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# Step 4: Identify Teaching and Learning Strategies Gagne's model of instructional design works well for this unit.

The steps of his model are easy to follow and will help enhance the learning experience. Gagne's model is based on nine-step process that results in the children being successful. Along the way, the learner's are provided feedback, which will help ensure they are on track. Step 1: Gaining Attention: When designing a lesson, teachers should gain their student's attention to get them interested in the lesson (Kearsley, 2011). Good ways to gain attention would include: telling a hair raising story, sharing a surprising statistic, asking a provocative question, reading an engaging story, or showing a film clip. On the first day of our unit on matter the children would watch a Brainpop Jr. movie on matter. This would gain their attention and get them excited for the upcoming unit. Step 2: Informing learner of the objective: Gagne believes children should know the objective for the lesson being presented, so they can understand what is expected of them (Kearsley, 2011). After the children watch the Brainpop Jr. video, they will be introduced to the objectives for our lesson. There is a whiteboard at the front of our classroom and the learning objectives will be displayed on this board. They will be written in an "I can" format. These objects would be reviewed at the end of each day and frequently referred to throughout the unit. y I can explain how water changes from a liquid to a solid. y I can identify objects that are solids, liquids, or gases. y I can describe the differences between solids, liquids, and gases. Step 3: Stimulating Recall of Prior Learning Experiences: According to Gagne, students learn best when they content is centered around what they already know (Kearsley, 2011). The second day of our unit will begin by connecting the new material to what the children already know. The teacher will ask the learners, "What happens to puddles on really cold days?" The class will discuss what they have observed in their own lives. The teacher will also show the students a glass of water and a rock. The teacher will have the student's use their prior knowledge to tell about the similarities and differences in the two pieces of matter. Step 4: Presenting the Stimulus: During this step the new information is presented, the teacher should make sure to introduce the content that is similar at the same time. This will allow the children to chunk it and organize it in their brains (Lever-Duffy, 2011). Over the next few days, the new content will be introduced in a variety of ways. The children will be reading from their science books, completing

experiments that relate to the content, and doing online simulations to add to the curriculum. The children will be learning about solids, liquids, gases, and how matter changes. Step 5: Providing Learner Guidance: Teachers should provide the learners with guidance throughout the unit to encourage student learning (Kearsley, 2011). Some examples would include: providing examples and non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies. Throughout the learning activities, the teacher will be available to guide students thinking and learning. For example, as the students are completing their experiments they will create a matter museum. In the museum will be examples and non-examples of each of the different kinds of matter. The teacher will also be available to assist in answering questions, moving children in the right direction who are off task or moving in the wrong direction, and will provide them with stepby-step instructions for the experiments and investigations. Step 6: Eliciting Performance: During this step, the learners practice the skills being taught. The learners need to prove they understand what is being taught (Kearsley, 2011). The more the learner does something, the more likely they will retain it. There will be checkpoints throughout the lesson, where students will be able to prove they understand what has been taught. For example, after reading the text about solids, liquids, and gases, the students will go to the lab and do a sorting activity. They will have to sort 10 objects into the correct category of matter. This will allow them to show the teacher they understand the differences. After each experiment, there will be some reflection questions to help the learners prove what they have learned. Step 7: Providing Feedback: Teacher should provide specific and immediate feedback as the children are practicing the skill (Lever-Duffy, 2011). The most effective way to provide feedback, in my opinion, is through verbal conversation. The teacher should be constantly circling the room during experiments and learning opportunities and let students know if they are on the right track. In addition to this verbal feedback, children will be completing exit slips at the end of each day. The teacher will then respond to what the child wrote. We will also use the activities on the Promethean board. You are able to do a quick quiz and see the results. This will allow the teacher to see who understands the material, and it will also tell the children if they are doing what is expected. If a child isn't, then the teacher will have a separate conference with that child or small group to help reteach a skill that wasn't mastered and understood. Step 8: Assessing Performance: An assessment should be done solely by the student. There should not be any guidance during this step (Kearsley, 2011). Mastery is expected, which is anywhere from and 80-90%. The assessment that will be given at the end of our unit on matter is the Chapter 8 science test. The test will cover all material that was taught throughout the matter unit. The majority of the test will be multiple choice, and there will be

just one open response question. The children will take the test individually. The test will be scored and graded by the teacher. The students will be expected to score and 80-90% on the test. Step 9: Enhancing Retention & Transfer: Students should take what they have learned and be able to apply it to the real world (Kearsley, 2011). There will be an open response question on the test. This question will ask the students to apply what they have learned to the real world. The test asks them, if they built a snowman and the next day the sun came out, what would happen to their snowman? The children have to take what they learned about solids turning to liquids and apply it in this real world situation. In addition, after the test if over the teacher will discuss with the students how what they learned in this chapter relates to the real world. They will discuss what happens to popsicles on a warm day, ice cream after its been sitting for awhile, puddles on a cold day, a glass of water that has been left out for awhile, etc. Throughout planning this unit, Bruer's model of learning will able be incorporated. He believes that children can learn through simulations and bringing science topics to them that they can actually experience. This idea will be implemented throughout the unit.