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ImageEnhancementin FrequencyDomain F D i

ImageEnhancementinSpatialDomainvs. g p ImageEnhancementinFrequencyDomain FourierSeries Fourier Series FourierTransform

Fourier series: Any periodic signals can be yp g viewed as weighted sum of sinusoidal signals with different frequencies Frequency Domain: view frequency as an independent variable

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

F (u ) = f ( x) =

f ( x )e

j 2ux

dx

F ( u )e

j 2ux

du

Fourier Tr. and Frequency Domain (cont.) 1 D, 1-D, Discrete case Fourier Tr.: Inv. Fourier Tr.:

1 F (u ) = M f ( x) =

M 1 u =0

M 1 x =0 =0

f ( x )e

j 2ux / M

u = 0,,M-1 x = 0,,M-1

F (u )e j 2ux / M

F (u ) = R(u ) + jI (u )

where

or

F (u ) = F (u ) e j ( u )

I (u ) (u ) = tan R( ) (u

1

F (u ) = R (u ) + I (u )

2

Notice that the longer the time domain signal, The shorter its Fourier transform

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

For a signal f(x) with M points, let spatial resolution x be space between samples in f(x) and let frequency resolution u be space between frequencies components in F(u), we have

1 u = M Mx

Example: for a signal f(x) with sampling period 0.5 sec, 100 point we will get frequency resolution equal to

This means that in F(u) we can distinguish 2 frequencies that ar apart by 0.02 Hertz or more.

2-Dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform For an image of size MxN pixels 2-D DFT

1 F ( u, v ) = MN

M 1 N 1

x =0 y =0

f ( x, y )e j 2 ( ux / M + vy / N )

2-D IDFT

f ( x, y ) =

M 1 N 1 u =0 v =0

F (u, v )e

j 2 ( ux / M + vy / N )

x = 0 ,, M-1 y = 0 ,, N-1

2-Dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (cont.) F(u,v) can be written as or F (u, v ) = F (u, v ) e j ( u ,v ) F ( u, v ) = R ( u, v ) + j ( u, v ) jI where

F ( u, v ) = R ( u, v ) + I ( u, v )

2

1

For the purpose of viewing, we usually display only the Magnitude part of F(u v) F(u,v)

Discrete Fourier Transform (cont.) DFT can be formulated as matrix operations DFTcanbeformulatedasmatrixoperations forconvenience.Itcanbevisualizedas WhereWiskernel,WN istheNth root

10

TheinverseDFTcanbewrittenas

11

Discrete Fourier Transform (cont.) Example: Apply DFT to following sequence Example:ApplyDFTtofollowingsequence x={1289} Solution:N=4,hence S l i h

12

Impulses and shifting property A unit impulse of t located at t=0 denoted as Aunitimpulseoft,locatedatt=0denotedas (t)isdefinedas

Animpulsehassiftingpropertywithrespect tointegration,

13

14

Convolution Convolutionoftwofunctions

15

Convolution FT of the con ol tion of t o f nctions in the FToftheconvolutionoftwofunctionsinthe spatialdomainisequaltotheproductinthe frequencydomainofFTofthetwofunctions. frequency domain of FT of the two functions Conversely,convolutioninfrequencydomain isanalogoustomultiplicationinthespatial domain.

16

Notice that th l N ti th t the longer th ti the time d domain signal, i i l The shorter its Fourier transform

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

Notice that direction of an object in spatial image and Its Fourier transform are orthogonal to each other other.

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

2D DFT

Original image

2D FFT Shift

2D DFT

Original image

2D FFT Shift

From Fourier Transform Property:

g ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) h ( x , y ) F ( u, v ) H ( u, v ) = G ( u, v )

We cam perform filtering process by using

Multiplication in the frequency domain is easier than convolution in the spatial Domain.

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

F(u,v) H(u,v) (User defined) g(x,y)

FFT shift

2D IFFT

2D FFT

FFT shift

f(x,y)

G(u,v)

In this case, F(u,v) and H(u,v) must have the same size and have the zero frequency at the center.

In this example we set F(0 0) to zero example, F(0,0) which means that the zero frequency component is removed.

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

Lowpass Filter

Highpass Filter

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

Ideal LPF Filter Transfer function

1 H (u, v ) = 0

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

( (Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. g Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

The smaller D0, the more high frequency components are remov

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

1 H (u, v ) = 0 D (u, v ) D0 D (u, v ) > D0

Surface Plot

1 0.8 0.6

Surface Plot

x 10

-3

15

10 5 0

20

20 -20 0 -20

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

H ( u, v ) = 1 2N 1 + [D (u, v ) / D0 ]

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. d Edition. Wood, Digital Image P W d Di it l I Processing, 2nd Editi i

There is less ringing effect compared to those of ideal lowpass filters! filt !

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

GaussianLowPassFilter

34

GaussianLowPassFilter

35

Highpass Filters

Hhp = 1 - Hlp

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

HighPassFilters

37

IdealHighPassFilter

38

ButterworthHighPassFilter

39

GaussianHighPassFilter

40

From Fourier Tr. Property: d n f (x ) y (x n ( ju ) F (u ) dx n Then for Laplacian operator 2 f 2 f 2 f = 2 + 2 (u 2 + v 2 )F (u, v ) x y We get 2 (u 2 + v 2 )

Image of (u2+v2)

Surface plot

(Images from Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Wood, Digital Image Processing, 2nd Edition.

Spatial response of (u2+v2)

Cross section

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