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VIRTUE:(etymology): Latin: virtus: courage /bravery ir/vir: e manlinessf Virtue: 1. is a state ofcharacter (relatively permanent) 2.

makes man good 3. makes man do his work well Aristotle: Moral Virtues e golden meanf Moderation (middle) Virtue good habit - action with good reason Vice bad habit - action without good/right reason - an operative habit inclining the will to act at variance with right reason. Cardinal Virtues discovers, judges and applies knowledge to human actions (regulates the intellect itself ). - concern with the right direction ofhuman actions. 2. Justice e equality e giving what is due/regulates the will with regards to others (Love, charity) 3. Fortitude (courage):enables one to endure pain, danger and death with calmness of reason. Functions ofCourage/Fortitude 1. Active impels man to e attackf (f ace) evil. 2. Passive strength to bear 4. Temperance: Moderation(in pleasure): regulates the desire f sensible pleasure within the or limits ofright reason and approved modes ofsocial behavior. Patience enables one to wait f the right way and time to act. or Perseverance persistence in good work through long period oftime. Passions : not evil (vice) in themselves but can contribute to the f ormulation ofvice. Kinds ofVirtue: 1. Natural Virtue: you can do it by your natural power 2. Supernatural Virtue: you need the aid ofthe supernatural being. Ex. Theological virtues THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES I. Models o etc. Faith aith or those who have shown us exemplary 1. Prudence

Faith : moral response to Godd s revelation(sel -disclosure) : etymology : pistis/pisteuein ( Greek) : Aman (Hebrew) : Saying Amen to God/Godd s word : Total obedience to God/Godd s word New Testament: Faith : trust in the power o God active in Jesus : call to conversion(total) metanoia : Faith in God through Jesus Christ. Magisterium (Teaching authority o the church) : Faith: complete/total surrender o man to God (acceptance o revealed doctrines) Faith as a personal encounter : obedience (trusting, sel -surrender to God)

aith: Abraham, Mary, Lorenzo Ruiz,

Faith as assent to revealed truths (contained in the Bible and in the doctrines or dogmas) Object o Faith: truths (revealed by God) Example: God is power ul, good, merci ul, just, eternal, etc. Motive o Faith: truth ulness o God and his in allibility(no error) Dogma: teaching that is authoritative, must be obeyed/ ollowed Christian aith: entrance into the history o salvation which started with Abraham (covenant) Faith is a gi t : Man believes by Godd s grace, but the act o ( aith is a response)

aith remains as a

CONFINES OF SALVIFIC FAITH (What kind o aith (characteristics) must we posses to be saved) I. According to Theologians: man must know and believe the our undamental truths about God 1. The existence o god (Faith) 2. The retribution o good and evil(morality) 3. The mystery o the Blessed Trinity 4. The mystery o Incarnation 2. Itd s enough to believe in: 1. The existence o personal God ( aith) 2. Who rewards the good and punish the wicked (morality) 3. Its enough to have: 1. Implicit knowledge o God ( aith implicit)and the 2. Final retribution (judgment) 3. Acknowledge the inviolable moral order o the world and obedience to it as dictated by conscience.( ollow/obey natural law) VATICAN II = beside Christian who are the people included in the salvation. 1. Jews 2. those who acknowledge the creator 3. those who seek the unknown God in image and shadows 4. All who strive by their deeds to do Godd s will as it is known to them. Man under the obedience o

aith:The 3 Hs-Head, Heart, Hands (Faith & trust & obedience)

Duties / Responsibilities attached with Faith(duties o the believer) 1. Duty o knowing the truths o aith : to achieve su icient knowledge o our aith : or proper practice/witness living o the aith Ex. A Catholic Faith ul must know: the history o your Church, the grounds o teachings, etc. 2. Obligation to pro ess oned s aith 3. Duty to pro ess oned s aith i necessary 4. Missionary Mandate o Faith: Evangelization: Duty to spread the aith 5. Obligation to Sa eguard the aith 1. Dond t read books that destroy aith 2. Avoid relationship with people who can destroy your aith 3. Duty to ask or spiritual guidance 6. Promotion o the e Unity o aith / duty to promote unity among all believers y Through Dialogue - dialogue in word - dialogue o li e

Object o Faith Motive o Faith

the existence o God/God (as person) Godd s supreme sovereignty/being all power ul (goodness, trustworthy)

ree decision

our

* See what more unites us/respect the little di erences, clari y the causes o misunderstanding.

THE ECCLESIALITY OF FAITH:The Church as an institution o aith. = the need to institutionalize the Faith and teachings/doctrines: to put the aith and doctrines in an organization/institution. - For the Con________________ , Sur __________, and Spr_______ o the aith/ doctrines & or growth and propagation. - to adapt to the genuine intentions o Christ. CHURCH bearer o the Teaching Authority o Christ (Revelation, Bible is entrusted to her) - The Church is the S_____________ o Christ

O enses Against Faith 1. pride & distrust 2. unbelie 1. PRIDE : sel -assertive pride not recognize beings higher than him : Opposed to humility and obedience DISTRUST : opposed to trust 2. UNBELIEF : Not believing in God(Atheism) Atheism: a. Denial o God/ Godd s existence (ex There is no God) -or re used to submit to the claims o the Absolute which mani ests himsel in mand s conscience) b. Man can assert absolutely nothing about God. c. An idea o God is allacious d. Dond t/never talk about God Some orms o atheism can be a result o anti-clericalism Example o Atheism : Secularism Secularism: Autonomistic vision o man and the world. :no such thing as sacred and the pro ane classi ication o things/realities :Laws here are not subject to the norms o aith & religion :God is not needed(i there is), the idea o God is super luous and even obstacles to the secular goals o man - positively, atheism can puri y religion

O enses Against the Christian Faith: In idelity, heresy, Schism, Apostasy 1. INFIDELITY: un aith ulness/disloyalty - or the Baptized Xd tians. or the unbaptized/pagans: Not inquire/re usal to inquire about the Church and her belie s and teachings or about Baptism and the sacraments. 2. HERESY : obstinate adherence to an error that contradicts the divinely revealed truth. Or adherence to principles, ideas contradictory to churchd s doctrines. 3. SCHISM : obstinate re usal to the primacy o the Pope : creating division in the church. 4. APOSTACY : complete de ection rom the aith by those who received true aith in Baptism : renouncement/public abandonment o the aith by the baptized person.

II. VIRTUE OF HOPE Other views on Hope:

Hope - an a ection, not a virtue - a companion in li e because i you loose/dond t have hope, youd ll not work or your goals. is desire or good which is hard but not impossible to obtain. y Thomas A. - Hope y Hope is not an absolutely certain expectation but accompanied by an element o aith. y Hope is always vulnerable & its close companion is ear. y Karl Marx : Hope is a tranquilizer ex: religion is a sign o the oppressed (hope or heaven is a sign o the oppressed)  Hope is a virtue i it is unwaveringly directed towards what is morally good and lovable. Ex: Christian Hope HOPE IN Sacred Scripture 1. In the Old Testament  Hope is an immense longing --- ex: or a good li e, justice, peace, blessing, no oppression Motive o hope: is the promise o YHWH Ex: Hope or the __________________ Hope or the __________________ 2. Hope in New Testament : the concept o hope seems to be absent Christ saida .. The Kingdom is at hand but not yet  Hope : is hope or the second coming o Christ which is the Final Kingdom.(this entails conversion) Motive o Hope: is Godd s Promise & Faith ulness HOPE IN THEOLOGY HOPE: supernatural virtue - means made possible by the grace o God : we expect the ullness o salvation and the means to attain it Object o Hope: The ullness o salvation /God Himsel /eternal happiness, eternal li e, beauti ying possession o God, or Godd s reign, per ection o all things, new creation, N.T. Is Kingdom o God, etc. FRUITS & CHALLENGES OF HOPE 1. Endurance in Adversity and Su ering -ex. You dond t give up your aith amidst adversity and su ering because o great hope or __________________________. The Christian undamental attitude to su ering is _________.
                                    

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2.

Openness to the Future - Hope is uture oriented/ orward looking - Hope --- reveals the pilgrim status o man that man is on journey towards the uture and towards the __________________.
   

ex. You overcome your weakness & develop, per ect yoursel because you hope that you will end up in a li e with God. 3. Summons to trans orm the world - i you are open to the uture, that the new world will come it urges or moves you to do your duty in trans orming the world in accordance w/ Godd s salvi ic plan. Commitment to the Liberation o Man
      

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i you hope that the o man rom all sorts Ex: - rom oppression o - rom the slavery o -

Kingdom will come, you should be committed to the liberation o oppression or slavery. other people sin

O enses Against Hope : Presumption, Despair, Faint-Heartedness and Resignation 1. PRESUMPTION - unwarranted expectation o goods or helps o divine order. It rashly assumes that ul illment will be obtained. - opposed to the ear o God Forms or Kinds o Presumption/examples o P. Pelagianism (heresy) - Salvation can be attained by mand s e ort alone - Against the dogma o the gratuitous character o grace. Fideism expects salvation rom the merits o Christ alone (no e ort on the part o the person to be saved Expectations o Divine help or sin ul/improper objects w/c is blasphemous Ex : Divine assistance in examinations as compensation or neglected studies
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2. DESPAIR : loss o con idence in the goodness & mercy o God & in his assistance to obtain salvation : total lost o hope to resolve the problems o li e & to reach oned s per ection/goal) 3. FAINT
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HEARTEDNESS & RESIGNATION ear, lack o openness to the Faint heartedness overemphasizes the element o uture, a raid to ace the uncertainty & change. challenges = are threat
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Resignation: Resign/give up (because weary o hope) he lost hope

THE VIRTUE OF DIVINE LOVE

LOVE any a ection or some good (generally) - is the most undamental emotion o man, the basis & origin o all the others Essence o Divine Love  The HEART o all things is LOVE  GOD S essential nature is LOVE  LOVE is the central message o the New Testament - is the central reality o human li e A. AGAPE/(Agapan, Agapesis) : Greek (Love) : used by Septuagint, hardly used in earlier writings :less emotional B. EROS/(ERATHAI) - emotional (Love) C. PHILIA/PHILIEN)
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AGAPE: sober kind o love : Love which places a high value upon some person or things :used by Holy Scriptures or the Love o God or men and mand s love to his neighbor : Love o God is di erent rom the Love o neighbor but the Love o neighbor has its ultimate criterion and oundation in the Love o God
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A.Israel s Love or YHWH in the context o the ______________ * The Love or Go is shown by being: Faith ul to the ______________. e I am your Go , there is no Other, an you shall be my people
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*The commandments o Love are accompanied by the Promise o keep it and the Threats o Chastisement or those who desert it.
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B. Love as Bond o A ection between YHWH and Israel * Love here is shown as mutual relation o a ection  Godd s love is shown by or dramatized in the li e o HOSEA, JEREMIAH, EZEKIEL The love o God or his people is like/or basically a: - Love o a Father or his Child-greater than the love o the mother (Isaiah 49:15) - Marriage covenant between husband and wi e - Master and close servant C. Un altering Love as the Virtue o the Just  Love is coupled with Trust and Loyalty There must be close communion  Love or God implies readiness to keep Godd s Law/Godd s word
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Obedience Love in the New Testament A. GOD is a e God o Love and e God and ather o us all * Go s Lov f m n is primarily a Fath r s Lov . or - shown in a:
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son/ aught r r lationship an is r a y to f orgiv it is expressed in the incarnation o His only Begotten Son. Godd s Love is a saving Love that extends to all men. God Loves the world that he gave his only Begotten son (Jn 3:16) Loves his disciples his Church that he sacri ices his li e Christ salvation

with/by observance o Go s statutes/comman ments - the Ten Commandments especially the irst three. - Deut.6:4-7: .fLove your God with ll your soul, with She___ Your he rt, with ll your mightf
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f God surpass s that ofa f or ath r or moth r to childr n or husband to wif .


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* Lov : is a basic condition in which th ntir Christian b ing is ground and f ound d.(This is th basic ss nc ofour cr ator-God)
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II. CONCEPT OF DIVINE LOVE IN THEOLOGY


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LOVE : sup rnatural virtu by which w lov God as th high st Good f his own sak or cr ation f Godd s sak . or :(sup rnatural: m ans mad possibl by th grac ofGod)
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or In this s ns th Lov f God m ans w d light in God; d light in His unf athomabl holin ss and inf init goodn ss and joy in his t rnal bl ss dn ss. Ex.: Thomasd vision, lov f a baby, or P t rd s r action during Christd s transf iguration
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(you cand t add anything to God but can wish f th or


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QUALITIES OF DIVINE LOVE


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must b Sov r ign Man must Lov God abov all things and mor than any cr atur (D ut. 6:5; Mt. 22:36-38) mor than th Lov b tw n f ath r & moth r to childr n, tc.
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lov f God is akin to Lov ofFri ndship, it t nds towards or union with God. (total s lf -giving and abandonm nt to God) you b com th n absolut prop rty ofGod. (inn rmost communion and mystical unity with God.)
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or *Mand s Lov f God b longs to th cat gory of b n vol nt Lov which is willing th good ofth oth r such as approval ofth good h poss ss s and th f it and to prot ct th good ofanoth r. or
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Godd s surpassing Love to men is shown by sending his only begotten son. The Love or God is primarily spiritual, not o emotional nature. The love or God is the supreme esteem or God & His will. * aith in Go s goo ness is o ten harshly put to the test by su ering istress (sometimes even to the point o martyr om) an 2. Love must be E ective an Interior e Let us not love in wor /speech but in
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Realization o Divine Love in Prayer an Dee : As the Love between 2 persons is shown & maintain in communication an in action), The Love or Go expresses itsel in: 1. A oration, me itation, prayer an worship 2. Actions an works o brotherly love.
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OFFENSES AGAINST THE LOVE OF GOD


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1. INDIFFERENCE : r sults rom culpabl n glig nc in acquiring a su ici nt knowl g o Go & in striving a t r communion & ri nship with him. ( ct & ailing) Ex: In i r nc against Go & r ligious valu s. - mayb r sults rom ici nt ucation an gui anc in r ligious matt rs also rom Lazin ss. to charity 2. HATRED th sin most ir ctly oppos : th most r qu nt sourc o hatr o Go is a sin ul li opposition to Go s comman .
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s Lov .

u to imp r ct scriptions N.B: P opl shoul not r j ct or hat Go or pr s ntations, r min rs o Him b caus human ways lik arts & languag ar always imp r ct to pr s nt/captur Go s total imag .
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(Faith, Hop an Lov ) is th gr at st will last or v r an v r? __________ Why ?

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* Oth rs may hat or r volt against Go u various oppr ssions that th y xp ri nc .


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* Man cannot truly Lov r lationship w/ Go is n


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