A Bidirectional Single Fiber 1.

25 Gb/s Optical Transceiver Module with SFP Package using PLC
T. Haslumoto, A. Kanda, R. Kasalnml, I . Ogawa_Y. Shuto. M. Yanagisawa. A. Ohki. S. Mino: M. Islui: Y. Suzuki; R. Nagasc. and T. Kitagawa NTT Photonics Laboratories, Nippon Tclcgmph and Telephone Colporation 2 3-1 Morinosato_Wakamiya. Atsugi-Slu, Kan;ig;i~va-Ken, 4 3 4 1 98 Japan E-mail: t-liasli~aecl.ntt.cojp A bstract We dcveloped a bidirectional optical transceiver rnodulc using a super high refractive index difference planar lighhvave circuit for low cost bidirectional and Iugh bit rate operation. We applied this technolou to a Gb/s single fibcr small-fonn-factor pluggable module.
1. Introduction

higher bit rate operations such as the Gb Ethemet or Gb optical passive networks (PON), and we adopt it for this work. The configuration is shown in Fig. 1
MonitorpD).31 p m LD



Recent progrcss on access nehwrk systems has increased the connnunication bit rate lo sevcral Gb/s. Now_a low cost optical transccivcr is required for optical access nchvork systems. Specifically_ a bidirectioual single libcr optical transccivcr is expected to be an cffective way of reducing system cost. There are certain approaches to designing the optical transceiver configuration that will enable us to achieve such a low cost, bidirectional and Gb/s network system. Surface mount integration on an optical hybrid integration plalfomi tbat includes an optical and electrical wiring circuit is particularly attractive. because it allows us to combine various desircd optical active and passive functions on any scale using the samc fabrication and assembly techniques. Morcover. this approach makes it possible to mass produce compactly integrated optical circuits and realize low cost optical inodules [1](21[31. We have developed optical hybrid integration technolop with a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform, where we realize an optical circuit in which an optical semiconductor die is directly attached to the PLC platform with solder bonding 111141151. We have already developed a 156 Mbls bidirectional single fiber optical transceiver using this technology [61[7]. Although the realization of a lower cost optical transceiver will require us to reduce the module scale, we must also consider the optical and electrical crosstalk between the transmitter LD and the receiver PD in the sinall module. especially when we use a high (Gb/s) bit rate. In this paper. we descnibe an approach that uses a lugh contrast refractive index (A) silica PLC (super high A PLC or SHA PLC) for a small size optical bidirectional transceiver and r c p r t thc advantages of this SHA PLC as regards crosstalk suppression. As an application of this approach, we also describe a bidirectional single fiber 1.25 Gb/s optical transceiver inodule using the PLC with a small fonn factor pluggable (SF'P) package. 2. Optical circuit for high bit rate bidirectional optical transceiver We have already proposed a l.3l/l.5Spn wavelength division multiplexing bidirectional transcciver for 156 Mbls ATM-PON 171. In terms of its optical passive function and performance, this optical circuit configuration can be used for
0-7803-7991-5/03/$17.0002003 IEEE.


PLC platform

Multi layered print wiring b a r d




Small Form Factor Pluggable Package

Fig.1 Module configuration It includes a WDM circuit on a PLC substrate with a dielcclric thin film filter installed in an cross branch optical waveguide circuit. In addition bare chips of a 1.31 l m transmitter LD and a 1.55 vm receiver PD are mounted on opposite sides of the substrate since the uncoupled light from the LD can be prevented from entering the PD by positioning a WDM filter between them. In this work. the module has a single MU receptacle type optical interface and is installed in the SFP package. The MU ferrule is connected to the PLC with a short fiber fixed in a V-groove fabricated on the substratc. The LD; PD and MU ferrule are mounted on the PLC substrate simply from above and this is suited to mass production. Bare dics or the ICs and the PLC substrate are mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) designed to isolate the LD and PD electrically and thus achieve compact integration. Although the basic design of the optical module remains the same? the problem of optical and electrical crosstalk becomes more severe because of the high bit rate operation and t k need for more compact integration. We use an SHA PLC to overcome this problem. We adopted an SHA PLC for the optical circuit and optimized the electrical circuit design. Io this paper. we focus inaid? on a description of our approach using the SHA PLC.


2003 Electronic Components and Technology Conference

5 P 9 m 0 - . This eliminates the need to form a silica on terrace silicon s t ~ ~ c t u rand simplifies the fabrication e process. SHA PLC for optical transceiver Using an SHAPLC provides two main advantages as regards fabrication. In such cases.0. . This is because the center of the PLC core is too high above the silicon substrate surface for us to use a thin film deposited on tlie substrate to adjust the PLC core height to the center of the active layer of the semiconductor optical device chip. The SHA PLC allows us to reduce the chip to one third its convcntional size. this requires a silica on terraced silicon 280 Fig. 5 Horizontal alignment displacement 2003 Electronic Components and Technology Conference . 3 Loss dependence on cladding thickness The other advantage for substrate fabrication is that the SHA PLC makes the substrate structure simple and this makes it possible lo eliminate tlie silica on terraced silicon S ~ N C ~ U R [8].2 m a a 0 0.5% 12x1 mm Fig. This work A = 1. ConventionalA = 0.5pm for the SHA PLC and 9 . Optical coupling and crosstalk The oplical coupling between the PLC.45% 18 x 2. we usually use a PLC formed on a terraced silicon substrate fabricated by wet etching to kecp the undercladding thickness above I 0 p n However. Figure 3 show the calculated propagation excess loss dependence on the undercladding thickness (W) and the refractive index difference (A) between the SHA PLC and a conventional PLC. 4 Coupling tolerance between PLC and LD Fig. 2 PLC substrate size 0.1 U -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Displacement [mm] 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Underdadding thickness W [mm] Fig. 2-2.3 Si substrate c 0 .2-1. ~ The loss is mainly the result of the optical field penetrating the silicon substrate. When we use a conventional PLC. structure to allow ns to adjust the optical axes of the senuconductor optical device chips and the waveguide in the height direction.5%_while the bending radius of a conventional circuit is limited to about 15 nun Figure 2 shows the PLC platform substrate for an optical transceiver. When we require a propagation loss of less than O.ldB/cm the undercladding thickness is 7. by using the SHA PLC?w e reduce tlie required undercladding thickness by 20% lo a height that allows us to adjust the height difference by controlling tlic thickness of the solder film which is deposited on the PLC substrate to bond the semiconductor optical device clups. Thcse hvo advantages reduce the cost and allow mass production.c 8) 0. between the PLC and the optical fiber: and between the cross waveguides at the WDM filter detemune the optical passive performance of the optical transceiver. 5 for the conventional PLC. . t .2 mm . An SHA PLC can provide a small optical circuit with a bending radius of 2 nun when the refractive index difference (A) between the core and cladding is 1. One is compactness and the other is simplified substrate iabrication. The PLC must have a thick undercladding to prevent this. the LD and tlie PD mounted on tlie platform. Optical hybrid integration using a PLC involves flip-chip mounting a semiconductor optical device chip on the PLC substrate.4 E g 0. Using the SHA PLC Ius advantages and drawbacks as rerards oulical conding.

5: and 2. we need lo improve the optical coupling at each pan. the elcctrical crosstalk increases greatly as the frequency increases. We expect the coupling efficiency to be iniprovcd from a 1. The 3 0 value (3 times the standard deviation) was less than 1 pm. The figure shows the displacement of the marks after mounting. To keep the PLC substrate fabrication simple. By adjusting the fabrication conditions.A hpical advantage is the improvement in the coupling between the PLC and tlie LD as a result of the snnller mode field of the PLC. The points arc concentrated in the first quadrant because we obsenzed only the repeatable accuraq of our mounting system. the displacement of the avcmge center can be cancelled out by using a numerical offset with the alignment positioning data. the SHA PLC and the LD: respectivel>-. The technique involves passive alignment using the pattem recognition of marks formed on the PLC and the semiconductor device chip. Figure 7 shows the frequency dependence on the LD-PD distance and substratc size. Table 1 shows the effect of optical coupling on the optical crosstalk. the WDM filter and optical fiber are installed with an accuracy of 1 pm. 1.1 1 10 Frequency [GHr] Fig. Expanded core width region Fig. 7 Electrical crosstalk 2-3. ! 3 as shown in Fig. The optical fiber is fixed in a V . 6. However. 6 Core width expanded region 0 -20 9 Y v) -40 m I-60 0 2 -80 -100 -120 0. The semiconductor devices were mounted on Uie PLC simply by aligning them in the horizontal direction because the height of the devices was determined by the platform surface. In addition. tlie silicon V-groove was fabricated in the PLC substrate with an accuracy of better than 1 pin. where the field diameters are 7. The crosstalk could be described as the optical crosstalk power divided by the optical output power and the receiver responsivih. Figure 4 shows tlie calculated Gaussian bemi coupling corresponding to Uie mode fields of the PLC and LD used in tlus work. where we did not feed the displacement data back into the system to adjust the center. However. Moreover. We measured samples where we connected semi-rigid coaxial cables lo an LD and PD pad terminated with a 50R resistance and fLved thein on a Cu laminated board. The trace lines for different LD-PD distances are shown as dashed lines. To realize a low crosstalk optical module. where the measured samples are the same size as a conventional 2003 Electronic Components and Technology Conference 281 . the coupling betwccn the PLC and the optical fiber and the insertion loss of the cross circuit at the WDM filler were degraded by the higher index difference because of the smaller mode field spot size. Electrical crosstalk TI#: reduction in the size of the PLC substrate reduces the distance between the transmitter LD and the receiver PD and this increases the crosstalk between them. Tlus means each coupling part listed in the table affects the crosstalk more than twice as shown by the connecting lines in the table.7 dEl loss to about a 2. we adopt an expanded core with a width of 15 pm in the horizontal direction at the PLC-fiber and cross waveguide of the WDM filter as shown in Fig. in contrast to the improvement in tlic PLC-LD coupling. We can expcct an alignment accuraq of 1 pin and this accuracy is acceptable even to the SHA PLC.g m v e that is formed on the silicon substrate of the PLC platform by wet etching. the I dB down coupling tolerance bccomes severe and requires a vev precise mounting technique. The output power is related lo th e total LD-PLC coupling. Therefore. The WDM filler is simply inserted in a groove cut in the cross circuit with a thin dicing blade. The responsivity is related to the filter circuit loss and the fiber-PLC coupling.5 d loss. Figure 5 shows the alignnient displaceinent of the optical devices on the PLC. The optical crosstalk light is stray light originating from the uncoupled light at both the LD-PLC optical coupling and the WDM filter. Crosstalk light power Element Crosstalk lightOutput power Related Origin Countermeasure SHDPLC LD-PLC wupling loss WDM circuit loss Responsivity Fiber-PLC wupling loss Double influence ' " - I Expanded core Table I Optical crosstalk and countenneasure circuit WDM filter Optical fiber ___. the filter circuit loss and the fiber-PLC coupling.2 Iim for the conventional PLC.

The module packaging was fabricated according to the small fonn factor pluggable package.1 dB and the coupling loss between the single mode fiber (SMF) of the MU ferrule and the PLC was 0. The filter inseltion losses were 1.5 dB additional 282 -90 0 5 10 Distance [mm] 15 Fig. PD and optical fiber and the PLC are filled with a transparent resin.25 Gb/s optical transceiver module.These values are comparable to those of a conventional PLC with a degradation of less than 0. The passive optical performance is suinmarized in Table 2. which is provided by a multi source agreemcnt. 9 Photograph of transceiver The package has an MU receptacle type optical interface. Fig. a transimpedance IC and a limiter IC are fixed directly on the PCB. The responsivity was 0. The peak has shifted to 8 GHz_the tail has also shifted slightly. The optical gaps between Uie LD. Since the Gb Etbemet standard requires a maximum -3 dB output power. the improvement is 5 dB at 2 GHz. PD-PLC.5 dB.6 A N . This means that the peaks are the resonance of the signal to the PLC substrate. 2. We investigated this phenomenon. For Gbls operation_ the signal wavelength is close to the substrate size of the small PLCs used for the transceiver. 7 has a peak of about 6 GHz independent of the LD-PD distance.4 dB. I . This value is good enough for the minimum sensitivity of -19 dBm required by the Gb Etheniet standard. For examnplc. The thick line in Fig.3) is -19 dBin when operating at 1. The optical fiber is installed between the V groove and a cover glass and fixcd in place with a UV curable adhesivc. we directly CoMeCted tlie ICs and the pad fabricated on the PLC for the LD and PD with wire-bonding.5 dB: which is caused by tlie absence of spot size conversion perpendicular to tbe substrate. We suspect that the tail of the resonance reaches the freaquecy of tlie module operation and degrades the crosstalk since the resonance is broad. This means the crosstalk could be affected by the resonance and the influence could be suppressed by adopting a small substrate such as an SHA PLC substmte. We detenuined an LD and PD distance of 8 mni with a 2 inn1 margin from Fig8 taking Uie fabrication yield into consideration. The degradation was 2 dB and consisted of the SMF-PLC and WDM filter inseltion loss. 1 and in the photograph in Fig.1 dE% including a 0. 9. Figure 10 shows the module output power. The bare chips of an LD driver IC. and the crosstalk is improved by about 3 dB at 1 GHz. The large drive current from the driver IC causes noise and this noise rcaches the rcceiver circuit across both the PLC substrate and the PCB and degrades the receivcr perfonnancc and becomes severe as the drive frequency increases. Figure 8 shows the dependcnce of the electrical crosstalk on the LD-PD distance at 1 GHz derived from Fig. 8 (connected rhombus). This means that Uic required LD-PD distance is more than 5 uun. We therefore adopted a multi-layered PCB and used an electromagnetic field simulation to confirm that an LD-PD distance of 8 ium presewes the receiver perfonnance. The optical crosstalk was -32. The coupling loss between the LD and PLC was 3. SMP-PLC and filter are each additionally d e p d e d by 0.4 dB for a bit error rate of 10. 8 Electrical crosstalk and LD-PD distance In addition to the distance dependence. I . nus can be confirmed by changing the size of the PLC substrate. Tlus becomes more effective as the frequency increases. The MU ferrule has a shot7 optical fiber that is aligned passively with the PLC by using a V-groove formed by wet etching on the PLC silicon substrate as shown in Fig. Each dashed line in Fig.5 dB excess loss. and this rcquires Uie clcctrical crosstalk to be less than about -70 dB estimated roughly from an electrical crosstalk of -38 dB converted from an optical crosstalk power of -19 dB at 0 dBm operating peak output powcr and a Q value of 8. and so the PLC substrate size is considered lo influence the electrical crosstalk.substrate. The optical circuit configuration is the same as that described in Sec.7 dB. which corresponds to a peak power of -3 dBin modulation. 2003 Electronic Components and Technology Conference . 7 is the trace line of the small substrate PLC used in this work.’’ 171. we should consider the dependence of the electrical crosstalk on the PLC substrate size. Based on the above consideration. To reduce tlie electrical noise. as shown in Fig. 3 Optical module and characteristics . These results show that thcrc is a large dcpendence on distancc.according to Table 1: 1. When the coupling efficiencies of the LDPLC.25 Gbls. the required minimum transceiver sensitiviv for the Gb-Ethemet (IEEE 802. tlus good optical coupling provides low power consumption by a drive current of less than 20 mA at 0 dBm output power. we fabricatcd a bidirectional single fiber 1. For example.

M. “A Silicon Optical Bench Approach to L o w Cost High Speed Transceivers. 1.” IEICE Trans. IS_No. K Kato.” 10-8 m 10-10 10-12 -26 -24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 Received Optical Power (dBm) Fig 11. Suzuki. Ito. Electron. “New planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform eliminating Si terraces and its application to opto-electronic hybrid integrated modules. N. T. References 1.. 16. Y. K. T.55 wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using planar lightwave circuit for full duplex operation. around less than -19 dBm. T. Sakamoto.a l m 10-6 e L . T. 10 Optical output power Figure 11 s h o w the receiver performance of the module. 7. 685-692. Y Nakasuga.” IEICE Trans.Goto. Hashimoto.loss g i v x an optical crosstalk of -28.1465-1474. This could be successfully eliininated by improving the coupling with a SHA PLC. No. pp.3/1. 1999. N. “1. A. The module performed well and satisfied the requirement for Gb Ethemet. and Y Suzuki. Y Akahori. Coupling loss.5. no. Electron. Oguro. we designed a PLC and adopted an MU receptacle type bidirectional Gb Ethernet transceiver with an SFP package. Technol.’’ Electron Lett. Y S u d i . Toba. the PLC substrate size and simplifying substrate fabrication. This indicates that an optical module with a PLC constitutes a simple and low cost optical assembly as well as providing a high perfonnance optical circuit module. H. T. Tanmra. Hibino. Kurosaki. Table 2 Module characteristics 10 8 T 6 E 0 4 a 2 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 If [mA] Fig. Y Yamada. 2001. 10. 1 Summary . Tohmori. Ishihara. Taking the dependence of the electrical crosstalk on the LD-PD distance into consideration. This minimum sensitivity indicates that the crosstalk was successfully suppressed and satisfies the Gb Ethemet requirement. Vol. T. Yanlada.25Gb/s WDM Bi-Directional Transceiver Module Using DFB-LD and PLC with Spot-Size Conversion Region“ Proc. Compon. Hashimoto. Acknowledgments The authors thank Y . Kawachi and M.E84-C. Ku Kato and Y Yamad3 “A 1. M. T. Hashimoto.2001. Yanagisawa.~ . Ogawa. Kasahara. Cod. Y Akahori.3/1. H Terui? M Yanagisaw. The minimmn sensitivity for an NRZ signal of 1.” J. Lightwave Technol. Kobayaslu. Takagi. R. vol. 1998 6. Vol. 414146_1993. Hashimoto and I Ogawa. Masuta and T. 1249-1258. S_pp. This also suppressed the resonance of the electrical signal. Toba for useful discussions and encouragement. pp.Sl_pp.25 Gbls was -19dBm at a bit error rate of 10~”.pp. pp. Kaneko. 2002 2. Y Tohmori. Ohyama. Nakamura. Y . Y . Kato. 7. Electron. 4652: pp. H. N Ishihara. A . Hashimoto. Lightwave Technol. T. Compon. 238-241 2001 4.52. M.No. 305-310 2002 3 .55 pm full-duplex WDM optical transceiver modules for ATM-PON (PDS) systems using PLChybrid-integration and CMOS-IC technologies.. J Goodrich.E82-C. Electron. Ka Kato. Y Tohmori. Yoshida. J. 11. “Multichip optial hybrid integration technique with planar lightwave circuit platfonn.” I. 2002. C o d . Fukutomi. T. Receiver sensitivity 283 2003 Electronic Components and Technology Conference ..” Proceedings of SPIE?Vol.. Kimura and H. No. “1. A. Vol. Y. Yamada. 5 .4 dB and degrades the receiver minimum sensitivit?. Vol.’’ Proc. 5847. Y. 1541-1547. Kurosaki.8. Vol. Akahori. Kitamura? Y . M. The power penalty of the lull duplex operation compared with receiver only operation was 2 dB.. Teclmol. “Optical hybrid integration using planar lightwave circuit platform. “Silica-based optical waveguide on terraced silicon substrate as hybrid integration platform. pp. 8. Y Yamada. 29. VoI. Y Inone. and M. Responsivty We improved and adjusted the optical coupling efficiencies of the components of an optical circuit using an SHA PLC as well as reducing.

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