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In ThIs Issue...
Microchips UsB to spi protocol converter provides the siMplest, sMallest and Most cost-effective Way to add UsB to yoUr designs Microchip annoUnces 25% perforMance increase to ds pic dscs for d igital-poWer applications Microchip and digilent Unveil pic32- Based cereBot developMent Boards With chipKit prototyping capaBilities Microchips MplaB X ide Wins ecn readers choice tech aWard iMpleMent loW cost poWer line coMMUnications With Microchips ds pic dsc Based poWer line ModeM pic tail daUghter Board r apid prototyping With pic McUs: the vodKa sensor - a previeW Microchip technical training live online save More With Microchip analog focUs - What is the difference BetWeen inpUt Bias cUrrent and inpUt offset cUrrent? photodiode e XaMple

Microchips USB to SPI Protocol Converter Provides the Simplest, Smallest and Most Cost-Effective Way to Add USB to Your Designs
HID-Class USB Converter Has 9 Configurable I/O in 5x5 mm Package; Evaluation Board and Free Driver, DLL & Configuration Software Make it Simple to Add USB Connectivity
Microchip announced the HID-class MCP2210 USB to SPI protocol converter the simplest, smallest-footprint and most cost-effective option for adding USB-Certified connectivity to SPI-based systems. Microchip also provides free downloads of supporting software drivers, DLLs and a PC configuration tool, in addition to an evaluation board, to make it fast and simple for designers without USB expertise to add USB connectivity. The converter comes in small, 20-pin SSOP and 5x5 mm QFN packages, for space-constrained applications. Additionally, the MCP2210 has nine flexible, general-purpose I/O that can be configured via a PC as standard digital I/O pins or in alternate configurations, providing additional system I/O that simplify designs and support a wide range of applications. According to eTForecasts, current annual PC shipments are greater than 300M and are projected to grow to more than 500M within the next four years. While most PCs have standardized on USB as the primary protocol for connecting to other devices, many of those devices still utilize the SPI protocol. In combination with the above features, software and tools, the MCP2210 converter utilizes the USB HID class, which is supported by the Windows, Linux and Mac OS operating systems, and is a 100% plug-and-play solution, making it even simpler to add USB to existing designs for data collection, transfer and analysis, along with many other USB functions. USB connectivity continues to be one Microchip's customers most requested items. The MCP2210 USB to SPI protocol converter and supporting tools give customers a simple, smallfootprint and cost-effective option to add USB connectivity to SPIbased systems. The MCP2210 Evaluation Kit (part # ADM00421) is available today. Additionally, the MCP2210s free software drivers, DLLs and PC configuration tool are all available today for download.



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10. aMplifying high -iMpedance sensors

op aMp precision design: dc errors

11. energizer application sUpport 12. designsparK chipKit challenge 13. pic10f322 toy & gaMe design

14. 3rd party neWs 15. receive parts noW, pay l ater! 16. Join Microchip technology at 17. looKing to enhance yoUr 18. What's neW in Microchip
literatUre eMBedded control designs?

conferences aroUnd the World

19. What's neW at Microchipdirect?

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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Microchip Announces 25% Performance Increase to dsPIC DSCs for Digital-Power Applications
dsPIC33F GS DSCs Feature 50 MIPS Performance, Enable More Digital Power Applications
Microchip announced a 25% performance increase on its dsPIC33F GS series of Digital Signal Controllers (DSCs) for Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPSs). Now featuring 50 MIPS performance, the dsPIC33F GS series of DSCs include on-chip peripherals for digital-power applications, such as an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) peripheral and analog comparators. The dsPIC33F GS family supports applications such as Induction Cooking, Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPSs), Inverters, Intelligent Battery Chargers, Power Factor Correction, HID Lighting, Fluorescent Lighting, LED Lighting, and AC-to-DC, as well as DC-to-DC Power-Conversion applications. The dsPIC33F GS DSCs are available in 28- to 100-pin packages, with 16 64K of Flash. The on-chip ADC operates at up to 4 Msps, and the PWM peripherals provide up to 1 nanosecond resolution, with modes supporting all power-conversion topologies. Additionally, the DSCs feature up to four on-chip analog comparators with integrated on-chip Digital-to-Analog Converters, enabling designers to set trip levels dynamically. The analog comparators can be used to directly control the PWM functions. With 50 MIPS of performance, Microchips customers can now aim to achieve better efficiencies in their power-supply applications. These new devices feature industry-leading on-chip peripherals specifically designed for digital power supplies. Designers can fully control their products using a single GS dsPIC DSC at a lower system cost, with more features. As the new dsPIC33F GS DSCs are 100% compatible with existing dsPIC33F GS devices, all existing tools and reference designs are supported. This includes Microchips Digital LED Lighting Development Kit (part # DM330014), Buck/ Boost Converter PICtail Plus Daughter Board (part # AC164133) and 16-bit 28-pin Starter Board (part # DM300027). Additionally, Microchip offers the most comprehensive set of royalty-free digital-power reference designs in the industry, including those for AC-to-DC power supplies, DC-to-DC converters, solar inverters, UPSs, Interleaved PFC, and HID lighting. The dsPIC33F GS DSCs are available today for sampling and volume production in 28- to 100-pin QFN, SOIC, SPDIP TQFP and VTLA packages. ,

To learn more about the dsPIC33F "GS" family, visit:


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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Microchip and Digilent Unveil PIC32-based Cerebot Development Boards With chipKIT Prototyping Capabilities
Users Can Develop Wide Range of 32-bit Microcontroller Applications Using Arduino Compatible chipKIT MPIDE, or Microchips MPLAB X IDE and MPLAB C Compiler
Microchip and Digilent Inc. announced several new 32-bit PIC32 microcontroller (MCU)-based Cerebot development boards with prototyping capabilities for the Arduino compatible chipKIT development platform. The Cerebot MX3cK, Cerebot MX4cK and Cerebot MX7cK (MX3/4/7) boards provide a single, general-purpose development platform for users to develop a wide range of 32-bit MCU applications using the free, Arduino-compatible chipKIT IDE called the Multi-Platform IDE, or MPIDE. Users can later migrate to development tools that are more widely recognized in the industry, such as Microchips MPLAB X IDE and MPLAB C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs. The Cerebot MX3/4/7 boards break free from the traditional Arduino form factor, providing flexible pin access and connectivity with Digilents line of Pmod Peripheral Modules. Introduced in May 2011, the PIC32 MCU-based chipKIT Uno32 and Max32 boards enable hobbyists and academics to easily and inexpensively add electronics to their projects, even if they dont have an engineering background. The new Cerebot cK development boards include hardware that enables connectivity to the MPIDE, so users can develop with chipKIT via a bootloader application. Microchips PICkit 3 debugger/programmer can be used with the Cerebot MX3cK. The Cerebot MX4cK, and MX7cK, boards feature an integrated programmer/debugger. These boards are each populated with multiple connectors for Digilents numerous Pmod I/O interface boards, which provide ready-made interface circuitry for LCD, wireless, motor-control, sensor and many other applications, minimizing the need for users to create original circuitry. These tools demonstrate our joint commitment to provide products that make it easy for new embedded users or experienced designers interested in using Microchips products. Great attention has been given to these new Cerebot boards, in order to deliver a robust, forgiving design environment that is perfect for academics and hobbyists, at a cost-effective price point. Students and hobbyists comfortable with Arduino can apply those skills directly to our Cerebot cK line, and can quickly and easily enhance their designs on the robust hardware. The chipKIT-compatible Cerebot cK boards enable students, hobbyists and experienced designers to easily create systems with added functionality, power and expandability. The MPIDE makes it easy for new developers to introduce their own chipKIT-compatible boards. The MPIDE includes libraries, such as Brian Schmalzs SoftPWMServo library, which enables users to generate an analogWrite-style output, as well as an RC Servo output, on all pins simultaneously. The Cerebot MX3cK board (part # TDGL008), the MX4cK board (part # TDGL009) and the MX7cK board (part # TDGL010) are all available for purchase now.

Digilent Cerebot MX3cK Development Board (Part # TDGL008)

Digilent Cerebot MX4cK Development Board (Part # TDGL009)

Digilent Cerebot MX7cK Development Board (Part # TDGL010)

All trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective companies

To learn more about these boards, visit:


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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Microchips MPLAB X IDE Wins ECN Readers Choice Tech Award

Version 1 Released of Next-Generation, Cross-Platform, Open-Source Integrated Development Environment
Microchip announced that the readers of ECN Magazine selected its next-generation, MPLAB X IDE as the winner of the 2011 ECN Readers Choice Tech Award, in the Software category. Additionally, MPLAB X was one of six Microchip products named by the editors of EDN Magazine to their 2011 Hot 100 list, in the Development Tools category. These two industry honors come on the heels of the official release of the MPLAB X IDE Version 1, which marks the conclusion of an extensive and successful public Beta test. In both cases, MPLAB X was chosen because it built on Microchips leadership position as the only company to support its entire portfolio of 8, 16 and 32-bit microcontrollers by moving to an open-source IDE that enables cross-platform embedded development with the Linux, Mac OS and Windows operating systems. Microchip is celebrating the release of MPLAB X Version 1 with a special 20% discount on the PICkit 3 In-Circuit Programmer and PICkit 3 Debug Express. To take advantage of this promotion, use the code MPLABX upon checkout from the microchipDIRECT site. We are honored to mark the culmination of our MPLAB X Beta test by accepting these two prestigious industry awards, said Steve Sanghi, Microchips president and CEO. Throughout the Beta test, users echoed the sentiments of these awards, expressing their appreciation for our maintaining universal support of all 800+ PIC microcontrollers, dsPIC digital signal controllers and memory devices, while moving to a next-generation, open-source platform that provides a number of advanced new features. The free MPLAB X IDE includes a feature-rich editor, source-level debugger, project manager and software simulator, and supports Microchips popular hardware tools, such as the MPLAB ICD 3 in-circuit debugger, PICkit 3 debugger/programmer, and MPLAB PM3 programmer. A host of high-performance features have been added, including the ability to manage multiple projects and tools with simultaneous debugging, an advanced editor, visual call graphs and code completion. MPLAB X is based on the Oracle Sponsored open-source NetBeans platform, supports many third-party tools, and is compatible with many NetBeans plug-ins. These honors follow MPLAB Xs 2011 Elektra Awards win, in the Design Tools and Development Software Award category. The other five Microchip products that were named to the 2011 EDN Hot 100 list are as follows:

Microcontrollers & Processors Category

y y y 8-bit PIC10F(LF)32X and PIC1XF(LF)150X microcontrollers with configurable logic and a high level of peripheral integration in 6- to 20-pin packages. The MCP16301, Microchips first 30V-input, buck switching regulator with 600 milliampere output capability. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) PICtail Daughter Board (part # AC320011), which comes with all of the hardware, wireless-communication protocols and application-code examples needed to help designers jump start their fleet-management or location-based service application.

Power Category Boards Category

Development Tools Category y Accessory Development Starter Kits for Android, which enable accessory development for Googles Android platform using versions 2.3.4 and 3.1 and later. These versions include a new framework that allows apps to communicate directly with an accessory connected to a smartphone or tablet, via USB. y The first 32-bit-microcontroller-based, open-source development platform that is compatible with Arduino hardware and software, known as the chipKIT platform.
To learn more about MPLAB X, visit:

Watch the MPLAB IDE introduction video


Microcontrollers Digital Signal Controllers Analog Memory Wireless

MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Implement low cost Power Line Communications with Microchips dsPIC DSC based Power Line Modem PICtail daughter board
Power line communication technology leverages the existing power line infrastructure to transfer the data at reduced costs. The modems that use power line as the communication media are referred to as Power Line Modems (PLM).This technology enables any device/appliance connected to the power cables to be controlled or monitored over the same power lines. Since Power Line Communication uses the same wires used to transmit power, the cost of communication infrastructure is minimal. With pre-installed wiring, very little effort is required to setup or reconfigure power line communication links. It finds its usage in applications like energy metering, lighting control, home area networks, in-vehicle communications and security systems to name a few. How it works? The principle of operation is similar to any other communication techniques. A high frequency carrier signal (reference) is modulated according to the data to be transmitted. This modulated high frequency signal is coupled into the power line using a coupling circuit which typically consists of a high voltage capacitor and an isolation transformer. Once on the power line, the signal propagates along the power line and can be received at any point on the same power line. At the receiver, this signal is demodulated with a reference carrier signal and the data is retrieved as shown in figure 1. Implementation of Power Line Communications using Microchips PLM PICtail Plus daughter board Microchips PLM PICtail Plus daughter board consists of analog circuitry that assists the dsPIC firmware-based modulation and demodulation. The dsPICs output compare channels are used to synthesize the carrier frequency, they are shifted in phase relative to each other and summed up to form a stepped sine wave. This stepped sine wave is filtered using a Band Pass Filter (BPF) to create a smooth sine wave at the carrier frequency. This signal is then amplified and transmitted into the HV adapter cable which houses the coupling circuit. The coupling circuit consists of a High Voltage capacitor and an isolation transformer that couples the high frequency modulated signal to the power line. The circuit performs some passive filtering and also receives any signal on the power line (at around carrier frequency) and feeds it to the receiver section of the PICtail board. The received signal is filtered and amplified by multiple stages of band pass filtering before being fed to an analog pin of the dsPIC. Microchips Power-Line Modem (PLM) PICtail Plus Daughter Board enables customers to easily incorporate power-line communications into their products using the same wiring that provides power, it creates an instant network at a low system and deployment cost. The boards come in two variants one that operates in the CENELEC A utility frequency band at a carrier frequency of 72 kHz and the other that operates in the CENELEC C consumer frequency band at a carrier frequency of 129.6 kHz. The PICtail Plus Daughter board is based upon the scalable dsPIC33F Digital Signal Controller (DSC) architecture which uses a Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation scheme and can be interfaced with Microchips Explorer 16 Development Board, a high voltage adapter cable connects the board to the AC power mains, it incorporates the circuitry required to provide noise-filtering and isolation from the power-line.

For user guide, source code and more information on Microchips PLM PICtail Plus Daughter Board please visit:


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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Rapid Prototyping with PIC MCUs: The VODKA sensor - A Preview

Abstract We have designed and built a simple optical sensor called Vibrating Optical Device for the Kontrol of Autonomous robots (VODKA), that was inspired by the tremor eye movements observed in many vertebrate and invertebrate animals. In the initial version presented here, the sensor relies on the repetitive micro-translation of a pair of photoreceptors set behind a small lens, and on the processing designed to locate a target from the two photoreceptor signals. The VODKA sensor, in which retinal micro-scanning movements are performed via a small piezo-bender actuator driven at a frequency of 40Hz, was found to be able to locate a contrasting edge with an outstandingly high resolution 900-fold greater than its static resolution (which is constrained by the interreceptor angle), regardless of the scanning law imposed on the retina. Hyperacuity is thus obtained at a very low cost, thus opening new vistas for the accurate visuo-motor control of robotic platforms. As an example, the sensor was mounted onto a miniature aerial robot that became able to track a moving target accurately by exploiting the robots uncontrolled random vibrations as the source of its ocular microscanning movement. The simplicity, small size, low mass and low power consumption of this optical sensor make it highly suitable for many applications in the fields of metrology, astronomy, robotics, automotive, and aerospace engineering. The basic operating principle may also shed new light on the whys and wherefores of the tremor eye movements occurring in both animals and humans. Introduction The human visual system is able to detect an object subtending an angle of only a few secs of arc between two objects, which is an angle much smaller than the interreceptor angle. This property has been called hyperacuity. Another type of hyperacuity is the ability of a natural or artificial optical sensor to locate a contrasting object with a higher resolution than the theoretical (static) resolution. Although the mechanisms involved in the various kinds of hyperacuity have not yet been completely elucidated, retinal micro-movements seem to play an important role. Hennig et al. have shown, for example, that the tiny eye movements called tremor can improve the spatial resolution and induce hyperacuity in the case of vernier stimuli. Chen et al. have noted that visual scanning may also provide a useful means of enhancing the visual acuity of subjects wearing visual prostheses. In a more general framework, Altes reported that jitter sensitivity in echolocation, differential pitch sensitivity in audition, and vernier acuity in vision seem to be based on similar principles. However, hyperacuity can also exist without requiring any visual scanning movements. Krotkov studied hyperacuity by combining classical information theory with image processing algorithms. Riley et al. recently implemented a hyperacute visual sensing machine, using a complex optical arrangement and high-sensitivity optical sensors. Brckner et al. assessed the hyperacuity of an artificial compound eye in terms of its ability to locate a point source or an edge. The robustness of this visual sensors performance with respect to contrast and the distance from the object targeted has not been addressed so far, however. In many cases, the hyperacuity of artificial visual sensors results from rather complex processing

OSCAR 2 robot equipped with the hyperacute VODKA sensor.


For the full article visit:

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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Microchip Technology Presents Microchip Technical Training Live Online

Back by Popular Demand!

Hands-on Technical Training for Embedded Design Engineers For a limited time only $24.50 Half Day Class $49.50 Full Day Class
Microchip is offering technical training classes at half price. Register for any one class and receive a 50% discount at checkout. Hurry, this offer is only good for class registrations made before March 31, 2012. Limit one discounted class per person. Use promo code: O44mf8OfL at registration checkout.
(Please use the letter O when entering the promo code.)

Instructions for Use 1. Go to 2. Locate the course you wish to attend. 3. Logon and add the course to the Shopping Cart. 4. At checkout select the MODIFY CART button before placing the order. 5. Enter promo code O44mf8OfL and select APPLY COUPON (this will reduce the course registration fee). 6. Proceed with checkout.

Available classes include: MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) C Programming Microchips C Compiler PIC12 Microcontrollers PIC16 Microcontrollers PIC18 Microcontrollers 16-bit PIC Microcontrollers PIC32 Microcontrollers USB Ethernet Wireless Motor Control eXtreme Low Power (XLP) and More...

To learn more about Microchip's Technical Training Discounts, visit:


Microcontrollers Digital Signal Controllers Analog Memory Wireless

MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Save More with Microchip

Save Power. Save Space. Save Money. Save Time.
Microchip continues to introduce a wide range of innovative 8-bit products targeted at low power consumption, enabling designs with reduced component count, reductions in cost and board space and integration of enhanced features. Save More Power With Low Active and Sleep Currents! With each new generation of 8-bit products, Microchip has reduced quiescent current levels significantly. Microchip plans to continue doing so as evidenced by a number of recently released product families. These new products are the lowest power, lowest pin count devices with industry leading active current as low as 30 A and sleep current for all products below 100 nA and some as low as 20 nA. Save More Space With Small Package Options! The miniaturization of electronic devices has gone mainstream and Microchip intends to stay ahead of the trend. For starters, Microchip has introduced Ultra Thin QFN (UQFN) packaging across our lineup. Not only are these new packages 50% thinner than the existing QFNs, they are smaller in every dimension. The UQFNs offer a very cost-effective method for reducing board size. A number of different packaging options are available in various pin counts:

Save More Money With Integrated Peripherals!

PIC microcontrollers (MCUs) are often viewed as the most useful MCUs in the industry. This is due in no small part to the high levels of peripheral integration present in every product. These peripherals allow our customers to implement much of their systems functionality into a single MCU saving on board space.

Reasons to Use Microchip PIC MCUs for Your Next Design

fer a PIC Microcontrollers of of money saving unique blend : opportunities including e o PIC MCU Exclusiv Peripherals o Internal Clock Sources Data o On-board Temporary Storage o On-board Analog (ADC, DAC) herals o Communications Perip les o Digital Control Modu

y y y y y y

64-pin, 9x9x0.9 mm (QFN) 40-pin, 5x5x0.5 mm (UQFN) 28-pin, 4x4x0.5 mm (UQFN) 14-pin, 3x3x0.9 mm (QFN) 6-pin, 2x3x0.9 mm (DFN) 6-pin, 1.6x2.9x1.2 mm (SOT-23)

Several newly integrated peripherals have been introduced, including: y Configurable Logic Cell (CLC) Provides up to 16 different inputs for combinational and sequential logic (Boolean functions, Flip-flops, Latches) that is configurable under software control. A CLC Configuration Tool is available to streamline the setup process of the CLC module by simulating the functionality of the registers in a Graphical User Interface (GUI). y Numerically Controlled Oscillator (NCO) Dedicated 16-bit PWM that can be used for applications within lighting and power supplies. y Complementary Waveform Generator (CWG) Provides a complementary waveform with rising and falling edge dead band control, with autoshutdown capability that provides improved switching efficiencies for applications such as synchronous power supplies and motor control. y Charge Time Measurement Unit (CTMU) Integrated constant current source that can be used with the ADC for capacitive, inductive or resistive, or precise time measurements and is extremely helpful in advanced sensing applications, reducing the need for external components and CPU overhead. y Real-Time Clock Calendar (RTCC) Maintains accurate time, date, day of week and year information for extended periods of time.

To learn more about Saving More with Microchp, visit:


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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Analog Focus What is the Difference Between Input Bias Current and Input Offset Current?
When working with high accuracy, low level sensor signals, there are a number of error sources that must be considered when designing the signal conditioning circuitry. One of these sources of error is the leakage current that flows into the input pins of an amplifier. This current, when passed through a resistance, will cause an error voltage that will affect the measurement accuracy. Although most engineers who work with amplifiers are familiar with the input bias current specification, perhaps the lesser known and lesser understood specification is the input offset current. Although related, these two specifications highlight different characteristics, and both must be taken into account when calculating a signal conditioning error budget. Lets take a moment to address the actual definition of these two specifications. Input bias current is defined as the average of the currents into the two input terminals of an amplifier. Recall that convention dictates that for the input leakage, a current into the device is positive, and current out of the device is negative (except for the output pin of the amplifier). Input offset current is defined as the difference between the currents into the two input terminals of an amplifier. Here it is in equation form. The two physical currents into an op amps inputs are: IBN = current into the non-inverting input IBI = current into the inverting input From them, we calculate the bias and offset currents respectively: IB = (IBN + IBI)/2 IOS = IBN IBI Rearranging gives: IBN = IB + IOS/2 IBI = IB IOS/2
To learn more about the MCP6V06 visit:

The need to evaluate both the bias current and the input offset current recently came up when designing a circuit to interface with a high impedance sensor. The amplifier being used in this particular circuit was the MCP6V06, auto-zero operational amplifier. The datasheet for this device specifies a typical bias current of +6 pA at room temperature, but a typical input offset current of -85 pA at room temperature. Without looking at the specific definition of these two specifications, these numbers may seem incorrect, but they are indeed true. Unlike traditional op amp input stages, these auto-zero operational amplifiers have switches at the inputs that add a current flow path, through parasitic switched capacitances. It turns out that the current flows through the switches from one input pin to the other. So for the MCP6V06, IBN is approximately -37 pA and IBI is approximately +49 pA. This means that the non-inverting input is sourcing current, while the inverting input is sinking current. Even though the average input current is relatively small (6 pA), the offset current is actually quite large. As noted earlier, this is a function of the selfcorrecting architecture of the auto-zero amplifiers, and is uniquely different from the characteristics of a traditional operational amplifier. With a more traditional operational amplifier structure, the inputs are fairly matched in terms of bias currents, so the offset is typically very small and hence can be ignored in most cases. This may not be the case for auto-zero operational amplifiers, especially when working with high impedance sources.

Microcontrollers Digital Signal Controllers Analog Memory Wireless

MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Analog Focus
Amplifying High-Impedance Sensors Photodiode Example
Embedded systems contain many types of sensors, used to sense events in the real world. They can be classified according to the role they play in the analog conditioning circuitry, such as voltage source, current source, resistive and capacitive (frequency-based). This application note discusses the analog conditioning circuit used for high-impedance sensors that act like current sensors. Current sensors connect to a transimpedance amplifier which converts current to voltage. The design approach illustrated in this application note, using op amps, is broken down into four design steps: DC, stability compensation, closed-loop gain and noise reduction. A design using a PIN photodiode (light detector) illustrates the principles discussed. Measurement results are provided to support the theory presented. The figure below shows the equivalent circuit of a transimpedance amplifier and a high-impedance source. IS represents the output current of the source. CS is the sum of the sources output capacitance and the op amps input capacitance. RF, with the help of the op amp, converts IS to a voltage. At low frequencies, the op amps inverting input is forced to be at ground potential and IS must flow through RF. This combination of effects creates an output voltage of ISRF. At higher frequencies, the capacitors will affect the circuit response. The output capacitance of a current sensor has a strong effect on the stability of the op amp feedback loop. Bode plots are aids in both analyzing this effect and in properly compensating the transimpedance amplifier using the capacitor (CF). The capacitors also limit the bandwidth of the transimpedance amplifier.

Op Amp Precision Design: DC Errors

Engineers that use op amps in their circuits; especially those new to analog or op amp circuit design. Also intended for engineers that want to understand op amp DC specifications. Description This application note covers the essential background information and design theory needed to design a precision DC circuit using op amps. Topics include: y Op Amp DC Specifications y Circuit Analysis y Circuit Optimization y Advanced Topics y References This application note is limited to voltage feedback (traditional) op amps. Those interested in current feedback op amps will benefit from the information here; the DC specifications and op amp DC model have many similarities. Ideal Op Amp The figure below shows the ideal, DC model for op amps (the external circuitry is not shown). All error sources are ignored and the open-loop gain (AOL) is infinite.

To read more from this app note click here

To read more from this app note click here FRONT PAGE RETURN TO

Microcontrollers Digital Signal Controllers Analog Memory Wireless


MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Application Support
Empowering your designs!

Need help? Energizer Application Support offers the solutions you need for your portable power design. Your go-to source for portable power solution design assistance The task of selecting the right battery for your application can be a daunting one with so many options. Energizer brings over 100 years of experience in the battery industry to make this less challenging for you and keep you going on what you enjoy -- designing the devices of tomorrow. And through our partnership with Microchip, we bring a combined amount of expertise that can truly empower your designs. Battery Basics
y y y y y What is the voltage profile? How much capacity is available? What characteristics will affect battery performance? What is the internal resistance? How long is the shelf life?

Application Specifics
y y How do I choose the right battery for my application? How long will each battery type run in my device? How do I avoid abusive battery conditions?

an Help ppor t C tion Su : Applica allenges Like Ch With n Selectio Batter y Analysis Device g e Testin n In-devic imulatio ation S sign Applic ent De mpar tm Co sal Batter y d Dispo tion an r ta s Transpo e Claim y Runtim Batter

Contact Us By Email: Or meet us in the Microchip booth at: Embedded World - Feb. 28 - Mar. 1 ESC Silicon Valley - March 26 - 29 ESC Chicago - June 6 - 8 ESC Boston - September 17 - 20 And at Microchip MASTERs: Phoenix, AZ - August 6 - 11

Energizer / Microchip Partnership

y y y How do I maximize battery runtime in a low power design? How do I enable my system to run from a single battery? Where do I go for help?

2012 Energizer, Energizer and other marks are trademarks owned by Energizer.

For more technical information from Energizer, visit:


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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012


In association with:

FREE chipKIT Max32

dev kit for rst 1,000 entries.*

DesignSpark chipKIT Challenge

Challenge your talent against other engineers worldwide to produce an energy efcient design solution using the Free DesignSpark PCB software and the chipKIT development board. Achieve the most energy efcient design and you could win a share of $10,000 cash! Plus, keep the DesignSpark community regularly informed through posts on the DesignSpark Project Pages and your updates will make you eligible for Community Choice Awards and random prize drawings!

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The Microchip name and logo and the Microchip logo are registered trademarks and chipKIT is a trademark of MicrochipTechnology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. The Digilent name and logo and Max32 are registered trademarks of Digilent Incorporated. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective trademark holders.These trademark holders are not afliated with MicrochipTechnology Incorporated or Digilent Incorporated, and do not support, sponsor or endorse chipKIT products or solutions. 2011, MicrochipTechnology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Microcontrollers Digital Signal Controllers Analog Memory Wireless


MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012


Microcontrollers Digital Signal Controllers Analog Memory Wireless


MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

RenaWares new AquaCheckNano has changed the game in water filtration.

The AquaCheckNano is a countertop water filtration solution that connects directly to the home faucet and creates safe, great tasting water for up to a year. It is the first filter designed specifically to address the needs of developing countries. Using filtration technology derived from NASAs deep space missions, the AquaCheckNano maintains a high flow rate of 6 liters per minute under standard municipal water systems (40-70 psig), while filtering particles out at 1 nanometer (0.001 microns) in both hot and cold water. The AquaCheckNano replaces the kitchen faucet and allows people to wash dishes, fruits & vegetables, and their hands with clean, bacteria & virus-free water. The AquaCheck Nano utilizes a multi-stage NanoCeram filter to eliminate dirt, bacterial and viral particles a thousand times smaller than those traditional water filters. These innovations allowed the AquaCheckNano not just to provide filtered water, but to replace the kitchen faucet. It is the only countertop water filter with a spray control wand and a flexible hose that provides greater sink access. This allows it to be used more like a standard pull-out kitchen faucet by extending its functionality to washing produce, dishes, and hands. The filter was sized to meet the kitchen faucet requirements for an entire year of typical use by a family of four. The AquaCheckNano uses a Microchip PIC12F609T-I/SN to monitor the integrated flow sensor and communicate status to the user. The PIC12F609 was selected based on its perfect blend of performance and economy. The efficient memory usage, ultra-low power states and low cost of the PIC12F609 are a perfect match for reliably monitoring the health and condition of the NanoCeram filter. The 8-bit core has more than ample horse-power to run the flow calculations necessary to keep the filters in good condition and inform users of current filter status. With enough current sinking capability to drive three high brightness LEDs on the user interface the PIC also helped to reduce overall part component count and thus costs. A central blue light The AquaCheckNano launched in September 2011 on the display calmly in its niche South American consumer market and indicates that your within 3 months the overwhelming consumer reaction water is filtered and and demand tripled the initial sales goals. safe anytime the faucet is turned on. This Contact Product Creation Studio to discuss your system can run up to product development needs. 28 months on two AA P 206-297-7200 or . batteries.

We realize product visions that enhance peoples lives. We deliver innovative, award-winning design and engineering expertise to support a broad span of industries. Our product development cycles are a fraction of typical in-house efforts. We have a proven track record for developing innovative products and getting them to market quickly. Our robust development team provides: Product Strategy & Branding, Industrial Design, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, BioMechanical Engineering, Embedded Software Engineering and Project Management. Contact Product Creation Studio to see how we can help you achieve your project goals. For more information, please contact: Phone: 206-297-7200 Ext. 12 for Scott Thielman or Ext. 10 for Carrie Borda

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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Visit our Whats M icrinchip A t The Literature? rldwideTechnical Documentation page at to view the documents. Jo in New o Microchip Fo l l ow ing Wo Events

Free Live Webinar! Smart Grid Roundtable Available OnDemand Online! Duration: 60 Minutes

Electronic Designs Smart Grid Roundtable The Smart Grid is without doubt a transformative technology that will change the way consumers deal with energy suppliers over the next ten years or so. At the heart of the Smart Grid is the smart meter, which extends all the way back to the electric utility on one side and all the electric appliances throughout the home on the other. There will come a day when appliances will be imbued with smarts so that each can talk, to the smart meter and then to the electric utility. But getting from here to there demands a great deal of engineering savvy. In this Smart Grid Roundtable, presented by Electronic Design, two of the leading companies in the Smart Grid space, Microchip and Freescale answer questions from a leading authority on the Smart Grid, Electronic Designs power editor, Don Tuite, about all facets of the Smart Grid and where the U.S. and most other countries around the globe are headed in the near future. Register now for this live webinar Join Microchips Brian Chu, Product Line Marketing Manager, as he presents "DC-DC Tradeoffs for Portable Applications". When developing battery-powered systems, topology selection and feature set can make or break the success of a new product. New standards and battery technologies have emerged, making it difficult for designers to determine the optimal solution for their applications. This one hour webinar will demonstrate the power system development for battery-powered applications and how to increase run time. Selected power topology advantages and battery life extension will also be presented with a real design example using Alkaline batteries. Register online at: Microchip_LandingPg.htm Join Microchips Patrick Heath, Senior Manager, Strategic Marketing, as he presents "New Motor Controllers Lead the Way With Analog Circuit Integration". Implementing sensorless motor-control algorithms requires measuring the phase currents from a three-phase motor. Currently, this is accomplished using shunt resistors and operational amplifiers (op amps) in circuits that are external to the Digital Signal Controller (DSC) or microcontroller (MCU) that is running the sensorless motor-control algorithms. Analog circuits such as op amps and analog comparators are now often integrated onto the DSC or MCU. This presentation will survey op-amp integration, and investigate the resultant motor-control-system cost impact and tradeoffs, along with other integration choices, such as integrated power modules. Register online at: ESC (The Embedded Systems Conference) is the global electronics industrys leading event. With cutting edge product demonstrations, visionary speeches and hundreds of essential technical training classes and accreditation opportunities, ESC is the ideal venue for the design engineering community to learn, collaborate and recognize excellence. In addition, ESC Silicon Valley celebrates decades of unique local electronics industry culture, innovation and significant contributions to the global technology industry. Register online at:
Register for one or more of these great events at the links above!

Free Live Webinar! Available OnDemand Online! Duration: 60 Minutes

March 13-14, Orlando FL

March 26-29, San Jose

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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Looking to Enhance Your Embedded Control Designs?

training that is relevant to each attendee while eliminating the frustration often associated with attending classes that present too much known information or assume a level of knowledge beyond what the attendee currently possesses. Product/tool classes provide knowledge on how Microchips products and development tools operate. This knowledge provides the foundation upon which all application instruction is based. Attendance at one of these classes can provide significant value through the reduction in time associated with instruction manuals and data sheet review or trial and error attempts to learn individually. Market forces constantly press companies to add functionality and features to their products often outside their areas of core competence. As a result, engineers must continually broaden their knowledge base. Microchips technology classes are intended to help engineers gain an understanding of a new field. Implementation classes combine elements of product and technology instruction to teach engineers how to design a real world application. Classes at this level provide how-to instruction rather than what or why instruction. Microchip is currently offering classes in the following curriculum: DSP Ethernet, , Human Interface, Motor Control, Power Management, Signal Chain, System Design and USB. Future curriculum is expected to include CAN/LIN, IrDA, Lighting and RF. With a worldwide network of Regional Training Centers and certified third-party trainers, Microchip makes it easy to enhance your technical skills, with locations in nearly every metropolitan area across the world! For those organizations who desire to have a number of employees attend a course at the same time, Microchip can customize any curriculum to meet your specific needs. Our instructors arrive at your location with all presentation materials and equipment, making it easy for your whole team to benefit from a specific course topic in one setting. In addition to the instruction, most Regional Training Center classes offer the opportunity to purchase a set of the development tools used in the class at a discounted price. If the class you are interested in is not scheduled in your area, you can sign up to receive an alert when a session is scheduled. For information on scheduling custom in-house training, contact your local RTC directly or visit the Microchip RTC web site:

In tough economic times, companies often look for ways to trim expenses as a means to cope with a downturn in sales. One of the areas often targeted for cutbacks is employee training. There is not only the direct cost of the training to contend with, but also travel expenses and time an employee spends away from the job. During this challenging business climate, however, competitive pressures and technology changes dont stop and it is training that can help a company be better positioned to take advantage of the potential upswing. Microchip, with its global network of Regional Training Centers (RTCs) and third-party training partners, is here to help companies stay competitive with cost-effective, local training. To help companies deal with issues of travel expense and time, classes are given not only in Microchips facilities, but are also taken on the road. Customized customer premise sessions can be scheduled offering the most convenience. Time away can be managed more efficiently with the flexibility of half or full day class sessions. To be effective in teaching, instruction must take into account the needs and expertise level of the attendee. Microchips Regional Training Center classes are developed to provide a coordinated flow, enabling engineers to implement a solution to their product development needs. Instruction is developed and presented in product, technology and implementation classes that are grouped into application based curriculum. Each curriculum flow enables the individual to engage with the training at a level that meets his or her current knowledge and needs. The intent is to provide

For a complete list of classes and locations, visit


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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

Whats New in Microchip Literature?

Doc. Type Doc. Title DS No. Doc. Type Doc. Title

Visit our Technical Documentation page at to view the documents. DS No.

Data Sheet

24AA64 Data Sheet 24AA16/24LC16B Data Sheet 93AA76A/B/C Data Sheet 93AA86A/B/C Data Sheet MCP6L1/1R/2/4 Data Sheet PIC24FJ128GA010 Family Data Sheet PIC18(L)F2X/4XK22 Data Sheet PIC16(L)F722A/723A Data Sheet PIC12LF1840T48A Data Sheet dsPIC33FJ06GS101/X02 and dsPIC33FJ16GSX02/ X04 Data Sheet dsPIC33FJ32GS406/606/608/610 and dsPIC33FJ64GS406/606/608/610 Data Sheet dsPIC33EPXXXGP50X, dsPIC33EPXXXMC20X/50X, and PIC24EPXXXGP/MC20X Data Sheet AN1388, PIC32 Bootloader

21189S 21703K 21796L 21797K 22135C 39747F 41412E 41417B 41594B 70318F 70591D 70657D 01388B 41561C 52020A 52031A 70654B 70664B 41571B 41616A 41622A 41623A


PIC24HJXXXGPX06/X08/X10 Family Silicon Errata and Data Sheet Clarification dsPIC33FJXXXGPX06/X08/X10 Family Silicon Errata and Data Sheet Clarification dsPIC33FJXXXMCX06/X08/X10 Family Silicon Errata and Data Sheet Clarification PIC16(L)F722A/723A Errata PIC16LF1902/1903 Errata PIC16LF1904/6/7 Errata

80444E 80446E 80447E 80513C 80523C 80524C 70193D 51966B 51987B 52008B 52035A 52036A 52037A

FRM Section Info Sheet

Application Notes Programming Specification User's Guide

PIC12F752/HV752 Flash Memory Programming Specification MCP16301 High Voltage Buck-Boost Demo Board User's Guide MCP6N11 and MCP6V2x Wheatstone Bridge Reference Design 8-bit Wireless Development Kit User's Guide ZENA Wireless Adapter Users Guide Product Brief PIC12LF1840T48A Product Brief PIC12F529T48A Product Brief PIC16F1829LIN Product Brief PIC16(L)F1784/6/7/ Product Brief

dsPIC33F/PIC24H Family Reference Manual - Section 10. I/O Ports Low-Cost Controllerless (LCC) Graphics PICtail Plus Daughter Board Information Sheet ZENA Wireless Adapter Information Sheet PIC32MX220F032D USB/Graphics 44-pin to 100-pin PlugIn Module (PIM) Information Sheet PIC18F85J11 Plug-in Module for PICDEM PIC18 Explorer Demo Board PIC18F87J10 Plug-in Module for PICDEM HPC Explorer Demo Board PIC18F87J11 Plug-in Module for PICDEM HPC Explorer Demo Board

The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PIC32 logo, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM,, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP , Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Octopus, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM,, PICkit, PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. 2012, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. RETURN TO FRONT PAGE

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MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGYS microSOLUTIONS Monthly E-newsletter - February 2012

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