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. (a) During simple harmonic motion, the velocity is momentarily zero at the endpoints of its travel, when x ( t ) = X . From endpoint to the next constitutes a half period of the motion, so the period is T = 0.50 s. (b) From Eq. 16-2, f = 1 T = 1 0.50 s = 2.0 Hz. (c) At one of the endpoints, x ( t ) = X . At the other, x ( t ) = X . The distance between these two points is given as 36 cm, so the amplitude is X = 18 cm.

2. (a) During simple harmonic motion, the time required to repeat motion is the period, so T = 0.75 s. (b) From Eq. 16-2, f = 1 T = 1 0.75 s = 1.3 Hz. (c) From Eq. 16-6, = 2 f = 2 (1.3 Hz ) = 8.4 rad s.

3. (a) The motion repeats every 0.500 s so the period must be T = 0.500 s. (b) From Eq. 16-2, f = 1 T = 1 0.500 s = 2.00 Hz. (c) From Eq. 16-6, = 2 f = 2 ( 2.00 Hz ) = 12.6 rad s. (d) From Eq. 16-11, the spring constant is

k = m 2 = ( 0.500kg )(12.6 rad s ) = 79.0 kg s 2 .

2

(f) The force is at its maximum magnitude when x ( t ) = X , so

F max = kX = ( 79.0 kg s 2 ) ( 0.350m ) = 27.6 N.

15. The amplitude of the motion is X = d 2. The angular frequency of the system is = 2 T = 2 12.5h = 0.503rad h . We write the time-dependent displacement as

x ( t ) = X cos (t ) , so the tide is at its highest level at t = 0 s. We seek the time at which x ( t ) = 1 X . This occurs when cos (t ) = 1 , at 2 2

t= cos 1 ( 1 ) 2 = cos 1 ( 1 ) 2 0.503rad h = 2.08 h.

28. (a) We choose a coordinate system with the origin at the position of the unstretched extension of the spring and the positive x axis pointing down the incline. The block will eventually come to rest at its equilibrium position, where the force due to the spring equals the x-component of the gravitational force. This position occurs when kx = mg sin . The block stops at

x= mg 14.0 N sin = sin 40.0 = 0.0750m. k 120 N m

The distance from the top of the incline is therefore 0.450m + 0.075m = 0.525m. (b) The period is described by Eq. 16-12:

T = 2 m = 2 k

(14.0N )

120 N m

( 9.8 m s ) = 0.686 s.

2

30. The weight of the three cars has a component acting down the = 30 incline, causing the cable to stretch by a distance x = 15 cm. The spring constant of the cable is therefore given by

2 F 3mg sin 3 (10000kg ) ( 9.8 m s ) ( sin 30 ) k= = = = 9.8 105 N m. x x 0.15m

(a) With only two cars remaining attached to the cable, the frequency of oscillations is

f = 1 2 k 1 = m 2 9.8 105 N m = 1.1 Hz. 2 (10000 kg )

(b) The amplitude of the oscillations is just the difference between the initial equilibrium position with three cars and the new equilibrium position with two cars. Therefore,

2 3mg sin 2mg sin mg sin (10000kg ) ( 9.8 m s ) ( sin 30 ) X= = = = 5.0 cm. k k k 9.8 105 N m

2 T 2 g ( 2.0s ) ( 9.8 m s ) = = 0.99 m. L= 4 2 4 2 2

T = 2

(b) The period is independent of the balls mass (for a simple pendulum).

43. (a) The frequency of the pendulum in a non-accelerating frame is 1 f = 2 1 g = L 2 9.8 m s 2 = 0.35 Hz. 2.0m

(b) Let the angle between the pendulum and the vertical be . There is a component of the net acceleration of the elevator that is tangential to the path of the pendulums travel, given by at = a sin . We can express that as a rotational acceleration of the pendulum bob equal to a a sin z = t = . L L The torque due to the gravitational force will produce this rotational acceleration and the rotational acceleration z that reflects the pure oscillatory motion of the pendulum. That is, Eq. 16-20 becomes

L ( mg sin ) = I ( z + z ) .

We substitute for z , make the small angle approximation sin , and write I = mL2 to obtain ( g + a) . a L ( mg ) = mL2 z + z = L L Hence, 2 = ( g + a ) L , and f = 1 2 1 g+a = 2 L 9.8 m s 2 + 2.0 m s 2 = 0.39 Hz. 2.0m

(c) If the acceleration of the whole elevator is now a = g , then the above formula leads to f = 0 Hz. The pendulum does not oscillate at all.

44. Since the centripetal acceleration is horizontal and Earths gravitational acceleration r g is downward, we can define the magnitude of the net acceleration as

g = g 2 + (v2 R ) .

2

Thinking of mg as our restoring force instead of mg , we replace g with g in Eq. 1624 for the period of oscillations and use Eq. 16-2 to express that in terms of the frequency

1 2

2 2 2 g 1 g + (v R ) . = L 2 L2 14

f =

48. (a) The change in elastic potential energy during this process is U elas = 1 kX 2 , 2 where k is the spring constant, and X = 1.50 m. The change in kinetic energy is 2 K = 1 mv2 , where m = 0.130 kg, and v2 = 11.2 103 m s. Conserving mechanical 2 energy leads to

3 2 mv2 ( 0.130kg ) (11.2 10 m s ) k= 2 = = 7.25 106 N m. 2 X (1.50 m ) 2

(b) The force required to produce the initial displacement is F = kX = ( 7.25 106 N m ) (1.50 m ) = 1.09 107 N. If one person can exert a force of F1 = 220 N, then it takes n = F F1 = 49400 people to stretch the bands. 49. The mechanical energy of the system is

2

f = 1 2 1 k = m 2 1000 N m = 2.25 Hz 5.00 kg

U1 = 1 kx12 = 2

1 2

(1000 N m )( 0.500 m )

= 125 J.

K1 = 1 mv12 = 2

1 2

( 5.00 kg )(10.0 m s )

= 250 J.

X= 2 ( K1 + U1 ) = k 2 ( 250 J + 125 J ) = 0.866 m. 1000 N m

52. (a) The bullet collides inelastically with the block. We conserve momentum in the collision to obtain the speed of the block immediately after the collision:

V= mv . m+M

(b) The speed of the system reaches zero at the maximum compression of the spring, so conservation of mechanical energy leads to 1 ( m + M ) V 2 = 1 kX 2 . Using the result from 2 2 part (a), this leads to a maximum displacement of

X=

mv k (m + M )

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