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Chapter 8

Digital Halftoning

Figure 8.1: Grayscale images for the comparison of dithering methods.

Figure 8.2: Two-level quantization with 50% threshold.

CHAPTER 8. DIGITAL HALFTONING

Figure 8.3: Eect of dithering by random modulation.

Figure 8.4: Basic classication of dithering algorithms.

Figure 8.5: Dithering cell.

Figure 8.6: Dithering cell and threshold quantization function.

Figure 8.7: Patterns of intensity levels in a dithering cell.

CHAPTER 8. DIGITAL HALFTONING

Figure 8.8: Threshold function and constant image.

Figure 8.9: Clustered dithering matrix.

Figure 8.10: Eect of cluster dithering.

Figure 8.11: Diamond patterning for diagonal clustering.

CHAPTER 8. DIGITAL HALFTONING

Figure 8.12: Cluster dithering matrix with pixel clusters along the diagonal.

Figure 8.13: Eect of cluster dithering with diagonal periodicity.

Figure 8.14: Ordered dithering at screen densities of 15 lpi, 30 lpi, and 60 lpi.

Figure 8.15: Changes in the dithering matrix lead to dierent geometries for the pixel clusters.

Figure 8.16: Dithering cells lled at various intensities, for order-2 Bayer dithering.

Figure 8.17: Eect of order-4 Bayer dithering.

CHAPTER 8. DIGITAL HALFTONING

Figure 8.18: Pattern dithering for line printers.

Figure 8.19: Propagation of the quantization error in the FloydSteinberg algorithm.

Figure 8.20: Eect of FloydSteinberg dithering.

Figure 8.21: Quantization from 24 to 8 bits, without dithering (left) and with FloydSteinberg dithering (right). See Plate 7 in color insert.

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CHAPTER 8. DIGITAL HALFTONING

Figure 8.22: Classication of dithering algorithms encountered so far.

Figure 8.23: Standard enumeration of the pixels in an image matrix.

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Figure 8.24: Boustrophedonic enumeration.

Figure 8.25: Recursive construction of the Hilbert curve.

Figure 8.26: An enumeration of a 4 4 block of pixels.

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CHAPTER 8. DIGITAL HALFTONING

Figure 8.27: Three partition cells of the Hilbert curve.

Figure 8.28: Grayscale image and adaptive partition.

Figure 8.29: Enumeration and clusters using the Hilbert curve.

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Figure 8.30: Left: average values inside each cell. Right: two-level quantization of each cell.

Figure 8.31: Eect of Peano curve dithering with cells of seven pixels.

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CHAPTER 8. DIGITAL HALFTONING

Figure 8.32: Adaptive dithering with maximum cell of seven pixels.

Figure 8.33: Line-drawing cartoon dithered with (a) constant cluster size of 27 pixels and with (b) variable cluster size.