considerable dispute. winter.Writing of Principia Mathematica 176 Illness in 1693 In 1692 and 1693 Newton seems to have had a serious illness. I never designed to get any thing by your interest. I beg your pardon for saying I would see you again. "I am very glad that I received information of the cure of Mr Newton at the same time that I first heard of his illness. therefore. as to be put into great disorder by it. addressed to Samuel Pepys. he writes: "Some time after Mr Millington had delivered your message. according to a report which was believed at the time. before I considered what I did. and though I fear he is under some small degree of melancholy. so that when I wrote to you." he says. If you please to send me a transcript of that passage. which doubtless must have been very alarming. he wrote: "I must acknowledge myself not at the ease I would be glad to be at in reference to excellent Mr Newton. and have neither ate nor slept well this twelvemonth. but am now sensible that I must withdraw from your acquaintance. Millington wrote to Pepys that he had been to look for Newton some time before. by sleeping too often by my fire.

and gives original spellings." References [1] For information on Newton's later life and post-Principia work. refer to the relation between a given number and the same multiplied by its own square root: or to the square root of its cube. E. just as Sir Thomas Clarges did for Oxford at the same time. Never at Rest.Writing of Principia Mathematica 177 Initial election to Parliament The active part which Newton had taken in defending the legal privileges of the university against the encroachments of the crown had probably at least equal weight with his scientific reputation when his friends chose him as a candidate for a seat in parliament as one of the representatives of the university. Newton next with 122 and Mr Finch was last with 117 votes. and he wrote a series of letters to Dr Lovel.G.. Some of the members of the university who had sworn allegiance to James had some difficulty in swearing allegiance to his successor. During this time Newton does not appear to have taken part in any of the debates in the House. which comes to the same thing: the 'one-and-a-half-th' power. published as #537 in Vol. [2] (Letter of mid-January (before 14th) 1684|1685 (Old Style). from January 1689 till the dissolution of the Coventry Parliament in February 1690. . Newton intimated to the vice-chancellor that he would soon receive an order to proclaim them at Cambridge. see Isaac Newton's later life.. now archaic. as it were. He enclosed a form of the proclamation. the vice-chancellor of the university. 1997. Newton retained his seat only about a year. The words 'sesquialtera' and 'sesquiplicate'. On February 12. 1689. Forbes et al. ed. on points which affected the interests of the university and its members.1998. Sir Robert headed the poll with 125 votes. but he was not neglectful of his duties as a member.) [3] Richard S.2 of "The Correspondence of John Flamsteed". the day of the coronation of William and Mary. The other candidates were Sir Robert Sawyer and Mr Finch. (This reference was supplied after original compilation of the present article. and expressed a hearty "wish that the university would so compose themselves as to perform the solemnity with a reasonable decorum. but most spellings and punctuations in the text above have been modernised. Westfall. 1689 he moved for leave to bring in a bill to settle the charters and privileges of the University of Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-27435-4 (paperback) Cambridge 1980. On April 30.

on which day (and the following) he made notes of his observations of a comet. below which appears his first notes on the new natural philosophy of his day— a compendium of limits on the radii of stars as determined by Galileo and Auzout. Additional information This octavo notebook. Galileo's Dialogue. colour. 1664. the date on which Newton arrived in Trinity College. by the 17th century philosopher Johannes Magirus. place. The first signs of Newton's own developing interests are in his notes on Physiologiae peripateticae. with objections and refutations in the style of modern day FAQs. At the other end of the book. Contents The Quaestiones contains notes from Newton's thorough reading of Descartes. The initial notes. light. and others. He entered notes from both ends. at the other. Dating The start of Quaestiones is definitely after July 8. He was impressed enough by the argument that light is non-corporeal (otherwise the sun would be exhausted) to make note of it. fluidity. for example. This was followed by what would be classed today as properties of condensed matter. in Greek. but my best friend is truth). was Newton's basic notebook in which he set down in 1661 his readings in the required curriculum in Cambridge and his later readings in mechanical philosophy. vision. in that Newton departed from the order of presentation in the book by collecting together the periods of the celestial spheres. but mathematics made no real appearance in this notebook. were on Aristotle's logic at one end and his ethics. Later he added notes on Rhetorices contractae by Gerard Vossius. They began with the nature of matter. Joseph Glanvill and Henry More. "Of ye soule" and "Of Sleepe and Dreams &c". the central approximately hundred pages of this notebook is entitled Questiones quadem Philosophcae [sic]. These were followed by questions on violent motion. Newton also made notes on the required book Regulae Philosophicae by Daniel Stahl which laid out Aristotelean philosophy in the form of dialogues. Walter Charlton's translation of Gassendi into English. time and motion and went on to the organization of the universe. The last part contains miscelleneous topics which presumably occurred to him later during his readings: "Of God". hardness etc. He continued with a reading on the phenomenon of the rainbow. But following this he drew a line across the page. "Of ye Creation". His notes on the exposition of Aristotelean cosmology shows the first signs of independent thought. Thomas Hobbes. whereby every question is put to experimental test. which had .Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 178 Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae (Certain philosophical questions) is the name given to a set of notes that Isaac Newton kept for himself during his early years in Cambridge. These were set down under 45 section headings which he used to organize his readings. Apart from the light it throws on the formation of his own agenda for research. 1661. Some headings were followed by vast entries. It is also definitely before December 9. he interrupted his notes on Aristotle with two pages of notes on Descartes' metaphysics. rarity. currently in the Cambridge University Library. Other datings of the first entries are based on his handwriting— which changed drastically between the early notes of 1661 and later notes which can be dated independently to 1665. the major interest in these notes is the documentation of the unaided development of the scientific method in the mind of Newton. and other sensations. Robert Boyle. The transitional handwriting which characterizes the early parts of Quaestiones can only be independently dated to roughly 1664. Kenelm Digby. They concern questions in the natural philosophy of the day that interested him. Aristotle is my friend. and a later motto over the title Amicus Plato amicus Aristotle magis amica veritas (Plato is my friend. It is interesting that this was written during a period when Newton was actively developing the notion of calculus. Following this.

When a fire or candle is extinguish we lookeing another way should see a light. in folio 103 he wrote— Light cannot be pression &c for yn wee should see in the night as wel or better yn in ye day we should se a bright light above us because we are pressed downwards . and that colours arose from mixtures of light and dark. Newton criticised this theory by noting that in that case a printed page. In folio 122 he recorded for the first time his notion that white light is heterogeneous and colour arise. showing that his understanding of the matter was still far from well developed. Newton also mentions Hooke's theory of colour. On violent motion In Aristotlean physics bodies are subject to either natural motion. there could be no refraction since ye same matter cannot presse 2 ways. or violent motion such as when a heavy body is thrown up. Elsewhere. such as when a heavy body falls.. in his notes on Kepler's laws of planetary motion that he read about in the book Astronomiae carolina by Thomas Streete. not the broader ancient notion of philosophy. held that light is a stream of tiny particles travelling with immense speed. Descartes hypothesized that light is pressure. would look coloured. In a section on perpetual motion machines (folio 121) he wrote Whither ye rays of gravity may bee stopped by reflecting or refracting ym. Gassendi. by its title it shows that Newton did not reject pre-Galilean mechanics tout court. including his idea that it is a wave. he reached the conclusion that gravity must not merely act on the surfaces of bodies but on their interiors. and paid great attention to it as well as to the well-known classical law of reflection. transmitted instantaneously through a transparent medium. not through the modification of a homogeneous white light. Newton dismisses this theory with the remark that then light should bend around edges of objects as sounds does. but from the separation of this mixture into its components. if so a perpetuall motion may bee made one of these ways. Newton questioned Descartes' theory in many ways. others were blank. Nature of colour The then current theory of colour held that white light was elementary. a little body interposed could not hinder us from seeing pression could not render shapes so distinct. . on the contrary. Although this essay was written following his reading of Descartes and Galileo.. 179 Gravity The topic of gravity was not dealt with in a single section. with its juxtaposition of light and dark. ye sun could not be quite eclipsed ye Moone & planetts would shine like sunns. Nature of light Descartes believed that he was the first to obtain the law of refraction of light. The earlier essays were organized into questions and outlines of possible experiments which roughly fit into modern notions of science.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae to be continued elsewhere.

His acceptance of the corpuscular theory of light may have been affected by this. References • "Portsmouth Papers". additional manuscripts of Isaac Newton in the Cambridge university library. vol 20 (1965) pp 125–139. by Richard S. "Isaac Newton: the rise of a scientist. 1661—1671" Notes and records of the Royal Society. Cambridge University Press. Westfall. • Never at rest: a biography of Isaac Newton.Quaestiones quaedam philosophicae 180 Of atoms Newton seems to have come across the notion of atomism through his knowledge of Gassendi gained by reading Charleton's Physiologia. • J. He argued against continua and asserted the need for atoms. A. Lohne. 1980 [ISBN 0-521-23143-4] .

Cambridge:[4] And from my pillow. the Devil shouting "Ho! Let Einstein be!" restored the status quo. Cambridge .[1] In 1999. natural philosopher.[3] Newton in poetry English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph: Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night.[2] Newton in visual arts • William Blake created a colour copper engraving entitled Isaac Newton. Newton became a scientific icon. published in 1687. In this work. English poet Sir John Squire amusingly satirised this: It could not last. Because of the resounding impact of his work. • Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. Many books. Newton was deemed the more influential. I could behold The antechapel where the statue stood Of Newton with his prism and silent face. in which he describes a marble statue of Newton at Trinity College. The marble index of a mind for ever Voyaging through strange seas of Thought. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. theologian and one of the most influential scientists in human history. in 1795. looking forth by light Of moon or favouring stars. Newton or Albert Einstein. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. leading physicists voted Einstein "greatest physicist ever. as demonstrated by a 2005 survey of scientists in Britain's Royal Society (formerly headed by Newton) asking who had the greater effect on the history of science. laying the groundwork for most of classical mechanics. alone.181 About Newton and his ideas Newton in popular culture Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. located in the chapel of Trinity College. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. James Thomson (poet)[6] The statue of Newton. Newton's stature among scientists remains at the very top rank. much like Albert Einstein after his theory of relativity. and films focus on Newton or use Newton as a literary device. William Blake[5] • A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton." Newton was the runner-up. This passage is from William Wordsworth's The Prelude. plays. mathematician. In mathematics. is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science.

Oxford University Press." said Richard. there was that as well.." "Gravity. Science in Popular Culture [9]. ISBN 978-0-195-17734-3. Greenwood Press. there is a very different matter. pure creative invention. The Newtonian Moment: Isaac Newton and the Making of Modern Culture [10].) Sir Isaac Newton. a . I suppose.. Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey provides the crucial clue in the mystery thriller The Da Vinci Code. was merely a discovery. ah.. and there is a (fictional) debate on metaphysics between Newton and Gottfried Leibniz moderated by Caroline of Ansbach. perspicuity and invention. you see. Books featuring Newton as a plot element • Newton's alleged participation in the Priory of Sion. It was there to be discovered." . ISBN 978-0-415-44537-5. Though that. where he repeatedly discovers gravity or randomly bizarre laws after being (often very heavily) hit on the head by various objects. "Newton as a national hero" [8]. "there was also the small matter of gravity. But the catflap . "(. Sheenagh Pugh[7] 182 Newton in literature Books about Newton • Maureen McNeil (2007). "You see?" he said dropping his cigarette butt. • Newton is credited as having invented the pet door (cat flap) as a monumental life achievement in Douglas Adams Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987). of course. you see. including the famous apple. • 'Sir Isaac Newton' is a newt in The Tale of Mr. Bowdoin Van Ripper (2002).... ISBN 978-0-313-31822-1. Invention.Newton in popular culture • The Movement of Bodies. "The catflap! A device of the utmost cunning. • Newton is a major character in Michael White's 2006 novel Equinox. renowned inventor of the milled-edge coin and the catflap!" "The what?" said Richard. • A. A major theme of these novels is the emergence of modern science. Feminist Cultural Studies of Science and Technology. "yes.. Someone was bound to notice sooner or later. • Newton is an important character in The Baroque Cycle by Neal Stephenson. Jeremy Fisher by Beatrix Potter." . Newton's interest in alchemy and the dispute over the discovery of calculus are prominent plot points. It is a door within a door. • Newton is the protagonist of the 2002 Philip Kerr novel Dark Matter." "Yes. 27–43. The development of an economy based on money and credit is also a major theme. • Newton is a recurring character in Gotlib's Rubrique-à-Brac series of comics." said Dirk with a slightly dismissed shrug. a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. with Newton's work in the Principia being prominent. • Mordechai Feingold (2004). "They even keep it on at weekends. set during the Great Recoinage. Books featuring Newton as a character • A character based on Isaac Newton plays a significant role in The Age of Unreason. Routledge. with Newton's time with the Royal Mint and intrigues against counterfeit leading to a Trial of the Pyx. pp. It is a door within a door.

Newton in popular culture

183

Newton in plays

• Arcadia, Tom Stoppard, includes long discussions of topics of mathematical interest including: Fermat's Last Theorem and Newtonian determinism[11] • Five Fugues For Isaac Newton, Rae Davis [12] • Calculus, Carl Djerassi [13] • Small Infinities, Alan Brody, MIT [14] • "Character in the play In Good King Charles's Glorious Days - by George Bernard Shaw" • The Physicists, a satiric drama by Friedrich Dürrenmatt • Let Newton Be!, a verbatim play constructed from the published and unpublished words of Newton and his immediate contemporaries by Craig Baxter

**Newton on TV and radio
**

• In 1982, Dan Kern played Newton in an episode of Voyagers!, Cleo and The Babe. • From 1983 until 1998, Newton's Apple ran on PBS and was based around answering science questions for children. • Trevor Howard guest-starred as Newton in the 1986 mini-series Peter the Great. • • • • In 1993, John Neville played Newton in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, Descent. In 1996, Newton was the main villain of the anime The Vision of Escaflowne as Emperor Dornkirk.[15] In 1996 and 1997, by Peter Dennis in Star Trek: Voyager in the episodes Death Wish and Darkling. In 2007, David Warner portrayed Newton in the Doctor Who audio drama Circular Time. The Fourth Doctor had previously mentioned his acquaintance with Newton in the TV serials Shada and The Five Doctors (the same footage reused).

Newton in films

The Newton-Leibniz Calculus Controversy was the subject of a 2010 film "The Invention of Calculus".[16] • Me and Isaac Newton, (1999) is a documentary, by Michael Apted, about seven scientists.[17][18] • Harpo Marx played Newton in a comic cameo appearance in the notoriously panned film The Story of Mankind.

Newtonmas

As an alternative to celebrating the religious holiday Christmas, some atheists, skeptics, and other non-believers have chosen to celebrate December 25th as Newtonmas. Celebrants send cards with "Reasons Greetings!" printed inside, and exchange boxes of apples and science-related items as gifts. The celebration may have had its origin in a meeting of the Newton Association at Christmas 1890 to talk, distribute gifts, and share laughter and good cheer. The name Newtonmas can be attributed to the Skeptics Society, which needed an alternative name for its Christmas party.[19] Another name for this holiday is Gravmas (also spelt Gravmass or Grav-mass) which is an abbreviation of "gravitational mass" due to Newton's Theory of Gravitation.[20] 25 December is the birthday of one of the truly great men ever to walk the earth. His achievements might justly be celebrated wherever his truths hold sway. And that means from one end of the universe to the other. Happy Newton Day! — Richard Dawkins,evolutionary biologist and prominent atheist.[19] Newton's birthday was December 25 under the Old Style Julian Calendar used in Protestant England at the time, but was January 4 under the New Style Gregorian Calendar used simultaneously in Catholic Europe. The period between has been proposed for a holiday season called "10 Days of Newton" to commemorate this.[21]

Newton in popular culture

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References

[1] "Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public" (http:/ / royalsociety. org/ News. aspx?id=1324& terms=Newton+ beats+ Einstein+ in+ polls+ of+ scientists+ and+ the+ public). The Royal Society. 23 November 2005. . [2] "Einstein "greatest physicist ever;" Newton runner-up" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 541840. stm). BBC News. 29 November 1999. . [3] Isaac Newton, Blake, William, Web Gallery of Art (http:/ / www. wga. hu/ frames-e. html?/ html/ b/ blake/ 02newton. html) [4] J. Robert Barth (2003). Romanticism and Transcendence: Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Religious Imagination (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=HYgyPUC5-ZcC& pg=PA19& lpg=PA19& dq=Wordsworth's+ poem+ with+ the+ 'prism,+ and+ silent+ face& source=bl& ots=h0W0GJTbVf& sig=L8lruOzI3tSBni5eMQfWBLPFwZg& hl=en& ei=O3WkSeLiBM3dtgfJ4tDQBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=1& ct=result#PPA19,M1). University of Missouri Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-826-21453-9. . [5] "HPSC 109. Lecture 15. The Romantic Reaction 1: Romanticism and the Revolt Against Newtonianism" (http:/ / 66. 102. 9. 104/ search?q=cache:O8zvOtSOMeMJ:www. ucl. ac. uk/ sts/ gregory/ 109/ handouts/ h15_rr. doc+ william+ blake+ mills+ universities& hl=en). . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [6] James Thomson. "A Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton" (http:/ / www. poemhunter. com/ poem/ a-poem-sacred-to-the-memory-of-sir-isaac-newton/ ). PoemHunter.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [7] Carol Rumens (26 January 2009). "Poem of the week: The Movement of Bodies" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ booksblog/ 2009/ jan/ 26/ pugh-the-movement-of-bodies). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2010-02-02. [8] http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yUTq8e7-CKYC& pg=PA35& dq=%22Isaac+ Newton+ in+ popular+ culture%22& as_brr=0#PPP1,M1 [9] http:/ / www. greenwood. com/ catalog/ GR1822. aspx [10] http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ Newtonian-Moment-Newton-Making-Culture/ dp/ 0195177347 [11] Plays, MathFiction (http:/ / kasmana. people. cofc. edu/ MATHFICT/ search. php?go=yes& medium=pl& orderby=title) [12] http:/ / www. doollee. com/ PlaywrightsD/ DavisRae. htm [13] http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 20022 [14] http:/ / web. mit. edu/ newsoffice/ 2004/ arts-brody-0929. html [15] Tei, Andrew (2002-07-05). "Anime Expo Friday Report" (http:/ / www. mania. com/ anime-expo-friday-report_article_86123. html). AnimeOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2008-07-23. ""Q) Where did the idea to use Isaac Newton as a model for Dornkirk (leader of Zaibach) come from? A) Kawamori answers by saying that Newton was an alchemist and wrote a book on alchemy. Kawamori came up with the theory that Newton discovered the "power" [of Atlantis]. He designed Dornkirk as not a bad guy."" [16] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=XHWLHKIBh9k [17] Me & Isaac Newton, imdb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0218433/ ) [18] Me & Isaac Newton, Monsters at Play (http:/ / www. monstersatplay. com/ review/ dvd/ m/ meand. php) [19] Winston, Kimberly (2011-12-16). "On Dec. 25, atheists celebrate a different birthday." (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ national/ on-faith/ on-dec-25-atheists-celebrate-a-different-birthday/ 2011/ 12/ 16/ gIQADJPyyO_story. html). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2011-12-22. [20] http:/ / tvwiki. tv/ wiki/ Newtonmas [21] http:/ / opinionator. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ the-ten-days-of-newton/

Further reading

• Patricia Fara, David Money (2004). "Isaac Newton and Augustan Anglo-Latin poetry" (http://www.rhs.ac.uk/ bibl/wwwopac.exe?&database=dcatalo&rf=200418108&SUCCESS=false&SRT2=ti&SEQ2=ascending). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science A 35 (3): 549–571. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.06.007.

External links

• "Sir Isaac Newton" (http://www.mahalo.com/Sir_Isaac_Newton). mahalo.com. Retrieved 2010-02-02. • Isaac Newton (http://comicbookdb.com/character.php?ID=20015) at the Comic Book DB

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

185

**Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
**

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton. This book, coupled with Letters on the English, written in 1733, demonstrated Voltaire had moved beyond the simple poetry and plays he had written previously.

Contents

Chapter I What Light is, and in What manner it comes to us. Chapter II The Property, which Light has of reflecting itself, was not truly known. It is not reflected by the solid Parts of Bodies as vulgarly believed. Chapter III Of the property which Light has of refracting in passing from one Substance into another, and of taking a new Course in its Progression. Chapter IV Of the Form of the Eye, and in what manner Light enters and acts in that Organ. Chapter V Of Looking–Glasses, and Telescopes: Reasons given by Mathematicians for the Mysteries of Vision; that those Reasons are not altogether sufficient. Chapter VI In what Manner we know Distances, Magnitudes, Figures, and Situations. Chapter VII Of the Cause of the breaking of the Rays of Light in passing from one Medium to another; that this Cause is a general Law of Nature unknown before Newton; that the Inflection of Light is also an Effect of the same Cause. Chapter VIII The wonderful Effects of the Refraction of Light. The several Rays of Light have all possible Colours in themselves; what Refrangibility is. New Discoveries. Chapter IX The Cause of Refrangibility; from which it appears that there are indivisible Bodies in Nature. Chapter X Proof that there are indivisible Atoms, and that the simple Particles of Light are Atoms of that kind. Discoveries continued. Chapter XI Of the Rainbow; that Phenomenon a necessary Effect of the Laws of Refrangibility. Chapter XII New Discoveries touching the Cause of Colours, which confirm the preceding Doctrine; Demonstration that Colours are occasioned by the Density and Thickness of the Parts of which Bodies are composed (or the Thickness of the Parts that compose the Surfaces only). Chapter XIII Consequences of these Discoveries. The mutual Action of Bodies upon Light.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton Chapter XIV Of the Resemblance between the seven Primitive Colours and the seven Notes in Musick. Chapter XV Introductory Ideas concerning Gravity and the Laws of Attraction: That the Opinion of a subtil Matter, Vortices, and a Plenitude, ought to be rejected (But not that subtile Aether which Sir Isaac makes the Cause of Attraction, Refraction, Animal Motion, &c. which pervades the Universe). Chapter XVI That the Vortices and Plenitude of Descartes are impossible, and consequently that there is some other Cause of Gravity. Chapter XVII What is meant by Vacuity and Space, without which there could be neither Gravity nor Motion. Chapter XVIII Gravitation demonstrated from the Discoveries of Galileo and Newton: That the Moon revolves in her Orbit by the Force of this Gravitation. Chapter XIX That Gravitation and Attraction direct all the Planets in their Courses. Chapter XX Demonstrations of the Laws of Gravitation, drawn from the Rules of Kepler: That one of these Laws of Kepler demonstrates the Motion of the Earth. Chapter XXI New Proofs of Attraction. That the Inequalities of the Motion and Orbit of the Moon are necessarily the Effects of Attraction. Chapter XXII New Proofs and New Effects of Gravitation. That this Power is in every Particle of Matter. Discoveries dependent on this Principle. Chapter XXIII The Theory of our Planetary World. Chapter XXIV Of the Zodiacal Light, the Comets, and the fixed Stars. Chapter XXV Of the second Inequalities of the Motion of the Satellites, and the Phaenomena that depend thereon. Glossary Explanations of the hard Words used in this Treatise.

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Newton was incorporated into Blake's infernal trinity along with the philosophers Francis Bacon and John Locke. ISBN 0-87451-436-3. pp. apparently at the bottom of the sea. ISBN 0899252079 Page 8 [5] Damon. 1997. uk/ servlet/ ViewWork?workid=1122& tabview=work). Frederick (1986) The Damnation of Newton: Goethe's Color Theory and Romantic Perception. retrieved 10 September 2009. NH: Published for Brown University Press by University Press of New England.[5] References [1] Townsend. Collection Tate Britain Blake's opposition to the enlightenment was deeply rooted. Christopher B. who regularly experienced spiritual visions.[3]. S. The compass is a smaller version of that held by God in Blake's The Ancient of Days. which also include his series of images on the biblical ruler Nebuchadnezzar. Science is the Tree of Death. Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science.[1] but reworked and reprinted in 1805. Newton (1795-1805) 460 x 600 mm. 243.Newton (monotype) 187 Newton (monotype) Newton is a monotype by the English poet. org."[4] Newton's theory of optics was especially offensive to Blake. He opposes his "four-fold vision" to the "single vision" of Newton. Walter de Gruyter.[2] It is one of the 12 "Large Colour Prints" or "Large Colour Printed Drawings" created between 1795 and 1805. His attention is focused upon diagrams he draws with a compass upon a scroll that appears to unravel from his mouth. whose "natural religion" of scientific materialism he characterized as sterile. Isaac Newton is shown sitting naked and crouched on a rocky outcropping covered with algae. The paper it is printed on is watermarked 1804 [3] Kaiser. He wrote in his annotations to the Laocoon "Art is the Tree of Life. who made a clear distinction between the vision of the "vegetative eye" and spiritual vision. tate. [4] Burwick. Foster (1988). page 328. Hanover. 32 [2] The website of The Tate Britain (http:/ / www. The deistic view of God as a distant creator who played no role in daily affairs was anathema to Blake. A Blake dictionary: the ideas and symbols of William Blake. painter and printmaker William Blake first completed in 1795. .

Newton (monotype) 188 Further reading • Ault. William Blake: The Painter at Work. Donald (1974) Visionary Physics: Blake's Response to Newton Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Majorie Hope (1963) Newton demands the muse: Newtons̓ Opticks and the eighteenth century poets Archon Books • Townsend. Joyce (ed. ISBN 1-85437-468-0 . 2003. ISBN 0226032256 • Nicholson. London: Tate Publishing.).

Mr. dean of Winchester. At last Lady Clarke promised to dress for them two or three hogs of bacon. reaping. Shoveller. and later transferred the house to Sir Charles Wyndham. The reapers refused to work without better provisions. whose descendants now own and occupy the house and surrounding park and farmland. Sir Edward Richards held the property until the 1640s. or hay-making.[2] An incident is recorded of a dispute between Coram and Clarke regarding the rights of the tenants and the Lord of the Manor: "It seems that when the tenants were called on to perform work in hedging. although open days are occasionally held. near Winchester. It was formerly the home to Sir Isaac Newton and later to the Chamberlayne family. Sir Thomas Clarke's steward. and Coram drew their daggers.189 Miscellany Cranbury Park Cranbury Park is a stately home and country estate situated in the parish of Hursley.upon a haydobyn-day[3] (320 or 340 reapers) the cart brought a-field for them a hogs-head of porridge.."[2] Following the death of Coram. when Young was expelled from the deanery. Sir Thomas Clarke. but now the name belongs only to Cranbury House and Park. He died in 1706. The house and park are not generally open to the public.. Coram of Cranbury would not suffer them to work.[2] ". and generally to conclude with a merry-making. when it required the interference of Mr.[2] who surrendered it to Roger Coram before 1580.[1] Sir Charles. England: coloured woodcut from Morris's Country Seats (1880) Cranbury was originally an important hamlet of Hursley. upon the lands of the lord of the manor. and rode at each other through the wheat. A small monument was raised for them in Hursley Church. who (like Coram before him) was noted as "a zealous assertor of the tenants' rights". Pye. which stunk and had worms swimming in it. England. Coram of Cranbury to secure them even an eatable meal. when he let it to Dr John Young. he lived in quiet retirement at Cranbury. History Early years Cranbury Park in Hampshire.[1] During the Commonwealth era. Mr. no doubt. who married her daughter in 1665. it had been in the good old days of the bishops and the much loved and lamented John Bowland.[1] was Member of Parliament for Southampton from 1679 to 1698 and for St Ives in Cornwall from 1698 to 1701.[1] Coram rented Cranbury at £17 2s per annum from the Lord of the Manor of Merdon.[1] The first recorded tenant of Cranbury is a Mr. in lieu of money rent he was bound to feed them through the day.[5] . with many distinct farms and cottages. No doubt such stout English resistance saved the days of compulsory labour from becoming a burden intolerable as in France". although his wife survived him until 1720. but harder times had come with Sir Thomas Clarke.[1][4] His widow occupied the estate in 1650. So.

Thomas purchased the City Cross (also known as the Buttercross) from the Corporation of Winchester. Harriet. On his death. Thomas was subsequently to become MP for Yarmouth (1769–1774). a member of a family with which the Dummers had been previously connected. who also succeeded him as MP for Newport. is below. such as Samarcand and Aleppo. Catherine. but his election was declared invalid. then the months divided into days. Thomas."[7] The dial is divided into nine circles.[9] The Castle. ("Each one is the son of his deeds" . next the hours. Hampshire.a quotation from "Don Quixote") The maker's name. and the arms of Mr. another with the names of places shown when the hour coincides with our noonday. Towards the end of his life.Cranbury Park 190 John Conduitt and Sir Isaac Newton On the death of Lady Wyndham. which was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton. When his workmen arrived to dismantle the cross. Conduitt became MP for Whitchurch.. the estate was left to his son. He was also elected to represent Downton in Wiltshire in 1774. and a scaled-down gateway tower.[5] In May 1721. they were prevented from doing so by the people of the city.[9] Harriet Dummer married Thomas Chamberlayne. Conduitt. which presumably occurred very shortly afterwards. In 1747. the owner. which he also owned. the house and estate were sold to John Conduitt. whose guardians sold Cranbury Park to Thomas Lee Dummer.[1][5] who succeeded him as MP for Southampton. a diagram of the compass. In 1734. the points alternately plain and embossed.. whose brother George Dance had designed the present-day house. leaving his property at Cranbury and Netley and also at Horninghold in Leicestershire first to his widow. the outermost divided into minutes. intending to have it re-erected at Cranbury. John Rowley.[6] Like many of his predecessors and successors. Dummer turned his attention to the ruins of Netley Abbey. Conduitt succeeded him as Master of the Mint. Thomas Dummer died without heirs in 1781. Newton became resident at Cranbury. all round the world. which stood in the park for about sixty years before it was destroyed by the weather. who "organised a small riot"[8] and they were forced to abandon their task. The rear of the gateway has been made into a keeper's lodge.[11] she married the artist Nathaniel Dance (later Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland. Nearer the centre are degrees. Dance-Holland was an MP serving East Grinstead in East Sussex . Cranbury Park. built in 1780. leaving a daughter.C. and moved the north transept of the abbey to Cranbury Park. the base of a pillar. Wendover in Buckinghamshire (1775–1780) and Lymington (1780–1781). and after his death.[5] The Dummers and Lady Dance-Holland Conduitt died in 1737. remaining there until his death in 1727. Conduitt had a sundial installed in the gardens at Cranbury Park. half-niece and adopted daughter of Sir Isaac Newton. where it can be still be seen as a folly in the gardens of the house (at 51°00′08″N 01°21′49″W). then a circle marked "Watch slow. retaining that position for four years. of the north transept of Netley Abbey moved to Cranbury Park in the 1760s.[5][6] On Newton's death. The agreement with the city was cancelled and Dummer erected a lath and plaster facsimile. he was elected as MP for Newport on the Isle of Wight and continued to represent that town until his death in 1765. There is a circle marked with the points and divisions of the compass. are engraved on the plate with his motto: "Cada uno es hijo de sus obras". although Coduitt was re-elected to his seat at Whitchurch he chose to represent Southampton instead. and is known to the village of Otterbourne as "the Castle"[9] and is marked as such on the Ordnance Survey map. as granted to him in 1717. Conduitt married Catherine Barton.[6][10] The ruins comprise an arch. etc. Shortly after his marriage. with reversion to Thomas Chamberlayne.[6] The sundial has been described thus: "The gnomon is pierced with the letters I. Watch fast". Bt). and within. In 1770. Built from fragments Undaunted by his failure to acquire the City Cross to grace the estate.

the townspeople erected a memorial consisting of an iron Doric column. so that it looks low in proportion to its width. The house. Thomas (1805–1876) was a keen yachtsman who sailed his yacht.[6] There is a starfish vault derived from the tombs of the ancients[21] The main rooms are arranged around a central hall and staircase.[6] Cranbury House Of the interior.[18] It was also briefly the base for Canadian troops prior to their embarkation for the Normandy landings. intersected by various springs. a large red brick one. Balustrades surmounted by urns run around the parapet.[12] On the death of William Chamberlayne in 1829. this still stands in the middle of a roundabout near the city centre. with roundels in relief in each tympanum and above the porch.[13] On his death in 1876 the estate passed to his son.[19] The house The present-day house was built in 1780 for Thomas Dummer and his wife. came into the property under the terms of the will of Thomas Dummer.[17] The family are still resident at Cranbury Park. Nikolaus Pevsner wrote that it was an "unforgettable experience" to behold the hall with its coffered tunnel-vaults to the full height of the house and the beautiful ballroom. He also played cricket for Hampshire and was a great hunting and coursing enthusiast. having previously resided at his Weston Grove estate in Southampton. John Keble described the house thus: "Cranbury Park is on a hill. It was only after his retirement from politics that Tankerville Chamberlayne took up permanent residence at Cranbury. Tankerville Chamberlayne. changing their surname to "Chamberlayne-Macdonald". on that .[20] The house is built in red brick with stone dressings.[15] despite this he was returned to office in 1900 until he lost his seat in 1906. Whilst serving the town. framing the whole house to give a very pleasing prospect within the landscape. In 1822. and where the peaty ground soon gives way to gravel. is on the level ground at the top. which has a circular domed ceiling.[16] Chamberlayne died in 1924 and was succeeded by his daughter. Penelope Mary Alexandra Chamberlayne. During the Second World War. to the designs of George Dance the Younger. but in the rear descending rapidly. set in arch-headed reserves. William Chamberlayne. especially in the saloon on the south front. Arrow.[22] Writing in 1898.[14] Tankerville Chamberlayne was also MP for Southampton from 1892 until 1896. built round a court.[1][9] William Chamberlayne (1760–1829) was MP for Southampton from 1818 until his death.[11] on her death. In fact. the house became the temporary headquarters of the Bank of England.[1] The library was designed by John Buonarotti Papworth for Thomas Chamberlayne in about 1830. MP for Southampton. William Chamberlayne was also chairman of the company supplying gas lighting to the town of Southampton and donated the iron columns for the new gas street-lights. All the other windows of both floors repeat the Serlian window motif. and Great Bedwyn from 1802 to 1806. 191 The Chamberlayne family Dance-Holland died in 1811. but his wife survived him until 1825.Cranbury Park from 1790 to 1802 and again from 1807 to his death in 1811. and there is a good deal of fine plaster decoration in the Adam style. flat as it fronts to the south. The entrance is through a porte-cochere either side of which are large columned windows flanked by columns. the estate passed to his nephew Thomas Chamberlayne. who built both new stables and a cricket pitch at Cranbury Park. when he was disqualified for electoral fraud in the 1895 General Election. in the inaugural America's Cup race in 1851. who married Major Nigel Donald Peter Macdonald (son of Sir Godfrey Middleton Bosville Macdonald of the Isles (15th Baronet)).

com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 4/ ). Stories of Southampton Streets. Retrieved 24 September 2009. Gartree Hundred" (http:/ / www.com.com. [4] Yonge. cityofwinchester. ISBN 0-86146-041-3. com/ p4650. htm). The English Country House. uk/ history/ victoria county history of leicestershire_horninghold. Retrieved 23 September 2009. then under Merdon Avenue in Chandler's Ford. [2] Yonge.Cranbury Park side the grounds have the air of cresting the hill. . [14] Yonge.online-literature. edu/ women/ gatty/ sundials/ 102. aspx?compid=42018#s4). . [15] "Electoral Register (debate in Westminster Hall)" (http:/ / www. www. .com. 22. Near them is one of the old-fashioned orangeries. (1900). built from material plundered from Netley Abbey. [9] Yonge. William (1908). 72 & 74. ac. 5 May 2004. [17] "Major Nigel Donald Peter Chamberlayne-Macdonald" (http:/ / www. (1898). Retrieved 23 September 2009. [11] "Horninghold. www. Michael (1999). Facet-Headed. . Eden. co.thepeerage. uk/ history/ html/ buttercross. (1898). www. [6] Ford. specimen trees and pinetum. "Chapter VII: Cylindrical. [12] Leonard. Retrieved 23 September 2009.K. .uk. 1998. [3] "Haydobyn" is believed to be a corruption of the old word "haydogtime. Margaret Scott. ISBN 0-116700-20-3."[23] 192 The estate The house stands on a hill at 85 metres above sea level and from the extensive grounds beautiful views are obtained of Southampton Water and the Isle of Wight to the south. pdf). close to The Castle. Charlotte M.british-history. publications. Globe Cross and Star-Shaped.parliament. "History of Cranbury Park.[26] References [1] Page. online-literature. thepeerage.online-literature. A. com/ history/ chouses/ cranbury. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009. City of Winchester. www. (1898). [5] Yonge. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 6.com. .com. [8] "The Buttercross. "Later changes" (http:/ / www.online-literature. www. com/ p4650. Scout Camp site in Cranbury Park A stream rises in the park passing through the Upper and Lower Ponds.online-literature. .[24] The extensive pleasure grounds were laid out in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by John Papworth. online-literature.online-literature. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 13/ ). with a great deal of wall and very little glass. and include fountains. Charlotte M. www. britannia. [10] Thompson. Netley Abbey. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 6/ ). . (1898). and near it stands the sundial of Newtonian fame.thepeerage." a word signifying a country dance. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 4. "Cranbury and Brambridge" (http:/ / www. before joining Monks Brook. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 8/ ). 9 October 2006. A. Retrieved 23 September 2009. thepeerage. Retrieved 20 September 2009. www. Paul Cave Publications. Victoria County History of Leicestershire. From here it passes through Hiltingbury Lake.com. Charlotte M. 68. Retrieved 23 September 2009.G. p. and Horizontal Dials" (http:/ / digital. html). "Old Otterbourne" (http:/ / www. "Reformation Times" (http:/ / www. Hampshire" (http:/ / www. 15 May 2005. htm#i46497).com. H. Eleanor. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 8. [16] "Tankerville Chamberlayne" (http:/ / www. online-literature. "Puritan Times" (http:/ / www. online-literature. Hansard. the lakeside walk and the fern walk. [13] Stories of Southampton Streets. upenn. A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 3. Retrieved 20 September 2009. html). . is situated in the southern corner of the park. Lloyd. www. Winchester" (http:/ / www.K F. www. (1984).[19] The folly known as "The Castle".com.uk. . Charlotte M. british-history. parliament. library. horninghold. uk/ report. (1898). and there is a group of exceedingly tall pine-trees which are a land-mark of the country on all sides. Retrieved 23 September 2009. online-literature. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 3. a rose garden.ac. p. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. htm#i46495). "Parishes – Hursley: Cranbury" (http:/ / www. . Hamilton (1953). The Book of Sun-dials. . www. Charlotte M. . .britannia. Retrieved 24 September 2009. [7] Gatty. com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 3/ ). though the tallest of them was blown down a few years ago. uk/ pa/ cm200304/ cmhansrd/ vo040505/ halltext/ 40505h01. org. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 13. pp.[25] Between the Upper Pond and The Castle is the campsite of the Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. html). Retrieved 23 September 2009.

1971:93-95. fieldclub. amazon. "Chandler’s Ford.700) in late 2001's terms. John Keble's Parishes – Chapter 14. . .[2] The Guinness World Records 2002 classified it as the most valuable tooth. org/ gardens_info/ cranbury. "A catalogue of the drawings of George Dance the Younger" (http:/ / findarticles. uk/ m35.online-literature. April 2004. [24] "Cranbury Park near Winchester. Retrieved 26 September 2009. (1898). [19] "Cranbury Park. www. htm). com/ Guinness-World-Records-Antonia-Cunningham/ dp/ product-description/ 0553583786). John Buonarotti". plates 23-2.000 (us$35.Cranbury Park [18] Beckett.co. 193 Isaac Newton's tooth In 1816 a tooth said to have belonged to Newton was sold for £730[1] (us$3. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0PAL/ is_506_159/ ai_n6150861/ ). hants. Chandler's Ford & District Scout Group. org. html). [22] Dorothy Stroud. alresford. Otterbourne" (http:/ / www.uk. Christopher (Spring 2005).v. in Country Life. . . com/ charlotte-yonge/ john-keble/ 14/ ). uk/ Campsite/ index. 16 January 1881. uk/ publications/ news43/ lan43a. The New York Times: 10. Retrieved 24 September 2009. see also Stroud in Country Life 25 October. htm). www. The lost country houses of England. "Papworth. noted in Howard Colvin. matthewbeckett. 3rd ed. "A Survey" (http:/ / www. com/ houses/ lh_hampshire_strattonpark. s. . Retrieved 2009-07-12. [21] Watkin. 15 November 1956. Retrieved 2009-07-12. html?res=9E02E4DE1730EE3ABC4E52DFB766838A699FDE).oldmaps. Matthew (2009). 1600-1840. Retrieved 26 September 2009. [25] Currie. References [1] "Silly relic-worship" (http:/ / query. which would value approximately £25. Retrieved 26 September 2009. "Stratton Park.633) in London to an aristocrat who passed to have it set in a ring. . online-literature. Micheldever. 8 and 15 November 1956. Architect. Hampshire" (http:/ / lh. George Dance. html). chandlersfordscouts. Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society. nytimes. 1995.[2] Who has bought it and to whom it currently pertains are mysteries. oldmaps. Retrieved 26 September 2009. . Charlotte M. . co. . A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects.. About Alresford – Gardens open nearby. [2] Guinness World Records 2002 (http:/ / www.com. Jill Lever Azimuth Editions. Retrieved 24 September 2009. [26] "Chandler's Ford District Campsite" (http:/ / www. . com/ gst/ abstract. [20] Dorothy Stroud. org. David (April 2004). htm). 1741—1825. Retrieved 26 September 2009. [23] Yonge. Hampshire – Chamberlayne family" (http:/ / www. Hiltingbury Lake and the Hursley map of 1588" (http:/ / www.

as it is inspired by Newtonian thought. University of Western Australia. The real world might conceivably contain some object which had never so far been moved. or isn't (thus the force is resistible):[4] Eventually I concluded that language was bigger than the universe. maths.[4] References [1] "Mike Alder Staff Profile: The University of Western Australia" (http:/ / www. such as sardonic articles about the lack of basic arithmetic skills in young adults. either the object is moved (and thus the object is movable). "Mike Alder's Home Page" (http:/ / school. . alder). Alder admits however. Also available as Mike Alder (2004). edu. the scientist's answer to the paradox "What happens when an irresistible force is exerted on an immovable object" is that the premises of the questions are flawed. it also seems to cut out almost everything else as well". philosophynow. BBC news. au/ people/ mike. maths. Retrieved 22 july 2010. that it was possible to talk about things in the same sentence which could not both be found in the real world. bbc.[3] Newton's flaming laser sword Newton's flaming laser sword is a philosophical razor devised by Alder in an essay (Newton's Flaming Laser Sword or: Why mathematicians and scientists don't like philosophy but do it anyway) on the conflicting positions of scientists and philosophers on epistemology and knowledge.[4] He strongly criticized what he sees as the disproportionate influence of Greek philosophy—especially Platonism—in modern philosophy. . University of Western Australia. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / www. "New dogs and old tricks" (http:/ / news. which he describes as pure reason. The razor is humorously named after Isaac Newton.[4] Alder writes that the average scientist does not hold philosophy in high regard. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ magazine/ 6908389.[2] He has written several articles for the popular magazine Philosophy Now. or that the hitherto irresistible force was in fact resistible. He contrasts the scientist's Popperian approach to the philosopher's Platonic approach..] undoubtedly cuts out the crap. That is. .pdf).[1] Alder is known for his popular writing. that "[w]hile the newtonian insistence on ensuring that any statement is testable by observation [. au/ ~mike/Newtons Flaming Laser Sword. Either the object would move or it wouldn't. org/ issue46/ Newtons_Flaming_Laser_Sword). [3] Mike Adler. and it might contain a force that had never successfully been resisted. but the question of whether the object was really immovable could only be known if all possible forces had been tried on it and left it unmoved. . So the matter could be resolved by trying out the hitherto irresistible force on the hitherto immovable object to see what happened. to the scientist. "Newton's Flaming Laser Sword" (http:/ / school.Newton's flaming laser sword 194 Newton's flaming laser sword Mike Alder is an Australian mathematician and philosopher who is an Assistant Professor at the University of Western Australia. uwa. and is "much sharper and more dangerous than Occam's Razor". au/ ~mike/ ). amongst others. "somewhere between sociology and literary criticism". . edu. uwa. which would tell us only that either the hitherto immovable object was not in fact immovable. uwa. According to Alder. The razor can be summarized as "what cannot be settled by experiment is not worth debating". Philosophy Now 46: 29–33. as it prevents taking position on several topics such as politics or religion. Mike Alder's Home Page. He illustrates this with the example of the irresistible force paradox. [4] Mike Alder (2004).. It was published in Philosophy Now in May/June 2004. [2] Clive James (2007-07-20). the question can be solved by experiment. . Retrieved 22 july 2010. stm). edu. co.

England. it is presented as a typical seventeenth century yeoman's farmhouse (or as near to that as possible. Woolsthorpe Manor.Woolsthorpe Manor 195 Woolsthorpe Manor Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. Woolsthorpe Manor remains on the edge of the village and is mostly surrounded by fields. once private. taking into account modern living. This is also believed to be the site where Newton observed an apple fall from a tree. The village Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth (not to be confused with Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir also in Lincolnshire) has grown from a hamlet of several houses in the seventeenth century to a small village of several hundred houses today. near Grantham. to the rear of the house. health and safety requirements and structural changes that have been made to the house since Newton's time). with the old rear steps (that once led up to the hay loft and grain store and often seen in drawings of the period) being rebuilt. being restored. and some of the immediate open land has since been built upon. were opened up to the public in 2003. Newton returned here when Cambridge University closed due to the plague. and the old walled kitchen garden. and here he performed many of his most famous experiments. the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton Now in the hands of the National Trust and open to the public from spring to autumn. External links • Woolsthorpe Manor information at the National Trust [1] . most notably his work on light and optics. was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on 25 December 1642 (old calendar). At that time it was a yeoman's farmstead. much of the original land once owned by Woolsthorpe Manor was sold to a nearby family. One of the former farmyard buildings has been equipped so that visitors can have hands-on experience of the physical principles investigated by Newton in the house. New areas of the house. inspiring him to formulate his law of universal gravitation. Lincolnshire. principally rearing sheep (hence the wool reference in the name — thorpe comes from a Viking word meaning farmstead).

nationaltrust. uk/ main/ w-vh/ w-visits/ w-findaplace/ w-woolsthorpemanor/ .Woolsthorpe Manor 196 References [1] http:/ / www. org.

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