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V li t u: * Phn nhm A: Danh sch sv vi thy c hng dn dn trn khoa, cc bn t lin lc vi thy c hng dn chia nhm (thng 3-4sv/

/ nhm nh), sau nhn ti. * ti thy c a c nhiu thng s: Loi mch (OCL, OTL, n hay vi sai), cng sut (kh ln, c 50-100W), tr khng loa, tr khng vo, bng thng, mo phi tuyn... C ti ri xin thy my cun A ca nm trc tham kho. * Phn bit 4 loi s mch: OTL n, OTL vi sai, OCL n, OCL vi sai - OTL: (Output Transformerless) ng ra ca mch ni vi loa khng dng bin p m dng 1 t, ng vai tr ngun trong 1 bn k, mch OTL dng ngun n. -OCL: (Output Capacitor-less) Ng ra mch ni vi loa khng dng t m ni trc tip, p DC ti bng 0 nn dng ngun i +Vcc / -Vcc - Ng vo n l dng 1 BJT khuch i tn hiu - Ng vo vi sai l dng 2 BJT mc vi sai tng u tin * C A tham kho th c gng c k, nm nguyn l hot ng ca mch, tc dng linh kin, cch tnh. Sau vic u tin l t ngun: Xem cch tnh ngun trong A tham kho OCL dng ngun i, OTL dng ngun n, gi tr bao nhiu th tnh t cng sut cho. Tt nht tnh ra ri, ti qun bo h qun cho ci ngun DC, n (i), bao nhiu volt , nh vy tin ch c chnh lu bn trong ri, mt cng, cn mua bin p, ri lm thm ci mch chnh lu na th hi phin. C th bo h lm ngun vi nhiu mc p ra c th dng cho vic khc. Nn lm sm, ng ch quan, thng mt vi ngy n 1 tun (mnh qun ng ng ch Khim) * Gi quay li nguyn l hot ng ca mch, nm vng th tnh ton, test mch, ln bo v ch ng hn. C 4 loi mch u gn nh tng t nhau v nguyn l: chia lm 3 tng: Tin khuch i, khuch i thc v K cng sut. Khi tnh ta tnh ngc t tng sau ti Mnh xin ni v mch c xem l "kh nhai" nht, OCL vi sai (cc bn lm mch khc cng nn c phn ny, v 4 mch gn nh tng t nhau) y l s OCL vi sai kinh in cc thy a cho: nh c thu nh .Click vo thanh ny

thy nh size nguyn gc. (hc cu kin T hay KTM 1 m c 2,3 con BJT l hi mt ri, nhiu ch nhn mch ny cng

hi ri sao m lm BJT th Chia tng thi: + Tng cng sut: Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 + Tng K thc: Q5, Q6 + Tng tin K: Q7, Q8, Q9 Cn 2 con Q10, Q11 (vi R19, R20, R21, R22) l mch bo v, v mch lc Zobel gm C1 v R23

Tip tc phn 2 cho mi ngi: Tn hiu i qua mch c khuch i nh th no?? * u tin t/h c khuch i bi tng K vi sai , sau c K tip tng K thc, K in p ln ch yu l do tng ny, cn tng K cng sut sau cng mc C chung nn K dng, khng K p. V pha: o pha (tng u) --> o pha (tng 2 mc E chung) -->khng o pha (tng cng sut mc C chung), do tn hiu ra loa cng pha vi tn hiu vo. * Tng cng sut: - Hot ng ch AB, tc cc BJT c phn cc chm dn, nhm t hiu sut cao, chng mo xuyn tm ( crossover distortion). Cha bit mo xuyn tm l g th google hoc xem trang 2 topic sau c hnh : LINK : - Cc cp ( Q1, Q3 ) , (Q2, Q4) mc Darlington, c tc dng tng khuch i v tng tr khng vo cho tng cng sut, cc bn th nghim KTM chc cng c lm ti phn Darlington ny. Mt cu hi nh tng c thy Phng hi (nghe th) l: Ti sao li mc Darlington y c 2 con BJT, sao khng

mc 3,4 con c K dng ln ??? Kh qu Ans: do cng sut yu cu thit k th mc 2 con Darlington l ri, v l do chnh l nu ta dng qu nhiu BJT mc Darlington th p ng s chm li do in tch tch ly trn tip gip PN (xem li v k thut xung c ni phn in tch d, thi gian hi phc ngc ... g g ). - bn k dng tn hiu, Q1,Q3 dn, cn Q2,Q4 tt, bn k m th ngc li, xem my ci dng sng trn hnh l bit. - R1, R2 dng lm g? l tr n nh nhit v cn bng dng, thng l tr cng sut v nh hn 1 ohm. Tc dng n nh nhit chc KTM 1 c hc (tr mc cc E, khi nhit tng --> Ic tng --> p cc E tng m Vb khng i -->Vbe gim --> Ic gim ) R1,R2 c th khc nhau m bo cn bng dng, nhng hu ht thit k u thy ging nhau, nn chc nng cn bng dng ny khng r rng lm. - R3,R4 lm g? l in tr r dng nhit trnh ting loa , ( khong 200 Ohm), c th l dng nhit cc B /Q3 nu khng c R3 s c K qua cp Darlington ln vi ngn ln, gy ra ting loa. Khi thit k trnh tn tht tn hiu th Rac/Q1 << R3 << Rdc/Q1, tc tn hiu m thanh cn K s i ra pha Q1, ra loa, cn dng nhit th r xung qua R3. (R4 cng tng t) * Cn ci mch bo v dnh vo , ni lun: ( Q10, R19, R21) + (Q11, R20, R22). khi loa hot ng bnh thng, p ri trn R1 (R2) rt nh (do R1,R2 rt nh), nn khng phn p cho Q10, Q11 hot ng. Khi xy ra s c chp mch --> d chy Q1,Q2 do dng tng t bin, nhng lc ny p trn R1, R2 tng lm Q10, Q11 dn, ghim p Vce xung thp hoc v bo ha (0,2V)--> lm Q1,Q2 tt, bo v c tng cng sut. Sau mt thi gian gin on, ti nay gng thm 1 phn na cho anh em : Tng Khuch i thc * u tin ni n phn nm tng khuch i thc, nhng thc ra l dnh n tng cng sut nhiu hn, l 3 con diode D1,D2,D3 v bin tr VR2 mc ni tip nhau. Chng c tc dng phn cc cho 4 con Transistor cng sut. V 4 con BJT Q1,Q2,Q3,Q4 hot ng ch AB, ch cn phn cc cho chm dn, nn p t cc B/Q3 n B/Q4 s khong 0.6*4=2.4V (thc t c th ch cn 2-2.2V vn c). Do ta dng 3 con diode to p phn cc 3*0.7=2.1V v thm p trn bin tr c 0.1->0.3V l phn cc. Ti sao li dng 3 diode phn cc y m khng dng in tr, cu phn p nh thng thy mn KTM? - ch diode c h s nhit m, tc p trn n gim khi nhit tng, nn c tc dng b nhit (khi nhit cao th p qua 3 diode gim, lm gim phn cc cho tng cng sut) - ng thi rt quan trng, cc bn xem li c tuyn dng v p qua diode, th thy khi diode dn, dng tng nhng p li ghim khong 0.7V, nn dng diode s n nh p phn cc cho d dng tng thc thay i. Nu dng in tr s khng c tc dng ny do khi dng i th p i. Cn bin tr VR2 mc thm vo, v dng 3 diode cha , 4 li d, nn dng thm VR2. chng thay i p th p

trn VR2 nn nh, c 1/10 hay 1/20 p trn 3 diode. R rng vi cch phn cc nh vy, th cc C/Q6, C/Q5 v ng ra (trn loa) ch chnh nhau p phn cc DC, cn v AC th hu nh ging nhau (xem cc hnh sin trn s mch), st p xoay chiu gn bng 0. * Q6 l BJT K thc, cn Q5,D4,D5,R6, VR5 to nn ngun dng. ngun dng ny cp dng khong 10-20mA (c th hn nhng khng ln) 3 con diode di hot ng tt Tc dng ngun dng y: trong KTM vi mch E chung th tr cc C v tr ti c nh hng ti K p (xem li cng thc), y ngun dng c in tr rt ln, c tc dng tng khuch i p. Th 2, ngun dng cp dng c nh, m dng li l tng ca Ic / Q6 v Ib/Q3. Do mi thay i ca Ic/Q6 u c y sang tng cng sut (ging nh A=B+C m A=const th B thay i bao nhiu s lm C thay i by nhiu). iu ny gii thch v sao ta gi y l khuch i THC, tc mi bin i dng tng ny s c thc sang tng cng sut. * R9, R10 l cu phn p phn cc cho BJT thc Q6. y ch ti sao tr cc E/Q6 li chia lm 2 con R7,R8, v C2 ch ni qua R8 ??? -- th nht, xem li cng thc tnh K p Ku (hay Av) ca mch E chung trong KTM nu c t Ce ni tt Re th Ku= (-Rc//Rt) / re ; cn nu khng c Ce th l (Re+re) C t th Ku ln nhng s km n nh do re thay i, khng c t th Ku li nh. Do ta chia ra thnh R7+R8, nhm n nh Ku, v Ku khng qu nh. --th 2, quan trng hn, l phi hp tr khng. y R7 c tc dng nng cao tr khng u vo cho Q6, tc rv= (beta+1)*(re+R7) phi hp tr khng th c tnh n R16 tng vi sai, tc R16//R9//R10 = rv (ng t cc B/Q6 nhn ra 2 pha c tr khng nh nhau) Nu ni tt lun R7 bng t th s kh phi hp tr khng.