Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

9 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Bits On Magnetic Circuits
- Sample Paper1
- 5. Questions & Answers on Inductance, Capacitance, And Mutual Inductance
- Earthing Transformers
- Emi
- NCERT - 6 gc
- 20074281162167401
- Resource Pack.ac Theory
- rit
- 2010 11 PotM Negative Dissipation Factor P 09064 E
- Advanced Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Induction
- Wijdeven Corporate En
- Week _ 07 Fall 2011 Ee402 Aa
- P563
- FÓRMULAS DE REACTORES
- 2
- jid196052a
- Rigorous Network and Full-Wave Electromagnetic Modeling of Wireless Power Transfer Links
- IE Pyramid Paper
- Optimizing Efficiency in HF Tube Welding Process

You are on page 1of 6

W. Tan

1,2

, C. Cuellar

1,3

, X. Margueron

1,2

, N. Idir

1,3

1

Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille, France

2

ECLille, L2EP, F-59650 Villeneuve dAscq, France

3

USTL, L2EP, F-59650 Villeneuve dAscq, France

Email: wenhua.tan@ec-lille.fr

AbstractImpedance measurements are widely used to

characterize the behavior of n-windings magnetic components.

The identification process is realized manually and becomes more

and more difficult as the number of equivalent circuit

parameters increases. This paper deals with an automatic

identification method based on Rational Function Approximation

(RFA) which enables to obtain these parameter values very

quickly and leads to reliable models. The effectiveness of such

method is demonstrated with the characterization of a planar

common mode inductor and a toroidal coupled inductor.

Keywords-magnetic component; identification; impedance

measurement; Rational Function Approximation.

I. INTRODUCTION

For every passive component designer, the validation of a

power inductive component (inductor or multi-winding

transformer) is always an essential step in a design process.

Even if a lot of analytical and numerical models can be used to

design the "perfect" component, this validation step is

necessary and it allows the manufacturer to meet the initial

specifications.

Components used in power electronics are quite specific.

Because of the high efficiency power electronic conversion,

lost power is far smaller than the main power transfer so direct

specific component measurements are always very difficult [1].

However, some direct characterization methods have been

developed using oscilloscope measurements [1], [2] or

calorimetric ones [1], [3]. Non-sinusoidal condition

measurements can also be used for characterizing the PWM

power converter effect [4], [5]. With sinusoidal excitation, a

rather good approximation deals with the identification of a

large band impedance equivalent circuit. With such reliable

circuit [6], the behavior of the components can be analyzed at

each current frequency harmonics and parameters like

equivalent resistances, leakage inductances or stray

capacitances can be determined. This kind of equivalent circuit

is very useful in order to be implemented inside a circuit

simulation software like Pspice

for example.

The elements of such equivalent circuits can be determined

using impedance measurements [7]-[9]. For many years, a lot

of methods have been developed to characterize more and

more precisely high frequency magnetic components over a

wide frequency range, using impedance measurements. The

method introduced in [10] for a 2-winding transformer was

extended for a 3-winding transformer [11] taking into account,

more precisely, the parasitic capacitance effect. All these

parameters were identified at only one frequency and, for

example, magnetizing inductance and leakage one could be

determined at different frequencies. This leads to a quite

inaccurate identification because of the variation of the

different inductances due to eddy currents. In [9], the

determination process was improved and components were

identified on a frequency range. This method is very useful and

enables to determine equivalent circuits for a lot of passive

components. The identification process still requires a

specialist overview in order to adapt some impedance values.

This limitation is now over with the introduction of a specific

algorithm, based on Rational Function Approximation (RFA),

which enables, with some specific impedance measurements,

to identify the component values of a fixed topology of

equivalent circuit.

This paper focuses on the automatic identification process.

In Section II, equivalent circuits for n-winding inductive

components are presented. Impedance measurements and their

accuracies are also discussed and finally, the specific case of a

common mode inductor is presented. Then, in Section III, the

identification process is detailed. The method is based on RFA.

With 3 specific impedance measurements and a predefined

equivalent circuit topology, the implemented algorithm enables

to obtain component parameter values. In the final section, the

identification is applied to two common-mode inductors.

II. COUPLED INDUCTOR CHARACTERIZATION

A. Equivalent circuits for n-winding components and

characterization process

High Frequency (HF) power transformers and coupled

inductors mainly use ferrite magnetic material. Their behavior

is quite linear (weak hysteresis) so these inductive components

can be represented using equivalent circuit including linear

impedances (R, L, C). Numerous equivalent circuits have been

proposed in order to describe multi-winding transformers:

"Extended cantilever" with directly measurable parameters

[12], "Extended T" [13]... One of the most useful is introduced

in [6] because of its easy generalization to n-windings. The

capacitive behavior of such HF magnetic component was also

described in [14].

978-1-4244-7935-1/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE

All these equivalent circuits are always linked to an

identification parameter process. In [10] and [11], equivalent

circuit parameters were measured at different frequencies when

the impedance phase was closed to 90. This determination

gives good results only if inductances are constant with

frequency. For planar transformer, for example, magnetizing

inductance and leakage one can vary with frequency. The

method, introduced in [9], enables to determine the frequency

variation of the inductances using R-L cells. All these methods

are manual and they sometimes, require some adjustment in

order to give good parameter values.

B. Impedance measurements

The calculation of equivalent circuit parameters can be

based on impedance measurements [7]. These measurements

need to be as precise as possible on a wide frequency range.

Sometimes, the measured values are very small and can be

influenced by supplementary parasitic elements due to the

measurement setup. Using an Agilent 4294A impedance

analyzer [15], some advices are given in [8] and [9] to

minimize characterization errors.

For HF transformer, impedance measurements are often

realized with open and short circuits measurement. Indeed

these impedances can be considered as extreme ones because

the passive transformer load will always be included between

these two extreme loads. Moreover, for a passive 2-winding

transformer, the four open and short-circuit impedances are

linked as described in (1). These four specific measurements

enable to define the "confidence factor" [16].

' '

0 0 CC CC

Z Z Z Z = (1)

Z measured from one winding;

'

Z measured from the other port;

0

open-circuit measurement

CC

short-circuit measurement

C. Characterization process for a common mode inductor

A Common Mode (CM) inductor (Fig.1) is a specific case

of a 2-winding transformer because this component is made of

2 identical windings around a magnetic core. Due to its

symmetric structure, a symmetric topology has been chosen to

describe its behavior [17]. The Fig.2 shows its equivalent

circuit topology. To simplify the modeling, all the capacitances

are considered to be lossless. The impedance Z

l

groups together

the leakage part of the inductor, the DC winding resistance and

its AC impedance variation (due to skin and proximity effects).

The impedance Z

m

is associated with the magnetizing part of

the inductance and the effects of magnetic material. It should

be noted that the elements R

n

and C

n

in Z

m

are added for better

representing the ferrite core loss.

In order to determine all the equivalent circuit parameters,

three impedance measurement configurations have been

selected (Table I). As shown in Table I, the magnetic parts are

determined straightforwardly, while the capacitances C

1

, C

2

and C

3

are obtained through solving linear equations.

Two different approaches can then be used to obtain the

equivalent circuit parameters: a manual method or a computer-

aided method. With such complex system, the manual method

needs a lot of adjustment based on trial/error to give

satisfactory results. Therefore, the parameter values can be

adjusted with a lot of iterations, which is very time-consuming.

Figure 1. Toroidal common mode inductor and its simple electrical

representation

Figure 2. Common mode inductor equivalent circuit

TABLE I. MEASUREMENT CONFIGURATIONS

Impedance

name

Measurement

configuration

Equivalent circuit Parameters

ZX

Ll, Rs,

Ld, Rd, Rp

C1 + C2

ZY

Lm, Rf,

Cn, Rn

C1 + C3

ZC0

C2 + C3

The second method, based on algorithm, enable to identify

or approximate linear systems. The method introduced here is

called "Rational Function Approximation".

III. AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION

A. Rational Function Approximation

The Rational Function Approximation (RFA) is a widely

used method for macro-modeling or parameter extraction of

linear systems [18] [19]. The method presented in [18] is

applied in this work. This method is based on data

measurements and least-square approximation algorithm to

find the best rational function representation of a system.

The method is briefly presented in the following part: An

unknown system can be modeled using a rational function G(s)

(2), where M

i

and N

i

are real-valued variables. These

parameters have to be determined by fitting G(s) with

frequency measurement data T(

i

) (3), which are complex-

valued. It should be noted that G(s) is normalized so N

q

=1.

Substituting s by j in (2), real and imaginary parts can be

separated for numerator and denominator [18], as shown in (4).

2

0 1 2

2

0 1 2

( ) (with =1)

p

p

q

q

q

M M s M s M s

G s N

N N s N s N s

=

"

"

(2)

( ) ( ) ( )

i i i

T X jY X X X =

(3)

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

2 4

0 2 4

3 5

1 3 5

2 4

0 2 4

3 5

1 3 5

( ) with

A jB

G j

C jD

A M M M

B M M M

C N N N

D N N N

X X

X

X X

X X X

X X X X

X X X

X X X X

'

= 1

1

1

1

1

=

1

1

!

1

=

1

1

1

1

= 1

1+

!

!

!

!

(4)

Establishing the equality G(j

i

)=T(

i

) and separating the

real part and the imaginary one, new equations are obtained. If

q is odd, these equations are presented by (5); otherwise, they

are presented by (6).

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

1 Real part

1

1 Imaginary part

q

q

q

q

q

i i i i i i

q

i i

q

i i i i i i

q

i i

A C X Y D

Y

B C Y X D

X

X X X X X X

X X

X X X X X X

X X

' l

1

1 l

l

1

1

1

1

=

1

1

!

1 l

1

l 1 l

1

1

1

= 1

1+

(5)

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

2

2

2

2

1

1 Real part

1

1 Imaginary part

q

q

q

q

q

i i i i i i

q

i i

q

i i i i i i

q

i i

A D Y X C

X

B D X Y C

Y

X X X X X X

X X

X X X X X X

X X

' l

1

l 1 l

1

1

1

= 1

1

1

!

1 l

1

l

l 1

1

1

1

=

1

1+

(6)

B. Solution for an over-determined system

The equations described by (5) or (6) are often over-

determined since the number of the measurement points

i

is

normally much larger than the number of unknowns in the

target rational function. Therefore, least-square technique is

used to solve the equations. In order to obtain the least-square

solution of the equations, classical methods like Gaussian

Elimination or LU factorization can be applied by solving the

normal equation of the system [20]. However, this leads to

large error because the system of (5) or (6) is often ill-

conditioned. An alternative method consists in employing the

QR factorization, of which the Householder transformation

[21] is a commonly used one. This method is numerically

stable but has a cost in terms of computing time.

C. RFA for passive components identification

For passive components, equivalent circuits can be

described by rational functions so RFA can be used to firstly

approximate their coefficients and then to deduce the values of

the elements in the equivalent circuits. To determine all the

elements of the equivalent circuit (Fig.2), the three

measurement configurations (Table I) have to be realized and

impedance measurement data are obtained on 300 points from

40Hz to 110MHz. For the RFA calculation, the Householder

method is adopted and a program is implemented in Matlab

in

order to realize the automatic parameter identification. The

Fig.3 describes the whole identification process using RFA.

Figure 3. Rational Function Approximation for component identification

D. Detailed calculation for Z

Y

configuration

The measurement configuration Z

Y

(Table I) is firstly

described to detail the calculation process. The equivalent

circuit of Z

Y

configuration is presented on Fig.4 with the

relations shown in (7):

Figure 4. Measurement configuration ZY and its equivalent circuit

( )

* * *

1 1

1 3 2 2

* *

1

2

2 ; ;

2 ;

Y m m Y f

n n n n

C C C L L R R

C C R R

= = =

= =

(7)

It should be noticed that, in this configuration, the leakage

parameters are negligible in comparison with the magnetizing

inductance. The impedance Z

Y

can then be written as in (8),

with M

2

, M

1

, N

2

, N

1

and N

0

linked to the component values (9).

The goal of the RFA is to find the best M

i

and N

i

for

minimizing error between Z

Y

and Z

meas

(10). Substituting s by

j, real part and imaginary one are separated [18]. This leads to

equation (11). The obtained system can finally be represented

by matrix (12), depending on the frequencies. Using the

Householder transformation, this over-determined system can

be solved to get the values of M

i

and N

i

.

2

2 1

3 2

2 1 0

2 1 2

* * * * * * * * *

1 0

* * * * * * * * *

with

1 1 1 1 1 1

; ; ;

1 1 1 1

;

Y

Y n n Y n n Y n Y

Y m Y n n Y m n n

M s M s

Z

s N s N s N

M M N

C R C C R C C R R

N N

C L R R C C L R C

=

1

= = =

( )

1

= =

( )

(8)

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

*

2

1 *

0

1

1 2 0 *

2

1 1

1

2 1 1 2 0 *

2 2

2 1 2 1

2

2 1 2 2 0 *

2 3

1 2 1 1

1

1

Y

m

Y

n

n

C

M

M

L

N

N M N

R

M M

N M N M N

R

M M M M

N N M M N

C

M M M M

'

1

1

= 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 =

1

1

1

1

1

l

11

l = !

1 l

l 1

1

1

1 l

1

l = 1

1

l

1 l

1

1

1

1

1 =

1

1

1+

(9)

2

2 1

3 2

2 1 0

Y n n meas

M s M s

Z x jy Z

s N s N s N

= ~ =

(10)

2 2 3

2 2 1 0

2 3

1 2 1 0

Real

Imaginary

n n n n n n n n

n n n n n n n n

M x N y N x N y

M y N x N y N x

X X X X

X X X X

' = 1

1

1

!

1

=

1

1+

(11)

2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2

2

1

2 2

2

2

1 1 1 1 1 1

1

2

2 2 2 2 2 2

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

0

n n n n n n

n n n n n n

x y x

x y x

M

M

x y x

N

y x y

N

y x y

N

y x y

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

1

( )

# # # # #

# # # # #

3

1 1

3

2 2

3

3

1 1

3

2 2

3

n n

n n

y

y

y

x

x

x

X

X

X

X

X

X

1

=

)

( )

#

#

(12)

E. Detailed calculation for Z

X

configuration

The equivalent circuit of Z

X

measurement configuration is

shown on Fig.5. The correspondence of the parameters

between Fig.2 and Fig.5 is presented by (13). Similar to Z

Y

, the

impedance Z

X

can be expressed by a rational function, as

shown in (14). The relations between the rational function and

the equivalent circuit are given in (15).

Figure 5. Measurement configuration ZX and its equivalent circuit

( )

* * *

1 1

1 2 2 2

* * *

1 1 1

2 2 2

2 ; ; ;

; ;

X X p f f

s s d d d d

C C C R R L L

R R L L R R

= = =

= = =

(13)

2

2 1 0

3 2

2 1 0

* * * * *

2 1 0

* * * * * * * *

* * *

2

* * * * *

* * * *

1

* * * * * *

with

1 1

; ; ;

1

;

1

X

d d s s d

X X f d f f d X

d d s

f d f X X

d s X d

X X f f f d

M s M s M

Z

s N s N s N

R R R R R

M M M

C C L L L L L C

R R R

N

L L L C R

R R R R R

N

C R L L L L

=

1

= = =

( )

=

1

=

( )

* *

* *

* * * *

0

* * * *

;

s d

f d

s d X d

f d X X

R

L L

R R R R

N

L L C R

=

(14)

( )

( )

( )

*

2

2

2 *

2 2 1

1 2

2 1 2 0 1 *

2 2 1 2 2 1 2

*

0 *

* *

2 0 0

1 0 * * * * *

0

*

2

* *

2 *

*

0

1

X

X

f

X

s

X X

d f f X s

X

s d

d

f

C

M

M

R

N M M

M N M M M

L

N M M N M M M

M R

R

M C N R M

M M

R L N L C R

M R

R R M

L

L M

'

1

= 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

= 1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1 =

1

1 ( )

1

1

!

1

= 1

1 1

=

( ( ) )

=

+

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

(15)

IV. APPLICATION OF THE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION

A. Planar common mode inductor

The method introduced in this paper has been tested for a

planar common mode inductor made of 3F4 ferrite magnetic

material. The approximation is realized according to the

procedures presented previously. The component and its

equivalent circuit parameters are displayed in Table II. The

equivalent circuit is simulated with Pspice

software and

comparison between measurement and simulation results are

illustrated in Fig.6, Fig.7 and Fig.8. It should be noted that the

three configurations chosen (Z

0

, Z

CC

and Z

3

) are different from

those which are used for parameter identification (Z

X

, Z

Y

and

Z

C0

).

TABLE II. PLANAR COMMON MODE INDUCTOR

Component Parameter Value Parameter Value

Lm 370 H Ld 20 nH

Rf 2.2 M Rd 600 m

Cn 2.9 pF C1 7.5 pF

Rn 12.3 k C2 9.3 pF

Lf 600 nH C3 7.3 pF

Rs 150 m Rp 2 k

It can be observed that the simulated results are in good

agreement with the impedance measurements up to 30MHz.

The difference between the simulations and measurements at

high frequency is due to the equivalent circuit topology, which

is insufficient for describing HF performance (>30MHz in this

case) of the component. A more complex topology [11] can be

adopted for better modeling this HF effect. However, it is out

of the concern of this paper.

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

10

0

10

2

10

4

Frequency (Hz)

I

m

p

e

d

a

n

c

e

M

o

d

u

l

e

(

O

h

m

)

Measurement

Simulation

Figure 6. Comparison of measurement and simulation for Z0 impedance

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

10

-1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

Frequency (Hz)

I

m

p

e

d

a

n

c

e

M

o

d

u

l

e

(

O

h

m

)

Measurement

Simulation

Figure 7. Comparison of measurement and simulation for ZCC impedance

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

10

-1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

10

5

Frequency (Hz)

I

m

p

e

d

a

n

c

e

M

o

d

u

l

e

(

O

h

m

)

Measurement

Simulation

Figure 8. Comparison of measurement and simulation for Z3 impedance

B. Toroidal common mode inductor

The same measurement and identification procedures

have been carried out on another example: a toroidal common

mode inductance with N30 ferrite magnetic material. In this

case, a more complicated circuit is used for describing more

precisely the variation of Z

l

(Fig.2) with frequency, as shown

in Fig.9. The obtained parameters are listed in Table III.

Though the capacitance C

1

is spotted to be negative, the real

measurable capacitances (C

1

+C

2

) and (C

1

+C

3

) remain positive.

Figure 9. Zl with more Rd-Ld cells

TABLE III. TOROIDAL COMMON MODE INDUCTOR

Component Parameter Value Parameter Value

Lm 2.6 mH Ld1 103 nH

Rf 7.2 k Rd1 186 m

Cn 4.2 pF Ld2 464 nH

Rn 14 k Rd2 115 m

Lf 15 H C1 -0.4 pF

Rs 9 m C2 4.6 pF

Rp 9.1 k C3 4.6 pF

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

10

-2

10

0

10

2

10

4

Frequency (Hz)

R

e

a

l

(

Z

x

)

(

O

h

m

)

Measurement

Simulation

Figure 10. Comparison of measurement and simulation for Real(ZX)

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

Frequency (Hz)

I

m

p

e

d

a

n

c

e

M

o

d

u

l

e

(

O

h

m

)

Measurement

Simulation

Figure 11. Comparison of measurement and simulation for Z0 impedance

10

2

10

4

10

6

10

8

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

Frequency (Hz)

I

m

p

e

d

a

n

c

e

M

o

d

u

l

e

(

O

h

m

)

Measurement

Simulation

Figure 12. Comparison of measurement and simulation for ZCC impedance

The simulated AC resistance variation of Z

X

is compared

with measurement in Fig.10. It is observed that the simulated

curve agrees well with the measured one, which proves the

effectiveness of the equivalent circuit and the approximation.

The Fig.11 and Fig.12 show the comparison results of Z

0

and

Z

CC

. For Z

0

, the difference between the two curves from 200

kHz to 2 MHz is due to the limit of the equivalent circuit

topology (Z

m

in Fig.2), which can not give a precise portrait of

the behavior of the N30 ferrite core. Again, it should be

mentioned that a correct and effective equivalent circuit

topology is always indispensable for identifying a component.

C. Some discussion on the results

Loss modeling

In this work, the capacitances are considered lossless and

constant, which is not true in reality. For a more accurate loss

modeling, a ladder circuit (Fig.13) can be used to represent the

dielectric loss. Similarly, the module Z

l

used in this work can

also be extended by adding more R

d

-L

d

cells. However, the

trade-off between the precision of modeling and the

complexity of calculation should always be considered.

C R

C

d1

C

d3

C

d2

R

d1

R

d2

R

d3

Figure 13. Ladder circuit for modeling the dielectric loss

Passivity issue of RFA

In circuit network theory, the passivity of a component or

a network requires that the component or network does not

generate any energy. Normally, the applied program of RFA

can not ensure the passivity of the calculated rational function

[19], so a passivity test program is always necessary.

Nevertheless, as the final representation of the component in

this work is the passive module with R, L and C elements,

the passivity of the circuit is naturally guaranteed if right

values of the elements are given.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper, an automatic identification process for

passive component equivalent circuit has been presented. The

method is based on impedance measurements, combined with a

Rational Function Approximation algorithm. Two magnetic

components have been tested for validating the effectiveness of

the method and simulations results have been compared with

the measurement data. The comparisons show that the method

allows extracting correctly the predefined equivalent circuit of

a component. The use of such tool is very interesting for

validating power inductive component.

REFERENCES

[1] Keradec, J.-P.; , "Validating the power loss model of a transformer by

measurement - Validation is key," IEEE Industry Applications

Magazine, vol.13, no.4, pp.42-48, July-Aug. 2007.

[2] Yongtao Han; Eberle, W.; Yan-Fei Liu; , "A Practical Copper Loss

Measurement Method for the Planar Transformer in High-Frequency

Switching Converters," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,

vol.54, no.4, pp.2276-2287, Aug. 2007.

[3] Bowman, J.K.; Cascio, R.F.; Sayani, M.P.; Wilson, T.G.; , "A

calorimetric method for measurement of total loss in a power

transformer," Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 1991. PESC '91

Record., 22nd Annual IEEE , vol., no., pp.633-640, 24-27 Jun 1991.

[4] Ferrigno, L.; Liguori, C.; Pietrosanto, A.; , "Measurements for the

characterization of passive components in non-sinusoidal conditions,"

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol.51, no.6,

pp. 1252- 1258, Dec 2002.

[5] Ferrigno, L.; Laracca, M.; Pietrosanto, A.; , "Measurement of Passive R,

L and C Components Under Nonsinusoidal Conditions: The Solution of

Some Case Studies," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and

Measurement, vol.57, no.11, pp.2513-2521, Nov. 2008

[6] Margueron, X.; Keradec, J.-P.; , "Design of Equivalent Circuits and

Characterization Strategy for n-Input Coupled Inductors," IEEE

Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.43, no.1, pp.14-22, Jan.-feb.

2007.

[7] Agilent Impedance Measurement Handbook A guide to measurement

technology and techniques 4th Edition, Agilent Technologies, June

2009, 5950-3000.

[8] Prabhakaran, S.; Sullivan, C. R.; Impedance-Analyzer Measurement of

High-Frequency Power Passives: Techniques for High Power and Low

Impedance, IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, pp.

13601367, Oct.2002.

[9] Margueron, X.; Keradec, J.P.; , "Identifying the Magnetic Part of the

Equivalent Circuit of n-Winding Transformers," Instrumentation and

Measurement, IEEE Transactions on , vol.56, no.1, pp.146-152, Feb.

2007.

[10] Cogitore, B.; Keradec, J.P.; Barbaroux, J.; , "The two-winding

transformer: an experimental method to obtain a wide frequency range

equivalent circuit," Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE

Transactions on , vol.43, no.2, pp.364-371, Apr 1994.

[11] Schellmanns, A.; Berrouche, K.; Keradec, J.-P.; , "Multiwinding

transformers: a successive refinement method to characterize a general

equivalent circuit," Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE

Transactions on , vol.47, no.5, pp.1316-1321, Oct 1998.

[12] Erickson, R.W.; Maksimovic, D.; , "A multiple-winding magnetics

model having directly measurable parameters," Power Electronics

Specialists Conference, 1998. PESC 98 Record. 29th Annual IEEE ,

vol.2, no., pp.1472-1478 vol.2, 17-22 May 1998.

[13] Hayes, J.G.; O'Donovan, N.; Egan, M.G.; , "The extended T model of

the multiwinding transformer," Power Electronics Specialists

Conference, 2004. PESC 04. 2004 IEEE 35th Annual , vol.3, no., pp.

1812- 1817 Vol.3, 20-25 June 2004.

[14] Besri, A.; Chazal, H.; Keradec, J.-P.; , "Capacitive behavior of HF

power transformers: Global approach to draw robust equivalent circuits

and experimental characterization," Instrumentation and Measurement

Technology Conference, 2009. I2MTC '09. IEEE , vol., no., pp.1262-

1267, 5-7 May 2009.

[15] Agilent 4294A Precision Impedance Analyser-Operation Manual,

Agilent Technologies.

[16] Besri, A.; Chazal, H.; Keradec, J.-P.; Margueron, X.; , "Using

confidence factor to improve reliability of wide frequency range

impedance measurement. Application to H.F. transformer

characterization," Instrumentation and Measurement Technology

Conference, 2009. I2MTC '09. IEEE , vol., no., pp.104-109, 5-7 May

2009.

[17] Kotny, J.-L.; Margueron, X.; Idir, N.; , "High frequency modeling

method of EMI filters," Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition,

2009. ECCE 2009. IEEE , vol., no., pp.1671-1678, 20-24 Sept. 2009.

[18] Elzinga, M.; Virga, K.L.; Zhao, L.; Prince, J.L.; , "Pole-residue

formulation for transient simulation of high-frequency interconnects

using householder LS curve-fitting techniques," IEEE Transactions on

Advanced Packaging, vol.23, no.2, pp.142-147, May 2000.

[19] Elzinga, M.; Virga, K.L.; Prince, J.L.; , "Improved global rational

approximation macromodeling algorithm for networks characterized by

frequency-sampled data," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and

Techniques, vol.48, no.9, pp.1461-1468, Sep 2000.

[20] Matthews K.R.; , "Elementary Linear Algebra, University of Queens

land", Feb 2010, available online: http://www.numbertheory.org

[21] Steve Marschner; , "QR factorization and orthogonal transformations",

CS322 Lecture Notes, Cornell University, 2-5 March 2007

- Sample Paper1Uploaded bySubbaraju Gv
- 5. Questions & Answers on Inductance, Capacitance, And Mutual InductanceUploaded bykibrom atsbha
- Bits On Magnetic CircuitsUploaded bySudheerKumar
- Earthing TransformersUploaded byjitendrakmr593
- EmiUploaded byAkshat Kumar Agarwal
- NCERT - 6 gcUploaded byLONE WOLF
- 20074281162167401Uploaded byapi-3708141
- Resource Pack.ac TheoryUploaded byiirshad
- ritUploaded bysankalptiwari
- 2010 11 PotM Negative Dissipation Factor P 09064 EUploaded byAnil Panjani
- Advanced Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic InductionUploaded byba27
- Wijdeven Corporate EnUploaded bypanda_x07
- Week _ 07 Fall 2011 Ee402 AaUploaded byOwais Ahmed
- P563Uploaded byPravin Mevada
- FÓRMULAS DE REACTORESUploaded byJose Alberto Rodriguez
- 2Uploaded byasr2972
- jid196052aUploaded byFelp Scholz
- Rigorous Network and Full-Wave Electromagnetic Modeling of Wireless Power Transfer LinksUploaded byshahab kashani
- IE Pyramid PaperUploaded byAyman Elgharabawy
- Optimizing Efficiency in HF Tube Welding ProcessUploaded byIgor Correa
- xu2011Uploaded byOmarFaruqe
- cta rubricUploaded byapi-313716520
- 131204141-How-to-Build-Your-Own-Effects-Guitar-Electronics-Schematics.pdfUploaded byCheryl Chuck
- Alternative Current (1)Uploaded byKshitij
- Power Chapter 2Uploaded byAdisu
- Basic Networ1Uploaded byvinayak
- Distance Relays FundamentalsUploaded byUdit Ojha
- TransformersUploaded byShrinil Desai
- Worksheet Class XII Physics (2)Uploaded byaayush619_com3918
- FisikaUploaded byyohana 00

- ExP 4 frequency modulation ee240Uploaded byAiman Yusof
- CS4495-05-CameraModelUploaded byMehmet Akif Alper
- IO Journal Vol2Iss2 0210Uploaded byshakes21778
- Data Guard11gUploaded byanand
- 8.1.2Uploaded bytarga
- UDK HotKey Reference - IpremsUploaded byTimothy Stockholm
- 734_ERP607_Process_Overview_EN_XX.pdfUploaded byArt Sittipat
- Mobile ComputingUploaded bypinakinayak
- Operations Management - BenchmarkingUploaded byPeter Kowalski K
- Gts for Kumarswamy Iron Ore ProjectUploaded byBiswajit Sarkar
- Chaos theory for people development in 21st centuryUploaded byViet-Anh Do Quoc
- Teen Chat Room Acronyms, Internet Texting Slang Used by Kids and TeensUploaded bybwguinness
- Speakout Vocabulary Extra Pre-Intermediate Unit 11Uploaded byshasha1982
- Check BookUploaded byMarwa Ghoz
- m340 Customer PresentationUploaded byAndria Sugiyono
- [IJCST-V6I5P16]:Zain Amjed, Akmal RehanUploaded byEighthSenseGroup
- ThinFilm_XRDUploaded byWagner Anacleto
- Basic EE experiment 4.docxUploaded byAnonymous D9KWDuxd2d
- lab 2Uploaded byMd Assad
- PASS PAPER03_4_jun_webUploaded byOsaigbovo Timothy
- Kobi-IP-TVI-SDI-User-Manual.pdfUploaded byJosh Christensen
- How to Download on GloVis.usgs.GovUploaded byRegi Ramdhani
- 30 Gorgeous Web Safe Fonts to Use With CSSUploaded byl_rockgothstar2295
- KPSC Assistant Engineer (AE) Electrical Previous Question Paper 2011 Downlo(1)Uploaded byAnonymous SZDGk7SvG
- Automated Backup Solution for Uponor North AmericaUploaded bydannoxyz
- What is Router BoardUploaded byKaushal Shrestha
- Esp32 Technical Reference Manual EnUploaded byr.veenaa
- Compound Nouns (Future Internet Book)Uploaded byh3lls4int
- Deleuze and the Use of the Genetic Algorithm in ArchitectureUploaded bynkint
- Twitter in K-8 Classroom- Globally Connected LearningUploaded bySilvia Rosenthal Tolisano

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.