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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System

ANNUAL REPORT

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Ministry of Interior

Ministry of Health

Ministry of Public Works and Transport

Handicap International Belgium

Notice: This report may be freely reviewed, abstracted, reproduced or translated in part or in whole, but not for the purposes of sale. Website: www.roadsafetycambodia.info

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................................... i List of Figures .......................................................................................................................................................... iii Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................................... iv Foreword ................................................................................................................................................................... v Note from the Ministry of Public Work and Transport and National Road Safety Committee .......................... v Note from the Minister of Health ...................................................................................................................... vi Note from the Ministry of Interior .................................................................................................................... vii Note from World Health Organization ............................................................................................................ viii Note from Handicap International Belgium ...................................................................................................... ix Executive Summary.................................................................................................................................................. x Key figures ........................................................................................................................................................ x Recommendations .......................................................................................................................................... xii I. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................1 II. Data Source ...........................................................................................................................................................2 III. Main evolution of data .........................................................................................................................................3 IV. General Figures ...................................................................................................................................................6 IV.1 Regional and National Comparisons .........................................................................................................6 IV.2 Victim Information ......................................................................................................................................7 IV.2.1 Age ...................................................................................................................................................8 IV.2.2 Gender .............................................................................................................................................9 IV.2.3 Occupation .................................................................................................................................... 10 IV.2.4 Type of road user .......................................................................................................................... 11 IV.2.5 Transfer to hospital ....................................................................................................................... 12 IV.2.6 Severity of injuries......................................................................................................................... 13 IV.2.7 Nature of injuries ........................................................................................................................... 14 IV.2.8 Seatbelt ......................................................................................................................................... 14 IV.3 Crash information ................................................................................................................................... 15 IV.3.1 Hit and Run ................................................................................................................................... 15 IV.3.2 Type of collision ............................................................................................................................ 15 IV.3.3 Type of road .................................................................................................................................. 17 IV.3.4 Characteristic of road .................................................................................................................... 18 IV.3.5 Urban/rural area ............................................................................................................................ 19 IV.4 Vehicle involved Information .................................................................................................................. 19 IV.4.1 Type of vehicle involved................................................................................................................ 19 IV.4.2 Manoeuvre of vehicle .................................................................................................................... 20 IV.4.3 Characteristics of vehicle .............................................................................................................. 20 IV.5 Causes of crashes .................................................................................................................................. 21 V. Motorbike riders and helmet wearing ............................................................................................................. 23 VI. Speed related .................................................................................................................................................... 29 VII. Drunk Driving................................................................................................................................................... 34 VIII. Pedestrians ..................................................................................................................................................... 39 IX. Blackspot .......................................................................................................................................................... 44 IX.1 Phnom Penh ........................................................................................................................................... 44 IX.2 Kampong Cham...................................................................................................................................... 44 IX.3 Kandal .................................................................................................................................................... 46 IX.4 Siem Reap .............................................................................................................................................. 48 Tables ..................................................................................................................................................................... 49 1. Evolution of data during the years ............................................................................................................. 49 2. Trend of population, registered vehicles, and fatalities by years ............................................................... 51 3. Number of fatalities by national roads and years ...................................................................................... 51 4. Number of fatalities per kilometre by national roads and years ................................................................ 51 5. Number of fatalities in the whole country by month category and years ................................................... 52 6. Number of fatalities in Phnom Penh by month category and years. ......................................................... 52 7. Number of fatalities in Phnom Penh by district and years. ........................................................................ 52 8. Number of fatalities by age category and years. ....................................................................................... 53 9. Number of fatalities by type of transportation and years ........................................................................... 53 10. Number of casualties by time category and severity of injury - 2009 ...................................................... 54 i

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

11. Number of fatalities by time and month category - 2009 ......................................................................... 55 12. Number of fatalities by time category and type of transportation - 2009 ................................................. 56 13. Number of casualties by month category and severity of injury - 2009 ................................................... 56 14. Number of casualties by type of transportation, severity of injury and age category - 2009 ................... 57 15. Number of fatalities by type of transportation, gender and age category - 2009 .................................... 58 16. Number of fatalities by type of transportation, road user and age category - 2009 ................................ 59 17. Number of casualties by type of transportation, gender and severity of injury - 2009 ............................ 60 18. Number of casualties by type of transportation, severity of injury and month category - 2009 ............... 61 19. Number of casualties by occupation, severity of injury and month category - 2009 ............................... 62 20. Number of casualties by occupation, severity of injury and age category - 2009 ................................... 63 21. Number of casualties by occupation, type of road user and age category - 2009 .................................. 64 22. Number of casualties by occupation, severity of injury and type of transportation - 2009 ...................... 65 23. Number of casualties by occupation, type of road user and severity of injury - 2009 ............................. 66 24. Number of casualties by province and severity of injury - 2009 .............................................................. 67 25. Number of fatalities by province and month category - 2009 .................................................................. 68 26. Number of fatalities by province and age category - 2009 ...................................................................... 69 27. Number of fatalities by province and type of transportation - 2009 ......................................................... 70 28. Number of fatalities by province and human error - 2009 ....................................................................... 71 29. Number of fatalities by province and years 2006-2009 ........................................................................... 72 30. Data collection forms ............................................................................................................................... 73 31. Feedback form ......................................................................................................................................... 76 Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................. 77 References ............................................................................................................................................................. 80 Contacts ................................................................................................................................................................. 81

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

List of Figures
Figure 1: RCVIS data collection flow in 2009 .............................................................................................................1 Figure 2: Percentage of injured and fatalities reported to RCVIS by traffic police and health facilities 2009 .........2 Figure 3: Number of health centers, hospitals and district traffic police reported to RCVIS by provinces .................2 Figure 4: Evolution of road fatalities, population and vehicles in Cambodia, 1998 2009 (base 100 = 1998) .........3 Figure 5: Fatality rates in Cambodia 1998 2009 and its target for 2010 and 2020 (1) ............................................3 Figure 6: Fatality rates per 10,000 registered two-wheeler and four-wheeler (2), 20072009 ..................................4 Figure 7: Number of fatalities on main national road network, 20072009 ................................................................4 Figure 8: The evolution of the numbers of fatalities by main holidays, 20072009 ...................................................5 Figure 9 The evolution of the numbers of fatalities by month, 2007 2009 ..............................................................5 Figure 10: Fatality rates comparisons between selected countries in Asia 2009 ................................................6 Figure 11: Number of fatalities by province 2009 ....................................................................................................6 Figure 12: Number of fatalities by district in Phnom Penh, 20072009 .....................................................................7 Figure 13: Breakdown of casualties by severity of injury, 20062009 .......................................................................7 Figure 14: Breakdown of road crash cost by severity of injury in 2009 ......................................................................7 Figure 15: Breakdown of fatalities by age category, 2007 2009 ..............................................................................8 Figure 16: Age pyramid of fatalities by daytime and nighttime 2009 .......................................................................8 Figure 17: Percentage injured and fatalities aged between 0-14 by type of transport 2009 ...................................9 Figure 18: Number of fatalities by gender different age categories 2009 ............................................................9 Figure 19: Percentage of casualties by gender caused by human error 2009 .................................................... 10 Figure 20: Percentage of injured and fatalities by occupation 2009 ................................................................... 10 Figure 21: Number of fatalities by type of transportation, 2007 2009 ................................................................... 11 Figure 22: Percentage of casualties by road user type and severity of injury 2009 ............................................. 11 Figure 23: Percentage of casualties by type of transport for different age categories 2009 ................................ 12 Figure 24: Duration to arrive at the hospital in Phnom Penh versus provinces 2009 .......................................... 12 Figure 25: Percentage of casualties by severity of injury 2009 ............................................................................ 13 Figure 26: Percentage of casualties by severity of injuries and time category 2009 ........................................... 13 Figure 27: Percentage of casualties by category of nature of injuries 2009 ........................................................ 14 Figure 28: Percentage of 4-wheeler driver casualties wearing seatbelt 2009 ..................................................... 14 Figure 29: Percentage of 4-wheeler driver using seatbelt by severity of injury 2009........................................... 15 Figure 30: Percentage of crashes and fatalities resulting from hit and runs, 20072009 ....................................... 15 Figure 31: Percentage of fatalities by type of collisions 2009 .............................................................................. 16 Figure 32: Percentage of crash by type of collision and severity of crash 2009 .................................................. 16 Figure 33: Percentage of crash by characteristic of road and type of collision 2009 ........................................... 17 Figure 34: Percentage of crash by human error and type of collision 2009 ......................................................... 17 Figure 35: Percentage of crash by type of road and human error 2009 .............................................................. 18 Figure 36: Percentage of crash and fatalities by characteristic of road 2009 ...................................................... 18 Figure 37: Percentage of crash by severity of crash and characteristic of road 2009 ......................................... 18 Figure 38: Percentage of crashes in urban and rural areas and types of collision 2009 ..................................... 19 Figure 39: Estimated vehicles involved in crashes 2009...................................................................................... 19 Figure 40: Percentage of vehicle involved by type of collision 2009 .................................................................... 20 Figure 41: Percentage of vehicles involved in crash by maneuver of vehicle 2009 ............................................. 20 Figure 42: Percentage of vehicles involved by characteristics of vehicle and severity of crash 2009 ................. 21 Figure 43: Percentage of crash by cause of crashes 2009 .................................................................................. 21 Figure 44: Percentage of crash and fatalities by caused by human error 2009 ................................................... 22 Figure 45: Percentage of crashes during day vs. night caused by human error 2009 ......................................... 22 Figure 46: Percentage of crashes by severity of crash and caused by human error 2009 .................................. 23 Figure 47: Number of motorbike casualties by year and severity of injury 2009 ................................................. 23 Figure 48: Number of motorbike fatalities by day, 2007 2009 .............................................................................. 23 Figure 49: Number of motorbike driver casualties by age category and severity of injury 2009 ......................... 24 Figure 50: Number of motorbike casualties by province and severity of injury 2009 ........................................... 24 Figure 51: Percentage of motorbike fatalities by time category 2009 .................................................................. 25 Figure 52: Percentage of motorbike fatalities that suffered from head injuries, 2007 2009 ................................. 25 Figure 53: Percentage of motorcycle casualties by month category and helmet use 2009 ................................. 26 Figure 54: Percentage of motorcycle casualties by helmet use and daytime and nighttime 2009 ...................... 26 Figure 55: Important locations for motorbike crashes and non-helmet wearing in Phnom Penh 2009 ............... 27 Figure 56: Important locations for motorbike crashes and not wearing helmet in the provinces 2009 ................ 28 Figure 57: Number of casualties by severity of injury caused by Speed-related, 2006 2009 .............................. 29 iii

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Figure 58: Percentage of fatality by time caused by Speed-related 2009............................................................ 29 Figure 59: Number of fatalities by month category caused by Speed-related 2007 2009 ................................... 29 Figure 60: Percentage of casualties by day of week caused by Speed-related 2009 ......................................... 30 Figure 61: Percentage of fatalities by age and type of transportation caused by Speed-related 2009 ............... 30 Figure 62: Number of casualties by province and severity of injury caused by Speed-related 2009 .................. 31 Figure 63: Blackspot locations of fatalities caused by speed-related in Phnom Penh 2009 ............................. 32 Figure 64: Blackspot locations of fatalities caused by speed-related in the provinces 2009 ............................. 33 Figure 65: Number of casualties by severity of injury caused by drunk driving 2009 .......................................... 34 Figure 66: Percentage of fatalities by time caused by drunk driving 2009 ............................................................ 34 Figure 67: Percentage of casualties by day and night caused by drunk driving 2009 .......................................... 34 Figure 68: Percentage of casualties (injured and fatalities) in drunk driving crashes 2009 .................................. 35 Figure 69: Percentage of fatalities by age and type of transportation caused by drunk driving 2009 .................. 35 Figure 70: Number of casualties by province and severity of injury caused by drunk driving 2009 .................... 36 Figure 71: Blackspot location of fatalities caused by drunk driving in Phnom Penh 2009 ................................... 37 Figure 72: Blackspot location of fatalities caused by drunk driving in the provinces 2009 .................................. 38 Figure 73: Number of pedestrian casualties by severity of injury, 20062009........................................................ 39 Figure 74: Number of pedestrian fatalities by time .................................................................................................. 39 Figure 75: Number of pedestrian fatalities by month category, 20072009............................................................ 39 Figure 76: Percentage of pedestrians injured and fatalities by age category 2009 ............................................. 40 Figure 77: Percentage of pedestrian fatalities by age category and location 2009 ............................................. 40 Figure 78: Percentage of pedestrians injured and killed by human error 2009 ................................................... 41 Figure 79: Number of pedestrian casualties by province and severity of injury 2009 .......................................... 41 Figure 80: Blackspot locations for pedestrian casualties in Phnom Penh 2009 .................................................. 42 Figure 81: Blackspot locations for pedestrian casualties in the Province 2009 ................................................... 43 Figure 82: All blackspot locations in Phnom Penh 2009 ...................................................................................... 44 Figure 83: All blackspot locations in Kampong Cham 2009 ................................................................................. 45 Figure 84: All blackspot locations in Kandal 2009 ................................................................................................ 47 Figure 85: All blackspot locations in Siem Reap 2009 ......................................................................................... 48

Abbreviations
ADB ASEAN Avg GPS HIB MoH MoI NR NRSC RCVIS WHO Asian Development Bank Association of South-East Asian Nations Average Global Positioning System Handicap International Belgium Ministry of Health Ministry of Interior National Road National Road Safety Committee Road Crash Victim and Information System World Health Organization

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Foreword
Note from the Ministry of Public Work and Transport and National Road Safety Committee
As the national economy keeps growing, the volume of all modes of transports is also increasing every year. The registered vehicles, up to 2009, have reached almost 1,400,000. Since road users have understood limitedly the Road Traffic Law, contributing to the causes of road crashes, road crash fatalities have increased almost double. On average, 05 persons are killed and another 55 injured every day, irrespective of orphans, widows and people with disability left behind. Of which, they have affected the living hood of citizens, and have contributed negative impacts on poverty reduction policy of the Royal Government. Furthermore, road crashes have posed a burden on financial status of the survived members. To counteract with the current situation, Royal Government of Cambodia and National Road Safety Committee have developed a five-year action plan in phase one 2006-2010 composed of 15 action points and in the progress of developing ten-year action plan in phase two 2011-2020. The phase two action plan is particularly differentiated from the phase one because it is associated with Decade of Actions for Road Safety, in which it is a new strategy addressed in the international inter-ministerial meeting hosted in Moscow, Russia, on November 2009 with the aims to prevent road crashes in an effective manner. In the name of Royal Government and National Road Safety Committee, I would like to appreciate the high efforts and responsibilities of all relevant bodies, authority, non-government organizations and private sector, who are contributing actively in developing the phase two national road safety action plan. We are, through this development, trying with our existing resources to fight against the road crash battle, in which it is occurring alarmingly in Cambodia. I would like to share the achievements, and highly appreciate the engagement from Handicap International Belgium that has been helping and cooperating with Royal Government of Cambodia and National Road Safety Committee conducting traffic law awareness for road users with the aim to bring about change what is called unruly toward rule and courteous behaviour on roads. At last, I would like to call upon, particularly, road users to take part in preventing and minimizing road crashes by ever obeying traffic law. Only a possibly vigorous engagement from road users can accomplish road crash prevention to the lowest level, which was stated in goal of ASEANs action plan. Minister of Ministry of Public Work and Transport and Chairman of National Road Safety Committee Tram Iv Toek

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Note from the Minister of Health


The Ministry of Health has collaborated with the Ministry of Interior, National Road Safety Committee, World Health Organization and Handicap International Belgium to collect all road-crash related and other injury data from hospitals, health centers along the roads across Cambodia. The data has been analyzed and used to develop this national report Road Crash and Victim Information System RCVIS, which will be disseminated to various national institutions and relevant NGOs. The analysis highlighted accurate information of crashes, fatalities, causes of injuries and so on. Coming across the experiences from RCVIS and other injuries, which have been increasing alarmingly and affecting public health, the Ministry of Health has been committed and further extended RCVIS to Injury Surveillance System (ISS) that is currently implemented in Hospitals and Health Centers. Since road crashes remain high in its rate, the Ministry of Health has been vigorous in prevention of injuries and road crashes through public health education at national to grass root level focusing on health impacts caused by injuries and road crashes, road traffic law and correct helmet wearing to sustain life. We are, particularly, improving medical emergency system to achieve a greater quality by equipping health facility and ambulances with medical equipments, and grounding health staffs and traffic police across the country in first aid skill, aiming at saving casualtys lives at the accident scenes before dispatching to hospitals. The Ministry of Health will be fully committed to prevent road crashes and other injures in Cambodia, and continues collaborating with Ministry of Interior, National Road Safety Committee, World Health Organization and Handicap International Belgium on collecting road crash and injuries data for the high benefits of taking immediate interventions and disseminating RCVIS and ISS report to the concerning bodies. The Ministry of Health would like to thank to World Health Organization that have allocated both financial and technical support to the Ministry of Health for implementing its road safety activities to reduce fatalities, disabilities and injuries caused by road crashed and other injuries that impacts public health. It also thanks to Handicap International Belgium that have collaborated with the Ministry of Health on developing and analyzing the data from road crashes and injuries. At last, I would like to wish all road users safety, and appeal for obeying traffic law altogether and wearing helmets and seatbelts correctly any time on the roads. Minister of Ministry of Health HE Dr. Mom Bunheng

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Note from the Ministry of Interior


It is, comparing to vehicle volume, assumed that road crash has been decreased. However, the fatalities, injuries and property damages remain serious. General Commissariat of National Police, under the leading of Prime Minister Hun Sen and Ministry of Interior, has vigorously enforced and made awareness of Road Traffic Law across the nation. Achievements accomplished from these efforts are the behavior change of road users to adhere the culture of Traffic Law obeying, helmet wearing, rear vision mirrors and number plate installing, seatbelt sustaining, traffic sign obeying, vehicle technicality inspecting and so on. Speed-related and drink driving, the contributors to road crashes, meanwhile, are also forcefully prevented. Education and awareness on traffic law and recommendations from the premier are conducted and disseminated accordingly by various channels. And in which, road safety related private sector such as good and passenger transport commercial, gas companies, driving schools, beverage companies and public have been motivated to obeying the traffic law and push forwards to achieve road safety. A smooth cooperation between national and international stakeholders, in cash and in kind, is also strongly made, in which contributing to road safety improving in Cambodia. The actions taken are significant components in reducing road crashes and improving traffic order, so as to gain public support. And, it is an evident of profound commitments with the sense of responsibility from General Commissariat of National Police. On behalf of the Management of General Commissariat of National Police, I would express a sincere appreciation towards traffic police force and that towards national and international agencies, private sector and general public who have enthusiastically involved in achieving road safety. General Commissariat of National Police would like to take this opportunity to appeal to the general public for obeying Traffic Law, adhering courtesy and saving lives to create safety for all.

General Commissioner of National Police General, Neth Savoeun

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Note from World Health Organization


Deaths and injures caused by road traffic crashes is one of the major disease burdens in the world as reported recently in the WHO Global Status Report on Road Safety. Every year, over 1.27 million people die due to traffic accidents and another 50 million people are injured. Road traffic casualties cover all age groups especially the young population and most of them are in developing countries. In recent years, due to rapid economic growth and urbanization, the number of motor vehicles in Cambodia has also increased rapidly. Road traffic accidents leading to deaths and injuries are alarming and among the highest in this region. According to the Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS) annual report, in 2009 there were 1,717 people died and 19,139 injured from road traffic crashes. This means that more than 4 people die on the road everyday. WHO applauds the continued commitment of the Royal Government of Cambodia in road traffic safety in the country. WHO is working closely with relevant government counterparts and partners to develop programmes and activities to reduce fatalities, injuries and diabilities caused by road traffic crashes. These include the National Road Safety Committee (NRSC), Ministry of Health (MOH), Ministry of Interior (MOI), Ministry of Public Work and Transport (MPWT), the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS), Handicap International Belgium (HIB), Cambodian Red Cross (CRC) and Japan International Coopertation Agency (JICA) and Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP). In 2009, we have put efforts on capacity building, promote public awareness, and stringent enforcement on helmet wearing, drink-driving, Speed-related, overloading, and other risk of factors. We start to see some improvements. In 2009, the fatality rate per 10,000 registered vehicles has decreased from 15.1 to 12.3. The helmet wearing rate has increased significantly from 45% before enforcement date in January 2009 to 65% at the end of 2009. For this, it is important to maintain reliable road accident data system to monitor trends, prioritize public health issues, and setup effective measure for road safety interventions. We believe that the continuation of good coordination and collaboration across the government, development partners,, and civil society will lead to a successful results and more tangible outputs in reducing road traffic crashes in the country. Finally, WHO is committed to provide continuous technical assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia on road safety programmes and the necessary interventions to ensure the achievement of national objectives and targets for preventing road traffic fatalities, injuries and disabilities in Cambodia.

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Note from Handicap International Belgium


Road safety is a critical issue in Cambodia. The number of road crashes, fatalities and disabilities is still alarming. Over the last five years, the number of crashes increased by 217% and the number of fatalities almost doubled. Road crashes disproportionately affect the most vulnerable. Almost 90% of road crash casualties are motorbike riders, pedestrians and bicyclists. Although the fatality rate per 10,000 registered vehicles has reduced, compared to 2008, the absolute number of the fatalities and the rate per 100,000 inhabitants kept increasing. Based on the research study on the cost of road crashes, conducted by Handicap International Belgium with technical support from the Institute of Mobility-Hasselt University in Belgium, road crashes in 2009 had an enormous impact on the social and economic welfare of Cambodia with an estimated annual cost of 248 million USD an increase of 135 million USD compared to 2003. Handicap International Belgium, together with our valuable partners the Ministry of Interior (MoI), Ministry of Health (MoH), National Road Safety Committee (NRSC) and World Health Organization (WHO) are proud to present this RCVIS 2009 annual report. It has become a necessary reference for road safety plans, strategies, and has particularly contributed to the development of the 2011-2020 National Road Safety Action Plan. The report clearly highlight the evolution of the road crashes since 2004 and the main risk factors with relevant recommendation on Speed-related, drink driving, vulnerable road users (motorbike riders, pedestrians, bicyclists) and high risk locations on the Cambodian road networks. The report also show the progress in the Cambodian Road Safety interventions, especially the impacts of the law enforcement on helmet wearing, which contributed to the reduction of the head injuries among motorcycle fatalities (86% in 2008 to 76% in 2009). Furthermore, the year 2009 was noted for the significant progress in term of the system handover to our government counterpart, Ministry of Health. The system has extended into the Injury Surveillance System (ISS) under the Ministry of Health structure. Appropriate trainings were organized to assigned staff within the ministry. The ISS database was developed and piloted. Following the commitment from the government and trainings, the system already was set up in Ministry of Interior in early 2010. Thank to our collaboration with the International Road Traffic Accident Database (IRTAD), our system can be upgraded through combining the raw data from police and health facilities. It will be piloted and set up in NRSC at the end of 2010. We would like to express our appreciations to the collaboration and commitment from the government counterparts, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Health and National Road Safety Committee and their staff, who devoted their time in filling each data collection forms and their commitment in managing the system after the handover. Each of them has contributed to the success and recognition of the system in the region as well as worldwide. A particular thankfulness also goes to our generous donors, the Belgian Cooperation and European Union for their continuous support in this critical issue and the publication of this report.

Country Director Jeroen STOL

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Executive Summary
The RCVIS Annual Report 2009 reviews the main road crash trends in Cambodia compared to previous years. In 2009, 21,519 road crash casualties were reported resulting from 12,538 estimated crashes. 1,717 were fatalities (an average of 4.7 fatalities per day) and 7,022 were severely injured. 18,410 estimated vehicles were involved in those crashes. The number of fatalities increased by 4% compared to 2008. The report also shows that over the last 5 years, the number of fatalities has almost doubled while the number of registered motorized vehicles has increased by 142%. Although the fatality rate per 10,000 registered vehicles has decreased from 15.1 in 2008 to 12.3 in 2009, the fatality rate per 100,000 inhabitants has increased from 12.3 in 2008 to 12.7 in 2009. The report clearly shows that the leading causes of road crashes, fatalities, and injuries (potentially leading to disability) are related to speed-related and drunk driving, in combination with low helmet wearing rates, particularly among passengers and children. Almost 70% of fatalities were due to speed-related and drunk driving behaviours. Additionally, more than 70% of motorbike fatalities had head injuries. We believe that road crashes are preventable, and with appropriate interventions fatalities and injuries leading to permanent disability in Cambodia can be reduced. Attention to identifying the most vulnerable road users continues to be a serious concern for the Royal Government of Cambodia and stakeholders. Based on the current report, the majority of fatalities were motorbike riders and pedestrians, representing more than 80% of road crash fatalities. The majority of motorbike fatalities in 2009 were young road users between 15 to 29 years old, while most pedestrians were children and elderly, who are most commonly injured in the afternoon and nighttime hours. Utilizing a Global Positioning System (GPS) database, the report highlights the most dangerous locations for road users and pedestrians. Significantly, the report disaggregates data related to pedestrian/motorbike/vehicle crashes, age groups, and crashes related to speed-related, drunk driving, or other behaviour related risk factors. The locations identified in the report as being at high risk for road users and pedestrians are primarily located along the national Cambodian highways in Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham, and Kandal Provinces. Furthermore, based on the research study, conducted by Handicap International Belgium and the Institute of Mobility Hasselt University in Belgium, road crashes had an enormous impact on the social and economic welfare of Cambodia in 2009. The study estimates the annual economic cost of road crashes in 2009 to equal approximately 248 million USD. This estimation represents an increase of 135 million USD compared to 2003. This report details the key findings of road crashes and casualties, and provides recommendations on how these findings can be used to improve road safety in Cambodia.

Key figures
General figures
In 2009, 21,519 casualties were reported. Among them, 1,717 were fatalities and 7,020 were severe injuries. Compare to 2008, the number of fatalities increased by 5%. Annual economic cost of road crashes in 2009 is equal approximately 248 million USD. This estimation represents an increase of 135 million USD compared to 2003. Over the last 5 years, the number of fatalities has almost doubled. At the same time, the population has increased by 6% and the number of registered motorized vehicles has increased by 142%. There were slight increases in the fatality rate among 100,000 inhabitants from year to year since 2005 (7.1 to 12.7). The number of fatalities during Khmer New Year has increased since 2007. Compared to 2008, the number of fatalities during Pchum Ben increased by 22% and during Khmer New Year by 14%. The highest number of fatalities, severe injuries and superficial injuries occurred during the evening time. A peak was observed between 7pm to 8pm. In the comparison of fatality rates per 10,000 registered vehicles among ASEAN member countries, Cambodia has the highest rate. The peak of fatalities shifted from 25-29 years old in 2007 and 2008 to 20-24 years old in 2009. x

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

The percentages of fatalities by occupation followed a similar pattern as casualties: farmers represented the highest percentage, constituting the larger group of fatalities and injuries (35% of fatalities, 30% of injured), followed by workers and students. 8% of casualties were fatalities and 33% were severe injuries. 58% of those fatalities died immediately at the scene, followed by died at a hospital (35%) and died on the way of transferring to a hospital (7%). Motorcycles made up the vast majority (70%) of vehicles involved in road crashes in 2009, followed by passenger vehicles (15%) and goods vehicles (6%). National roads accounted for a large proportion of total fatalities (68%). Human errors contributed to 97% of crashes. Vehicle defects accounted for around 3.5% and road environment accounted around 2 %.

Motorbike riders and helmet wearing


Around 71% of the fatalities were motorbike riders. Compared to 2008, the numbers of motorbike and pedestrian fatalities increased by 10% and 4% respectively. 76% of motorbike fatalities suffered head injuries in 2009. This percentage of head injuries decreased compared to 2008 (86%) and 2007 (84%). The percentage of casualties wearing a helmet increased from 6% in 2008 to 20% in 2009. The helmet wearing rate among casualties in Phnom Penh was higher than in the provinces (25%, 18%). 36.63% of fatalities were killed in motorcycle and 4-wheeler collisions (passenger and goods vehicles) and another 17.46% in motorcycle-motorcycle collisions.

Speed related crashes


Speed-related was the leading cause of crashes in Cambodia. It represented more than 50% of fatalities, while another 17% were caused by drunk driving. Dangerous overtaking also contributed to a high proportion (12%) among fatalities. The peak of fatalities caused by speed-related was noticed from 6 pm to 8 pm. Phnom Penh was the most affected by road crashes due to speed-related (16%), followed by Siem Reap Province (12%) and Kampong Cham province (9%).

Drunk driving crashes


Most of the fatalities from drunk driving crashes happened from 6pm to 11.59pm. Peaks were observed between 6pm to 8pm. In drunk driving crashes, most of the fatalities were motorbike riders. All of 5-9 year old fatalities were motorbike riders and all of 0-4 year old fatalities were pedestrians.

Pedestrians
13% of fatalities were pedestrians. More than half of them (8% among 13%) were killed by 4-wheel vehicles. Compared to 2008, the number of pedestrian fatalities increased the most in July (60%) and October (38%) but decreased in December (45%). A peak of fatalities was noticed among people older than 55 years (24%), while the percentage of injuries was only 11%. Speed-related was the leading cause of pedestrian injuries and fatalities (61%, 66%).

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Recommendations
Based on the statistics presented in this report and a situational analysis of road safety in the country, key recommendations are presented in this section. Additionally, RCVIS will also provide recommendations based on main risk factors and most vulnerable road user groups. The objective of these recommendations is to contribute to the development of the 2011-2020 National Road Safety Action Plan with particular focus to the development of the helmet wearing, drunk driving and speed-related action plan.

Prioritized Main Risk Factors


1. Speed-related
Speed related road crashes contributed to more than 50% of road crash fatalities in Cambodia in 2009. Driving in excess of the legal speed limit and inappropriate speed for the conditions on the road are the highest risk factor identified by the RCVIS database. A few recommendations should be taken: National action plan on speed-related should be developed to ensure effectiveness of the intervention and cooperation among stakeholders. Public awareness should be enhanced. o The month of April should be specifically targeted as the rate of road crashes increases significantly during the Khmer holiday season. o Young road users, ages 15-29 years old, should be specifically targeted. o Villages along the Cambodian national highways in Kampong Cham, Phnom Penh and Siem Reap provinces should be specifically targeted. Promote to the public in local media, the focus by police on speed compliance/enforcement activity Law enforcement should be enhanced. o Appropriate equipment for speed detection and enforcement should be provided to traffic officers. Training should be provided to give traffic officers the technical skill to utilize modern technological equipment to enforce speed-related laws. o Slow speed areas should be set up, especially around schools to make sure speed are reduced (for example to 30km/h) o Speed checkpoints at the high risk locations below, should be set up to enforce speed-related limits. Checkpoints should be organized from 6 pm to 8 pm during the weekends at the following locations: Phnom Penh o Russian Blvd, Ta Nguon Village, Kakab Communce, Dangkao District, o Conner of Norodom Blvd and street 310, Boeng Keng Kang 1 Communce, Chamkar Mon District, o Street 271, Tumnob Tuek Commune, Chamkar Mon District, Provinces o Street 7Makara, Sangkat 4 commune, Preah Sihanouk Krong, Preah Sihanouk Province o National road 5, Prey Svay, Boeng Khnar, Khnach Romeas, and Daeum Chres Village, Boeng Khnar Commune, Bakan District, Pursat Province o Street Ek Reach, Mondol Pir Village, Sangkat 2 Commune, Preah Sihanouk Krong, Preah Sihanouk Province o National road 5, Baliley Village, Paoy Paet Commune, Paoy Paet Krong, Banteay Meanchey Province o National road 5, Ou Ta Paong Village, Ou Ta Paong Commune, Bakan District, Pursat Province

2. Drunk Driving
Drunk driving is the second leading risk behavior for road crashes and fatalities (13%, 17%). Important actions are recommended below: National action plan for drunk driving should be developed and implemented. xii

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Law enforcement should be enhanced. o Appropriate technical equipment should be provided to traffic officers for detecting drivers who are over the legal drinking limit. Training should be provided to traffic officers to give them the technical skill to utilize modern technological equipment to better enforce drunk driving laws. o Checkpoints should be set up to enforce drinking and driving laws at high risk locations. Checkpoints should be organized from 6pm to 11pm, especially on Saturday and Sunday, at the suggested locations below: Phnom Penh o Russian Blvd, Ta Nguon Village, Kakab Commune, DangKao District, o Street 110, Srah Chak Commune, Doun Penh District, o Corner of street 245 and 93, Boeng Keng Kong 1 Commune, Chamkar Mon District, Provinces o National road 5, Anlong Vil and Beng Village, Anlong Vil Communes, Sangkae Districts, Battambang Province o Provincial road, Phum Ti Muoy Village, Smach Meanchey Commune, Khemarak Phoumin Krong, Koh Kong Province o Minor road, Andoung Pou and La Edth Village, Kampong Pranak Commune, Preah Vihear Krong, Preah Vihear Province o Provincial road, Voat Village, Kracheh Commune, Kracheh Krong, Kratie Province o Street 334, Tarang Bal and Me Phleung Village, Koy Trabaek and Svay Rieng Commune, Svay Rieng Krong, Svay Rieng Province o Provincial road 211, Ta Khmau Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province Public awareness should be enhanced. o Public awareness campaigns should be organized to focus on the drunk driving behaviors of young people aged between 20 and 29 years old. o Drunk driving awareness campaigns should focus on the geographic areas found to be most at risk including: Kampong Cham, Phnom Penh and Siem Reap provinces. Promote to the public in local media, the focus by police on drink driving compliance/enforcement activity.

3. Helmet Wearing
Majority (76%) of motorbike fatalities get head injuries. It is crucial that helmet wearing should be promoted and enforced among motorbike riders. National helmet wearing action plan should be updated and implemented for 2011 onwards. Legislation should be updated: o Revise the traffic law to include mandatory helmet wearing for passengers, particularly among children. o Increase the existing fine for not wearing helmets. Raise public awareness and education: o Organize public campaigns on correct helmet wearing and proper helmet standards. o Increase helmet access (for example, helmet subsidy or helmet loans at schools) Enhanced law enforcement: Set up checkpoints to enforce helmet wearing laws. Checkpoints should be organized from 6pm to 8pm and especially during the weekend among young motorbike riders (16 to 25 years old)

Target Vulnerable Road Users


4. Motorbike riders
Motorbike riders are the most vulnerable road users in Cambodia. They represent 71% of total fatalities. 76% of motorbike crashes result in drivers suffering heard injuries. Important actions are recommended below:

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Develop and implement enhanced law enforcement measures and public awareness campaigns during national holidays, particularly during the Khmer New Year. At least 3 provinces should be prioritized: Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham and Kandal. Create separate motorcycle lanes along national roads and main urban roads Target following areas, which are the highest risk areas among motorbike riders, for enhanced law enforcement and better emergency assistances (as mentioned in the recommendation 7 and 10 below), particularly on Speed-related, Drink Driving and dangerous overtaking, especially on Saturday nights: o Phnom Penh Russian Blvd, at the border of Trapeang Lvea and Ta Nhuon Village, Kakab Commune, Dangkao District Chaom Chau street , at the border of Trapeang Thloeng and Chaom Chau Village, Chaom Chau Commune, Dangkao District, National road 4, at the border of Thnal Bambaek and Prey Pring Village, Chaom Chau Commune, Dangkao District, Conner of the Russian BVLD and street 107, Mittakpheap Commune, 7 Makakra District, At the roundabout (National road 2, Monivong Blvd and Norodom Blvd), Tonle Basak Commune, Chamkar Mon District, Provinces: Ti Muoy Village, Smach Meanchey Commune , Khemarak Phoumin krong, Koh Kong Province Street 7 Makara, Sangkat Buon Commune, Preah Sihanouk Krong, Preah Sihanouk Province National road 6+56, Sampong Svay, Phum Bei and Phum Muoy Village, Kampong Svay, Preah Ponlea Commune, Serei Saophaon Krong, Banteay Meanchey Province Provincial road 22, Spean Thma, Trapeang Proeng, and Kandal Village, Stung Treng Commune, Stung Treng krong , Stung Treng Province Street Ek Reach, Mondol Pir Village, Sangkat Pir Commune, Preah Sihanouk krong, Preah Sihanouk Province

5. Pedestrians
Pedestrians are the second most vulnerable road user group on the Cambodian road network. The most at-risk pedestrian groups are children aged between 0 and 9 years old, accounting for 30% of total pedestrian fatalities, and elderly persons, aged 55 years and above, accounting for 24% of pedestrian fatalities. Key recommends are listed below: Awareness and education concerning safe road behaviors for pedestrians should be developed to target identified high risk age groups (particularly children and elderly). Specific focus should be given to safe crossing behavior and visibility at night. Advanced research studies on pedestrian behavior should be conducted to identify and pilot appropriate intervention strategies for reducing pedestrian injuries and fatalities. Safe School Zones should be developed to promote the safety of students when entering and exiting schools. Safe school zone measures should include increased enforcement of appropriate lower speed limits and ensuring school cross-walks are respected and clearly-marked. Additionally, the concept of the safe school zones should be integrated into the school curriculum. Based on data presenting child pedestrian injuries and fatalities, areas recommended for safe school zone improvement include: o Phnom Penh Street 271, Tumnob Tuek Commune, Chamkar Mon District, Monivong Blvd, border of Wat Phnom and Srah Chak Commune, Doun Penh District, Conner of street 110 and 107, Mittakpheap Commune, 7 Meakkakra District, Monivong Blvd, border of Boeng Trabaek and Boeng Keng Kang 1 Commune, Chamkar Mon District, Provinces: National road 5, in Anlong Vil and Beng Village, Anlong Vil commune, Sangkae District, Battambang Province xiv

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

National road 6, Chong Kausu Village, Sla Kram Commune, Siem Reap Krong, Siem Reap Province National 56, Phum 2 Villages, Kampong Svay and Preah Ponlea Commune, Serei Saophaon Krong, Banteay Meanchey Province National road 7, Andoung Chraoh Village, Ampil Commune, Kampong Siem District, Kampong Cham Province Provincial road, Thmei Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province Pedestrian Infrastructure /facilities such as crosswalks, pedestrian bridges, sidewalks, should be improved in the following areas: National road 5, Kraol Kou Village, Kilomet 6 Commune, Ruessei Kaev District, Phnom Penh Monireth Blvd, Phneat and Damnak Thum Villages, Stung Meanchey Commune, Mean Chey District, Phnom Penh National road 5, at the border of Baliley Village, Paoy Paet Commune, Paoy Paet Krong, Banteay Meanchey A program to lower speed limits and support this with substantial police enforcement should be progressively introduced at higher pedestrian risk locations.

Improve Road Safety Management:


6. Capacity building of the National Road Safety Committee
The National Road Safety Committee (NRSC) is the body tasked with overall management and coordination of road safety in Cambodia. Although an improvement of their capability has been observed in recent years, the NRSC requires continuous information and capacity building to strengthen their ability to make a significant impact on reducing crashes, fatalities and injuries on the roads of Cambodia. 2010-2011 will be crucial years for the development of the NRSC as the committee will be tasked to develop and implement a new 10 year Action Plan for Road Safety in Cambodia. The new action plan will be developed in line with the United Nations decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020. Additionally, prioritized actions should be also put in to support: municipalities in improving their road signage and markings and understanding of crash risk and its treatment the public works department in planning for and providing safer infrastructure

7. Capacity Building and Support to Law Enforcement Police


In addition to supporting the National Road Safety Committees ability to identify priority areas of action and define policy to address these priority needs, the national law enforcement system must also be supported to ensure the full and proper implementation of NRSC policy and action plan. The Royal government of Cambodia, along with all uni-lateral and bi-lateral donors, must prioritize the provision of technical and financial support for traffic police. Specialized equipment and trainings are required to strengthen the capacity of Cambodias police officers and enable their ability to enforce all aspects of the Cambodian traffic law.

8. Driver Training and Licensing


Driving schools are the training grounds for future drivers of Cambodia. Therefore, it is essential that safe driving behavior is instilled in the new generation of Cambodian road users. RCVIS recommends that a rigorous evaluation of the driving schools and driving license system be carried out. The objective of the evaluation should include an assessment of teaching curriculums, teaching practices, and license testing procedures. Furthermore, the driver training curriculum should stress the key behavioral risk factors leading to road crashes in Cambodia and the behaviors necessary to reduce crash risks.

9. Research
Road safety research is critical to improving the knowledge and understanding about contributing factors to road crashes. A body of research should be compiled for the purpose of providing a qualitative understanding of behaviors leading to road crashes. Based on a comprehensive, research-based knowledge foundation, xv

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

evidenced based strategies and policies can be developed, and funds for Road Safety interventions can be more easily obtained. Recommended areas of research include: A sociological assessment of dangerous road behaviors in the context of Cambodia, with a particularly focus on speed-related and drunk driving and measure that would reduce non-compliance with the road laws. The situation analysis of vulnerable road users in Cambodia, with specific focus on motorbike riders, pedestrians, cyclists, children and persons with disability.

As the road safety context in Cambodia is rapidly evolving, steps must be taken to ensure a continuous flow of accurate and comprehensive information to decision-making bodies in Cambodia, specifically the National Road Safety Committee. To ensure that future policies and action plans focusing on road safety are designed with accurate and up to date information, focus should also be placed on developing local researchers with capabilities to conduct ongoing road safety-related research, building upon linkage developed with international university road safety research departments.

10. Emergency Assistance


The report also recommends for more attention from the Royal Government of Cambodia, donors and road safety stakeholders for a better development of an Emergency Medical Services strategy and action plan coupled with a fundraising strategy, to begin addressing this critical gap in the road safety sector. Actions should be focused on: First Aid and On Site Management: Development of local capacity of first aid among first responders (police, firemen) and community volunteers at blackspot locations as identified in this report, Aspects of Transportation: Development of fleet of ambulances, equipment, trained staff; Identification of other appropriate means of transports such as tricycle, taxi; and appropriate emergency routes particularly along the national roads Capacity of Hospitals: Development of hospital staff qualification in the emergency medical system and improvement of emergency equipment; Mechanisms to Manage the System: Improvement of dispatch centers, protocol and standards, trained personnel and equipments; creating coordinating body; developing policy, legislation, regulations;

11. Partnership
Road Safety is a multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral thematic which cannot be delivered by one agency alone. Strong partnerships and collaborations are crucial elements to the success of the country interventions. Government bodies, civil society organizations and private sector should keep improving these partnerships and cooperation to maximize the effectiveness of the intervention. Partnerships should be strengthened from national up to grassroots levels and from local to regional and international platforms. While missions and actions of each stakeholder can be varied, it is important that the general objectives and strategies are common in order to reduce road crashes, fatalities, injuries and disabilities.

xvi

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

I. Introduction
Road safety funding and actions, decision-making, policy and strategy are effectively set and implemented based on evidence gathered through accurate and comprehensive data collection systems. HIB, therefore, has focused resources since 2004 to initiate the Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS), in close collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MoH), Interior (MoI), and Public Works and Transport (MPWT). The RCVIS has expanded to cover 193 districts/cities in all 24 provinces by collecting, centralizing, analysing and disseminating information provided by three different sources: public hospitals, private clinics and traffic police. The objective of the Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS) is to provide government and development stakeholders in Cambodia with accurate, continuous and comprehensive information on road crashes and victims for the purposes of increasing understanding of the current road safety situation, planning appropriate responses and policy, and evaluating impact of current and future initiatives. Figure 1: RCVIS data collection flow in 2009

RCVIS is now recognized by national and international stakeholders as the only official source of road crashes and casualty data for Cambodia. Since the beginning of 2009, RCVIS has been progressively handed over to its government counterparts: the MoI, MoH and National Road Safety Committee (NRSC). To strengthen the sustainability of the system after the handover, HIB will continue to provide technical support to the ministries, especially on the system management and advanced data analysis to ensure the quality of the reports. A new upgraded version of the combined database for the NRSC is expected to pilot at the end of the year after the successful handover of the police data to the MoI. Appropriate capacity-building trainings on database management will be continued to appointed staff in those three organizations. This annual report analyses the information collected by RCVIS for the year 2009. It is a synthesis of all the monthly reports that were published throughout 2009. The previous annual reports (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008), as well as all monthly reports and other information related to road safety, can be found on the following website: www.roadsafetycambodia.info.

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

II. Data Source


RCVIS has combined two main data sources (traffic police and health facilities). To avoid double entries between health facilities and traffic police data, when a casualty is reported by a health facility as well as by the traffic police, it is taken into account only once (shared around 8% among fatalities and 6% among injured people). In 2009, traffic police played a very important role in collecting data on fatalities. As shown in the figure below, almost 95% of fatalities throughout Cambodia were reported by traffic police. Although health facilities reported around 15% of fatalities, they played a more important role in collecting traffic injury data. More than 50% of those injuries were reported by hospital or health center staff. Figure 2: Percentage of injured and fatalities reported to RCVIS by traffic police and health facilities 2009

There was a slight increase in the number of districts reported by traffic police, but the coverage areas that were reported by traffic police were still the same as last year (whole country). This increase of districts was due to the re-arrangement of the new district structures. On the other hand, although the total number of hospitals and health centers were increased as compared to 2008, the data collection forms were not reported and sent regularly. For example, only two of the main hospitals in Phnom Penh participated in the data collection. This caused significant under-reported cases, especially among injury data. Figure 3: Number of health centers, hospitals and district traffic police reported to RCVIS by provinces1
2006 Reported by
Banteay Meanchey Battambang Kampong Cham Kompong Chhnange Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Vihear Prey Vaeng Pursat Ratanak Kiri Siem Reap Preah Sihanouk Stueng Traeng Svay Rieng Takeo Oddar Meanchey Total
Health Hospitals Centers District Polices

2007
Health Hospitals Centers District Polices

2008
Health Hospitals Centers District Polices

2009
Health Hospitals Centers District Polices

4 1 10 3 4 6 0 16 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 6 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 61

3 4 9 2 2 2 4 3 1 2 2 0 0 11 1 3 2 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 62

8 9 13 7 7 7 8 9 2 6 5 5 2 7 5 12 5 6 7 2 2 7 9 3 153

7 0 10 0 3 4 1 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 45

2 2 9 2 3 2 4 3 1 2 1 2 0 10 1 5 1 0 3 1 1 3 2 2 62

8 11 16 7 8 8 8 9 2 6 5 5 2 7 7 12 6 9 11 3 4 7 10 5 176

3 0 5 0 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 30

2 1 10 2 2 2 3 1 1 0 0 2 0 6 1 1 0 0 3 1 1 2 1 0 42

8 12 16 7 8 8 8 10 2 6 5 5 2 7 7 12 6 9 12 3 4 7 10 5 179

4 1 5 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 9 2 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 31

1 1 10 2 1 3 4 2 1 0 1 1 0 5 0 6 0 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 49

8 13 16 7 7 9 8 10 2 7 5 5 2 8 6 12 7 7 10 4 5 8 10 6 182

Some hospitals and health centres did not report for a whole year.

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

III. Main evolution of data


Road crashes, casualties and fatalities continue to increase at a greater rate than road traffic and population. Over the last 5 years, the number of fatalities has almost doubled. At the same time, the population2 has increased by 6% and the number of registered motorized vehicles has increased by 142%. Figure 4: Evolution of road fatalities, population and vehicles in Cambodia3, 1998 2009 (base 100 = 1998)

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Population

Registered Vehicles

Fatalities

There were slight increases in the fatality rate among 100,000 inhabitants from year to year since 2005 (7.1 to 12.7). On the other hand, decreases in the fatality rate per 10,000 registered vehicles were also observed since 2006 (18.1 to 12.3). Figure 5: Fatality rates in Cambodia 1998 2009 and its target for 2010 and 2020 (1)
25 20 15 10 5 0
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Target for 2010 Target for 2020

21.5 18.4 15.7 12.0 6.4 1.7 12.4 12.7 8.3 6.7 3.4 3.8 4.4 2.0 7.1 3.7 0.9 10.0 7.0 11.7 18.1 17.8 15.1 12.3 12.7 12.3

Number of fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants

Number of fatalities per 10,000 registered vehicles

2 3

Number of population in 2009 was calculated by using projection rate in General Population Census of Cambodia 2008 Sources: Numbers of fatalities from 1998 to 2005 were based on traffic police only and from 2006 to 2009 were based on RCVIS

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

At the same time, the fatality rates among two-wheelers and four-wheelers have also decreased. Figure 6: Fatality rates per 10,000 registered two-wheeler and four-wheeler (2), 20072009

16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0

14.7 12.6

11.1

11.7 8.3

6.8

Two-wheeler 2007 2008 2009

Four-wheeler

More than half of the fatalities occurred along the main National Roads (NR) in Cambodia. Compared to 2008, NR 5 contributed to the highest number of fatalities, followed by NR 6 and NR 7. The increase was observed since 2007 on NR 5. The number of fatalities has also increased significantly along NR 6 and NR 7. On the other hand, a significant decrease was noticed on National Road 4 (45%). Figure 7: Number of fatalities on main national road network, 20072009
300 250 200 166 150 110 100 50 0 NR1 NR2 NR3 NR4 2007 2008 NR5 2009 NR6A NR6 NR7 83 86 50 60 51 28 43 33 134 97 58 38 42 230 239 217 178 131 180 134 110 146

Comparing fatalities per kilometre, National Road 1 was the most deadly followed by National Road 5 and National Road 6A in 2009. Significant decreases were noticed on National Road 4 compared to 2008.

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Generally, the number of road crashes noticeably increased during the major national holidays, which accounted for almost 12% of fatalities in 2009. The number of fatalities during Khmer New Year has increased since 2007. Compared to 2008, the number of fatalities during Pchum Ben increased by 22% and during Khmer New Year by 14%. However, on Water Festival and Chinese New Year, the numbers of fatalities decreased by 10% and 27% respectively. Figure 8: The evolution of the numbers of fatalities by main holidays, 20072009
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Chinese New Year Khmer New Year 2007 2008 Pchum Ben 2009 Water Festival 38 55 48 40 41 50 41 29 26 74 78 89

In 2009, the peak of fatalities was recorded in April. The number of fatalities had increased in almost every month compared to 2007, except October and November. A significant increase between 2008 and 2009 was observed in August (64%). Figure 9 The evolution of the numbers of fatalities by month, 2007 2009
250 200 150 100 50 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May 2007 Jun Jul Aug 2009 Sep Oct Nov Dec

2008

In Phnom Penh, the total number of fatalities decreased by 15% as compared to 2008. The significant decreases were in May, June and December. Additionally, a significant increase was noticed in August (131%), compared to 2008.

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IV. General Figures


IV.1 Regional and National Comparisons
In the comparison of fatality rates per 10,000 registered vehicles among ASEAN member countries (3), Cambodia has the highest rate. The fatality rate per 100,000 inhabitants is a bit lower than Vietnam but higher than LAO PDR. Figure 10: Fatality rates comparisons between selected countries in Asia 2009
14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Lao PDR Number of fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants Vietnam Cambodia
3.5 8.6 12.4 12.9 12.7 12.3

Number of fatalities per 10,000 registered vehicles

Phnom Penh contributed to the highest number of fatalities in 2009, followed by Kampong Cham and Kandal provinces. Conversely, the lowest numbers of fatalities were noticed in Kep and Pailin provinces. Figure 11: Number of fatalities by province 2009
300 251 250 200 150 100 50 0 110 221 200

94 57 53

98 30 23 61 5 22 70 70 22

84 43 17

70 66 42 4 4

In terms of population density, the highest fatality rates were in Koh Kong, Kep, Phnom Penh and Preah Sihanouk provinces.

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Phnom Penh shared around 15% of the total fatalities. Dangkao district was the most deadly followed by Ruessei Keo district. The number of fatalities has significantly increased in Dangkao district since 2007. On the other hand, a decrease in fatalities was observed in almost all districts in Phnom Penh, which led to an overall decrease of 15% compared to 2008. Figure 12: Number of fatalities by district in Phnom Penh, 20072009
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Chamkar Mon Doun Penh 7 Makara Toul Kork 2007 2008 Mean Chey 2009 Dangkao Ruessei Keo Sen sok 38 46 31 28 30 20 8 6 25 24 22 13 0 0 33 77 81 97 93 69 48

41 39

IV.2 Victim Information


This section highlights traffic casualties which are broken down by the severity of injuries resulting from road crashes. In 2009, 21,519 casualties were reported. Among them, 1,717 were fatalities and 7,020 were severe injuries. Compare to 2008, the number of fatalities increased by 5%. Figure 13: Breakdown of casualties by severity of injury, 20062009
Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 Fatalities 1,292 1,545 1,638 1,717 Severe injuries 6,033 7,150 7,226 7,022 Slight Injuries 17,836 17,655 15,985 12,117 Unknown 985 1,053 947 663 Total 26,146 27,403 25,796 21,519

At the end of 2009, Handicap International Belgium, in collaboration with the Institute of Mobility Hasselt University of Belgium conducted a research study on the cost of road crashes in Cambodia. The research found that road crashes in 2009 cost Cambodia 248 million USD (4). In addition, the average cost (in USD) on property loses, suffering, medical treatment and so on were also addressed. Figure 14: Breakdown of road crash cost by severity of injury in 2009
TOTAL lost output Description Property damage Administrative costs Lost output per casualty Medical costs Human Costs TOTAL lost Fatalities $2,520,147 $4,837,134 $37,755,682 $2,585,659 $13,502,117 $61,200,737 Serious injuries recovered $48,706,472 $28,572,432 $8,654,545 $13,228,188 $52,371,515 $151,533,152 disabled $706,244 $414,300 $6,347,301 $599,777 $4,899,738 $12,967,360 $5,053,407 $5,033,274 $817,292 $1,771,944 $2,699,057 $15,374,975 $3,199,056 $3,432,464 $0 $0 $0 $6,631,520 $60,185,326 $42,289,604 $53,574,820 $18,185,567 $73,472,426 $247,707,744 Slight injuries Damage Total

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IV.2.1 Age - The average age of an injured person was 28 years old and of a fatality was 31 years old. - The economically active population (20-54 years old) was the most affected, representing 79% of fatalities. - People aged between 0-9 years old represented 7% of casualties and 6% of fatalities. Conversely, people aged more than 55 years old represented 6% of casualties and 10% of fatalities, meaning that an elderly person has more chance of being killed than a child. - The peak of fatalities shifted from 25-29 years old in 2007 and 2008 to 20-24 years old in 2009. Figure 15: Breakdown of fatalities by age category, 2007 2009

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 2007 25-29 30-34 35-39 2009 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55

2008

The proportion of young adult fatalities (ages 20-29) affected by crashes was greater at nighttimes than daytimes (44% compared to 29%) while the proportion of people aged between 0 and 14 years old was higher in the daytime than nighttime (13% compared to 3%). Figure 16: Age pyramid of fatalities by daytime and nighttime 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Day(6am to 6pm)
13% 25% 18% 11% 7% 8% 8% 7% 11% 19% 10% 8% 6% 6% 8% 11%

0-4 10-14 20-24 30-34 40-44 50-54

5-9 15-19 25-29 35-39 45-49 >=55

Night(6pm to 6am)

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

In 2009, the number of children (ages 0-14) injured in road crashes was stable compared to 2008. They represented 8% of total fatalities and 11% of all casualties. 64% of them were student. 83% of them were injured in provinces. 29% of them were injured in motorbike-pedestrian collisions, followed by motorbike-motorbike collisions (22%) and motorbike-bicycle collisions (9%). - The peak of casualties among children was observed between 5pm to 6pm. - 52% of them were injured due to Speed-related, followed by not respect the right of way (10%). - 42% of them were motorbike riders, followed by pedestrians (36%) and bicyclists (14%). Notably, more than half of child fatalities were pedestrians. Figure 17: Percentage injured and fatalities aged between 0-14 by type of transport 2009
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Injured Motorbike Pedestrian Fatalities Bicycle Other
42% 20% 9% 14% 35% 56% 14% 10%

IV.2.2 Gender In 2009, Males accounted for 73% of casualties. Males were much more likely than females to be killed by road crashes in 2009. It is noticed that number of female fatalities aged above 55 years old was higher than other age groups. Figure 18: Number of fatalities by gender different age categories 2009

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0-4 5-9 18 18 38 23 27 9 47 159

304 231

115 52 24 26

115 85 29 19

95 45 23 25

101 63

111 30

10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55
Male Female

Avg

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

More females were injured in road crashes due to Speed-related than males (61% compared to 56%), while more males were injured due to drunk driving than females (18% compared to 8%). Figure 19: Percentage of casualties by gender caused by human error 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
10% 10% 3% 4% 18% 8% 10% 11% 5% 2% 4% Change direction without due care Driving againt flow of traffic 4% Other 53% 58% Dangerous overtaking Not respect right of way Speed related Drunk driving

Male

Female

IV.2.3 Occupation The economically active part of the population (students, workers and farmers) was the most affected by road crashes. The percentages of fatalities by occupation followed a similar pattern as casualties: farmers represented the highest percentage, constituting the larger group of fatalities and injuries (35% of fatalities, 30% of injured), followed by workers and students. Figure 20: Percentage of injured and fatalities by occupation 2009
Other Child Motor taxi driver Vendor/Small business House keeping/Servant Student Worker Farmer 0% 5% 10% Injured 15% 20% 25% 4% 3% 3% 3% 6% 5% 5% 4% 14% 18% 19% 30% 30% 35% 40% 22% 12% 17%
4

35%

Fatalities

The numbers of farmers among casualties have continued to increase from year to year. Between 2008 and 2009, the number of farmer fatalities increased by 16%, while there was a slight decrease among student fatalities (5%). Moreover, farmers shared around 40% of all casualties in provinces, while only 6% among casualties in Phnom Penh. Conversely, workers constituted a higher percentage in Phnom Penh than in the provinces (36% vs 17%).

Child aged between 0 and 5 years old.

10

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IV.2.4 Type of road user Around 71% of the fatalities were motorbike riders. Compared to 2008, the numbers of motorbike and pedestrian fatalities increased by 10% and 4% respectively. Figure 21: Number of fatalities by type of transportation, 2007 2009
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Other Agriculture vehicle Goods vehicle 2007 Passenger vehicle 2008 2009 Bicycle Pedestrian Motorbike
29 28 12 35 36 33 115 78 75 116 111 99 73 71 65 206 207 215 971 1107 1218

Pedestrian fatality rate was almost double the injured rate (7% among injured, but 13% among fatalities). Motorbike riders represent the largest group for all severities, accounting for 77% of severe casualties and 71% of fatalities. Figure 22: Percentage of casualties by road user type and severity of injury 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Fatality Severe Slight All
13% 4%
6%

Motorbike Pedestrain 71% Bicycle 77% 79% 77% Passenger vehicle Goods vehicle Agriculture vehicle 8% 4%
6%

7% 4%
5%

8% 4%
6%

As shown in the figure next page:

The highest percentage of motorbike riders was observed among casualties aged between 15-29 years old. Children (less than 15 years old) and elderly (older than 54 years old) were very vulnerable as pedestrians, which shared a high proportion among other types of transports 11

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Bicyclists shared the highest proportion among children aged between 5-14 years old compared to other age categories. Figure 23: Percentage of casualties by type of transport for different age categories 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
5% 11% 39% 25% 5% 6% 6% 6% 16% 8% 51% 17% 75% 75% 83% 87% 85% 79% 80% 79% 47% 30% 47% 65%

Motorbike Pedestrian Bicycle Passenger vehicle Goods vehicle Agriculture vehicle Other

IV.2.5 Transfer to hospital SAMU/Ambulance played a better role to save casualties in Phnom Penh than in provinces. 59% of casualties were transferred to a hospital by ambulance in Phnom Penh, while 65% of casualties in provinces were transferred by private transportation and 40% of them took more than 2 hours to reach the first health facility/hospital. Only 30% of them can reach a hospital in less than 30minutes. Figure 24: Duration to arrive at the hospital in Phnom Penh versus provinces 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

9%

4% 25%

<10 miniutes 10-30 minutes 30 minutes-1 hour 1 hour- 2 hours

39% 15% 19% 14% 19% 16%

> 2 hours

40%

Phnom Penh

Province

In addition, the time of transferring to a hospital is more crucial among serious injuries. 43% of severe casualties in the country were transferred to a hospital in longer than 2 hours. Only half of those serious injuries were transported by SAMU/Ambulance.

12

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IV.2.6 Severity of injuries 8% of casualties were fatalities and 33% were severe injuries. 58% of those fatalities died immediately at the scene, followed by died at a hospital (35%) and died on the way of transferring to a hospital (7%). Figure 25: Percentage of casualties by severity of injury 2009
Superficial 56% Unknown, 3%

Died on crash site 58%

Fatalities 8% Died during transferring 7% Severe 33% Died at hospital 35%

The highest number of fatalities, severe injuries and superficial injuries occurred during the evening time. A peak was observed between 7pm to 8pm. Figure 26: Percentage of casualties by severity of injuries and time category 2009
5%

Severity of injury
Superficial

Percentage of casualties

4%

Severe Fatality

3%

2%

1%

0%
00:00 - 00:59 01:00 - 01:59 02:00 - 02:59 03:00 - 03:59 04:00 - 04:59 05:00 - 05:59 06:00 - 06:59 07:00 - 07:59 08:00 - 08:59 09:00 - 09:59 10:00 - 10:59 11:00 - 11:59 12:00 - 12:59 13:00 - 13:59 14:00 - 14:59 15:00 - 15:59 16:00 - 16:59 17:00 - 17:59 18:00 - 18:59 19:00 - 19:59 20:00 - 20:59 21:00 - 21:59 22:00 - 22:59 23:00 - 23:59

Crash time in category

13

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IV.2.7 Nature of injuries In total, 39% of casualties suffered from head injuries. Upper/lower wound/cuts represented 20% of casualties and upper/lower fracture accounted for 20%. It is interesting to note that the total percentage of head injuries among casualties was decreased from 45% in 2008 to 39% in 2009. Figure 27: Percentage of casualties by category of nature of injuries 2009
Multiple wound/cuts Pelvis wound/cuts Upper/lower wound/cuts Multiple fracture Pelvis fracture Upper/lower fracture Abdominal only Thorax only Face only Multiple( not including cranial) Multiple(including cranial Cranial only 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 2% 8% 31% 35% 1% 2% 12% 2% 1% 20% 1% 20% 19%
5

IV.2.8 Seatbelt Following stricter enforcement by traffic police in 2009 on seatbelt-wearing among 4-wheel drivers and front-seat passengers, seatbelt wearing was increased among casualties from 14% in 2008 to 34% in 2009. Seatbeltwearing among drivers of passenger vehicles was higher than drivers of goods vehicles (16%, 10%). 4-wheeler driver casualties aged between 35-39 years old represented a high percentage of seatbelt wearing (46%). A low percentage of seatbelt wearing was noticed among casualties aged 20-24 years old. Figure 28: Percentage of 4-wheeler driver casualties wearing seatbelt 2009
100% 80%
62% 54% 57%

60% 40% 20% 0% 15-19


38%

78%

71%

65%

61%

67%

62%

22%

29%

35%

46%

39%

33%

38%

43%

20-24

25-29

30-34

35-39

40-44

45-49

50-54

>=55

Wearing seatbelt

Not wearing seatbelt

Percentages may add up to more than 100% as a casualty may have injuries to more than one body region.

14

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Wearing a seatbelt can reduce severity of injuries during a crash. As shown in the figure below, 45% of casualties where the person was not wearing a seatbelt were either severe or fatalities, while a lower percentage (36%) was observed among people wearing seatbelts. Figure 29: Percentage of 4-wheeler driver using seatbelt by severity of injury 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
28% 8% 35% 64% 55%

Superficial Severe Fatalities

10%

Wearing seatbelt

Not wearing seatbelt

IV.3 Crash information


IV.3.1 Hit and Run Hit and run crashes occur when the driver responsible intentionally escapes afterwards. In 2009, hit and run crashes represented 24% of overall crashes and 37% of fatalities. It is noted that the percentage of fatalities caused by hit and run decreased from year to year. Figure 30: Percentage of crashes and fatalities resulting from hit and runs, 20072009
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2007 Crash 2008 Fatality 2009
24% 25% 24% 43% 42% 37%

The peak of hit and run crashes was noticed from 6 pm to 8 pm. 29% of hit and run crashes were head-on collision. Hit and run crashes occurred much more in the provinces than in Phnom Penh (88% vs 12%). In hit and run crashes, Speed-related represents 51% of crashes, followed by dangerous overtaking (12%).

IV.3.2 Type of collision 36.63% of fatalities were killed in motorcycle and 4-wheeler collisions (passenger and goods vehicles) and another 17.46% in motorcycle-motorcycle collisions. 15

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

13% of fatalities were pedestrians. More than half of them (8% among 13%) were killed by 4-wheeler vehicles. Figure 31: Percentage of fatalities by type of collisions 2009
Collision Motorbike Passenger vehicle Goods vehicle Agriculture vehicle Bicycle Pedestrian Stationary object Animal Single vehicle collision Other Total Motorbike Passenger vehicle Goods vehicle Agriculture vehicle Bicycle Other 17.46% 22.34% 14.29% 3.00% 1.99% 4.59% 4.53% 1.18% 6.23% 1.59% 77.20% 1.06% 2.00% 0.41% 1.18% 5.70% 0.59% 2.12% 0.30% 13.36% Total 17.46% 23.40% 18.05% 3.65% 4.00% 13.23% 5.36% 1.24% 11.47% 2.13% 100%

1.76% 0.18% 0.77% 2.47% 0.24% 1.59% 0.12% 7.13%

0.06% 0.06% 0.47% 0.06% 1.41% 2.06%

0.12% 0.12% 0.12% 0.12%

Head-on crashes accounted for 28% of the total crashes, followed by right-angle collisions (26%) and rear-end collisions (17%). Head-on collisions represented a high proportion of fatal and severe crashes. Right-angle collisions shared high percentages among severe and slight crashes. Additionally, accidents involving pedestrians also significantly contributed to fatal crashes. Figure 32: Percentage of crash by type of collision and severity of crash 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
16% 17% 5% 11% 8% 11% 9% 9% 4% 27% 12% 7% 5% 17% 34% 30% 31% 24%

Head-on Rear-end Right-angle


16%

Slide-swipe Hit pedstrian Single vehicle collision Other

Fatal crash

Severe crash

Slight crash

Head-on collisions and rear-end collisions were much higher at night time than during the day while right-angle collisions and side-swipe collisions were much higher during the daytime than at night.

16

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Head-on collisions shared similar proportions among all kinds of roads. The high proportions of right-angle collisions occurred on junctions (X, T, Y- junctions), while single vehicle collisions were observed mostly on bridges, slopes and curve roads. Figure 33: Percentage of crash by characteristic of road and type of collision 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
15% 9% 9% 12% 47% 63% 49% 8% 5% 11% 15% 6% 11% 28% 17% 9% 6% 20% 9% 31% 8% 16%

30%

29% 10% 24%

24% 5%

24% 13%

21% 5%

23% 13%

22% 17%

Head-on Rear-end Right-angle Slide-swipe Hit pedstrian Single vehicle collision Other

19% 22% 9% 10% 5%

6% 6% 13% 12%

7%

More than 60% of crashes that were due to driving against the flow of traffic were head on collisions. Around 50% of change direction without due care and not respects the rights of way were right-angle collisions. Figure 34: Percentage of crash by human error and type of collision 2009
Other Driving again flow of traffic Change direction without due care Notrespect right of way Dangerious overtakeing Drunk driving Speed related 0%
16% 9% 29% 39% 33% 26% 7% 16% 19% 20% 21% 15% 62% 53% 48% 16% 35% 7% 14% 23% 9%

Head-on Rear-end Right-angle Slide-swipe Hit pedstrian Single vehicle collision

10% 8% 9% 6% 23%

15% 6%7% 10%

Other
22% 6% 12% 6%

50%

100%

IV.3.3 Type of road No significant difference between percentages of crashes in daytime and night time was observed on the national roads. On the other hand, the percentage of road crashes at night on major and minor roads was higher than during the day. In 2009, national roads accounted for a large proportion of total fatalities (68%). Speed-related was the main cause of crashes on all kind of roads. It shared more than 50% of overall crashes, followed by drunk driving. 17

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Figure 35: Percentage of crash by type of road and human error 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% National road Local road Provincial Major Minor road road in road in city/town city/town Other
12% 12% 11% 18% 6% 22% 18% 6% 11% 14% 6% 19% 13%

25% 51% 54% 45% 57% 47%


25%

Speed related Drunk driving Dangerous overtakeing

58%

Not respect right of way Change direction without due care

25% Driving against flow of traffic Other

IV.3.4 Characteristic of road 78% of all crashes occurred on straight roads, which also contributed to 81% of fatalities. Figure 36: Percentage of crash and fatalities by characteristic of road 2009
Y-junction Roundabout Bridge Slope T-junction X-junction Curve Straight road 0% 20% 40% Crashes 60% Fatalities
1% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 5% 2% 6% 4% 7% 9% 78% 81%

80%

100%

A high percentage of fatal crashes was notice on slopes and bridge. Figure 37: Percentage of crash by severity of crash and characteristic of road 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
21% 20% 26% 21% 22% 26%

33%

38%

Slight crash
53% 51% 62% 55% 42% 12% 13% 37% 46% 51% 58%

Severe crash Fatal crash

26%

29%

31% 18% 16%

18

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IV.3.5 Urban/rural area A rural area is an area excluding adjacent buildings, schools, markets, and population living along the road. The proportion of crashes that occurred in rural areas due to Speed-related was much more than in urban area (58%, 50%), while not respecting the right of way had a higher percentage in urban area than in rural area (18%, 13%). 76% of fatal crashes occurred in rural areas. Head-on collisions in rural areas showed a higher proportion than in urban areas (32%, 22%) while right-angle collisions had a higher proportion in urban areas than in rural areas (33%, 27%). Figure 38: Percentage of crashes in urban and rural areas and types of collision 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
9% 10% 5% 3% 33% 23% 8% 9% 7% 5% 17% 16% 23%

Head-on
32%

Rear-end Right-angle Slide-swipe Hit pedstrian Single vehicle collision Other

Urban

Rural

IV.4 Vehicle involved Information


In 2009, 18,410 vehicles were estimated to be involved in road crashes which caused at least one injured person. IV.4.1 Type of vehicle involved Motorcycles made up the vast majority (70%) of vehicles involved in road crashes in 2009, followed by passenger vehicles (15%) and goods vehicles (6%). Additionally, more motorcycles were involved in road crashes at night than during the daytime (66%, 64%). Passenger vehicles were also involved in more road crashes at night than during the day (26%, 21%) in Phnom Penh, but they were involved in more daytime crashes than night crashes in the provinces (19%, 16%). Figure 39: Estimated vehicles involved in crashes 2009
6

Type of transportation Bicycle Motorbike Passenger vehicle Goods vehicle Agriculture vehicle Other Total

Number 834 12,832 2,754 1,186 452 352 18,410

Percentage 5% 70% 15% 6% 2% 2% 100%

Number of vehicles were estimated based on data from both sources: traffic police and health facilities

19

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Head-on, rear-end, and right-angle collisions shared the majority of crashes among each type of vehicle. Notably, head-on and right-angle collisions shared higher proportions in motorbike crashes than in other vehicle crashes, while rear-end collisions contributed the highest in bicycle crashes. Figure 40: Percentage of vehicle involved by type of collision 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Motorbike Bicycle
31% 9% 5% 30% 16% 34% 36% 19% 20% 25% 6% 7% 5% 13% 5% 6% 7% 8% 12% 26% 5% 25% 18% 35% 26% 19% 25%

Head-on Rear-end

23%

29% 36%

Right-angle Slide-swipe Hit pedestrian Single vehicle collision Other

15%

Passenger vehicle

Goods vehicle

Agriculture vehicle

Other

IV.4.2 Manoeuvre of vehicle 79% of vehicles involved in crashes occurred while going straight ahead, followed by left turn (10%) and overtaking (5%). The percentage of left turn was much higher among bicycles (25%) compared to other vehicle crashes. Figure 41: Percentage of vehicles involved in crash by maneuver of vehicle 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
11% 25% 7% 6% 17% 10% 6% 80% 68% 82% 73% 67% 77%

Go straight Lef t turn Overtaking Right turn Reversing U-turn Sudden start Sudden stop Parking Other Other

6%
10%

5% Motorbike Bicycle

7% Passenger vehicle

Goods vehicle

Agriculture vehicle

IV.4.3 Characteristics of vehicle 66% of vehicles involved in crashes were left-hand drive and 15% were right-hand drive. Almost 20% of passenger and goods vehicles were right-hand drive. There was no significant difference in term of severities of crashes between left-hand drive and right-hand drive vehicles.

20

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Figure 42: Percentage of vehicles involved by characteristics of vehicle and severity of crash 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

30%

30%

Fatal crash Severe crash


54% 48%

Slight crash

16%

22%

Left-hand drive

Right- hand drive

IV.5 Causes of crashes


A road crash can result from many causal factors. The contribution of factors in a crash is very important in the development of key action to prevent crashes and injuries. RCVIS divides causes into three categories: human error, road environment (road and weather conditions), and vehicle defects. Generally, human errors contributed to 97% of crashes. Vehicle defects accounted for around 3.5% and road environment accounted around 2 %. Figure 43: Percentage of crash by cause of crashes 2009

As shown in the figure on the next page, Speed-related was the leading cause of crashes in Cambodia. It represented more than 50% of fatalities, while another 17% were caused by drunk driving. Dangerous overtaking also contributed to a high proportion (12%) among fatalities. The percentages of fatalities in speed and drunk driving were higher than percentages of crashes, which could demonstrate that a person has a higher risk of death in speed and drunk driving crashes than those due to other kinds of human errors.

21

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Figure 44: Percentage of crash and fatalities by caused by human error 2009
Other Driving against flow of traffic Change direction without due care Not respect right of way Dangerous overtaking Drunk driving Speed related 0% 10% Crashes 20% Fatalities 30% 40% 5% 4% 3% 2% 4% 3% 9% 7% 13% 14% 13% 18% 48% 52% 50% 60%

Speed-related shared similar proportions in day and night crashes (around 50%). Drunk driving contributed to 21% of night crashes and 9% of day crashes. Conversely, dangerous overtaking and not respecting the right of way share higher percentages during the daytime than at night. Figure 45: Percentage of crashes during day vs. night caused by human error 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
9% 11% 16% 5% 6%

Speed related Drunk driving


51% 50%

Dangerous overtaking Not respect right of way


21% 8% 11%

Change direction without due care Driving against f low of traf f ic Other

Day (6am-6pm)

Night(6pm-6am)

Speed-related was the main factor for causing crashes in both Phnom Penh and provinces. Crashes that were due to not respecting the right of way had a higher proportion in Phnom Penh than in the provinces. Speed-related, drunk driving and dangerous overtaking had larger proportions in fatal crashes, compared to severe and slight crashes, as shown in figure 46.

22

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Figure 46: Percentage of crashes by severity of crash and caused by human error 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Speed related
47%

Drunk driving Dangerous overtaking

53%

52%

17% 12% 7%

12% 9% 15%

13% 7% 19%

Not respect right of way Change direction without due care Driving against f low of traf f ic Other

Fatal crash

Severe crash

Slight crash

V. Motorbike riders and helmet wearing


82% of registered vehicles are motorbikes. 77% of casualties were motorbike riders. The number of motorbike fatalities increased by 10% compared to 2008. Figure 47: Number of motorbike casualties by year and severity of injury 2009
Year 2006-2008 Avg 2006 2007 2008 2009 Fatalties 942 749 971 1,107 1,218 Severe injuries 5,020 4,110 5,349 5,600 5,384 Slight injuries 12,929 12,924 13,375 12,489 9,507 Unknown 638 568 663 683 498 Total 19,529 18,351 20,358 19,879 16,607
7

In 2009, the peak of motorbike fatalities occurred on Saturdays. Compared to 2008, the number of fatalities increased almost every day except Monday. Figure 48: Number of motorbike fatalities by day , 2007 2009
Year 2006-2008 avg 2006 2007 2008 2009 Monday 130 99 133 157 142 Tuesday Wednesday Thursday 106 119 124 97 84 101 92 134 118 128 140 152 141 172 167 Friday 77 74 76 80 98 Saturday 225 170 220 286 291 Sunday 162 124 198 164 207 Total 942 749 971 1,107 1,218
8

Motorbike fatalities were suffered more in the early part of the year with a high proportion in April, which corresponds with Khmer New Year. Compared to 2008, the number of fatalities increased by 71% in March and 72% in August. Speed-related is the leading cause of motorbike casualties and fatalities (51%, 40%). Drunk driving represented a higher percentage of motorbike fatalities than motorbike casualties (20%, 16%), followed by dangerous overtaking (14%, 10%). 83% of motorbike fatalities were suffered on straight roads, followed by curved roads (9%). Motorbike fatalities were suffered on curved roads in the provinces much more than in Phnom Penh (10%, 3%). Conversely, motorbike fatalities were suffered on X-junction roads in Phnom Penh more than in the provinces (11%, 2%).
7 8

Vehicle registration in 2009, Ministry of Public Work and Transport Each day counts from 06:00 am to 05:59 am.

23

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

53% of motorbike fatalities were aged between 15-29 years old. Figure 49: Number of motorbike driver casualties by age category and severity of injury 2009
Age category 5-9 10 - 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 >=55 Unknown Total Fatality Number 0 2 102 226 170 75 88 68 66 30 53 8 888 % 0% 0% 11% 25% 19% 8% 10% 8% 7% 3% 6% 1% 100% Severe Number 1 39 572 991 729 328 315 263 235 126 180 40 3,819 % 0% 1% 15% 26% 19% 9% 8% 7% 6% 3% 5% 1% 100% Superficial Number 1 54 1007 1714 1307 610 507 365 316 171 265 60 6,377 % 0% 1% 16% 27% 20% 10% 8% 6% 5% 3% 4% 1% 100% Unknown Number 0 1 41 86 60 30 15 21 13 11 13 13 304 % 0% 0% 13% 28% 20% 10% 5% 7% 4% 4% 4% 4% 100% Total Number 2 96 1,722 3,018 2,267 1,043 925 717 630 338 511 121 11,391 % 0% 1% 15% 26% 20% 9% 8% 6% 6% 3% 4% 1% 100%

Phnom Penh was the most affected by road crash casualties (19% of total motorbike casualties), followed by Kandal province (10%) and Kampong Cham province (10%). Figure 50: Number of motorbike casualties by province and severity of injury 2009
Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Unknown Total Fatality Number 76 54 150 41 44 59 20 139 2 11 36 4 33 2 208 35 17 49 38 18 69 12 56 45 0 1,218 % 6% 4% 12% 3% 4% 5% 2% 11% 0% 1% 3% 0% 3% 0% 17% 3% 1% 4% 3% 1% 6% 1% 5% 4% 0% 100% Severe Number 298 254 466 158 169 186 222 486 22 45 162 38 114 46 828 168 56 230 135 65 745 53 189 242 7 5,384 % 6% 5% 9% 3% 3% 3% 4% 9% 0% 1% 3% 1% 2% 1% 15% 3% 1% 4% 3% 1% 14% 1% 4% 4% 0% 100% Superficial Number 519 493 917 458 226 437 394 945 69 122 183 44 279 97 1,973 175 167 282 143 115 502 163 352 432 20 9,507 % 5% 5% 10% 5% 2% 5% 4% 10% 1% 1% 2% 0% 3% 1% 21% 2% 2% 3% 2% 1% 5% 2% 4% 5% 0% 100% Unknown Number 6 23 57 26 18 17 31 39 5 3 4 34 24 0 107 2 6 9 8 4 12 4 26 27 6 498 % 1% 5% 11% 5% 4% 3% 6% 8% 1% 1% 1% 7% 5% 0% 21% 0% 1% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 5% 5% 1% 100% Total Number 899 824 1,590 683 457 699 667 1,609 98 181 385 120 450 145 3,116 380 246 570 324 202 1,328 232 623 746 33 16,607 % 5% 5% 10% 4% 3% 4% 4% 10% 1% 1% 2% 1% 3% 1% 19% 2% 1% 3% 2% 1% 8% 1% 4% 4% 0% 100%

24

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

A large proportion of motorbike fatalities happened between 3pm to 11pm. Peaks of motorbike fatalities were noticed from 6 pm to 8 pm Figure 51: Percentage of motorbike fatalities by time category 2009

14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%


3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 5% 4% 3% 2% 4% 7% 6% 6%

12% 10% 7% 7% 6% 3%

00:00 - 00:59

01:00 - 01:59

02:00 - 02:59

03:00 - 03:59

04:00 - 04:59

05:00 - 05:59

06:00 - 06:59

07:00 - 07:59

08:00 - 08:59

09:00 - 09:59

10:00 - 10:59

11:00 - 11:59

12:00 - 12:59

13:00 - 13:59

14:00 - 14:59

15:00 - 15:59

16:00 - 16:59

17:00 - 17:59

18:00 - 18:59

19:00 - 19:59

20:00 - 20:59

21:00 - 21:59

22:00 - 22:59

76% of motorbike fatalities suffered head injuries in 2009. This percentage of head injuries decreased compared to 2008 (86%) and 2007 (84%). Figure 52: Percentage of motorbike fatalities that suffered from head injuries, 2007 2009

88% 86% 84% 82% 80% 78% 76% 74% 72% 70%

86% 84%

76%

2007

2008

2009

At the same time, the percentage of casualties wearing a helmet increased from 6% in 2008 to 20% in 2009. The helmet wearing rate in Phnom Penh was higher than in the provinces (25%, 18%). The wearing rate was higher among driver casualties (25%) than among passenger casualties (8%). This can be due to the fact that helmets are compulsory only for motorbike drivers and that there has been enhanced enforcement by traffic police, especially in Phnom Penh, since January 2009 but only on drivers. A research study, conducted by Handicap International Belgium, showed that the average wearing rate measured in Phnom Penh (4)9 in August 2009 was 85% among drivers and 11% among passengers. In addition, according to another study by the Ministry of Health at the end of 2009 (5), the helmet wearing rate among drivers was 65% and among passenger was 9% in 7 provinces: Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kompong Chhnang, Kompong Thom, Kandal, Siem Reap and Takeo.
9 This survey of helmet wearing was conducted by Handicap International Belgium during 6 days at the beginning of February 2009 at different times and locations to measure the effectiveness of helmet wearing awareness campaigns in 2009.

23:00 - 23:59
25

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

The percentage of helmet wearing among motorbike casualties seems a bit higher from July to December 2009. Figure 53: Percentage of motorcycle casualties by month category and helmet use 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Jan Feb Mar
17% 14% 16% 11% 17% 19% 25% 33% 25% 28% 26% 27% 83% 86% 84% 89% 83% 81% 75% 67% 75% 72% 74% 73%

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Wearing helmet

Not wearing helmet

The rate of helmet wearing was higher during the daytime (22%) than at night (17%). Figure 54: Percentage of motorcycle casualties by helmet use and daytime and nighttime 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Day(6am-6pm) Night(6pm-6am)
78% 83% 22% 17%

Wearing helmet Not wearing helmet

26

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Based on the data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), several important locations were identified for better actions to prevent road crashes among motorcyclists in Phnom Penh:

Top 5 locations with the highest number of motorbike crashes o Russian Blvd, at the border of Trapeang Lvea and Ta Nhuon Village, Kakab Commune, Dangkao District o Chaom Chau street , at the border of Trapeang Thloeng and Chaom Chau Villages, Chaom Chau Commune, Dangkao District, o National road 4, at the border of Thnal Bambaek and Prey Pring Village, Chaom Chau Commune, Dangkao District, o Conner of the Russian BVLD and street 107, Mittakpheap Commune, 7 Makakra District, o At the roundabout (National road 2, Monivong Blvd and Norodom Blvd), Tonle Basak Commune, Chamkar Mon District, Top 5 locations with the highest number of casualties that were not wearing helmets during crashes: o Monivong Blvd, Voat Phnum and Srah Chak Commune, Doun Penh District, Phnom Penh o Russian Blvd, Ta Nhuon Village, Kakab Commune, Dangkao District, Phnom Penh o Conner of street Sisovath and 148, Phsar Kandal and Chey Chumneh Commune, Doun Penh District, o Conner of street 205 and 274. Veal Vong and Tuol Svay Prey Pir Commune, Chamkar Mon 7Makara Districts, o Street Chaom Chau, Chaom Chau and Trapeang Thloeng Village, Chaom Chau Commune, Dangkao District, Figure 55: Important locations for motorbike crashes and non-helmet wearing in Phnom Penh 2009

Legend
Source: Police Data only Main Road District Boundary Location with highest number of Ruessei Keo Motorbike crashes Not wearing helmet casualties

Doun Penh Toul Kork 7 Meakkakra Chamkar Mon Dangkao Meanchey

27

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

In addition, GPS was also used to identify several important locations in the provinces for motorcyclist
intervention:

Top 5 locations with the highest number of motorbike crashes: o Ti Muoy Village, Smach Meanchey commune, Khemarak Phoumin krong, Koh Kong Province o Street 7 Makara, Sangkat Buon District, Preah Sihanouk Krong, Preah Sihanouk Province o National road 6+56, Sampong Svay, Phum Bei and Phum Muoy Village, Kampong Svay, Preah Ponlea Commune, Serei Saophaon Krong, Banteay Meanchey Province o Provincial road 22, Spean Thma, Trapeang Proeng, and Kandal Villages, Stung Treng Commune, Stung Treng krong , Stung Treng Province o Street Ek Reach, Mondol Pir Village, Sangkat Pir Commune, Preah Sihanouk Krong, Preah Sihanouk Province Top 5 locations with the highest number of casualties that were not wearing helmets during crashes o Provincial road 22, Spean Thma, Trapeang Proeng and Kandal Village, Stung Treng Commune, Stung Treng krong, Stung Treng Province o National road 78, Phum Bei and Phum Muoy Village, Labansiek Commune, Ban Lung krong, Rattanak Kiri Povince o Conner of National road 6 and 56, Sampong Svay, Phum Bei and Phum Muoy Village, Kampong Svay and Preah Ponlea Commune, Serei Saophaon Krong, Banteay Meanchey Province o National road 5, Anlong Vil and Beng Village, Anlong Vil commune, Sangkae District, Battambang Province o Conner of National road 21B and 115, Preaek Samroang Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Provice Figure 56: Important locations for motorbike crashes and not wearing helmet in the provinces 2009

28

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

VI. Speed related


Speed-related was the main cause of crashes and casualties in Cambodia. In 2009, 8,476 casualties were injured in speed related crashes. Among them, 839 (10%) were fatalities and 3,285 (35%) were severe injuries. Compared to 2008, the number of fatalities increased by 3%. Figure 57: Number of casualties by severity of injury caused by Speed-related, 2006 2009
Year 2006-2008 avg 2006 2007 2008 2009 Fatalities 731 614 762 818 839 Severe injuries 3,264 2,543 3,481 3,767 3,285 Slight injuries 7,460 6,842 8,036 7,502 4,253 Unknown 367 332 423 346 99 Total 11,822 10,331 12,702 12,433 8,476

The peak of fatalities caused by Speed-related was noticed from 6 pm to 8 pm. Figure 58: Percentage of fatality by time caused by Speed-related 2009
12% 10%
8% 11%

8%
6% 6%

7% 6% 6% 5% 4% 4% 4% 3% 5% 5% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 3% 3% 3%

6% 4% 2% 0%
00:00 - 00:59 01:00 - 01:59 02:00 - 02:59 03:00 - 03:59 04:00 - 04:59 05:00 - 05:59 06:00 - 06:59 07:00 - 07:59 08:00 - 08:59 09:00 - 09:59

10:00 - 10:59

11:00 - 11:59

12:00 - 12:59

13:00 - 13:59

14:00 - 14:59

15:00 - 15:59

16:00 - 16:59

17:00 - 17:59

18:00 - 18:59

19:00 - 19:59

20:00 - 20:59

21:00 - 21:59

22:00 - 22:59

The number of fatalities caused by Speed-related increased from year to year since 2006. Compared to the 20062008 average, number of fatalities increased almost every month except for July and November. Figure 59: Number of fatalities by month category caused by Speed-related 2007 2009
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May 2007 Jun Jul Aug 2009 Sep Oct Nov Dec

2008

23:00 - 23:59

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

High percentages of fatalities due to Speed-related were noticed on Saturday and Sunday (23%, 16%). The following figure depicts that the percentage of fatalities on Saturday suffered at night was more than during the daytime (31%, 15%). The highest proportion was observed on Saturday night.
Figure 60: Percentage of casualties by day of week caused by Speed-related 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

15% 14% 14% 15% 14% 12% 16%

12% 13% 12% 15%

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

28% 17%

Sun

Day(6am-5:59pm)

Night(6pm-5:59am)

Motorbikes contributed to the biggest proportion of fatalities in speed related crashes. The highest percentages were observed among 15-29 year old fatalities. Children less than 15 years old suffered the most as pedestrians in speed related crashes. A large proportion of bicyclist fatalities was noticed among young teenagers (10-14 years old). Figure 61: Percentage of fatalities by age and type of transportation caused by Speed-related 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0-4
38% 85% 37% 50% 67% 73% 71% 48% 80% 79% 81% 82% 6% 14% 42% 59%

Motorbike Pedestrian Bicycle Passenger vehicle

19%
10% 6% 5% 6% 5% 4%

7% 5%

8% 14% 7% 7%

13%

19%

Goods vehicle Agriculture vehicle Other

5%

6%

5% 15% 5%

11% 11% 11%

5%

5%

5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55

A high proportion of fatalities caused by Speed-related was noticed on straight roads in both Phnom Penh and the provinces, but it is important to note that Speed-related caused more fatalities at X-junctions in Phnom Penh than in the provinces (13%, 2%). Conversely, fatalities due to Speed-related showed higher percentages in the provinces than in Phnom Penh (9%, 4%).

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Phnom Penh was the most affected by road crashes due to speed-related (16%), followed by Siem Reap Province (12%) and Kampong Cham province (9%). Figure 62: Number of casualties by province and severity of injury caused by Speed-related 2009
Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Unknown Total Fatality Number 47 52 99 37 29 51 23 74 2 14 44 5 27 0 96 23 11 42 53 6 55 5 18 26 0 839 % 6% 6% 12% 4% 3% 6% 3% 9% 0% 2% 5% 1% 3% 0% 11% 3% 1% 5% 6% 1% 7% 1% 2% 3% 0% 100% Severe Number 145 145 277 99 82 100 184 215 12 44 131 22 54 14 436 107 30 169 147 22 627 47 72 103 1 3285 % 4% 4% 8% 3% 2% 3% 6% 7% 0% 1% 4% 1% 2% 0% 13% 3% 1% 5% 4% 1% 19% 1% 2% 3% 0% 100% Superficial Number 251 276 387 200 81 127 204 399 29 72 113 29 124 25 831 83 47 179 168 23 312 98 83 111 1 4253 % 6% 6% 9% 5% 2% 3% 5% 9% 1% 2% 3% 1% 3% 1% 20% 2% 1% 4% 4% 1% 7% 2% 2% 3% 0% 100% Unknown Number 0 8 7 2 1 1 2 12 3 2 1 4 3 0 24 1 1 3 6 0 7 1 1 9 0 99 % 0% 8% 7% 2% 1% 1% 2% 12% 3% 2% 1% 4% 3% 0% 24% 1% 1% 3% 6% 0% 7% 1% 1% 9% 0% 100% Total Number 443 481 770 338 193 279 413 700 46 132 289 60 208 39 1387 214 89 393 374 51 1001 151 174 249 2 8476 % 5% 6% 9% 4% 2% 3% 5% 8% 1% 2% 3% 1% 2% 0% 16% 3% 1% 5% 4% 1% 12% 2% 2% 3% 0% 100%

Based on the data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), several important locations were identified as the highest in fatalities and crashes due to speed-related in Phnom Penh:

Top 3 locations identified as the highest numbers of speed related crashes: o Street 110, Ta Nguon Village, Kakab Communce, Dangkao District, o Norodom Blvd and street 310, Boeng Keng Kang 1 Communce, Chamkar Mon District, o Street 271, Tumnob Tuek Commune, Chamkar Mon District,

31

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Figure 63: Blackspot locations of fatalities caused by speed-related in Phnom Penh 2009

32

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Based on the data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), several important locations were identified as the highest fatalities and crashes due to Speed-related in provinces:

Top 5 locations identified as highest speed related crashes: o Street 7Makara, Sangkat 4 Commune, Preah Sihanouk Krong, Preah Sihanouk Province o National road 5, Prey Svay, Boeng Khnar, Khnach Romeas, and Daeum Chres Village, Boeng Khnar Commune, Bakan District, Pursat Province o Street Ek Reach, Mondol Pir Village, Sangkat 2 Commune, Preah Sihanouk Krong, Preah Sihanouk Province o National road 5, Baliley Village, Paoy Paet Commune, Paoy Paet Krong, Banteay Meanchey Province o National road 5, Ou Ta Paong Village, Ou Ta Paong Commune, Bakan District, Pursat Province Figure 64: Blackspot locations of fatalities caused by speed-related in the provinces 2009

33

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

VII. Drunk Driving


Drunk driving is the second major cause of road crashes and casualties in Cambodia. 2009 saw 2,353 casualties due to drunk driving. Among them, 284 (12%) were fatalities and 797 (34%) resulted in severe injuries. Compared to 2008, the number of fatalities remained the same. Figure 65: Number of casualties by severity of injury caused by drunk driving 2009

Year 2006-2008 avg 2006 2007 2008 2009

Fatalities 271 243 287 284 284

Severe injuries 932 920 956 920 797

Slight injuries 2,675 3,083 2,750 2,192 1,247

Unknown 119 133 113 111 25

Total 3,997 4,379 4,106 3,507 2,353

Most of the fatalities from drunk driving crashes happened from 6pm to 11.59pm. Peaks were observed between 6pm to 8pm. Figure 66: Percentage of fatalities by time caused by drunk driving 2009
16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%
14%14% 12% 10% 8% 8% 4% 4% 1% 0% 1% 1% 2% 1% 0% 5% 3% 6%

2%

3%

00:00 - 00:59

01:00 - 01:59

02:00 - 02:59

07:00 - 07:59

08:00 - 08:59

09:00 - 09:59

10:00 - 10:59

11:00 - 11:59

12:00 - 12:59

13:00 - 13:59

14:00 - 14:59

15:00 - 15:59

16:00 - 16:59

17:00 - 17:59

18:00 - 18:59

19:00 - 19:59

20:00 - 20:59

21:00 - 21:59

22:00 - 22:59

The highest percentages of fatalities due to drunk driving were noticed on Saturday and Sunday nights. Figure 67: Percentage of casualties by day and night caused by drunk driving 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

15% 16% 11% 17% 15% 13% 13%

12% 14% 12% 17%

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

27% 17%

Sun

Day(6am-5:59pm)

Night(6pm-5:59am)

Among people older than 29 years old, there were more fatalities than injuries in drunk driving crashes.

23:00 - 23:59

34

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Around half of injured road users and fatalities aged between 15-29 years old. Figure 68: Percentage of casualties (injured and fatalities) in drunk driving crashes 2009
30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Injured Fatalities
1%1% 2%1% 2%1% 13% 10% 28% 23% 19% 16% 12% 9% 8%9% 7%9% 8% 6% 7% 4% 3%3%

20-34 year old fatalities represented a higher proportion in Phnom Penh than in the provinces while fatalities aged between 15-19 years old and between 45-49 years old had higher proportions in the provinces than in Phnom Penh. In drunk driving crashes, most of the fatalities were motorbike riders. All of 5-9 year old fatalities were motorbike riders and all of 0-4 year old fatalities were pedestrians. Motorbike riders and bicyclists shared equally among 10-14 year old fatalities. Figure 69: Percentage of fatalities by age and type of transportation caused by drunk driving 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0-4
50% 5% 9% 6% 100% 100% 50% 74% 90% 89% 89% 86% 92% 88% 78% 47%

Motorbike Pedestrian Bicycle Passenger vehicle


37% 11%

Goods vehicle Agriculture vehicle Other

8%

9% 5%

11% 11% 5%

5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55

High proportions of drunk driving fatalities were noticed on straight roads in Phnom Penh and in the provinces. Additionally, fatalities on curved roads had a higher percentage in the provinces than in Phnom Penh (9%, 4%). 86% of fatalities in the districts that form the outskirts of Phnom Penh were killed on straight roads, compared to 54% in central districts. 27% of fatalities in central districts were killed at X-junctions. Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham and Siem Reap contributed to the highest numbers of fatalities in drunk driving crashes.

35

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Figure 70: Number of casualties by province and severity of injury caused by drunk driving 2009
Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Unknown Total Fatality Number % 21 7% 12 4% 52 18% 3 1% 0 0% 6 2% 3 1% 27 10% 0 0% 4 1% 11 4% 0 0% 4 1% 0 0% 40 14% 5 2% 7 2% 10 4% 7 2% 6 2% 16 6% 2 1% 35 12% 13 5% 0 0% 284 100% Severe Number 50 32 113 25 6 16 23 55 1 11 24 2 19 12 108 23 15 19 11 12 113 5 57 45 0 797 Superficial Number 61 81 164 47 13 23 31 106 9 23 19 3 29 9 190 38 25 32 21 11 131 13 85 82 1 1247 Unknown Number % 1 4% 2 8% 4 16% 1 4% 0 0% 0 0% 1 4% 1 4% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 4 16% 2 8% 0 0% 1 4% 0 0% 0 0% 4 16% 1 4% 1 4% 2 8% 0 0% 25 100% Total Number % 133 6% 127 5% 333 14% 76 3% 19 1% 45 2% 58 2% 189 8% 10 0% 38 2% 54 2% 5 0% 52 2% 21 1% 342 15% 68 3% 47 2% 62 3% 39 2% 29 1% 264 11% 21 1% 178 8% 142 6% 1 0% 2353 100%

% 6% 4% 14% 3% 1% 2% 3% 7% 0% 1% 3% 0% 2% 2% 14% 3% 2% 2% 1% 2% 14% 1% 7% 6% 0% 100%

% 5% 6% 13% 4% 1% 2% 2% 9% 1% 2% 2% 0% 2% 1% 15% 3% 2% 3% 2% 1% 11% 1% 7% 7% 0% 100%

36

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Based on the data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), several important locations were identified as blackspots for the highest number of fatalities in drunk driving crashes in Phnom Penh:

Top 3 locations identified as highest drunk driving crashes o Street 110, Ta Nguon Village, Kakab Commune, DangKao District, o Street 110, Srah Chak Commune, Doun Penh District, o Corner of street 245 and 93, Boeng Keng Kong 1 Commune, Chamkar Mon District. Figure 71: Blackspot location of fatalities caused by drunk driving in Phnom Penh 2009

Legend
Source: Police Data only Ruessei Keo Main Road District Boundary Location with highest number of Drunk driving crashes Doun Penh Toul Kork 7 Meakkakra Chamkar Mon Dangkao Meanchey

W S

37

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Based on the data from the Global Positioning System (GPS), several important locations were identified as blackspots for the highest numbers of fatalities in drunk driving crashes in provinces:

Top 6 locations identified as highest drunk driving crashes: o National road 5, Anlong Vil and Beng Village, Anlong Vil commune, Sangkae District, Battambang Province o Provincial road, Phum Ti Muoy Village, Smach Meanchey Commune, Khemarak Phoumin Krong, Koh Kong Province o Minor road, Andoung Pou and La Edth Village, Kampong Pranak Commune, Preah Vihear Krong, Preah Vihear Province o Provincial road, Voat Village, Kracheh Commune, Kracheh Krong, Kratie Province o Street 334, Tarang Bal and Me Phleung Villages, Koy Trabaek and Svay Rieng Commune, Svay Rieng Krong, Svay Rieng Province o Provincial road 211, Ta Khmau Village, Ta Khmau Commue, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province Figure 72: Blackspot location of fatalities caused by drunk driving in the provinces 2009

38

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

VIII. Pedestrians
Without helmet, seat belt or other means of protection, pedestrians are very vulnerable. In 2009, 1,635 pedestrian were injured or killed. Among them, 215 (13%) were fatalities and 589 (36%) received severe injuries. Compared to 2008, pedestrian fatalities increased by 4%. The number of fatalities has been increasing since 2006. Figure 73: Number of pedestrian casualties by severity of injury, 20062009 Year 2006-2008 avg 2006 2007 2008 2009 Fatalities 204 198 206 207 215 Severe injuries 568 582 585 537 589 Slight injuries 1,183 1,162 1,260 1,127 790 Unknown 79 119 71 48 41 Total 2,034 2,061 2,122 1,919 1,635

More than half of pedestrians were killed from 3pm to midnight. A peak was observed between 3pm to 4pm. Figure 74: Number of pedestrian fatalities by time
10% 9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0%
9% 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 1% 1% 2% 3% 3% 3% 2% 4% 5% 4% 5% 5% 3% 5% 7%

00:00 - 00:59

01:00 - 01:59

02:00 - 02:59

03:00 - 03:59

04:00 - 04:59

05:00 - 05:59

06:00 - 06:59

07:00 - 07:59

08:00 - 08:59

09:00 - 09:59

10:00 - 10:59

11:00 - 11:59

12:00 - 12:59

13:00 - 13:59

14:00 - 14:59

15:00 - 15:59

16:00 - 16:59

17:00 - 17:59

18:00 - 18:59

19:00 - 19:59

20:00 - 20:59

21:00 - 21:59

22:00 - 22:59

Compared to 2008, the number of pedestrian fatalities increased the most in July (60%) and October (38%) but decreased in December (45%). Figure 75: Number of pedestrian fatalities by month category, 20072009
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May 2007 Jun Jul Aug 2009 Sep Oct Nov Dec

2008

Age distributions of pedestrian fatalities were much different from age distributions among overall fatalities. A high percentage of pedestrians were injured or died among the 0-9 years old category (42%, 30%).

23:00 - 23:59

39

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

A peak of fatalities was noticed among people older than 55 years (24%), while the percentage of injuries was only 11%. This showed a high probability of death among elderly once they were hit in road crashes. Figure 76: Percentage of pedestrians injured and fatalities by age category 2009

30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0-4


14% 9%

28% 24% 21%

9% 5%

11% 7% 7% 8% 5% 5%6% 5% 4% 5% 3% 4%3% 4% 3%4%

4%

5-9

10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Injured Fatalities

Proportions of child pedestrian fatalities (less than 10 years old) and elderly (older than 55 years old) in the provinces were much more than in Phnom Penh (57%, 30%) while 20-29 year old pedestrian fatalities in Phnom Penh were much higher than in the provinces (42%, 13%). Figure 77: Percentage of pedestrian fatalities by age category and location 2009

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

6% 12% 18% 24%

6%

9% 23% 5% 8% 5%

0-4 10-14 20-24 30-34 40-44

5-9 15-19 25-29 35-39 45-49 >=55

18%

25%

50-54 Provinces

Phnom Penh

More than 70% of pedestrians were killed along national roads, and another 13% along local roads.

40

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Speed-related was the leading cause of pedestrian injuries and fatalities (61%, 66%), followed by drunk driving. Figure 78: Percentage of pedestrians injured and killed by human error 2009
Other Driving againt flow of traffic Change direction without due care Not respect right of way Dangerous overtaking Drunk driving Speed related 0% 10% 20% Fatalities 30% 40% 50%
1% 1% 6% 5% 8% 7% 4% 2% 13% 11% 61% 66% 7% 8%

60%

70%

Injured

Kandal, Kampong Cham and Phnom Penh contributed to the highest proportions among other provinces. Figure 79: Number of pedestrian casualties by province and severity of injury 2009
Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Unknown Total Fatality Number % 19 9% 17 8% 22 10% 4 2% 5 2% 17 8% 3 1% 35 16% 1 0% 4 2% 7 3% 0 0% 6 3% 0 0% 18 8% 3 1% 1 0% 11 5% 14 7% 0 0% 11 5% 1 0% 8 4% 8 4% 0 0% 215 100% Severe Number % 43 7% 46 8% 51 9% 14 2% 7 1% 21 4% 24 4% 53 9% 4 1% 9 2% 29 5% 7 1% 17 3% 8 1% 83 14% 21 4% 6 1% 20 3% 21 4% 4 1% 36 6% 3 1% 23 4% 39 7% 0 0% 589 100% Superficial Number % 31 4% 35 4% 101 13% 38 5% 15 2% 47 6% 39 5% 92 12% 6 1% 4 1% 14 2% 6 1% 29 4% 4 1% 174 22% 6 1% 5 1% 23 3% 19 2% 2 0% 26 3% 5 1% 26 3% 41 5% 2 0% 790 100% Unknown Number % 1 2% 7 17% 0 0% 2 5% 1 2% 1 2% 3 7% 2 5% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 5 12% 1 2% 0 0% 8 20% 1 2% 0 0% 1 2% 0 0% 0 0% 2 5% 0 0% 2 5% 4 10% 0 0% 41 100% Total Number % 94 6% 105 6% 174 11% 58 4% 28 2% 86 5% 69 4% 182 11% 11 1% 17 1% 50 3% 18 1% 53 3% 12 1% 283 17% 31 2% 12 1% 55 3% 54 3% 6 0% 75 5% 9 1% 59 4% 92 6% 2 0% 1635 100%

41

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

RCVIS identified 2 locations with the highest numbers of pedestrian casualties in Phnom Penh: National road 5, Kraol Kou Village, Kilomet 6 Commune, Ruessei Kaev District, Phnom Penh Monireth Blvd, Phneat and Damnak Thum Village, Stueng Meanchey Commune, Mean Chey District, Phnom Penh Figure 80: Blackspot locations for pedestrian casualties in Phnom Penh 2009

Legend
Source: Police Data only Main Road Ruessei Keo District Boundary Location with highest number of Pedestrian casualties

Doun Penh Toul Kork 7 Meakkakra Chamkar Mon Dangkao Meanchey

42

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Anthother location was also identified with the highest number of pedestrian casualties in Banteay Meanchey Province: National road 5, at the border of Baliley and Kbal Spean Village, Paoy Paet Commune, Paoy Paet Krong, Banteay Meanchey Province. Figure 81: Blackspot locations for pedestrian casualties in the Province 2009

43

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IX. Blackspot
From July 2006, Handicap International Belgium and the Ministry of Interior decided to introduce Global Position System (GPS) devices to the traffic police in all provinces. The GPS technology can identify road crash locations on the Cambodian Road Network easily, quickly and accurately by using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping. The data has been used to identify locations that have the highest numbers of crashes, deaths or injuries and to understand the nature of crashes. The system also helps to develop priority actions to improve the physical condition

or management of hazardous locations by implementing appropriate solutions at these locations. The term blackspot in this report has been defined as a section on the road that has the highest number of road crashes/fatalities/casualties in one year period, in a selected area, such as Phnom Penh or the provinces. Based on this definition, blackspots were identified in Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham, Kandal and Siem Reap.

IX.1 Phnom Penh


The map below presents high risk locations for motorbike crashes, pedestrian casualties, student casualties, drunk driving crashes, speed related crashes and not wearing helmet casualties. Figure 82: All blackspot locations in Phnom Penh 2009

Legend
Source: Police Data only Main Road District Boundary Location with highest number of Ruessei Keo Motorbike crashes Pedestrian casualties Student casualties Drunk driving crashes Speeding-related crashes Doun Penh Toul Kork 7 Meakkakra Chamkar Mon Dangkao Meanchey Not wearing helmet casualties

IX.2 Kampong Cham


Locations below were identified as blackspots in Kampong Cham: Locations with the highest number of motorbike crashes: National road 71, Thnal Baek Village, Svay Teab Commune, Chamkar Leu District, Kampong Cham province.

44

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

National road 71, Sameakki Village, Bos Khnaor Commune, Chamkar Leu District, Kampong Cham Province. National road 7, Andoung Chraoh Village, Ampil Commune, Kampong Siem District, Kampong Cham province. National road 7, Phum Pram and Phum Buon Village, Veal Vong Commune, Kampong Cham District, Kampong Cham Province. National road 7, Phum Pram and Slab Kdaong Village, Veal Vong and Chob Commune, Kampong Cham and Thoung Khmum District, Kampong Cham Province

Locations with the highest number of student casualties National road 7, Andoung Chraoh Village, Ampil Commune, Kampong Siem District, Kampong Cham province. Locations with the highest number of not-wearing helmet casualties National road 71, Thnal Baek Village, Svay Teab Commune, Chamkar Leu Cham province National road 71, Sameakki Village, Bos Khnaor Commune, Chamkar Leu Cham Province National road 7, Andoung Chraoh Village, Ampil Commune, Kampong Siem Cham province National road 7, Phum Pram and Slab Kdaong Village, Veal Vong and Kampong Cham and Thoung Khmum District, Kampong Cham Province District, Kampong District, Kampong District, Kampong Chob Commune,

Locations with the highest number of speed related crashes National road 71, Ta Ong Village, Ta Ong Commune, Chamkar Leu District, Kampong Cham Province. National road 7, Phum Pram and Phum Buon Village, Veal Vong Commune, Kampong Cham District, Kampong Cham Province Figure 83: All blackspot locations in Kampong Cham 2009
N
Legend
Source: Police Data only Main National Road 6 National Road Number District Boundary Location with highest number of Motorbike crashes Student casualties Chamkar Leu Speeding related crashes Not wearing helmet casualties 6 Cheung Prey Batheay Prey Chhor 7 6 Kampong Cham Kang Meas Kaoh Soutin Srei Santhor Memot Tboung Khmum Kampong Siem Krouch Chhmar

E
Stueng Trang

Dambae

Ou Reang Ov Ponnea Kraek

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IX.3 Kandal
Locations below were identified as blackspots in Kandal: Locations with highest number of motorbike fatalities: Nationalr road 4, Prey Boeng Village, Kantoak Commune, Angk Snuol District, Kandal province National road 4, Peuk Commune, Angk Snuol District, Kandal province National road 21B, Preaek Samroang Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal province National road 2, Daeum Mien Village, Daeum Mien Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province National road 1, Khsom Village, Banteay Daek Commune, Kien Svay District, Kandal Province

Locations with highest number of student casualties Provincial road, Ta Khmau Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province Conner of Provincial road 201 and 110, Thmei Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province Locations with highest number of not-wearing helmet casualties National road 21B, Preaek Samroang Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal province National road 2, Daeum Mien Village, Daeum Mien Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province National road 8, Anlong Village, Preaek Ta Mak Commune, Khsach Kandal District, Kandal Province National road 1, Preaek Cheang Prum Village, Veal Sbov Commune, Kien Svay District, Kandal Province National road 1, Khsom Village, Banteay Daek Commune, Kien Svay District, Kandal Province

National road 2, Preaek Hou Village, Preaek Hou Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province

Locations with highest number of speed related crashes Conner of National road 2 and provincial road 120, Kandal Village, Roluos Commune, Kandal Stung District, Kandal Province National road 1, Kbal Chrouy Village, Kampong Phnum Commune, Leuk Daek District, Kandal Province Provincial road, Preaek Chrey Village, Spean Thma Commune, Kandal Stung District, Kandal Province National road 2, Ta Khmau Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province Conner of Provincial road 201 and 110, Thmei Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal Province Locations with highest number of drunk driving crashes Provincial road 211, Ta Khmau Village, Ta Khmau Commune, Ta Khmau Krong, Kandal province

46

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Figure 84: All blackspot locations in Kandal 2009

6 Mukh Kampul Ponhea Lueu 5 8 Khsach Kandal

Angk Snoul Lvea Aem 1 4

Ta Khmau 3 Kandal Stueng 2

Kien Svay

Sang

E
Leuk Daek

S
Legend
Source: Police Data only Main National Road 6 National Road Number District Boundary Location with highest number of Motorbike crashes Student casualties Drunk driving crashes Speeding related crashes Not wearing helmet casualties Kaoh Thum

47

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

IX.4 Siem Reap


Locations below were identified as blackspots in Siem Reap: Locations with highest number of motorbike crashes: National road 6, Chong Kausur Village, Sla Kram Commune, Siem Reap Krong, Siem Reap Province National road 6, Khuos Village, Svay Dangkum Commune, Siem Reap Krong, Siem Reap Province National road 6, Banteay Chas Village, Sla Kram Commune, Siem Reap Krong, Siem Reap Province

Locations with highest number of not-wearing helmet casualties National road 6, Chong Kausur Village, Sla Kram Commune, Siem Reap Krong, Siem Reap National road 6, Banteay Chas Village, Sla Kram Commune, Siem Reap Krong, Siem Reap Province Locations with highest number of speed related crashes National road 6, Chong Kausur Village, Sla Kram Commune, Siem Reap Krong, Siem Reap Province National road 6, Chamreh Village, Spean Tnaot Commune, Chi Kraeng District, Siem Reap Province Figure 85: All blackspot locations in Siem Reap 2009

Srei Snam

Varin

W
Angkor Chum Kralanh Angkor Thum Banteay Srei Puok Svay Leu

Prasat Bakong Siem Reap 6 Soutr Nikom

Legend
Chi Kraeng Source: Police Data only Main National Road 6 National Road Number District Boundary Location with highest number of Motorbike crashes Speeding related crashes Not wearing helmet casualties

48

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Tables
1. Evolution of data during the years10
2008
Crash information Number of crashes Number of vehicle involved Percentage of vehicle involved Bicycle Motorbike Passenger vehicle Good vehicle Agriculture vehicle Other Day of accident Percentage of crashes occured during the weekend (from Friday 6 pm to Sunday midnight) Time of accident Percentage of crashes occured during nighttime (from 6 pm to 5.59 am) Peak(s) of accident Cause of accident Percentage of crashes occurred due to human error High speed Alcohol abuse Non respect of rights of way rules Dangerous overtaking Changing lane without due care Driving against flow of traffic Other Percentage of crashes due to vehicle defect Percentage of crashes due to road conditions Percentage of crashes due to weather conditions Type of collision Head-on Rear-end Right-angle Side-swipe Fell alone Hit pedestrain Hit and Run crashes Percentage of four-wheeled vehicles with Left-hand-drive Right-hand-drive Percentage of crashes occurred in urban areas Type of road Percentage of crashes occurring on national roads Percentage of crashes occuring on provincial roads Percentage of crashes occuring on local/track roads Percentage of accident occuring on paved roads Characteristics by type of road Percentage of crashes occuring on straight roads Percentage of crashes occuring on junctions (X, T, Y- junctions and roundabout) Percentage of crashes occuring on curves Phnom Penh 1,202 4,791 4% 83% 10% 4% 0% 2% 43% 186 3,852 466 176 0 111 517 Provinces 8,813 16,514 5% 805 70% 11,526 14% 2,302 7% 1,162 2% 307 2% 412 35% 3,085 Country level Phnom Penh 10,015 21,305 5% 72% 13% 6% 1% 2% 36% 991 15,378 2,768 1,338 307 523 3,601 2,116 3,140 3% 73% 15% 7% 0% 2% 43% 101 2,302 456 212 0 69 915

2009
Provinces 10,422 15,270 5% 733 69% 10,530 15% 2,298 6% 974 3% 452 2% 283 35% 3,668 Country level 12,538 18,410 5% 70% 15% 6% 2% 2% 37% 834 12,832 2,754 1,186 452 352 4,582

57%

685

28%

2,468

31%

3,153

66%

1,396

35%

4,085

44%

5,481

10pm-12pm 99% 44% 14% 20% 10% 4% 4% 3% 1% 0% 1% 32% 10% 32% 5% 1% 5% 27% 72% 8% 27% 21% 0% 1% 98% 1,190 529 168 240 120 48 48 36 12 0 12 385 120 385 60 12 60 325 298 31 325 252 0 12 1,178

6pm-8pm 98% 48% 14% 13% 10% 8% 2% 3% 2% 4% 1% 25% 16% 27% 11% 6% 7% 22% 62% 22% 22% 63% 13% 18% 75% 8,637 4,230 1,234 1,146 881 705 176 264 176 353 88 2,203 1,410 2,380 969 529 617 2,058 1,486 534 1,939 5,552 1,146 1,586 6,610

7pm-8pm 98% 48% 14% 14% 10% 8% 2% 3% 2% 4% 1% 26% 15% 28% 10% 5% 7% 24% 63% 20% 23% 58% 11% 16% 78% 9,827 4,759 1,402 1,386 1,002 753 224 300 188 353 100 2,588 1,530 2,764 1,030 541 677 2,382 1,784 566 2,263 5,805 1,146 1,598 7,788

11pm-12pm 99% 46% 14% 16% 11% 4% 5% 4% 1% 0% 0% 45% 11% 23% 5% 1% 8% 29% 74% 6% 23% 24% 0% 1% 99%

6pm-7pm

6pm-7pm

2,089 97% 965 52% 287 14% 333 13% 236 9% 93 4% 97 3% 78 5% 32 3% 0 2% 0 0.38% 948 224 485 106 22 169 608 494 40 494 508 0 30 2,097 26% 17% 26% 8% 6% 9% 24% 62% 17% 35% 63% 13% 18% 79%

10,084 97% 12,173 5,195 49% 6,160 1,375 13% 1,661 1,349 13% 1,682 941 9% 1,177 429 4% 522 255 3% 352 540 5% 618 312 3% 344 212 2% 212 40 0.32% 40 2,751 1,742 2,691 878 637 941 2,456 2,029 556 3,620 6,576 1,340 1,851 8,234 30% 16% 25% 8% 5% 9% 24% 64% 15% 33% 57% 11% 15% 82% 3,699 1,966 3,176 984 659 1,110 3,064 2,523 596 4,113 7,084 1,340 1,881 10,332

73% 25% 1%

877 301 12

77% 14% 8%

6,786 1,234 705

77% 15% 7%

7,663 1,534 717

68% 29% 2%

1,439 588 41

79% 11% 7%

8,271 1,158 781

77% 14% 7%

9,710 1,746 821

10

The numbers of crashes and vehicles involved for 2008 and 2009 were estimated based on data from both sources: traffic police and health facilities.

49

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

2008
Victim information Number of casualties Severity of injuries Percentage of deaths Percentage of severely injured casualties (requiring chirurgical intervention of ICU) Percentage of slight injury casualties Percentage of gender Male Female Percentage of casualities' age 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 >=45 Percentage of type of road user Drivers Passengers Pedestrains Percentage of casualties by type of transport Motorbike riders Passenger vehicle riders Good vehicle riders Bicycle riders Percentage of casualties occupation Students Farmers Workers House keepers Vendors/small businesses owners Childs Motorbike taxis Time to transfer casualties to hospital Less than 10 minute after the accident Between 10 and 30 minutes after the accident Between 30 minutes and 1 hour after the accident Between 1 hour and 2 hours after the accident More than 2 hours after the accident Ways to transfer casualties to hospital By ambulance By their private transportation Phnom Penh Provinces Country level Phnom Penh

2009
Provinces Country level

6,137 5% 21% 70% 73% 27% 3% 5% 3% 9% 21% 29% 9% 6% 5% 10% 62% 30% 7% 84% 3% 1% 4% 34% 3% 28% 7% 8% 4% 4% 4% 48% 18% 13% 17% 29% 65% 297 1,321 4,287 4,470 1,640 203 278 194 556 1,281 1,775 514 376 272 602 3,785 1,840 437 5,167 173 39 218 1,875 147 1,562 409 460 203 221 168 2,269 871 612 834 1,445 3,221

19,659 7% 30% 62% 74% 26% 3% 5% 3% 11% 18% 24% 7% 8% 6% 15% 56% 35% 8% 75% 7% 3% 4% 20% 34% 18% 4% 5% 3% 3% 2% 23% 15% 16% 44% 26% 64% 1,341 5,914 11,698 14,468 5,092 587 859 606 2,060 3,532 4,608 1,398 1,497 1,188 3,065 10,918 6,941 1,482 14,712 1,314 574 824 3,721 6,327 3,327 810 919 592 589 190 2,105 1,332 1,395 3,994 2,627 6,537

25,796 6% 28% 62% 73% 26% 3% 4% 3% 10% 19% 25% 7% 7% 6% 14% 57% 34% 7% 77% 6% 2% 4% 22% 25% 19% 5% 5% 3% 3% 3% 37% 16% 13% 31% 27% 64% 1,638 7,235 15,985 18,938 6,732 790 1,137 800 2,616 4,813 6,383 1,912 1,873 1,460 3,667 14,703 8,781 1,919 19,879 1,507 613 1,042 5,596 6,474 4,889 1,219 1,379 795 810 358 4,374 2,203 2,007 4,828 4,072 9,758

3,620 7% 26% 63% 73% 27% 3% 3% 3% 13% 26% 22% 9% 6% 4% 9% 24% 67% 8% 84% 3% 1% 3% 26% 4% 8% 7% 8% 4% 4% 9% 39% 19% 14% 19% 84% 2% 243 958 2,281 2,633 968 115 123 104 476 954 779 339 213 137 341 881 2,434 277 3,049 96 27 101 951 140 295 271 284 148 146 213 924 440 333 437 1,154 28

17,899 8% 34% 55% 73% 27% 2% 4% 4% 15% 21% 15% 8% 7% 6% 16% 58% 32% 8% 76% 6% 3% 4% 19% 34% 16% 4% 5% 3% 3% 4% 25% 15% 16% 40% 54% 35% 1,474 6,064 9,837 13,108 4,896 446 731 661 2,729 3,841 2,738 1,420 1,251 1,086 2,789 10,417 5,787 1,358 13,558 1,097 522 748 3,356 6,072 2,836 647 872 609 461 298 1,956 1,163 1,262 3,139 4,517 2,929

21,519 8% 33% 56% 73% 27% 3% 4% 4% 15% 22% 16% 8% 7% 6% 15% 53% 38% 8% 77% 6% 3% 4% 20% 29% 15% 4% 5% 4% 3% 5% 28% 16% 16% 35% 58% 31% 1,717 7,022 12,117 15,741 5,864 561 854 765 3,205 4,795 3,517 1,759 1,464 1,223 3,130 11,298 8,221 1,635 16,607 1,193 549 849 4,307 6,212 3,131 918 1,156 757 607 511 2,880 1,603 1,595 3,576 5,671 2,957

50

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

2. Trend of population, registered vehicles, and fatalities by years


Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Population Registered vehicles 11437656 11623304 11805103 11989745 12177275 12367738 12561180 12757648 12957189 13,182,721 13,388,910 13,595,099 277211 304918 335069 369298 420418 447428 485612 574829 714,463 868,852 1,084,320 1,391,656 Fatalities 102 196 401 459 535 824 1042 904 1,292 1,545 1,638 1,717 Fatalities Fatalities per Fatalities per 10,000 (average per day) 100,000 population registered vehicle 0.3 0.5 1.1 1.3 1.5 2.3 2.9 2.5 3.5 4.2 4.5 4.7 0.9 1.7 3.4 3.8 4.4 6.7 8.3 7.1 10.0 11.7 12.3 12.7 3.7 6.4 12.0 12.4 12.7 18.4 21.5 15.7 18.1 17.8 15.1 12.3

3. Number of fatalities by national roads and years


National Road NR1 NR2 NR3 NR4 NR5 NR6 NR6A NR7 Total 2006-2008 average 81 50 33 149 213 145 43 120 834 2006 75 41 27 148 192 125 33 117 758 2007 83 50 28 134 217 178 58 134 882 2008 86 60 43 166 230 131 38 110 864 2009 110 51 33 97 239 180 42 146 898 Change over 2008 28% -15% -23% -42% 4% 37% 11% 33% 4%

4. Number of fatalities per kilometre by national roads and years


National Road 2006-2008 Average N1 0.49 N2 0.42 N3 0.16 N4 0.70 N5 0.53 N6 0.43 N6A 0.57 N7 0.27 2006 0.45 0.34 0.13 0.69 0.47 0.37 0.44 0.26 2007 0.50 0.42 0.14 0.63 0.54 0.57 0.77 0.30 2008 0.52 0.50 0.21 0.78 0.57 0.39 0.51 0.25 2009 0.66 0.43 0.16 0.45 0.59 0.53 0.56 0.33 Change over 2008 27% -15% -22% -42% 4% 36% 10% 32%

51

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

5. Number of fatalities in the whole country by month category and years


Month Category January February March April May June July August September October November December Total 2006 - 2008 average 141 118 130 177 105 105 114 98 119 127 126 132 1,492 2006 130 67 145 174 85 96 89 88 91 122 93 112 1,292 2007 143 125 105 161 111 110 117 117 132 152 144 128 1,545 2008 151 163 139 195 119 109 136 88 135 107 140 156 1,638 2009 156 156 180 208 136 135 121 144 135 109 99 138 1,717 % Change over 2008 3% -4% 29% 7% 14% 24% -11% 64% 0% 2% -29% -12% 5%

6. Number of fatalities in Phnom Penh by month category and years.


Month category January February March April May June July August September October November December Total 2006 - 2008 average 21 21 22 24 24 25 28 18 21 21 21 17 263 2006 18 12 22 17 15 19 18 13 13 19 9 19 194 2007 24 20 24 20 30 22 32 27 31 29 21 18 298 2008 20 32 20 36 26 34 33 13 20 16 32 15 297 2009 31 21 19 21 15 15 20 30 32 21 18 8 251 % Change over 2008

55% -34% -5% -42% -42% -56% -39% 131% 60% 31% -44% -47%
-15%

7. Number of fatalities in Phnom Penh by district and years.


District Chamkar Mon Doun Penh 7 Meakkakra Toul Kork Mean Chey Dangkao Ruessei Keo Sen sok Unknonw Total 2006 - 2008 average 34 26 7 23 34 66 71 N/A 2 261 2006 18 19 7 20 27 41 61 N/A 1 194 2007 38 28 8 25 33 77 83 N/A 6 298 2008 46 30 6 24 41 81 69 N/A 0 297 2009 31 20 13 22 39 67 48 8 3 251 % Change over 2008 -33% -33% 117% -8% -5% -17% -30% N/A 300% -15%

52

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

8. Number of fatalities by age category and years.


Age category 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Unknown Total 2006-2008 average 42 65 27 99 231 326 115 137 101 97 58 157 37 1,492 2006 35 66 31 80 175 271 101 131 86 96 54 129 37 1,292 2007 45 72 22 98 248 331 125 141 102 92 64 161 44 1,545 2008 47 57 29 119 269 376 120 138 114 103 55 180 31 1,638 2009 36 61 36 207 357 255 141 134 114 118 70 164 24 1,717 Change over 2008 -23% 7% 24% 74% 33% -32% 18% -3% 0% 15% 27% -9% -23% 5%

9. Number of fatalities by type of transportation and years.


Type of transportation Motorbike Pedestrian Bicycle Passenger vehicle Goods vehicle Agriculture vehicle Other Unknown Total 2006-2008 average 942 204 70 110 95 33 29 9 1492 2006 749 198 67 102 92 29 31 24 1292 2007 971 206 73 116 115 35 28 1 1545 2008 1107 207 71 111 78 36 27 1 1638 2009 1218 215 65 99 75 33 12 0 1717 Change over 2008 10% 4% -8% -11% -4% -8% -56% -100% 5%

53

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

10. Number of casualties by time category and severity of injury - 2009


Time 00:00 - 00:59 01:00 - 01:59 02:00 - 02:59 03:00 - 03:59 04:00 - 04:59 05:00 - 05:59 06:00 - 06:59 07:00 - 07:59 08:00 - 08:59 09:00 - 09:59 10:00 - 10:59 11:00 - 11:59 12:00 - 12:59 13:00 - 13:59 14:00 - 14:59 15:00 - 15:59 16:00 - 16:59 17:00 - 17:59 18:00 - 18:59 19:00 - 19:59 20:00 - 20:59 21:00 - 21:59 22:00 - 22:59 23:00 - 23:59 Unknown Total Fatality 24 36 19 18 13 32 40 48 51 60 74 54 49 92 74 103 108 95 156 169 105 107 79 61 50 1,717 Severe 96 62 53 38 68 87 218 299 283 311 315 302 307 317 367 440 445 487 584 590 410 281 215 204 243 7,022 Superficial 101 132 77 74 103 125 359 530 579 545 549 679 515 670 596 713 747 926 915 956 605 394 288 221 718 12,117 Unknown 4 5 5 0 6 13 20 34 27 33 24 29 32 26 34 29 40 50 35 33 34 13 14 13 110 663 Total 225 235 154 130 190 257 637 911 940 949 962 1,064 903 1,105 1,071 1,285 1,340 1,558 1,690 1,748 1,154 795 596 499 1,121 21,519

54

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

11. Number of fatalities by time and month category - 2009


Time 00:00 - 00:59 01:00 - 01:59 02:00 - 02:59 03:00 - 03:59 04:00 - 04:59 05:00 - 05:59 06:00 - 06:59 07:00 - 07:59 08:00 - 08:59 09:00 - 09:59 10:00 - 10:59 11:00 - 11:59 12:00 - 12:59 13:00 - 13:59 14:00 - 14:59 15:00 - 15:59 16:00 - 16:59 17:00 - 17:59 18:00 - 18:59 19:00 - 19:59 20:00 - 20:59 21:00 - 21:59 22:00 - 22:59 23:00 - 23:59 Unknown Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total 24 36 19 18 13 32 40 48 51 60 74 54 49 92 74 103 108 95 156 169 105 107 79 61 50 1,717

3 0 1 5 0 2 4 5 5 5 8 3 8 8 4 10 9 10 13 11 18 6 11 3 4
156

3 2 2 2 1 3 1 9 7 5 8 3 4 12 6 9 11 6 11 20 6 8 8 5 4
156

1 1 4 2 1 4 4 7 0 10 10 8 3 10 10 6 9 5 17 20 17 16 4 10 1
180

5 6 1 3 0 3 6 8 8 4 9 3 9 11 16 15 17 13 19 19 7 4 12 4 6
208

1 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 5 6 3 6 8 3 6 9 11 8 16 12 9 11 9 3 5
136

2 5 3 1 0 6 5 2 2 6 7 4 2 6 1 4 15 16 11 14 2 9 2 1 9
135

2 5 0 1 3 1 4 1 3 6 9 1 2 6 5 8 4 7 6 11 8 14 8 2 4
121

6 5 0 1 4 1 1 4 9 8 6 6 3 9 10 5 6 2 14 9 12 4 10 6 3
144

0 2 1 0 1 5 5 1 3 3 5 2 0 12 4 11 9 8 13 16 9 9 5 6 5
135

1 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 5 3 3 4 12 7 8 11 12 6 5 4 6 2
109

0 4 3 1 0 2 4 1 5 1 2 6 2 8 3 6 3 6 10 12 9 9 1 0 1
99

0 3 2 0 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 7 5 4 5 8 7 6 15 13 2 12 5 15 6
138

55

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

12. Number of fatalities by time category and type of transportation - 2009


Time 00:00 - 00:59 01:00 - 01:59 02:00 - 02:59 03:00 - 03:59 04:00 - 04:59 05:00 - 05:59 06:00 - 06:59 07:00 - 07:59 08:00 - 08:59 09:00 - 09:59 10:00 - 10:59 11:00 - 11:59 12:00 - 12:59 13:00 - 13:59 14:00 - 14:59 15:00 - 15:59 16:00 - 16:59 17:00 - 17:59 18:00 - 18:59 19:00 - 19:59 20:00 - 20:59 21:00 - 21:59 22:00 - 22:59 23:00 - 23:59 Unknown Total Motorbike Pedestrian Bicycle Passenger Vehicle Good vehicle Agriculture Vehicle Other Total

21 25 10 7 9 15 20 31 30 40 51 30 28 65 46 72 79 72 119 141 82 87 66 41 31 1,218

2 6 2 4 2 5 6 8 7 11 7 9 5 9 11 18 12 11 16 15 10 14 6 10 9 215

0 0 0 1 1 1 7 3 3 4 4 5 3 5 3 1 4 3 9 3 3 0 2 0 0 65

1 3 3 4 1 6 4 1 5 3 2 7 4 8 5 3 6 2 6 4 4 3 3 3 8 99

0 2 3 2 0 5 0 2 2 1 9 3 5 5 7 4 3 4 1 3 6 1 0 6 1 75

0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 4 1 1 0 3 0 2 3 4 2 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 33

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 12

24 36 19 18 13 32 40 48 51 60 74 54 49 92 74 103 108 95 156 169 105 107 79 61 50 1,717

13. Number of casualties by month category and severity of injury - 2009


Month Category January February March April May June July August September October November December Total Fatality 156 156 180 208 136 135 121 144 135 109 99 138 1,717 Severe 740 549 690 785 532 591 544 465 569 497 483 577 7,022 Superficial 1,504 1,209 1,404 1,429 864 814 947 841 861 654 815 775 12,117 Unknown 46 34 64 37 77 40 71 70 89 49 53 33 663 Total 2,446 1,948 2,338 2,459 1,609 1,580 1,683 1,520 1,654 1,309 1,450 1,523 21,519

56

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

14. Number of casualties by type of transportation, severity of injury and age category - 2009
Transportation Pedestrian Severity of injury 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-44 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Unknown Total

Superficial 138 235 Severe Fatality Sub-total

71 45 11

53 40 11 104

53 41 17 111

39 36 12 87

30 33 11 74

26 22 6 54 658 382 102

19 38 7 64 499 336 91

31 28 11 70 427 306 86 819 22 12 6 40 46 29 8 83 17 16 5 38 9 11 2 22 15 5 0 20

19 17 9 45 285 183 45 513 14 13 2 29 32 14 8 54 8 9 2 19 4 6 3 13 3 8 1 12

68 85 50 203 428 308 79 815 35 39 19 93 43 40 9 92 11 14 3 28 10 3 2 15 9 3 2 14

8 6 7 21 88 56 11 155 2 5 1 8 4 13 2 19 7 3 2 12 2 0 0 2 1 0 1 2

790 589 215 1,594 9,507 5,384 1,218 16,109 492 271 65 828 656 387 99 1,142 275 181 75 531 214 129 33 376 184 80 12 276

55 143 19 44

212 422 127

Motorbike

Superficial 192 169 Severe Fatality Sub-total

211 1,575 2,380 1,768 827 130 6 853 1,356 927 167 295 211 426 105

49 10

72 10

251 251 347 2,595 4,031 2,906 1,358 1,142 926 20 4 1 25 19 4 2 25 4 2 3 9 8 3 1 12 4 1 0 5 63 23 2 88 14 9 2 25 10 6 2 18 4 12 1 17 5 1 0 6 122 57 10 189 10 10 4 24 12 4 2 18 25 11 3 39 4 1 0 5 92 55 5 152 54 31 8 93 41 21 9 71 51 21 6 78 25 12 1 38 43 19 6 68 119 65 19 203 66 32 12 110 32 23 7 62 39 16 1 56 31 13 4 48 106 75 10 191 55 26 12 93 24 13 4 41 31 12 2 45 15 11 1 27 80 37 7 124 26 21 14 61 17 9 1 27 21 9 2 32 15 12 3 30 64 35 14 113 12 15 6 33 14 11 1 26 16 7 2 25 18 8 5 31 65 25 6 96 6 12 3 21 14 6 2 22 11 5 0 16

Bicycle

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Passenger Vehicle

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Goods vehicle

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Agriculture Vehicle

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Other

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Note: In 663 casualties the severity of injury is unknown.

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

15. Number of fatalities by type of transportation, gender and age category - 2009
Transportation Motorbike Gender Male Female Sub-total Pedestrian Male Female Sub-total Bicycle Male Female Sub-total Passenger Vehicle Male Female Sub-total Goods vehicle Male Female Sub-total Agriculture Vehicle Male Female Sub-total Other Male Female Sub-total 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-44 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Unknown Total

3 7

7 3

5 1 6 9 2 11 6 4 10 3 1 4 2 0 2 2 1 3 0 0 0

129 37 167 8 3 11 4 1 5 6 2 8 7 2 9 4 2 6 1 0 1

263 31 295 12 5 17 1 5 6 14 5 19 9 3 12 5 2 7 0 1 1

192 19 211 10 2 12 2 2 4 10 0 10 12 0 12 3 1 4 2 0 2

87 18 105 6 5 11 1 0 1 5 2 7 13 1 14 1 0 1 2 0 2

92 10 102 4 2 6 2 1 3 10 4 14 5 1 6 1 0 1 1 1 2

70 21 91 5 2 7 2 3 5 4 2 6 2 1 3 2 0 2 0 0 0

73 13 86 8 3 11 5 1 6 5 3 8 2 3 5 2 0 2 0 0 0

30 15 45 6 3 9 1 1 2 6 2 8 1 1 2 1 2 3 0 1 1

61 18 79 12 38 50 13 6 19 8 1 9 3 0 3 2 0 2 2 0 2

6 1 11 2 2 7 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 1

1,018 194 1,218 120 92 215 39 26 65 74 25 99 61 14 75 24 9 33 9 3 12

10 10 12 26 7 18

19 44 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 1 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0

Note: In 9 fatalities the gender is unknown.

58

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

16. Number of fatalities by type of transportation, road user and age category - 2009
Transportation Motorbike Road user Driver Passenger Unknown Sub-total Pedestrian Pedestrian Total Bicycle Driver Passenger Sub-total Passenger Vehicle Driver Passenger Sub-total Goods vehicle Driver Passenger Sub-total Agriculture Vehicle Driver Passenger Sub-total Other Driver Passenger Sub-total 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-44 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Unknown Total

0 10 0 10 19 19 0 1 1 0 2 2 0 3 3 0 1 1 0 0 0

0 10 0 10 44 44 1 1 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 1 1 0 0 0

2 4 0 6 11 11 10 0 10 0 4 4 0 2 2 0 3 3 0 0 0

102 63 2 167 11 11 4 1 5 3 5 8 0 9 9 2 4 6 1 0 1

226 67 2 295 17 17 6 0 6 3 16 19 3 9 12 4 3 7 0 1 1

170 40 1 211 12 12 4 0 4 6 4 10 7 5 12 2 2 4 2 0 2

75 30 0 105 11 11 1 0 1 3 4 7 7 7 14 0 1 1 2 0 2

88 14 0 102 6 6 3 0 3 7 7 14 3 3 6 0 1 1 1 1 2

68 23 0 91 7 7 5 0 5 1 5 6 2 1 3 0 2 2 0 0 0

66 20 0 86 11 11 6 0 6 1 7 8 2 3 5 0 2 2 0 0 0

30 15 0 45 9 9 2 0 2 5 3 8 0 2 2 0 3 3 0 1 1

53 25 1 79 50 50 19 0 19 2 7 9 0 3 3 2 0 2 2 0 2

8 3 0 11 7 7 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 1

888 324 6 1,218 215 215 62 3 65 31 68 99 24 51 75 10 23 33 9 3 12

59

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

17. Number of casualties by type of transportation, gender and severity of injury - 2009
Transportation Motorbike Gender Male Female Sub-total Male Female Sub-total Male Female Sub-total Male Female Sub-total Male Female Sub-total Male Female Sub-total Male Female Sub-total Fatality 1,018 194 1,212 120 92 212 39 26 65 74 25 99 61 14 75 24 9 33 9 3 12 Severe 4,189 1,184 5,373 324 262 586 149 119 268 244 142 386 129 51 180 90 39 129 61 19 80 Slight 7,095 2,356 9,451 451 334 785 288 203 491 459 194 653 210 64 274 134 79 213 113 70 183 Unknown 352 132 484 18 21 39 8 13 21 41 9 50 16 2 18 7 4 11 18 3 21 Total 12,654 3,866 16,520 913 709 1,622 484 361 845 818 370 1,188 416 131 547 255 131 386 201 95 296

Pedestrian

Bicycle

Passenger Vehicle

Goods vehicle

Agriculture Vehicle

Other

Note: In 115 casualties the gender is unknown.

60

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

18. Number of casualties by type of transportation, severity of injury and month category - 2009
Transportation Motorbike Severity of injury Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total

Superficial 1,219 957 1,126 1,094 664 Severe Fatality Sub-total

651 441 88 40 46 20 106 31 22 2 55 44 41 15 100 26 22 8 56 13 6 2 21 9 13 0 22

761 414 94 60 53 16 129 40 22 5 67 39 24 1 64 18 9 4 31 16 7 1 24 13 15 0 28

667 350 103 40 33 10 83 33 18 4 55 54 30 12 96 15 17 11 43 9 10 3 22 23 7 1 31

675 429 97 60 52 19 131 27 23 7 57 60 44 5 109 18 17 6 41 6 1 0 7 15 3 1 19

499 375 70 57 50 22 129 27 23 6 56 40 26 8 74 10 15 1 26 11 5 2 18 10 3 0 13

654 385 69 48 37 17 102 38 23 5 66 37 14 2 53 9 8 5 22 18 14 1 33 11 2 0 13

540 419 93 50 48 12 110 53 20 3 76 98 58 18 174 8 14 8 30 13 15 3 31 13 3 1 17

9,507 5,384 1,218 790 589 215 1,594 492 271 65 828 656 387 99 1,142 275 181 75 531 214 129 33 376 183 81 12 276

606 117 107 54 13 174 60 28 8 96 51 22 5 78 21 10 5 36 19 11 5 35 27 9 3 39

419 108 89 45 21 155 42 16 5 63 61 43 7 111 22 13 7 42 16 11 6 33 22 2 2 26

529 130 107 61 28 196 48 31 7 86 59 31 8 98 35 21 5 61 16 7 2 25 13 10 0 23

624 151 86 54 22 162 39 16 7 62 64 30 9 103 71 21 10 102 63 32 7 102 12 8 2 22

393 98 46 56 15 117 54 29 6 89 49 24 9 82 22 14 5 41 14 10 1 25 15 6 2 23

1,942 1,484 1,785 1,869 1,155 1,180 1,269 1,120 1,201 944 1,108 1,052 16,109

Pedestrian

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Bicycle

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Passenger Vehicle

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Goods vehicle

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Agriculture Vehicle

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Other

Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total

Note: In 663 casualties the severity of injury is unknown.

61

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

19. Number of casualties by occupation, severity of injury and month category - 2009
Severity of injury Student Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Child Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Worker Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Farmer Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Soldier Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Police Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Vendor/Small Business Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Government employee Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Motor taxi driver Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total House Keeping/Servant Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Tourist/Expatriate Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Other Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Occupation Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total

343 166 14 523 51 11 0 62 312 154 32 498 356 195 51 602 27 9 4 40 13 3 1 17 65 32 6 103 31 14 4 49 48 21 3 72 76 40 10 126 5 8 2 15 177 87 29 293

259 93 31 383 57 11 3 71 242 103 22 367 270 160 49 479 20 6 2 28 16 7 2 25 56 26 9 91 32 8 2 42 34 17 3 54 56 34 10 100 11 8 1 20 156 76 22 254

313 157 19 489 63 22 8 93 257 119 35 411 347 211 67 625 21 6 2 29 22 10 5 37 79 38 6 123 57 6 8 71 34 15 2 51 61 33 3 97 5 2 0 7 145 71 25 241

276 163 28 467 64 26 4 94 218 130 36 384 516 266 67 849 25 11 6 42 9 8 3 20 54 34 13 101 17 14 3 34 36 21 3 60 53 37 15 105 4 5 1 10 157 70 29 256

165 103 17 285 34 14 8 56 146 88 30 264 263 171 43 477 14 7 4 25 8 7 2 17 53 37 4 94 24 15 2 41 32 11 5 48 31 21 5 57 9 6 2 17 85 52 14 151

163 134 17 314 30 12 2 44 142 105 19 266 231 166 39 436 15 17 1 33 6 5 1 12 43 29 9 81 29 19 6 54 20 25 7 52 27 17 11 55 6 5 3 14 102 57 20 179

191 114 14 319 37 13 7 57 150 99 23 272 281 153 35 469 27 11 6 44 10 5 3 18 79 28 4 111 35 14 3 52 26 19 4 49 34 28 6 68 2 1 0 3 75 59 16 150

125 85 14 224 31 12 6 49 170 117 33 320 242 99 38 379 20 13 6 39 12 8 3 23 69 21 6 96 25 15 3 43 26 18 6 50 31 20 2 53 10 2 3 15 80 55 24 159

177 115 22 314 39 14 4 57 122 84 28 234 260 180 45 485 26 10 2 38 14 10 2 26 48 37 4 89 18 10 4 32 26 13 6 45 34 28 0 62 20 10 1 31 76 58 17 151

154 105 20 279 32 12 1 45 102 78 15 195 174 137 38 349 11 9 1 21 11 4 4 19 43 32 3 78 18 16 4 38 10 17 5 32 29 27 1 57 7 4 2 13 63 56 15 134

179 110 21 310 33 9 2 44 117 75 17 209 249 152 35 436 11 8 1 20 13 13 2 28 50 16 5 71 23 7 1 31 18 17 2 37 24 20 5 49 6 8 0 14 92 48 8 148

167 106 13 286 36 14 4 54 111 93 24 228 223 188 54 465 14 7 2 23 10 7 1 18 42 31 7 80 22 16 4 42 23 13 5 41 32 28 4 64 7 5 0 12 88 69 20 177

2,512 1,451 230 4,193 507 170 49 726 2,089 1,245 314 3,648 3,412 2,078 561 6,051 231 114 37 382 144 87 29 260 681 361 76 1,118 331 154 44 529 333 207 51 591 488 333 72 893 92 64 15 171 1,296 758 239 2,293

Note: In 663 casualties the severity of injury is unknown.

62

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

20. Number of casualties by occupation, severity of injury and age category - 2009
Occupation Student Severity of injuries Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Child Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Worker Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Farmer Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Soldier Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Police Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Vendor/Small Business Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Government employee Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Motor taxi driver Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total House Keeping/Servant Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Tourist/Expatriate Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Other Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-44 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Unknown Total

0 0 0 0 117 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

375 210 48 633 53 12 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 8

439 1,004 549 244 31 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 6 5 3 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 6 0 0 0 0 8 4 0 12 586 90 0 0 0 0 279 159 39 361 177 42 5 0 2 7 1 1 0 2 33 14 6 53 3 1 0 4 9 3 0 12 55 19 7 81 2 5 2 9 139 68 19 226 339 49 0 0 0 0 705 373 111 785 452 101 35 15 4 54 19 8 2 29 136 58 19 213 45 14 4 63 52 32 8 92 76 53 4 133 15 11 1 27 314 197 54 565

120 52 11 183 0 0 1 1 520 332 69 629 333 94 40 17 3 60 29 10 1 40 167 76 8 251 107 33 4 144 68 50 9 127 78 33 5 116 10 11 2 23 286 155 48 489

10 5 0 15 0 0 0 0 223 126 33 382 321 191 46 40 23 7 70 19 4 5 28 96 36 7 139 28 13 6 47 65 32 10 107 29 18 8 55 17 9 3 29 168 89 16 273

3 3 0 6 0 0 0 0 126 99 23 248 323 194 55 572 40 20 6 66 28 16 6 50 77 40 6 123 25 11 4 40 50 29 6 85 25 26 3 54 15 6 2 23 93 40 23 156

1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 92 63 14 169 262 174 52 488 34 11 3 48 16 18 5 39 55 41 9 105 28 24 7 59 26 19 6 51 27 21 6 54 8 6 2 16 83 52 10 145

1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 64 44 9 117 251 173 55 479 25 16 7 48 18 25 6 49 52 36 12 100 30 14 7 51 35 21 6 62 28 25 2 55 7 5 1 13 56 47 13 116

2 4 0 6 0 0 0 0 28 14 6 48 148 138 33 319 7 8 1 16 8 5 3 16 28 22 3 53 25 11 4 40 15 10 1 26 50 18 10 78 8 3 0 11 46 17 9 72

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 33 23 4 60 294 219 77 590 5 3 4 12 5 0 1 6 31 33 5 69 35 30 8 73 9 8 5 22 115 113 27 255 8 7 2 17 68 56 31 155

7 6 1 14 3 0 0 3 17 12 4 33 32 20 3 55 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 6 5 1 12 5 3 0 8 4 3 0 7 4 2 0 6 2 0 0 2 31 31 15 77

2,512 1,451 230 4,193 507 170 49 726 2,089 1,245 314 3,648 3,412 2,078 561 6,051 231 114 37 382 144 87 29 260 681 361 76 1,118 331 154 44 529 333 207 51 591 488 333 72 893 92 64 15 171 1,297 758 239 2,294

714 1,680 937

385 119

538 184

477 1,189 921

580 1,338 1,056 558

Note: In 663 casualties the severity of injury is unknown.

63

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

21. Number of casualties by occupation, type of road user and age category - 2009
Occupation Student Road User Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Child Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Worker Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Farmer Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Soldier Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Police Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Vendor/Small Business Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Government employee Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Motor taxi driver Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total House Keeping/Servant Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Tourist/Expatriate Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Other Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total

0-4

5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-44 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Unknown Total

0 0 0 0 220 6 333 559 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

331 44 273 648 100 1 90 191 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 6 9

127 48 9 2 0 242 1,147 735 163 13 350 505 205 26 3 719 1,700 949 191 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 24 37 25 20 1 217 769 659 251 2 240 413 240 116 3 481 1,219 924 387 1 18 36 24 30 6 310 858 733 353 6 254 446 310 178 13 582 1,340 1,067 561 0 0 3 0 3 0 4 39 49 55 0 2 11 9 11 0 6 53 58 69 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 23 34 22 0 1 4 5 2 0 2 28 39 24 0 4 4 9 3 0 36 159 178 112 0 17 50 67 28 0 57 213 254 143 0 0 2 2 0 0 4 54 113 34 0 0 9 29 12 0 4 65 144 46 0 0 0 2 3 0 11 88 118 97 0 2 5 6 8 0 13 93 126 108 1 5 5 7 5 3 45 64 54 25 2 31 69 56 27 6 81 138 117 57 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 9 10 12 0 5 19 13 17 0 8 30 23 29 2 6 17 18 10 1 129 420 356 209 9 91 152 127 64 12 226 589 501 283

0 5 1 6 0 0 0 0 12 177 58 247 23 400 157 580 1 55 13 69 1 41 7 49 4 81 39 124 0 33 7 40 0 79 7 86 6 27 22 55 1 12 10 23 9 129 23 161

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 16 119 34 169 27 307 165 499 1 38 9 48 5 37 2 44 2 73 30 105 4 50 6 60 0 51 2 53 3 25 27 55 0 9 8 17 7 113 30 150

0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 6 87 24 117 35 289 155 479 1 40 9 50 3 44 2 49 6 56 39 101 1 43 6 50 1 57 5 63 8 24 25 57 0 7 7 14 11 83 25 119

0 3 3 6 0 0 0 0 6 36 8 50 22 170 125 317 0 14 3 17 0 14 3 17 4 37 13 54 1 32 9 42 1 26 2 29 9 23 50 82 1 6 4 11 1 44 27 72

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 9 33 18 60 101 301 194 596 2 8 2 12 0 6 0 6 5 40 24 69 3 61 9 73 0 20 2 22 54 74 127 255 2 10 5 17 30 77 56 163

1 11 2 14 1 1 2 4 1 22 11 34 6 37 13 56 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 10 2 13 0 4 4 8 0 6 1 7 0 4 2 6 0 1 1 2 11 46 30 87

518 2,366 1,369 4,253 321 8 426 755 156 2,371 1,165 3,692 323 3,764 2,005 6,092 11 304 69 384 10 223 26 259 42 782 309 1,133 13 428 91 532 7 553 40 600 103 368 438 909 6 79 90 175 125 1,607 640 2,372

Note: In 363 casualties the type of road user is unknown.

64

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

22. Number of casualties by occupation, severity of injury and type of transportation - 2009
Occupation Student Severity of injuries Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Child Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Worker Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Farmer Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Soldier Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Police Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Vendor/Small Business Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Government employee Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Motor taxi driver Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total House Keeping/Servant Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Tourist/Expatriate Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Other Superficial Severe Fatality Sub-total Motorbike Pedestrian Bicycle Passenger Vehicle Goods vehicle Agriculture Vehicle Other Total

1,860 1,070 145 3,075 239 63 16 318 1,722 1,011 237 2,970 2,789 1,652 420 4,861 194 84 30 308 126 74 27 227 566 270 57 893 288 119 30 437 314 192 48 554 380 248 48 676 47 33 8 88 982 568 152 1702

274 174 55 503 195 90 25 310 67 68 18 153 134 123 59 316 5 5 1 11 2 6 1 9 17 22 2 41 2 10 1 13 4 2 1 7 44 43 16 103 3 3 0 6 43 43 36 122

247 120 16 383 29 4 1 34 36 35 9 80 120 87 32 239 3 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 6 3 0 9 2 0 0 2 1 1 0 2 20 10 3 33 4 0 0 4 23 11 4 38

54 35 6 95 24 3 2 29 100 54 17 171 138 77 18 233 17 15 4 36 12 3 1 16 58 44 14 116 33 21 10 64 7 4 0 11 26 20 2 48 33 26 6 65 154 85 19 258

31 16 3 50 5 3 4 12 66 45 23 134 90 52 11 153 9 5 1 15 0 2 0 2 13 11 3 27 2 4 3 9 0 1 0 1 5 7 2 14 0 1 1 2 54 34 24 112

30 25 5 60 9 6 1 16 47 19 7 73 92 59 16 167 2 4 1 7 1 0 0 1 6 5 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 1 8 0 0 0 0 21 10 2 33

16 11 0 27 6 1 0 7 51 13 3 67 49 28 5 82 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 4 15 6 0 21 4 0 0 4 7 7 2 16 7 4 0 11 5 1 0 6 20 7 2 29

2,512 1,451 230 4,193 507 170 49 726 2,089 1,245 314 3,648 3,412 2,078 561 6,051 231 114 37 382 144 87 29 260 681 361 76 1,118 331 154 44 529 333 207 51 591 488 333 72 893 92 64 15 171 1297 758 239 2294

Note: In 663 casualties the severity of injury is unknown.

65

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

23. Number of casualties by occupation, type of road user and severity of injury - 2009
Occupation Student Road User Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Pedestrian Driver Passenger Sub-total Fatality 55 108 66 229 25 0 24 49 18 183 112 313 59 359 142 560 1 28 8 37 1 27 1 29 2 46 27 75 1 33 10 44 16 22 33 71 0 8 7 15 Severe 174 829 435 1,438 90 1 79 170 68 822 346 1,236 123 1,289 636 2,048 5 90 19 114 6 72 8 86 22 222 109 353 10 113 27 150 43 128 159 330 3 31 29 63 Slight 274 1,369 839 2,482 195 7 304 506 67 1,319 684 2,070 134 2,035 1,185 3,354 5 173 41 219 2 116 15 133 17 484 169 670 2 273 52 327 44 204 237 485 3 39 50 92 Unknown 15 60 29 104 11 0 19 30 3 47 23 73 7 81 42 130 0 13 1 14 1 8 2 11 1 30 4 35 0 9 2 11 0 14 9 23 0 1 4 5 Total 518 2,366 1,369 4,253 321 8 426 755 156 2,371 1,165 3,692 323 3,764 2,005 6,092 11 304 69 384 10 223 26 259 42 782 309 1,133 13 428 91 532 103 368 438 909 6 79 90 175 125 1,607 640 2,372

Child

Worker

Farmer

Soldier

Police

Vendor/Small Business

Government employee

House Keeping/Servant

Tourist/Expatriate

Other

43 777 341
1,161

43 492 205
740

36 246 71
353

3 92 23
118

Note: In 363 casualties the type of road user is unknown.

66

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

24. Number of casualties by province and severity of injury - 2009


Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Unknown Total Fatality Number % 110 94 221 57 53 98 30 200 4 23 61 5 42 4 251 43 22 70 70 22 84 17 70 66 0 1,717 6% 5% 13% 3% 3% 6% 2% 12% 0% 1% 4% 0% 2% 0% 15% 3% 1% 4% 4% 1% 5% 1% 4% 4% 0% 100% Severe Number % 397 381 661 221 203 252 319 632 29 70 244 55 156 63 977 224 76 283 208 84 845 78 233 323 8 7,022 6% 5% 9% 3% 3% 4% 5% 9% 0% 1% 3% 1% 2% 1% 14% 3% 1% 4% 3% 1% 12% 1% 3% 5% 0% 100% Superficial Number % 651 673 1,275 606 284 578 525 1,209 91 160 244 62 381 114 2,325 223 203 352 217 149 614 202 416 537 26 12,117 5% 6% 11% 5% 2% 5% 4% 10% 1% 1% 2% 1% 3% 1% 19% 2% 2% 3% 2% 1% 5% 2% 3% 4% 0% 100% Unknown Number % 10 37 64 35 28 19 39 48 5 4 7 49 31 1 145 4 8 12 13 7 15 6 33 36 7 663 2% 6% 10% 5% 4% 3% 6% 7% 1% 1% 1% 7% 5% 0% 22% 1% 1% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 5% 5% 1% 100% Total Number % 1,168 1,185 2,221 919 568 947 913 2,089 129 257 556 171 610 182 3,698 494 309 717 508 262 1,558 303 752 962 41 21,519 5% 6% 10% 4% 3% 4% 4% 10% 1% 1% 3% 1% 3% 1% 17% 2% 1% 3% 2% 1% 7% 1% 3% 4% 0% 100%

67

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

25. Number of fatalities by province and month category - 2009


Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Total Jan 9 11 23 4 6 3 2 9 1 0 4 2 4 0 31 10 1 6 5 3 12 1 3 6 156 Feb 12 8 29 7 3 9 0 20 0 3 5 0 2 1 21 2 2 6 8 0 7 2 6 3 156 Mar 13 10 21 5 8 6 5 24 0 5 9 0 2 1 19 6 2 3 8 3 3 4 8 15 180 Apr 16 15 21 6 7 9 1 28 0 1 8 1 16 0 21 3 6 9 5 8 5 3 11 8 208 May 9 6 22 5 6 10 2 21 0 5 5 1 2 0 15 3 3 4 3 1 3 0 2 8 136 Jun 5 9 23 5 4 9 4 12 0 3 6 0 2 1 15 5 0 8 4 0 14 0 4 2 135 Jul 7 5 11 7 2 8 4 11 0 3 1 0 3 0 20 3 1 7 2 2 10 1 6 7 121 Aug 6 4 20 5 7 14 0 15 1 0 1 0 4 0 30 6 1 6 4 0 8 0 9 3 144 Sep 7 10 10 0 3 12 5 16 0 1 2 0 2 0 32 3 2 8 7 0 6 0 5 4 135 Oct 14 7 10 1 1 5 2 13 2 1 6 0 1 0 21 2 0 0 10 3 4 0 5 1 109 Nov 6 6 8 3 1 4 3 14 0 1 6 1 4 0 18 0 0 4 7 0 3 2 5 3 99 Dec 6 3 23 9 5 9 2 17 0 0 8 0 0 1 8 0 4 9 7 2 9 4 6 6 138 Total 110 94 221 57 53 98 30 200 4 23 61 5 42 4 251 43 22 70 70 22 84 17 70 66 1,717

68

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

26. Number of fatalities by province and age category - 2009


Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Total 0-4 3 2 5 0 3 3 0 7 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 4 36 5-9 2 7 12 1 2 1 2 10 0 2 3 0 2 0 1 0 3 5 3 0 4 0 1 0 61 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-44 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 >=55 Unknown Total 4 2 6 1 0 7 0 1 1 0 3 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 36 11 9 29 7 3 13 5 29 1 3 5 0 4 2 32 7 3 8 5 3 5 1 11 11 207 26 25 37 10 20 13 7 36 0 3 11 2 13 0 63 7 4 14 13 5 25 2 10 11 357 14 7 18 14 4 10 4 34 0 3 13 2 4 1 60 10 2 9 12 3 15 0 10 6 255 11 8 25 0 1 5 3 18 0 3 4 0 4 0 25 6 0 5 4 2 6 3 5 3 141 10 3 27 7 4 10 2 11 1 1 4 0 4 0 17 0 1 9 4 2 2 2 5 8 134 6 6 20 1 1 9 1 9 0 0 6 0 4 1 15 3 3 3 5 2 4 2 8 5 114 9 6 17 5 4 12 3 10 0 3 2 1 1 0 7 3 1 7 8 3 4 2 5 5 118 2 4 8 1 3 5 0 5 1 1 4 0 1 0 8 3 1 1 4 1 11 0 4 2 70 12 8 17 8 8 9 3 27 0 3 5 0 3 0 12 2 2 9 10 1 5 2 10 8 164 0 7 0 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 24 110 94 221 57 53 98 30 200 4 23 61 5 42 4 251 43 22 70 70 22 84 17 70 66 1,717

69

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

27. Number of fatalities by province and type of transportation - 2009


Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Total Motorbike Pedestrian Bicycle Passenger Vehicle Goods vehicle Agriculture Vehicle Other Unknown Total

76 54 150 41 44 59 20 139 2 11 36 4 33 2 208 35 17 49 38 18 69 12 56 45 1,218

19 17 22 4 5 17 3 35 1 4 7 0 6 0 18 3 1 11 14 0 11 1 8 8 215

3 7 9 1 0 10 1 8 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 1 0 5 4 0 2 1 0 6 65

4 6 23 4 2 6 3 8 0 5 13 0 0 0 12 2 0 4 1 2 1 2 1 0 99

3 6 11 5 1 2 3 10 1 2 3 0 0 1 5 2 1 0 11 1 1 1 2 3 75

5 3 6 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 2 1 33

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 11

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

110 94 221 57 53 98 30 200 4 23 61 5 42 4 251 43 22 70 70 22 84 17 70 66 1,717

70

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

28. Number of fatalities by province and human error - 2009


Province Banteay MeanChey Battambang Kampong Cham Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Kampong Thom Kampot Kandal Kep Koh Kong Kratie Mondol Kiri Oddar MeanChey Pailin Phnom Penh Preah Sihanouk Preah Vihear Prey Veng Pursat Rotanak Kiri Siem Reap Stung Treng Svay Rieng Takeo Total Speed Drunk Dangerous Not respect Change direction Driving against Other Unknown Total related driving overtaking right of way without due care flow of traffic

47 52 99 37 29 51 23 74 2 14 44 5 27 0 96 23 11 42 53 6 55 5 18 26 839

21 12 52 3 0 6 3 27 0 4 11 0 4 0 40 5 7 10 7 6 16 2 35 13 284

16 6 34 4 15 7 0 32 0 4 0 0 2 0 35 4 2 4 4 3 1 3 3 13 192

4 7 4 2 2 5 0 29 0 0 2 0 3 1 25 5 0 2 0 0 5 5 2 7 110

9 1 8 2 3 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 11 1 0 2 0 3 3 0 4 1 55

2 2 1 0 0 2 1 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 7 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 1 33

5 5 9 2 0 14 0 7 2 0 0 0 1 1 5 0 0 4 0 3 2 0 1 1 62

6 9 14 7 4 11 3 18 0 1 3 0 4 2 32 3 2 4 6 1 2 2 4 4 142

110 94 221 57 53 98 30 200 4 23 61 5 42 4 251 43 22 70 70 22 84 17 70 66 1,717

71

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

29. Number of fatalities by province and years 2006-2009


Province Phnom Penh Kampong Cham Kandal Banteay MeanChey Kampong Thom Battambang Siem Reap Prey Veng Pursat Svay Rieng Takeo Kratie Kampong Chhnang Kampong Speu Preah Sihanouk Oddar MeanChey Kampot Koh Kong Preah Vihear Rotanak Kiri Stung Treng Mondol Kiri Kep Pailin Unknown Total 2006-2008 average 263 202 168 68 81 82 70 51 43 45 62 39 60 73 48 16 25 31 11 16 8 10 7 6 8 1,492 2006

194 183 134 50 61 80 70 50 37 40 51 36 66 92 40 6 18 24 9 6 6 7 8 3 21 1,292

2007 298 224 148 62 120 83 65 46 51 47 70 35 62 53 51 12 32 20 9 22 8 14 4 8 1 1,545

2008 297 199 223 92 62 84 76 56 42 47 64 45 51 75 52 30 24 48 16 19 9 10 9 7 1 1,638

2009 251 221 200 110 98 94 84 70 70 70 66 61 57 53 43 42 30 23 22 22 17 5 4 4 0 1,717

Change over 2008 -15% 11% -10% 20% 58% 12% 11% 25% 67% 49% 3% 36% 12% -29% -17% 40% 25% -52% 38% 16% 89% -50% -56% -43% -100% 5%

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

30. Data collection forms

Two different data collection forms are being used: the hospital data collection form, using the casualty as point of entry, and the traffic police data collection form, using the crash as entry point. Duplicate entries are checked using the name of the casualty, the date and time of crash, as well as the location.
Road traffic and other type of injury form

73

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Traffic police data collection form

74

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

75

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

31. Feedback form

Please send back this form to the following address: By mail: Handicap International Road Safety Program Manager #18, Street 400 Phnom Penh By fax: +855 (0)23/216 270 Name of organization: Type of organization: NGO International Organization Ministry Sector(s) of activity: Health Education Transport Environment Disability and Rehabilitation Name of respondent: Position: Email address: Postal address: Phone number: Quality of report: How would you rate this annual report? (please tick the corresponding box) Excellent Report presentation Quality of the data provided Quantity of the data provided Pertinence of the short analysis provided Would you like to receive this report by? Hard copy Electronic mail copy Floppy Disk/CD copy . . How do you use this report? . . Additional comment . . Good Average Poor Please elaborate .. .. .. .. .. ... ... Child welfare/rights Rural & Livelihood Development Press-media Research Institute Other (please specify): Private company Other (please specify): ..

Which additional information would you like to appear in this report? (please specify)

76

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Glossary
Agriculture vehicle Blackspot The vehicle used at farms. Sometimes, it is invented locally, by combining with other machine or parts of another vehicle. Ex: Ox-machine. A section on the road, less than 300 meters in length, that has the highest number of road crashes/fatalities/casualties in one year period, in a selected area. Who makes living mainly on driving a passenger/goods vehicle. Person was killed or injured in a road crash.

Car driver Casualty

Change direction without due care Going straight then drivers turn left or right suddenly or U-turn without giving a sign to other road users. Change lane without due care Change lane left or right while still proceeding in the same direction (go straight) without giving a sign to other road users. Child (in figures) Damage only Dangerous overtaking Died at hospital Died on scene Died on the way to hospital Driver Person whose age is less than 6 years old. Any road crash which does not result in any injuries. Overtaking without examination of the traffic situation. Person died after arriving hospital. Person was killed immediately during road crash. Person died during transferring to hospital. Driver or operator of motorized or non-motorized vehicle (including cyclist, riding an animal).

Driving against flow of traffic All drivers driving against the flow of traffic, except pedestrians. Drunk driving Farmer Fatal crash Fatality Four-wheeler vehicle Goods vehicle Head-on Hit and run Hit animal Hit object off road The accident involves a drunk driver with a blood-alcohol level over the legal limit.. Assumption by traffic police. A person who works on farm. Any road crash resulting in at least one person killed immediately or dying within 30 days, as a result of the crash. Person was killed immediately or died within 30 days, as a result of the crash. It is all kind of passenger and goods vehicles, with 4 wheels. More than four-wheel vehicle used to transport goods. The front of both vehicles collided with each other. When the driver responsible intentionally escapes afterwards. The moving vehicle collided with an animal. The moving vehicle collided with stationary object off road (ex. tree, post ) 77

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Hit object on the road Hit parked vehicle Hit pedestrian Housekeeping/servant Human error Local road/track Major road in city Minor road in city Motor taxi driver

The moving vehicle collided with stationary object on road (ex. barrier The moving vehicle collided with a parked vehicle. The moving vehicle collided with pedestrian.

A person who stays home to look after the family or to clean others houses. Any road crash caused by human mistake. Road connect national/provincial road to village/commune at countryside or road outside urban areas. Roads are located in the city with double central lines, but which are not national or provincial roads. Roads are located in the city with no double central lines. A person who makes a living mainly on driving a motor taxi.

Motorbike/two-wheeler vehicle Two-wheeled, road motor vehicle. National road Not respect right of way Not respect traffic light Not respect traffic signs Major country roads linking major population centers and provinces in different parts of the county, permitting speeds of 90km/h. Not giving right of way to pedestrians or other vehicles on the roads, especially on junction roads. All drivers that drive through traffic light while its red. All drivers that drive without respecting the traffic signs.

Other government employee All government employees, except police, soldier and teacher. Overturned/single vehicle Passenger vehicle Passenger Paved road Pedestrian Provincial road Rear-end Right-angle Road conditions Road environment Refers to single vehicle crashes. More than four-wheeled vehicle use to transport passenger from one place to another (including minibus, bus) A person who travels in/on a vehicle, without operating it (e.g. the persons who sit behind a motorbike, tricycle, car etc) Roads covered by asphalt or asphalt with pebble. A person walking/standing on the road or footpath/sidewalk at the time of crashes. They are not in a vehicle. Major roads linking population centres within a province or they are developed and maintained by provincial public work and transport departments. The front side of the first vehicle collides with the rear side of the second vehicle. Angle impact where the front of the first vehicle collides with the side of the second vehicle. Condition of road linked to road crash The combination between road and weather condition which is linked to a road crash 78

Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Serious crash

Any road crash resulting in at least one person who requires hospitalization for at least 24 hours because of injuries sustained in the crash, while no one was killed. Person was hospitalized for at least 24 hours because of injuries sustained in the crash. The severity of the road crash, based on the most severe injury of any person involved. The injury severity level for a person involved in the crash. The vehicle collided side by side while travelling in the same directions. Any road crash resulting in at least one of the participants of the crash being hospitalized less than 24 hours or not hospitalized, while no participant was seriously injured or killed. All vehicles using high speed over the legal limit or using non-appropriate speed in relation with geographical conditions and the conditions of weather, traffic, their vehicles, and loading. Someone who is attending school from primary school to university.

Serious/severe injury Severity of crash Severity of injury Side swipe Slight crash

Speed related

Student

Superficial/Slight/minor injury Person was injured and hospitalized for less than 24 hours or not hospitalized. Teacher T-junction Tourist/Expatriate Unemployed Unpaved/non-cemented Urban area Someone who instructs people and has certificate to identify themselves. Dead end road, T intersection Foreigners who work or temporary stay in the country and do not have Cambodians ID card. Someone who is jobless or has no permanent job. Roads are not paved or non-cemented. Refer to the place where buildings or houses are closely constructed with each other, exit or entrance to that is placed with sign or name of cities/ towns, even at day time or night time. Using mobile phone while driving without connection device or without stopping vehicle at the edge of road to use it. Vehicle defect is the main cause of the crash, without clearly checking. Someone who buys and sells goods Weather linked to road crash Someone who works in factory/working-class/ construction site. Wrong using of high beam at night. Crossroads, road intersection with four directions. Y-junction road

Using mobile phone Vehicle defects Vendor/small business Weather conditions Worker Wrong use of high beam X-junction Y-junction

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

References
1. National Road Safety Committee. National Road Safety Action Plan 2006-2010, 2006. Phnom Penh, Royal Government of Cambodia National Road Safety Committee. 2. "Statistics of vehicle registered in 2009." (2010): Department of Public Work and Land Transport (Jan, 2010). 3. Jonathon Passmore, Road Safety & Injury Prevention/Team Leader NCD/HP, WHO Vietnam and Handicap International Belgium, LAO PDR. 4. Handicap International Belgium. Cost Analysis of Road Crashes in Cambodia. Phnom Penh: Handicap International Belgium, 2010. 5. Department of Preventive Medicine. Helmet Survey, 2009. Phnom Penh, Ministry of Health, WHO.

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Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System Annual Report 2009

Contacts
Further analysis and additional information is available on request. Please do not hesitate to contact one of the following persons: For general road safety information and additional analysis/customized reports: Ms. Socheata SANN Road Safety Program Manager Handicap International Belgium Mobile: 012 563 172 E mail: sann.socheata@hib-cambodia.org Mr. Panhavuth SEM RCVIS Manager Handicap International Belgium Mobile: 012 545 334 E mail: sem.panhavuth@hib-cambodia.org Ms. Amra OU RCVIS Officer Handicap International Belgium Mobile: 016 338 178 E mail: rcvis@hib-cambodia.org

For information regarding the National Road Safety Action Plan HE. UNG Chun Hour Director General of Transports & Director of Land Transport Department Permanent Member of National Road Safety Committee Secretary General of General Secretariat of National Road Safety Committee Ministry of Public Works and Transport Mobile: 012 818 835 Email: chunhour@hotmail.com For information regarding the national traffic law enforcement General HIM Yan Director of Order Department General Commissariat of National Police Ministry of Interior Mobile: 012 590 978 For information regarding emergency assistance: Dr. PRAK PISETH Raingsey Director Preventive Medicine Department Ministry of Health Mobile: 012 862 022 Email: pisethsey@yahoo.com

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Editor RCVIS Handicap International Belgium # 18, Street 400, Phnom Penh Kingdom of Cambodia Phone: +855 23 217 298 Email: rcvis@hib-cambodia.org Website: www.roadsafetycambodia.info

Handicap International Belgium

With the support of:

European Union

Belgian Cooperation

World Health Organization