HENRY FROWDE
AMEN CORNER,
E.G.
Clarmtwn ^
THE
MATHEMATICAL THEORY
OF
H.
W. WATSON,
AND
S.
D.Sc., F.R.S.
H.
BURBURY,
M.A.
VOL. II
M\l
PREFACE.
THIS volume
cation
is
of electrical
magnetic manifestations. The subject has been greatly developed mathematibut cally and experimentally in the last few years
;
especially in their
much additional insight has been gained into the relations between them, the intrinsic nature both
while
of electricity covered.
dis
stated in the preface to our first volume, the cannot be regarded as physical realities, although they are most useful as the basis of a theory
electric fluids
As
accounting for and to some extent predicting electrical And as regards the magnetic fluids, phaenomena.
it
may
had been inverted and the magnetic properties of electric currents had become known to us before,
instead of after, those of the loadstone and socalled
permanent magnets.
of the electromagnetic constitution of natural magnets would have been sufficient, inasmuch as it fails to
many
of the
phaenomena of
in
lines laid
VI
PREFACE.
down by Maxwell, adopting his conception of displacement and displacement currents, but not so as to
exclude reference to other theories.
According to this displacement hypothesis of Maxwell, adopted in a modified form by Helmholtz also,
there
a wave propagation of electric disturbance through different media with a velocity depending upon certain measurable electric and magnetic prois
perties of the media, and it is found that the velocity as so determined agrees, within no wide limits,' with
Hence the velocity of light in the respective media. an electromagnetic theory of light has been propounded, of great beauty and simplicity, and free from some of the difficulties attaching to the older
undulatory theory founded on the wave propagation
of disturbance through an elastic luminiferous ether. Until very recently, however, this electric disturb
ance propagation was hypothetical only and fortified by no independent experimental evidence; but within
the last two years the researches of Hertz in Germany, based upon experiments with rapidly oscillating charges
of electricity in finite conductors, experiments which have been reproduced and developed by Professors
and others in Great Britain, have supplied independent and almost demonstrative eviFitzgerald, Lodge,
dence of the existence of this disturbance propagation, and thus have invested the Maxwellian hypothesis
interest.
our subject and the advantage of considering them under different aspects may excuse the detail with
PEEI*ACE.
Vll
which they have been treated; this remark applies especially to the interesting but difficult investigation
of induced currents in sheets and solids treated of in
we have
amples to such as would serve to illustrate general principles without involving too much analytical complexity,
indicating memoirs and papers in which special cases requiring more elaborate mathematical treatment have been considered.
In Chap. II, Art. 19 of our first volume, at the bottom of page 21, there is an error in sign in the
fundamental definition of differentiation with regard to an axis this error is repeated again in Art. 25, and
;
leads to the omission of the sign factor ( expression for zonal spherical harmonics,
l)
in the
we
desire
therefore to notice
and
to
correct
it.
acknowledge a correction by Dr. J. Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, who has pointed See his out an error in the latter part of Art. 141.
also
We
desire
very interesting memoir 'On the potential of the electric field in the neighbourhood of a spherical bowl
'
(Phil.
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
ART.
XV.
PEELIMINARY THEOKEMS.
PAGE
266270.
On
13
271274.
275.
Stokes's
Theorem
37 78
Extension of Art. 12
CHAPTER
XVI.
ON MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
276277.
Description and Definitions
910
1012
278280.
281284.
The Law
of Force
1215 1519
. .
.
1921
2125
2527
Energy
of
Magnetic Systems
2732
CHAPTER
XVII.
Definition
tll314.
$15316. 517320.
321.
and General Property Vector Potential of Magnetic Induction Induced Magnetism and Magnetic Permeability
.
....
.
3335
3539
3941
4248
4849
CHAPTER
XVIII.
Energy
of
two Magnetic
Shells
5051
323325.
325326.
327
Oersted's
Law
5154
System of Measurement
....
54
5455
X
ART.
CONTENTS.
PAGE
Line Integral of Magnetic Force round an Electric Current Laws of Mechanical Action
.
328330. 331334.
335338.
339.
5556
5659
5963
Magnetic Circuit
6364
CHAPTER
XIX.
FARADAYS
LAWS OF INDUCTION.
340341.
Statement of Faraday's
Cycle of operations Lenz's Law
Law
and Shell
.
6567
342345.
346.
Circuit
6770 70
7072
347348.
349.
Adiabatic Process
Analogy
to
Thermodynamic Cycle
:
7273 7376
76 77
350352.
353.
354. 355.
Two
Currents
Coefficient of Self Induction
Flexible Circuits
7879
356360.
The
Coefficient of
Magnetic Permeability
7981
CHAPTER XX.
ON SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT.
361362.
363.
8283
83
364365.
366.
8384
.
The Dimensions
367369.
370372.
of in Electromagnetic Measure Dimensions of magnetic quantities Table of Quantities and their Dimensions
8485
....
.
8586
8789
CHAPTER
XXI.
377382.
383387.
388391.
.......
.
9092
9296
96101
101104
392394.
395396. 397398.
399401.
402403.
The Function^
.........
104108
108109 110112
Poynting's Theorem
112115
116117
CONTENTS.
XI
CHAPTER
ART.
XXII.
may
408409.
. Effects of resistance to be regarded separately . . Definition of Current Sheets, Current Shells, and Current
118119 119
Function
410.
120121
122
411412.
413414. 415416.
417. 418.
122124
124125
125127 127128 129131
General Solution
419424.
425.
132135
Shells
.
. .
426430.
431433. 434435.
436.
SelfInductive Systems General Properties of SelfInductive Systems . Eotation of Solid Conductor in a Magnetic Field
Effect of Soft Iron Core
144145
146
437. 438.
439.
.... ....
.
146148
148
149
CHAPTER
440444.
XXIII.
........
. .
151156
156160
160161
445447.
448.
449450.
451.
452.
453454.
.... ....
162165 165167
167168 168169
455460.
170176
176181
181182
461464.
Conducting Plane
465466. 467468.
Spherical Sheet
182185 185187
187189 189191 191196
469470.
471473. 474475.
476470.
480481.
bounded by
Infinite Plane
Solid Sphere
Solid Spheroid
196197
Xll
ART.
CONTENTS.
CHAPTEE
XV.
PRELIMINARY THEOREMS.
ARTICLE 266.] IF be a point in any plane, and Q a point in the normal through 0, we may say that the directioncosines of the normal are those of the vector OQ, suppose /, m, and n, or
those of the vector
Q 0, namely
/,
m, and
n.
If
we
normal to be those of
side of the
OQ, then
OQ
is
QO
is
on the positive
plane.
OP be two neighbouring
is
positions of a radius
arbitrary whether we consider the area described to be positive when the radius vector turns from OP to But according to the OP', or when it turns from OP' to OP.
usual convention, the direction in which positive areas are dein the plane POP' is scribed by the radius vector round
determined according to the direction arbitrarily chosen as the If, namely, Q be positive direction of the normal to the plane. on the positive side, then the any point in the normal through
radius vector through describes positive areas when its motion as seen from Q is in the opposite direction to that of the hands
of a watch. 268.] Consider a closed plane curve, and a point passing completely round it, and a radius vector from the moving point to a
fixed point
in the plane of the curve. The algebraic sum, according to the foregoing convention, of the areas described by the radius vector during this motion is evidently independent of in the plane. If it be positive, the motion of the position of the point round the curve is in the positive direction if it be
;
is
[269.
and
y dos
is
negais
Similarly
zdx
is positive,
and
positive,
and
zdy negative.
If
da be any elementary plane area, I, m, n the directionwe have, taking the integrals round its
boundary,
fxdy=+nd<r,
I
ydx
zdx
nd<r,
=
=
+md(T,
md(r,
I
i
xdz
ydz
%
+ ldcr
zdy
Ida.
surface
elementary plane areas. Let us choose the positive side of any one of these. If the surface does not cut itself we thereby determine the positive side of every other element, and so ma}' determine the positive side of the surface. In what follows it
will be assumed, unless otherwise stated, that the surface does
not cut
269.]
itself.
Hence we can
round the bounding curve of any surface, whether plane or not. For taking an element of the surface part of whose boundary is the elementary arc PP' of the curve, and
side of that element, we determine by our convention the positive direction of the point's motion along PP', and therefore its positive direction of motion round
the bounding curve of the surface. 270.] If the bounding curve of a plane area be traced out by a radius vector through a point not in its plane, the solid angle
subtended at
2/I]
STOKES'S THEOREM.
as centre of a spherical'surface of unit radius described about It may be defined as positive or cut out by the radius vector. negative according to the motion of the radius vector, namely
positive, if the point of intersection of the radius vector
with
the bounding curve moves, as seen from 0, in the opposite direction to that of the hands of a watch, negative if in the same
direction.
positive or negative with reference to the normal according to the definition in Art. 268, then the solid angle subtended at by
the area
is positive or negative according as is on the positive or negative side of the plane. The solid angle subtended at by any finite surface is the
sum
areas into
of the solid angles subtended at by all the elementary which the surface can be divided. It is, according to
Stokes' s Theorem.
be an element of a single surface bounded by a closed curve, ds an element of the curve, I, m, n the directioncosines of the normal to the surface at the point #, y^ #, and let be
271.] Let
d(T
any function of
(
SB,
y>
and
z.
Then
 n
/
da taken
line integral
P = ds
direction.
PQ be the value of P at the centre of inertia of the surface element da: Through that centre of inertia let axes be drawn parallel to those of x, y^ and 2, and let #', y', 2'
For
let
new
of
'
is
'
dy
dz
curve becomes
rdscf
v
Pjjds' /da/
TJ ds
dsf
,dtf ,daf dP, dP^ z +~^ J/V^jyj.^i J/V^Ljyu "T J/V^i,/' tfr/M + ri /T7r+ dz dx ds? ds' ds' dy
dP
,,
dP2 dpo
B 2
STOKES'S THEOEEM.
The
curve
first
is closed.
The
last
two terms
are equal to
nj^dv and
+ m da respectively.
dP
Hence
I
And
since
for
we
dtf <ZP N. dP ~  n~)d<T= CP,ds. ) ds dz J dy may regard P as constant over do the theorem is
da
proved
and
its
bounding curve.
integral
Hence
//o /P
is
m n j}d<r
equal to the
line integrals
which the
surface
(t/s
divided.
is
But in this summation every part of each line integral taken twice, once in the positive and once in the negative
;
belong to the final bounding curve so that the line integrals cancel each other except those relating to the bounding curve. It follows that, for the whole surface
direction, unless it
all
and
its
bounding curve,
COROLLARY
surface.
I.
The
surface integral
is
zero for
any
closed
2,
If X, J, Z be any three functions of #, ^, and the theorem to each of them we may obtain an by applying expression of the form
COROLLARY
II.
dZ dT^ ^
dy
3liWi;T) \ dz ' dx /
dz
,dX
\dx
T
dy
And
and
e
if further
X, Z, and Z be the components of a vector R, be the angle between and ds, we have
/R
cos
ds.
272.]
STOKES
THEOREM.
as,
y, z to the origin.
Let p be a vector drawn from the origin with directioncosines Let us so choose I, m, n, and making with r the angle 0. the positive side of the plane of r and p as that when seen
from a point in the normal through the origin on the positive side the shortest way to turn / to coincide with p would be in the
direction of
watchhand movement.
Then the
directioncosines
of this
normal are
1
nymz
so
Iz
nto
mx
ly
In the normal
proportional to
f, g,
7i.
drawn
whose length
is
by
Then we have
^_ ny
Iz
mz
nx
ly
/,
*.
d
'dx
dz
(2)
y 9
mx
r6
== l^~7 v
dy
d 1  m ^~ \)~*
dx/ r
J
If therefore in (1)
positive
'
we make
P = >
and take p
parallel to the
equations
Similarly,
=//^'
f,
77,
(3)
d \1
(4)
^.l
J
7lT>)J
d/r
STOKES' S THEOREM.
[273.
because
p^l^l
77
h=(m df V r* = (f  #) +
jf.
. I
d xi
drj/r
),
2
(ij
?/)
+ (f 
),
>
5
>
d
z
1
t
dy
d I far
Ji
we make
*=
>
then shall
dv ""j~ dx
dh dg = ^ T'
dv
~~~Tc
dc,
>
dy
dz
= dh dq ^ 3^5
drj
,
for
etc.
dy
drj
tf"" a?)
/, d ""V^TZ v
\ + ^T" +5>d/ r df
dr]
dv
d2
d2
d2
because
(_+_+__)_. =
follow
^2
d2
d2
x 1
by symmetry.
dy
dz
df
drj
by
differentiation of (2)
and
(4).
274.] If ds be an element of the curve bounding the surface a, and between the normal to the be, as in Art. 272, the
surface at the point a?, y, then shall #> ?/, * to 77,
,
z,
2 75]
7
line integral
the surface integral being taken over round the bounding curve. d For
and the
so,
y, z, is
But by
Art. 272,
ffkd*
[ jj ds,
rri t Therefore
d
r dz
drj
_
dc,J J
T?
fr cos 6 d<r=
7
pd
[
r dv
ds
ds
rr~( ds
,
ds.
.dz
"
s }
dy
The expression
is
*"&
5F
the arcomponent of the line drawn in the positive direction to the plane of r and ds, and equal in length to perpendicular
3
where $
is
ds.
275.]
tions,
We
u and
u' be
two func
both
y
=
j
and
V 2 u = V 2 */ =
u' at all points on or outside then u necessary for our purpose to extend this proposition to any two functions of negative degree without
of S.
It
is
now
restriction.
Let
S, r
to
any
point in space.
1.
Then
and
S and
infinite
[275.
That
is,
And
within
S, it follows
necessarily that
nu'=
And by making
rr
integral
/ /
P we
make the
(uu') ^
 dS differ from
zero.
have then at all points on S. Also u u'=. at all points at an infinite distance. Therefore u u' must be zero at all points in space outside of S. For if not it must have a maximum or minimum value at some point outside of S. And
this is impossible
We
UM'=
by Art.
53, since
V 2 (n
?/)
at all points
outside of S.
CHAPTEE
XVI.
ON MAGNETIC PHENOMENA*.
ARTICLE 276.] Certain bodies, as, for instance, the iron ore called loadstone, and pieces of steel which have been subjected
to certain
perties,
If,
and are
Magnets.
near any part of the earth's surface except the Magnetic Poles, a magnet be suspended so as to turn freely about a vertical axis, it will in general tend to set itself in a certain azimuth,
An disturbed from this position it will oscillate about it. has no such tendency, but is in equilibrium unmagnetised body
and
in
if
all
azimuths
is
alike.
It
cause a certain line in the body, called the Axis of the Magnet, to become parallel to a certain line in space, called the Direction
of the
Magnetic Force.
direction of the
The
magnetic
force is
found to be different
If the two points in at different points of the earth's surface. which the axis meets the outer surface of the magnet be called
the ends of the magnet, and that end which points in a northerly direction be marked, it is found that the direction in which the
axis of the
magnet
meridian to a considerable extent, and that the marked end points on the whole downwards in the northern hemisphere and upwards in the southern.
The azimuth of the direction of the magnetic force, measured from the true North in the westerly direction, is called the The angle between the Variation, or the Magnetic Declination.
direction of the
magnetic force and the horizontal plane is called These two angles determine the direction of
* The introductory portion (Arts. 276282) of this chapter is taken almost without alteration from Maxwell's 'Electricity and Magnetism,' vol. ii. chap. I.
10
MAGNETIC FORCE.
[ 2 77
the magnetic force, and, when the magnetic intensity is also known, the magnetic force is completely determined. The deter
manner in which
they vary according to the place and time of observation, and the investigation of the causes of the magnetic force and its
variations, constitute the science of Terrestrial
Magnetism.
axes of several magnets have been determined, and that the end of each which points north has been marked. Then, if one of these be freely suspended, that 277.] Let us
is
in such a
way
its
centre of gravity, the action of its weight being thereby eliminated, and another brought near to it, it is found that the
two marked ends repel each other, that a marked and an unmarked end attract each other, and that two unmarked ends
repel each other.
If the magnets are in the form of long rods or wires, uniformly and longitudinally magnetised called bar magnets, it is
found that the greatest manifestation of force occurs when the end of one magnet is held near the end of the other, and that
the phenomena can be accounted for by supposing that like ends of the magnet repel each other, that unlike ends attract each
other,
278.]
are
The ends of a long thin magnet such as those just described commonly called its Poles. In the case of an indefinitely
thin magnet, uniformly magnetised throughout its length, the extremities act as centres of force, and the rest of the magnet
appears devoid of magnetic action.
In
all
actual
magnets the
magnetisation deviates from uniformity so that no single points can be taken as the poles. Coulomb, however, by using long thin rods magnetised with care, succeeded in establishing the law
of force between two magnetic poles as follows
:
repulsion between two magnetic poles is in the straight line joining them, and is numerically equal to the product of the
The
between them.
2 8O.]
MAGNETIC FORCE
is
"
1i
That
two
magnets
in the presence of each other the mechanical action between them is exactly the same as if at the poles of each there were
placed a charge of electricity, one positive and the other negative, numerically equal to the strength of the pole.
is
279.] This law, of course, assumes that the strength of each pole unit, the magnitude of which
The unitpole is a pole which points North, and is such that when placed at unit distance from another unitpole, it repels it with unit of force. A pole which points South is reckoned
legative.
If m l and m2 are the strengths of two magnetic poles, if I be the force of repulsion, all exthe distance between them, and
ssed numerically,
then
Whence
follows that the dimensions of the concrete unit pole are the same as those of the electrostatic unit of electricity,
it
i as
The accuracy of this law may be considered as having been by the experiments of Coulomb with the torsion balance, and confirmed by the experiments of Gauss and Weber, and of all observers in magnetic observatories, who are every day
making measurements
results
of magnetic quantities, and who obtain which would be inconsistent with each other if the law of force had been erroneously assumed. It derives additional support from its consistency with the laws of electromagnetic
phenomena.
280.] It is not possible to obtain an ideally perfect bar magnet such as we have been considering, and if so obtained it would be
equally impossible to maintain its strength unaltered for any length of time, for reasons hereafter to be mentioned. If, however, we
then
all
its strength to remain the magnet of reference, magnet experimental evidence points to the following conclusions.
12
(1) That, as has
MAGNETIC THEOET.
[281.
been already implied, if either pole of the of reference were brought near to the middle point of magnet any bar magnet no mechanical action would be apparent, and
such action would be feeble at all points near to the middle of the magnet. (2) If the bar magnet under investigation were broken into two or more pieces of any lengths equal or unequal, then each of the pieces thus obtained would form a short magnet whose
positive and negative poles are at those respective extremities of each short magnet nearer in the unbroken state to the correspond
by any process whatever to obtain a whose poles are of unequal strength, and therefore immagnet
(3)
It is impossible
The
mechanical energy
multiplication of magnets by fracture and creation of is not inconsistent with the conservation of
energy, because after fracture and before separation the adjacent poles of the several magnets neutralise each other, and the act
of separation involves mechanical work.
Magnetic Theory.
281.]
mutual action of bar magnets and of bodies charged with equal and opposite quantities of electricity at the poles of these magnets
could hardly
fail
or magnetic fluids endowed with properties of mutual action according to exactly the same laws as the supposed electric fluids ; and indeed such an hypothesis has proved capable of explaining
some of the phenomena of magnetism as successfully as the twofluid hypothesis explains the phenomena of statical electricity. At the same time such fluids have even less claim to be regarded as physical realities in the magnetic theory than they have in the electrical. They are nothing more than mathematical fictions
of great use in the enunciation and systematisation of the laws of magnetic phenomena.
282.]
of
The twofluid theory of magnetism assumes the existence two magnetic fluids called positive and negative respectively.
283.]
MAGNETIC ^THEORY.
13
and attracting or repelling according to exactly the same laws as govern the actions of the positive and negative electric fluids.
In the magnetic theory, however, there is nothing that corresponds to a body charged with electricity. The molecules of all substances which are capable of manifesting magnetic action are supposed to be charged with exactly equal quantities of both
fluids,
to the separation of these opposite fluids within each molecule that the phenomena of magnetisation are ascribed.
and
it is
is
thus regarded,
when
magnetised, as
having acquired the property of polarisation, that is to say there is a certain line moving with the molecule, such that if by
turning the molecule the direction of this line
is
reversed, then
the magnetic action between this molecule and the surrounding The particular mode of separafield is exactly reversed also.
tion of the fluids within each molecule does not enter into con
any more than the particular shape of the molecule. As a very simple case we might suppose the molecules of a substance to be equal and similar prisms or cylinders, and the sepasideration,
ration in each to take place by the aggregation of all the positive fluid at one end, and all the negative fluid at the other, i. e. by
equal positive and negative superficial distributions at opposite ends. Each molecule would thus become an elementary bar
magnet
tion
as above defined, the end on which the positive distribu. was situated being the positive pole. If a finite prism were built up of a very great number of these molecules placed end to end, the positive pole of any one of them being in contact with
the negative pole of the succeeding one, the mechanical action of equal and opposite contiguous poles of contiguous molecules would
neutralise each other,
finite length,
the strength of whose poles was exactly the same as the strength of the poles of the molecular magnets. This
conception however of the particular shape of the constituent molecules or of the particular mode of fluid distribution within
is not,
and XI, Vol. I, we discussed the properties 283.] In Chaps. of a medium consisting of an infinite number of discrete infinitesimal molecules of any shape whatever, each of them containing
14
MAGNETIC THEOEY.
[284.
of the positive and negative electric fluids, and we proved that if $ dx dy dz were the algebraic sum of the mass of the fluids within the elementary volume dxdydz in the neighbourhood of the point
#, y, z
in such a
medium, and
if
a x
and of the electricity within each moleand the same as it is in the neighbourhood of uniform, the point so, y, z in the actual medium, with similar meanings for (T y and o g then <rx cry <rz are components of a certain vector <r and that if a plane were drawn through #, y, z the directioncosines of whose normal were I, m, n, then the algebraical mass
distribution of molecules
is
cule
of the fluids
this plane,
within or upon the molecules intersected by situated on the positive side of this plane, is
so obtained
sc,
we
medium
at the point
y, z,
a
y,
and
o 3
as
the components of polarisation at that point. proved also that if pdxdydz were the algebraical sum of the electrical fluids within the volume element dxdydz in such a
We
medium,
i.
e.
z,
that
if p
were the
dor
electric
point x, y,
then
p
~
"t*T
over any plane in such a medium whose normal directioncosines were I, m, n there were superficial electric distribution, then o~x (r v (TZ and <r must be discontinuous at points that
if
, , ,
And
on the plane
and that
if
crx
and
a x
<r
and
cr^,
crg
and
cr^
were the
values of these quantities at any point of the plane on opposite sides of it, then the superficial density of electrical distribution
284.] If in the
replaced
In
286.]
MAGNETIC POTENTIAL.
15
we
x)
<r
and d z by A, B, and C
respectively,
<r
Instead also of the terms polarisation and components of by polarisation as denoted by the aforesaid symbols, we shall em/.
respectively.
ploy the terms magnetisation and components of magnetisation It will be understood that we are here treating
of the effects instantaneously produced
or magnetised molecules,
polarisation
may be produced, maintained, or destroyed. If we assume the existence of these polarised or mag285.] netised molecules, it follows that there will be a magnetic potential
and magnetic force at every point in the
field of
a magnetised
mass, each in all respects possessing the properties investigated in Chap. Ill, Vol. I, and that with the molecular arrangement and distribution just described, if be the potential at any
point in the
field,
the distance of the element dxdydz of the mass, or of its surface element dS from the point f, 77, f at which the potential is estimated, and the volume and superficial integrations
where
r is
The
surfaceintegral
in the form
^rri(AA')
the summation
+ m(BB') + n (CC')
over
all
2 extending
and C, and discontinuity in the values of A, the quantities I, m, n being directioncosines of the normal of such element in each case the simpler form first written con
which there
is
medium.
286.] Restricting ourselves to case (l), and integrating each term for #, y, and z respectively, we obtain the equation
16
MAGNETIC POTENTIAL.
is
we may
If the coordinates of the point at which V express the equation in the form
required be
77,
If
at
a?,
we have
according as
we
f,
consider r to be
77,
drawn from f
77,
f to
a?,
y,
or
from
#, y,
to
respectively.
force at the point
f,
77,
287.]
are
dV rr>
and
r^,
r/
<;
r/F
the symbols
a, /3,
y respectively, so that
we have
for
/3
and
y.
7
,
From
the
we
see that
A,
/?,
//and
depends upon the superficial magnetisation only. In magnitude and direction of magnetisation are the
If the mass be
cylindrical with its generating lines parallel to the direction of f nC will be zero at all magnetisation, the quantity IA +
mB
/at points on the curved surface, and will be equal to + /and the two flat ends respectively. In this case let rt denote the
distance of the point at which the potential is to be found from a point in the flat end for which IA + + nC /, r2 its distance
mB
flat
end.
Then
if
we denote by dSl
289.]
MAGNETIC POTENTIAL.
flat
17
ends respectively,
If,
compared
),
with
and r 2
this
assumes
the
form
all
m( TI TZ
where
m=
/Y
IdS.
and
number
of cylindrical parts
by sections parallel to the flat ends, that possess the same properties, so
explained by this hypocalled a
In
is
magnetic
pole.
pole,
one
or
Also
if
#&,
dS,
is
And
h be the
length of the magnet, mh is called the moment of the magnet. / is called the intensity of magnetisation. It is the magnetic
moment
divided
289.] Again,
we take the
we
=
/"/Y
JJJ
d d
d
d^}
point,
/.
,
and
/,
m, and n
distribution
of an electrical rj, C the volume occupied by the magnetised subthrough stance and in which the density at a?, y, z is /, the above equation
If Fj denote the potential at the point
is
equivalent to
,.
where
VOL.
i is
f,
r),
II.
18
MAGNETIC POTENTIAL.
[290.
If the magnetisation be uniform throughout in magnetisation. as well as direction, the equation becomes intensity
diJJJ
where
F"
is
,
di
the potential at f rj, of a mass of uniform density the volume of the given substance. unity occupying 290.] If therefore we know the potential of any given electrical
distribution at
any
any law,
we can
point, either uniform or varying according to at once by mere differentiation determine the
potential at that point of a corresponding magnetic distribution of given intensity and uniform direction.
at the point
For example, the potential of a sphere (rad. a) of density unity, distant r from the centre as origin, is rj,
,
2 TT
if
and
(a
)
if
P be
I
and
47T
as
3
..
/
for
an internal point.
its
And
case
and in the
l
latter case

4rr
T
'
0~~
"l
respectively.
F~
,
known
by the equation
where L, M, are certain known functions of the semiaxes, 0, #, and c. Therefore the potential of an ellipsoidal mass with uniform
293]
19
magnetisation I parallel to the line i whose directioncosines are is I, m, n at the internal point f, r/,
or
where A,
.Z?,
and
are the
proceed to consider certain particular cases of one of which, namely that of a uniform bar magnetisation, magnet, has already been noticed.
292.]
We
now
An
Elementary Magnet.
f,
77,
We
due to a
magnetic mass
may
JJj
dxdydz,
where I is the resultant magnetisation, r the vector from #, yy z to and the angle between I and r. If the dimensions of the f, 77,
magnet be
infinitesimal, this
may
I8k
^
>
when S
is
direction of
is called the strength of the pole, and ISh the moment of the magnet. Bar magnets of uniform magnetisation may be regarded as elementary magnets, so far as relates to points in the field whose
The quantity IS
distance from
sions.
them
is
293.] Definitions.
any magnetised mass, so that its tangent coincides at every point with the direction of the resultant magnetisation at the point, is
called a line of magnetisation.
A tubular surface
the line of magnetisation at every point on the surface lies on the surface, is called a tube of magnetisation. And when the transverse section of the tube is indefinitely small, it is called an
elementary
title
of magnetisation* C 2
20
[294.
S within
^+^ + ^ =
dx
dy
dz
at every point,
(A)
rrrtdA
Ww+w.+x****
taken throughout the space
is zero, it
dB
do\,
follows that
//
taken over
is
zero,
I,
normal to
If
sections
S.
S be formed of a tube of magnetisation and two transverse S1 and S2 then since lA + mB + nC=0 at each point on S except points on 8 or 82i it follows that if II be the resultant magnetisation on S13 and I2 on S2 measured in both cases out,
wards from
S,
ff
A magnetic
**%**'*
A
294.]
Magnetic Solenoid.
called a
Since the potential at the point simple magnetic solenoid. is given (. 77, f of any magnetised mass, by the equation
t
,
=///
if
dx dy dz,
we replace the volume element dxdydz by Sdh, where 8 is the transverse section of the tube perpendicular to its axis at the
point whose distance measured along the axis of the tube from a fixed point in the axis is ^, we have
solenoid
is
295]
21
its
The
rl
and r2 being the distances of the ends of the solenoid from the
;
point considered
or writing
for IS, it is
rl
r2
The uniform bar magnet already considered is a particular case of the simple magnetic solenoid, and it follows from what is here proved that the same magnetic effects would be manifested by
the bar, whether the magnetisation were uniform or not, provided
it
were
solenoidal.
295.] When a magnetic mass is bounded by an elementary tube of magnetisation, but the distribution is not solenoidal, it is called a complex magnetic solenoid. have, as before, for
the potential
at the point
/
r*
dh
/ J r*dh
In
this case
is
a function of
^,
complex magnetic solenoid may also be found by the superposition of elementary tubes of magnetisation in a mass of solenoidal distribution, touching each other, but of unequal lengths, so that the extremities of each elementary tube are on
the surface of the solenoid.
with
its surface
point,
If a filament of such a mass be taken some tube of magnetisation at every touching and with transverse section very small, it is called a comfor
The expression
7
ri
j=
dh
dh,
as arising from the poles of the solenoid together with a distribution of imaginary magnetic matter of
linear density
jj
22
MAGNETIC SHELLS.
[296.
296.] If the distribution of magnetisation in any magnetic mass be such that all the lines of magnetisation can be cut ortho
we know
must
,dC
dZ
~ dC*
dj/ 3
^ ^ W
(dA
all
dA.
""
dB} " fa )
When this condition is satisfied, the mass at every point. between any two of the surfaces may be divided into elementary portions, each bounded by a tube of magnetisation, and two
surfaces
within the tube at right angles, the distance between the transverse surfaces measured along a normal to either of them at every
point being indefinitely small. magnetic mass bounded by two surfaces satisfying this condition is called a magnetic shell, the normal distance between the surfaces at any point is called the
thickness of the shell at the point,
this thick
ness into the resultant magnetisation at the point is called the strength of the shell at that point. When the strength of the shell
it is called shell.
a simple magnetic
shell,
other
297.]
A simple
magnetic
shell
may
fined as a thin shell of magnetised matter in sation is everywhere normal to the surface,
and
its
intensity at
any point multiplied by the thickness of the shell at that point is uniform throughout. The product thus found is the strength of the shell. If it be denoted by 0, and if m, n be the direction,
cosines of the normal to the shell, h its thickness, evidently Ah l(f), Bh m<l), Ch ncf) Z&=$. If, the arrangement being in
other respects the same, the abovementioned product is not uniform throughout, that is if the strength varies from point
to point, it constitutes a complex magnetic shell. complex magnetic shell may be conceived as made up of simple magnetic shells superposed and overlapping one another, in the same way as a complex solenoid
may
To
any point
P (,
?;,
f)*of a simple
299]
*
MAGNETIC
SLHELLS.
23
magnetic shell. The potential V at P due to any magnetised mass is, as above shown, given by the equation
V=
rrr T cose
I
3%J %J \J
dx dy dz,
where / is the resultant magnetisation at the point #, y, z of the mass, r the distance from #, y> z to P, and 6 the angle between If we replace the volumeelement the direction of I and r.
equivalent hdS> where dS is an element of one of the transverse surfaces of the shell, and k the thickness of the
dx dy dz by
shell at dS,
its
we have
Evidently from the above given to cos 0, this integral will be positive interpretation or negative according as the face of the shell presented to be that of positive or negative magnetisation.
(/>
where
The
integral
/ /
% dS
is
shell at 0.
The
on which
is
positive magneti
sation, or
is
measured,
is
the
299.] If therefore we denote by o> the solid angle subtended by the shell at the point in question, V $to where the sign is moves from a point determined as just now mentioned. As
;
on one face round the boundary of the shell to a on the opposite face, V passes from 27T0
according as the passage is from the negative to the positive or from the positive to the negative face of the shell and if the passage be through the shell the same increase or decrease by 47r< takes place in the
or from
to
27i(/>
;
+ 27T0
+ 2 77$
value of
on passing from a point on one face to a very near face, but this result does not imply disin the value of V inasmuch as the thickness of the continuity
point on the opposite
t
shell,
although small,
is finite.
24
300.]
MAGNETIC SHELLS.
The
potential of a magnetic shell at
1
[300.
its
substance being
<//
,
^dcr,
rj,
it
is
ds df r
ds
r3
ds
r
/3
and
y.
**=*
V
f=
r ds
Then
also
n
l  dS
Similarly
and
dH = = dG
TTT
S' not 302.] Again, let the point f, r;, f be on another surface cutting the shell, bounded by a closed curve let I', m' n' be the
; y
directioncosines of the
normal to
$'.
303.]
LAMELLAR MAGNETISATION.
//
25
Then
I'
a + w'/3 + n'y }
da'
303.] If the distribution of magnetisation throughout any mass be such that it may be divided into simple magnetic shells each of
which
is
magnet,
the magnetisation
said to be lamellar.
exists a function
of the
_ =
d$

dx
T? /}
= d(
f>
j
r<
(J
= d$
dz
dy
Fig. 44.
For
if it cut
F
be
a curve of any form be drawn through such a mass, and and two consecutive shell faces, 8 and $", in the points as in the figure, and if the coordinates of these points
if
#, ^, z
if di
we
have
di
or
= A dx + B dy +
,
.

dz,
Now
/rfi is
shells traversed
sum of the strengths of all the the curve from a fixed point in it, due to the by
26
LAMELLAR MAGNETISATION.
[304.
element PP' of the curve, such increase being reckoned positive when we proceed along the curve in the direction of magnetisaIf this sum be called <p, it is clear that with the supposed tion.
independent of the form of the curve from the fixed point to P, and is a function of #, y, z only.
constitution of the
magnet $
is
Therefore
or
Adx + Bdy+Cdz
d<t>,
A
A
is
d(j)
>
JJ
ax
d(f>
j
= d$ rdz
It
ay
The function $
must
be carefully distinguished from the magnetic potential. 304.] To find the potential at any point of any lamellarly magnetised substance.
If f *7> C be ^ ne coordinates of the point and A, B, C the components of magnetisation at the point x, y^ z in the substance, and V the required potential, we know that
>
where T
\/(#
f)
+ (y
2
??)
4(2
C)
In
this case
Ul
r
^=
j
a?/
ty
cte
dz
where
is
rflii4the symbols having their ordinary signification. If 6 be the angle between the normal to dS measured out
f,
77,
f,
the equation
becomes
CO s d
V=JJr.dSJJJ<t>V*dxdydz.
If
5
rrr.
2 y 
_ 72 1
^j
is
If the point
for
77,
/^becomes
305.]
27
r=//*^ +4 , W
<
where (0)
is
the value of
integral
at
T;,
f
*s
The double
12.
/ /
^^
d$
generally represented
close to the surface S,
by
one
The values of
47T
12 for
two points
just within
by
($),
;
and the other just without the mass, clearly differ where (0) is the value of $ within the mass close to
whence it follows that the value of V is continuous on crossing the surface, as it should be by Chap. Ill, inasmuch as it is the potential of matter of finite density.
the point
proved in Vol.
is
I,
of an electric system
is the potential of the system, and p the volume where density of electricity, at the point #,y, z, the triple integral being re
placed
electrification.
By
reasoning in
all respects
in
we
potential energy of
so far as concerns
dB
dC
netised
the volume integral extending over the substance of the magbodies and the surface integral over their bounding
This is the work done in constructing the system the magnetic forces. In an actual magnetised body it against may be the case that other intermolecular forces are called into
surfaces.
The above expression does play in constructing the magnet. not include work done against such forces. Again, the relative potential energy of one portion of an
28
electric field
[306.
Vpdxdydz,
where p is the volume density of the first, and V the potential of the second portion at the point as, y> z. Similarly the relative of one system of magnetised matter in the field potential energy
of another system
is
in
which A, B, and
is
and
to the second
equivalent to
It
is
with which we
shall
be mainly con
If X, 7,
required,
it
force,
W the
energy
follows that
If
/ /
we denote the
IK,
integrals
UAdxdydz^
//
\Bdxdydz, and
above ex
Wdxdydz by
mK, and
nK
respectively, the
pression becomes
P + m* + n* = l,
is
given by
W = RKco8.
Any
region on the earth's surface is sensibly a field of uniform and Q be the azimuth and horizontal magnetic force. If
<
307.]
29
force,
X = R cos f cos
/
5,
= cos
cos <,
8,
Z = R sin f
w
6)
= sin
0,
.
and therefore
W = KR
f cos
cos
(<
+ sin { sin
If therefore the
magnet be suspended by
its
centre of inertia,
com
ponent of force tending to increase $, or the moment of the force tending to turn the magnet round a vertical axis, is
rL
W 
>
or
KR'cQs f cos
sin
(<
8)
and similarly the moment of the force tending to increase the inclination of the axis to the horizontal plane is
ft
>
du
307.]
or
KR
{sinf cos0
cos f sin
cos
(<
8)}.
magnetic potential energy of any lamellarly substance in a magnetic field. magnetised If be the potential energy required,
find the
To
=
</>
/T<
j? dSJJfo
V Vdx dy dz,
2
being the potential of magnetisation at the point mass, and V the potential of the field at that point.
#, y, z
of the
If the potential energy required be relative to 2 magnetisation entirely without the mass, then V V
a
0,
field
of
and the
equation becomes
r
4?<Mi
or
W=
I \<t
where
a, /3,
field at
the
30
[307.
transverse surfaces
If the mass be bounded by a tube of magnetisation and the S and $2 each of them everywhere at right
,
TF=
(^
the surface integrals being taken over S1 and S2 respectively and the normals being measured in both cases from S^ to Sy
If the surfaces S1 and S2 be very near to each other so that the mass constitutes a uniform magnetic shell of normal thickness
i,
where
4> is
shell,
and
If the field be that of another uniform magnetic shell of strength 4>', we know from Art. 301 that
where
F=v[ r "*f, J ds
therefore
G'=V^ds>, J r ds
H'J
r ds
shell
<!>',
ds ds'
cos
ds ds'
,
,
dsds
r
where
the angle between the elements ds and ds'. If the energy required be that of the lamellarly magnetised mass in its own field, then we have by Art. 304,
e is
dx
dy dy
dz
dz
2
'
j j j d* (jp + tto))**<h/
,d(j)
/^<K 2 \
308.]
31
And
3> this
becomes as
above
the former of the two double integrals being taken for each pair of elements of the contour of the shell.
The These two terms are of the same order of magnitude. energy therefore is not in this case represented by the integral
Cr^fdV +
+ (K
cZflx
*dd
+ ** /Y/V 2 *******
308.] On the potential energy of a given magnetised mass in the field of an elementary magnet.
If x^y^z be the middle point of the axis of the elementary its moment, 6 the angle between its axis and the magnet,
line r
drawn from
we know from
77, f in the magnetic mass, 298 above that the potential V of the Art.
#, y,
z to the point f
.'
'.
McosO
^
,
elementary magnet at
77,
<;
is
or
r3
m, n, being directioncosines of the axis of the elementary its moment. magnet, and If this axis be denoted by the symbol h^ the last expression
/,
is
Mrr()
I,
be the potential energy of the whole If therefore netised mass in the field of the elementary magnet,
mag
32
A, B, and
at
[308.
C being the components of magnetisation of the mass and the integration being taken throughout the mass. f, rj, If the magnetised mass be also an elementary magnet we may regard it as consisting of the single element ddrjd{, which may also be written as k a, where k is the length of the secondary
elementary magnet and a determined by the equation
its
is
drj
or
elf
the directioncosines of the axis, and of magnetisation, of the second magnet. intensity Now //fca=Jf2 the moment of the second magnet, and
where
A,
/x,
v are
the
d
d
(A.F v
+
,
d
jOi
dt]
+ ^^>) = TT d' dh
2
if
hz be a line through f
Therefore
T;,
W = M M 4~
4 ( ) '
If
AJ,
r,
be the cosine of the angle between the two axes and ju 1>2 A 2 be the cosines of the angles they make respectively with
get
we
And from
this equation we may determine the force on either in any direction and the couples round any given axis magnet arising from their mutual action by the ordinary methods of
generalised coordinates.
CHAPTER
XVII.
any point on the plane arising from the molecules intersected by 4 TTO. the plane is If, therefore, a plane element dS be drawn through any point
of a magnetic mass, large in comparison with the superficial dimensions of a magnetised molecule, but so small that the polarisation of the mass is sensibly the same as that at P all
P normal
to dS arising from the magnedS will be 47r<r, where <r is the by normal to dS at P, or in the notation now
and the
dS
is
Now,
if a,
/3,
Hence
dS
are
it
dS is (la + mfi + ny)dS. follows that the flux of force over dS arising from
when
removed
is
The
force
whose
induction at
P normal
to dS.
Its
components
of reference are
They
VOL.
are
IT.
generally denoted
by the symbols D
a,
b,
and
re
34
spectively, at P.
MAGNETIC INDUCTION.
and are
called the components of magnetic
[310.
induction
310.] If any closed surface S be drawn in space, the total flux For the quantity of the magnetic induction through S is zero. of magnetic matter within S is
Therefore,
by Art.
magnetic
force
through
8, or
j
is
equal to
47T /
j
Therefore
Since
/ / {la
+ mb + nc}dS =
da = dx
db
f
dc
f
=
dy
dz
j
_ =
at every point. It is proved in Art. 191, above referred to, that if a small
is
in
comparison with the linear magnitude of dS, then the average force within this cylinder normal to dS arising from the included
magnetic molecules
is
4770,
or in the
magnetic notation
Whence
it
by emptying
is
dS
312.]
VECTOR POTENTIAL.
35
noconvergence condition da db dc
T + ay + dz = T T ax
'
but that the magnetic force components a, /3, y do not generally do so on the other hand, a, /3, and y are always derived from a potential, but a, b, and c are not so, unless the components of
;
magnetisation A, B, and C are so derived. The magnetic induction and magnetic force are the same in
all
regions devoid of magnetic matter. 311.] Since the flux of magnetic induction
is zero for any must be the same through all bounded by the same closed curve, and therefore must
be equal to a line integral taken round the curve. Let I, m, n be directioncosines of the normal at any point of a surface 8 bounded by the closed curve #, and let a } b, c be
the components of magnetic induction at P. Then, if F, G, be vector functions of the coordinates f, ry, f of any point in which satisfy the conditions
H
S
_dff
we know, by
dG ~"~'
dF ~ dH _dG dF ~"~'
j(
taken round the curve
Ts
+0 ^ +H
ds
8 is
determined by the above written quantities F, G, equations are called the components of the Vector potential of magnetic induction, and sometimes also the components of the
Magnetic momentum.
312.]
The
for the
of any given magnetic field, and ordinary or scalar potential we now proceed to do the same for the components of the G,
vector potential.
differential equations
D 2
36
VECTOR POTENTIAL.
[312.
dH da = dj~d{
The
solution is
dV
dF
'
dH
dV
4
~d*
d&
d{~d*
dV
rfc
"dr,
^^
dF
the distance between the point f, rj, f at which and the element dxdydz^ and the F, G, all space. integrals are taken over For remembering that
where r
is
are to be found
d 1 T? ~ T
77
d 1 3 dx r
y,
for
and
f and
^,
we have with
d
i
these
da
d
rrr
TZ^T
d
=
rrr
/ / /
drjJJJ
Brr~ dxdydz
dr
drjJJJ
drjr
dxdydz
Also,
by Art. 286,
if F*
dv
Therefore
dH da 
dv
*f
T7r+r?
dn
dC
d = T
Here the
throughout measured.
member
are extended
is
We may consider
them
as divided into
two
3]
VECTOR POTENTIAL.
37
point in question as centre, (2) for the space within that small Then in forming the integral (i) for the external sphere. we may differentiate under the integral sign; and this space
causes the righthand member to vanish, because in this case, the point from which r is measured not being included in the
limits of integration,
V2  =
for
every point.
The external
^_^ + dq =0
7
drj
>
<*r ^^ V * 7 f
Secondly, for the space within the infinitely small sphere we may, if A> B, C be continuous functions, put them outside of
the sign of integration as constants. Then the first two lines of the righthand member of our equation vanish by symmetry and the third line becomes 4TrA. Hence, the integration for
:
dH_dG
dif]
dV
d
And combining
we have
dH
j
dG
~T[
dV
Jr.
~ 477 ^>
dH
or
arj
dG
a
zrr
= a + ^TT A = a.
dH = __
6,
dF
Similarly,
dG_dF =
If A, B, and C are discontinuous at the point considered, we may obtain the same result as follows
313.]
in
of
which the double integral is over every surface of discontinuity and B, and throughout the triple integral B and A are continuous. Treating G and also V in the same manner, we obtain
38
VECTOR POTENTIAL.
[314.
dH
1
c?J
dG
df
TJ
dV + TF = d
*"
d
d
77
fA TnAlC
'
/ /
dS
^Cv/J
lA+mB + nC dS
rrri,dc
dlJJJ r
%
JA
if
The integral taken throughout the space outside of the small sphere enclosing the point considered is zero by Art. 312, because we may perform the differentiations under the integral
sign.
triple
When we
integrals Of the double inquantities under the integral sign are finite. the first represents the force in y, due to a distribution tegrals
integrate throughout the small sphere the in the second member vanish, because the
of density
IBmA
That is, through the point considered. 47rm(lB Treating the other double integrals in the same way,
for the
mA).
we
find
sum
of the three
Therefore, as before,
dH ~ da
or
?T7
dV =
=
<^C
&c.
= &c.
C
d,
314.] When the magnetisation is lamellar A, J3, and derivable from a potential 0, and therefore in this case a>
c are so likewise.
are
and
Referring to Art. 304, we see that in such a mass the quantity in that Article called fi, or
r^
~a
dS,
is
the potential of magnetic induction, and that the components of this induction are
3 1 5]
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
39
In this case
rrr(d<i_d$
JJJ \dydz
\<
dz'dy]
n
) dy' r
mor
dz
=
by
F, G,
The
quantities denoted
comand,
for a
idy
integration being taken round the shells contour. These results might have been deduced from the expressions
le line
for F, G,
and
.3"
Of Induced Magnetism. 315.] Hitherto we have treated of magnets and magnetic lolecules in their mechanical relations only, considering magletisation
leans
as an invariable quantity without regard to the which it can be produced, altered, or destroyed. In by iture no such thing as an invariably magnetised body exists, [agnetisation is always changing, and in particular the magnetition of any substance generally changes with the state of
ie
magnetic field in which the substance is placed. Magnetion is said fco be induced in it by variation of the field, if renerally, a piece of iron tends to assume magnetisation
)riginally
if partially in a direction opposite to that of the field, that is, lagnetised, such a direction as to diminish the magnetic potential of the
ield.
the magnetisable substance a conductor, it would become )larised in that direction, and the polarization would be pro
40
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
[315.
In Poisson's theory of induced portional to the inducing force. magnetism this is the action which ensues in the molecules of
magnetisable masses
when brought
into
any magnetic
field.
polarised to a degree proportioned to the Hence, it follows that the mathematical treat
ment
of such a magnetisable
medium would
medium
and XI, the magnetisable molecules taking the place of the small So that if a, /3, y were the comconductors of that chapter.
ponents of total magnetic force of the field at any point, we should have an additional magnetisation in the neighbourhood
of that point arising from induction whose components were, in the notation of that chapter, Q a, Q(3, and Q y respectively, the l symbol K being generally used for Q in Poisson's notation
.
The quantity
+4
n
is,
Further, A, B, and
and *y. It follows from the results arrived at in the aforesaid chapters, that the magnetic potential at any point in a magnetisable mass,
in
any magnetic
field, is
 of the potential
at the
same point in
air or
different values of
vacuum, and therefore that in comparing two media with /u, the intensities of the fields arising from
magnetic systems vary inversely as /u, that is, a, /3, and y, the forces derived from magnetised molecules, vary inversely On the other hand, the vector whose components are as ju.
similar
juo, /u/3, /xy is
always independent of /A. the magnetisation of the mass arises entirely from induction, the last mentioned vector is the magnetic induction,
When
and in this case the magnetic induction at any point in any medium due to any given magnetic distribution is independent of /u, and whatever be the changes of medium, the flux of
1 It is assumed in the text that we are dealing with iron, by far the most important of magnetisable substances. In certain substances induced magnetism is of the opposite sign to that stated in the text. Such substances are called diamagnetic. Iron, and substances which behave like it are paramagnetic.
3 1 6.]
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
41
magnetic induction over every closed surface is zero, and the magnitudes F, G, H, are independent of p. In all cases the flux of the vector /xa, /x/3, /my over any closed
surface is equal to the algebraic the surface.
sum
of the
magnetism within
If a homogeneous mass without magnetisation, but of being magnetised by induction, be placed in a magcapable netic field, the magnetisation which it assumes is, according to this theory, lamellar and solenoidal.
316.]
For let V be the magnetic potential, including as well that of the field as that of the induced magnetism. Then we have at every point in the mass
dV
r dx fxTj
dy
dz
dV B = MT~> r
n C
= )Lt dV
ju,
And therefore since the mass is homogeneous and M F, and the B, C are derived from a potential
is
constant,
tion
lamellar.
Again,
if p
V 2 V+ 4?rp =
dA
Also, as
shown above,
dB
or
dC
whence
it
follows that p
0,
and
dA
dx
dB
dy
dC_
dz
which the
force,
due to the mutual attraction of the faces of every magnetic shell into which the substance is divided, is always equal and
is opposite to the separating force to which the magnetisation at every point. so that a 0, y According 0, /3 due, to the experiments of Thalen (Maxwell, 430) this condition is
42
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
[317.
very nearly reached by soft iron, for which therefore 128 TT+ 1.
//,
32,
and
On this theory it follows that to any problem in in317.] duced magnetism there corresponds a problem in specific inductive capacity, and any such problem may be investigated on the
for principles developed in Chap. XI, with the substitution of 1 + 4 TTK. of that Chapter, where /x the symbol If V be the known potential at any point of the given magthat of the induced magnetism, and netism in the field, and
/ut
we
confine our attention to the case of isotropic media, the in equations for the determination of the unknown quantity
V are
dV
is
of the form
dV
dV
dV
,dV
dV
ju
//,
to
//,
where p and
o
are the
any given fixed magnetism in the neighbourhood of the point. In the case of a single magnetisable mass bounded by a given surface and placed in air or a medium
superficial densities of
is unity, and in a given external magnetic field, there be no fixed magnetism in the mass, the above equations are reduced to V 2 F' 0,
for
which p
if
and
and
*.
/4
(F
+70+^<7+70 =
dV' dV'
dv'
j
0.
The
f r//5
last
+ 477 K
dV __
dv
0,
'
dv
dv
because
dv
and
it is
this form.
3 1 8.]
318.]
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
For
all
43
easy to determine
has been so expressed, with the common spherical centre as origin. The particular case of a sphere with magnetic per
when
meability
JA,
surrounded by air in a
a?,
field
of uniform magnetic
force F, parallel to
is
XI
above
mentioned.
If in the results there obtained
we
write
/u
for
we get
for
in the space
outside the
and
for
the potential
Vl
in the sphere
And
"~
jn'
a?
*
to a mass bounded
by the
>
ellipsoid
cc
a?
i/
%?
&*"
1?
surrounded by air and in a field of constant force F. For if denote the integral r d\
<
L 7p
where A
is
a function of
a?,
^, z
*
2
i
f
\
*
\
72_i
2_i_ X
i
a?,
m
V
'
we know
that x
(JuGL
is
the ^component at
y,
^ of the attrac
tion of a mass of density unity bounded by the ellipsoid, and therefore it satisfies the conditions of vanishing at infinity, and
44
If
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
$ denote the value of
<j>
[318.
that
is
when
A.
0,
to say, for
the function
da?
satisfies
of the ellipsoid.
the above conditions, and is equal to x at the surface Also at the surface,
(*&?
da
2 '
=
_
x
jj
x
1
(
J5J
az
dty^l
a?
x d dx
11
1_
d
1_
z
us
TX
d(b _L.
b'*
dy
z
c
2
tfdz
da 2
da da?~
ivx
a?
tax
d(j)
dA.
y d\
IP
d\} d
d$
da?
\a?
dx
dy
dz\d\
da?
where
is
plane at x, y,
AI Also
And from
d\2x
_
(nr,
Therefore
]L \
(1),
d\
when X
= 0.
2z
da?
d\
d\
da? \
dfa o
a?
(2)
da?
/
'
UUL
d<$> Q
da
we
and
Vl
where
is
a constant to be determined.
dV dv
dV.
ju
dv
= 0.
319.]
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
last equation gives us,
45
The
by means of (2),
or
which determines A.
When
=6=
c,
^> =  Lda? 3a
' 3 ;
as before.
The
superficial
magnetisation
is
dv
If the given field had been one of constant force whose components were F, G, ff, then the internal field would also have
F
r;
)
~G
.
and
H
And
x

y_
2
H
We may
apply a similar treatment to the case of a
,
319.]
shell
bounded by concentric spherical surfaces with radii a and and situated in air in a field of uniform force F. Let F, F', and V" be the potentials in the external space, in the substance of the shell, and within the hollow respectively
;
then
it is
clear that
46
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
[320.
where
is
a constant, will at
all
V 2 F=0. Also 7 at
where
If
finite.
infinity
becomes
Fx+
Q, and
V and
V"
are every
A = C(l 
3),
and
D = ^(l  ^),
dV
drr = a
dV' drr
dV' and w ;
dV'
,
whence we get
Also
Therefore
And
value
is
the hollow
is
field of
320.]
A similar
320.]
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
bounded by concentric and confocal ellipsoidal surfaces surrounded by air in a field of uniform force parallel to one of the axes.
Let the equations of the outer and inner
ively be
ellipsoids respect
^*+lb+* 2 2 I c a2
and
let
Sil
>
and
T^Ta2 A,
d\ dk
ft
2 TTT
A,
+ c2 T^~T = A,
*>
$ and
and
r J\
for
0.
The value of A
y*
a?
1,
and
=
y*
^
z2
;
id therefore that at
<
re
any point in space $ = (//, provided that we measure A from the outer, and in forming </>'
ellipsoid.
values of the aforesaid potentials F, F"', and V" for the external space, the shells substance, and the hollow will be
Then the
V=Fx I
V"
= Dx,
48
where
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
d(j>'
[321.
A=C
J7
and inner
dv
surfaces
dV = dv
IJL
dV' dv
and
dV'
jx
=
dv
= dV" r
At
dV
dv"
Fxtff
where
is
the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent Substituting in the first of
^ we
obtain a linear
.
.y,,
we
dv
and
dv
by
^
where
is
the centre on the tangent plane at the point x, y, z of that surface, whence we should get a second linear equation these two equations in A)
,
C,
magnetism given above does not adequately explain the phenomena presented by soft iron or
other rnagnetisable substances when placed in a magnetic field. According to the theory, the intensity of magnetisation induced
should be proportional to the force, and so capable of increase without limit. And the magnetisation should immediately dis
321.]
INDUCED MAGNETISM.
force.
49
is
It is found that the magnetisation actually fulfilled in practice. assumed by soft iron tends, as the inducing force is increased,
to a definite limit,
and that
it
force pass through a complete cycle the magnetisation is always retarded in phase, as a consequence of which work is done in the
Other theories have been invented to explain the actual phenomena, of which the best known is that of Weber, discussed by Maxwell, Chap. VI, Vol. II. The reader may also It is not our purpose to consult the works in footnote below *. dwell on this branch of the subject, which belongs rather to
cycle.
treatises
*
iron.
p. 141 ; Dr. Hopkinson, Phil. Trans., part II, p. 455 Professor Ewing, ibid., p. 523 ; Lord Kayleigh, Phil. Mag., Vol. XXII, p. 175; Mr. Bosanquet, ibid., Vol. XIX, pp. 57, 73, 333 ; Vol. XXII, p. 500.
Vol.
CLXXVI,
VOL.
II.
CHAPTER
XVIII.
shells,
that
<
is
by the
shell $' is
where
a', b', c' are the components of magnetic induction, or, which is here the same thing, magnetic force, due to the shell $', and the integration is over the shell <. The surface integral
<ff
represents the flux of magnetic induction of the shell the shell <p, or, as we may otherwise express it, the
lines of
through
of
number
shell $'
the shell $.
The expression
(la
+ mb' + nc') dS
we
shall
admits of being put in several other forms of which have occasion to make use viz.
;
the angle between ds and ds taken round the bounshall denote the integral dary of both shells.
where
e is
We
cos e
dsds
, ,
by M.
324.]
Also
OERSTED'S LAW.
51
shell $,
where
F', G',
are the
com
ponents of vector potential of magnetic induction due to the shell $'. It appears from the last expressions that the quantity
of
either shell if the
form of the surface of bounding curve be given. If the shells be rigidly magnetised, and if they be capable of relative motion without change of shape, they will so move as
in question is independent of the to diminish the quantity M, according as and $'
i
work
<
<' M, that
is
to increase or diminish
have the same or opposite signs. in the same way if there be many magnetic shells, or Exactly
field,
invariable shape so move as to increase the flux of magnetic induction due to the field through its contour.
will, if free
its
Evidently any such diminution of the potential energy has equivalent in kinetic energy of visible motion of the shells,
or in external
work done.
field in
323.] It
the neighfield.
bourhood of a closed
magnetic
The
ments,
shell at
is
field
its
substance
due to a certain closed electric current round the bounding curve of the shell. The direction of the current is the positive direction as defined in Art. 269, taking for the positive normal to the shells surface a line drawn from the negative towards the positive face of the shell.
The strength
of the current
is
pro
When we come to treat of the portional to that of the shell. units of measurement, we shall see that in a certain system,
called the electromagnetic system, the strength of the shell is
numerically equal to that of the current. 324.] An infinite straight line may be regarded as the edge of a plane magnetic shell, every other part of the boundary of which
is
infinitely distant.
52
stated, such
OEKSTED'S LAW.
a shell produces the same magnetic
field
[324.
as
an
magnet be brought into the field magnet may be regarded as a magnetic shell, or aggregate of We might then form the integral parallel magnetic shells.
'cos 6
dsds
for the infinite straight line
,
,
shell or
The bar shells composing the magnet in any given position. magnet, if free to move, would tend so to place itself as to
this integral a maximum, and, according to the law of equivalence above stated, it will behave in the same way when for the infinite shell we substitute an electric current in the
infinite line.
}
make
for axis
of z and a plane through C, the centre of the magnet, for that of xy, the origin being at the intersection of this plane with
the infinite straight line. Then, first, let the axis of the magnet in the plane of be constrained to lie in a radius drawn from xy> but be free to rotate about an axis coinciding with that of
z.
In
dsds
f
0,
it
makes with
The magnet therefore a fixed plane through the axis of z. will be acted upon by no couple tending to turn it round the axis of z. It is found that this is in fact the case.
Secondly, let the centre of the magnet be fixed, and let it be turn in a plane perpendicular to the current. In this case the integral is a maximum when the positive pole points
free to
towards the right of a man so standing that the current flows from his head to his feet and facing the magnet. It is found
The experiment that the magnet does tend so to place itself. the law of equivalence might therefore be regarded as confirming above stated.
ferent way.
The experiment can also be interpreted in a somewhat difThe magnet may be regarded as consisting of a
325.]
positive
force
OEBSTED'S" LAW.
53
and a negative
pole.
And
on the positive pole in the tangent to a circle drawn through the pole round the origin as centre in a plane percateris paribus,
pendicular to the current, in the direction above indicated, and, an equal and opposite force on the negative pole.
Since in the
first
case there
is
move the magnet as a whole round the origin, it follows that the moment of the force acting on the positive pole round the
for
and opposite to that acting on the negative pole every position of the magnet. Whence it is inferred that the force on a pole due to the current in the direction of the
axis is equal current.
tangent varies inversely as the distance of the pole from the For a magnet of invariable shape the experiment
is
admits indifferently of either interpretation. 325.] As the magnetic field due to a closed electric current
the same as that due to the equivalent magnetic shell, it follows that the mechanical effect of the field on the conductors carrying
the current
is
the same as
its
mechanical
i
effect
on the
shell.
be maintained constant, the circuit, if rigid, tends to move so as to increase or diminish the coefficient If, that is the flux of magnetic induction through it,
is,
That
if
exactly as the equivalent shell would do if rigidly magnetised. If q be any generalised coordinate on which the value of or 9
depends, the mechanical force tending to increase q in a system of magnetic shell and electric current (the magnetisation of the shell and the electric current being both constant, and the
is
icf)
7.
And
there
constant under its own system move with i and mutual forces so as to make q become q + 5 q, it acquires kinetic energy of visible motion of the shell or conductors or both, or
does work, equal to
i<f)
y
S^.
shells
we
54
energy, or
OERSTED'S LAW.
[326.
potential energy of position of the two shells caused by the In the case of circuit and shell now under consideramotion.
tion, it is true that
i<j>
as
from
a potential.
energy of position would not be a complete account of the phenomena. Because, as we shall see later, the motion involves an increased expenditure of chemical energy in the battery to maintain the current constant over and above
what would have been had the system remained at rest. And
the external work done by the system has its exact equivalent in the additional chemical energy spent in the battery.
electric circuits
we
i
substitute the
i',
and
their
action,
assuming the currents to be maintained constant, is the same as that of the shells. They tend to move so as to increase
the quantity
.,
i'
/Tcose n dadr>
,
or
n'M.
..,
Any
ductors.
its
equivalent in external
work
we
shall
this case
an increased expendi
ture of chemical energy in each of the two circuits equal to the So that in the whole chemical energy is external work done.
drawn upon
to twice the
amount
of external
work done
in
addition to the heat generated by resistance in the circuits. 327.] The equivalence of electric currents and the corresponding
magnetic shells affords a measure of electric quantity differing from that employed in Part I, Chap. IV. For instance, two
infinite parallel
magnetic
therefore
two
infinite
bounded by two parallel straight magnetised in the same direction. And parallel straight currents, if in the same
shells
329.]
OERSTED'S LAW.
55
being at unit distance apart the force on unit length of either may be unit force. See Chap. XX.
328.] If any closed curve
S be drawn
in the field of a
mag
netic shell, the line integral of magnetic force round S must be zero, whether S cut the shell or not, because the force is derived
from a single valued potential. If, however, the curve cut the shell once, and so embrace the bounding curve of the shell, we may take two points P and P\ in the curve infinitely near one
another but on opposite sides of the shell, and the potential at P 2 TT $ at P', where </> is the strength of the will be 2 77 <, and
shell.
force
on a unit
of the
4
TT
P to P* always outside shell is 4 770, and in passing from P to P through the shell
magnetic pole in passing from
force
0.
If now for the magnetic shell we substitute the equivalent closed electric current i, we see that the line integral of magnetic
current,
on a unit pole round a closed curve S, not embracing the is the same as in the former case, and therefore zero. But if the closed curve S embrace the current, inasmuch as no
part of S now corresponds to the space between the faces of the shell, the magnetic force is at all points of S in the same direction round S and its line integral on a unit pole round S
9
must be
+ 4Tr?',
or
4ni,
result
would be contrary
the conservation of
But in fact the electric current can only be maintained energy. by a continuous expenditure of energy in a battery or otherwise, the amount of which per unit of time is altered during any time variation of the magnetic field in which the circuit finds itself; and we shall see later that the passage of a magnetic
pole round the closed curve S embracing the current must, if the current be maintained constant, involve the expenditure of an Ini or amount of chemical energy in the battery equal to
+4
TT i
as the case
may
be, over
against the resistance of the circuit. 329.] It thus appears that the magnetic potential due to a closed constant current i, if defined with reference to mechanical
56
forces only,
OEESTED'S LAW.
[330.
It is the work done in differing from one another by 4iri. a unit pole from an infinite distance to the point conbringing sidered by any path arbitrarily chosen, and differs by 4?n for
every time that this path embraces the current. In the case of the infinite straight current already treated,
the potential
is
4?
as,
is
perpen
330.] The
effect of variation of
integral of magnetic force taken round a closed current % in the positive direction is 4tri whatever be the nature of the medium.
3
follows from the relation between magnetic force and induction in a field of magnetisable matter (Art. 315), magnetic that the line integral of magnetic induction round the same
it
Whence
331.] Now let / denote the current i referred to unit of area, so that if a be the transverse section of the tube through which
the current
flows,
la
i.
Let
n, v,
be the components of
T I
/.
Then we have
dx
ds
= u.
&c.
Let
tt
i'.
Then
..,cose
dsds
faj^
.cose
j^fy
ds ds'
r
r
fajj
dsds'
_
= la la
And
..,
dsds
r
= la I a
,,
,ds dsf
dsds
4
= uu
therefore
wf + ww'
ads ads.
/YCOSC
1 1
r rrrrcuu'+w'+ww'
//////"
~ dxdydz dxdydz
.
333]
OERSTED'S LAW.
57
Now
, n' //COB* dsds'
.
II
is
two
the mechanical work which would be done in bringing the circuits with constant currents i, i' from an infinite disTherefore, also,
'uu' + w'+ww'
,/,/,, dxdydzdx dy dz
.
represents this
should obtain consistent results, so far as closed circuits with constant currents are concerned, if we assumed that
332.]
We
udxdydz, u'dx'dy'dz'
from an
on
done.
Or, which
is
we
we assumed
the following law of force between elementary currents, viz. that two parallel elementary currents if in the same direction
opposite directions repel, each other with a varying directly as the product of their intensities, and inversely as the square of the distance between them, but that
attract,
and
if in
force
333.]
We have
found
'uu'
Mir
to be the
+ vv + iow
dxdydz dx'dy'dz'
to bring
two
from an
infinite dis
tance to their actual position. Evidently, the work done in the case of three or more closed circuits will be the sum of
a number of expressions of this form for each pair of circuits. Now, any single closed current may be regarded as the limit
58
of a
OERSTED'S LAW.
[333.
currents
number of
similar
and
parallel closed
made
to
and on that principle we might culate the mechanical work required to construct it. For
coincide with each other,
cal
the mutual potential energy of two masses of volume density u and u' respectively, and is finite if u and ?/ be finite, even if the two masses occupy the same space. If, therefore, 2, u^ v, w, the currents referred to unit area, be finite, the mechanical
is
<o
is finite.
Further,
of
and
therefore,
when n
is infinite, it
is
independent of
n.
We
when n
is infinite
by
^Li
2
.
will
in
its
z
own
field.
We
^Li
current,
^ terms, compared with that of the other an assertion which may be precarious. If this assumption can be made, the whole mechanical work
is
infinite,
circuits, is
Now,
to
positive,
and
it is
not
difficult
work done
in con
335]
59
essentially negative.
may call the above expression the potential energy of the two circuits, provided it be always understood that it relates to mechanical work only.
334.] In the case of a uniform magnetic shell of strength $, we saw (Art. 307) that the potential selfenergy of the shell is not
2
We
T//
but
is
/Ycose dsds,
>
by
and we know that the potential energy of any magnetic system In fact, since $ is essentially positive. Idv> where dv is the
thickness of the shell, the latter term is preponderant, and the potential energy of two such shells may be written
shells
is
for two where X x and A 2 are no longer the limiting values of whose contours coincide. The quantity within the bracket
Of
335.]
The quantity
</>
shell
<
is,
as
we know,
the
j
ds
i,
ds
is
or
dxdydz,
III' dxdydz,
~ dxdydz
60
[336.
of
i, i,
by
field,
the integrals being taken over the whole space occupied and if there were any number of closed currents in the the same integrals taken over the whole space occupied
currents, are called the
a?,
by those
y,
vector potential of the whole system, and are denoted as before This is on the assumption that by F, G, and respectively.
//,
For
it will
be shown
later,
that if
ju
we must
take
fj.
dxdydz, &c.
field,
/r
JJ
cose
dsds',
l9 is
the flux
of magnetic induction of unit current in that circuit across any surface bounded by that circuit, or, as for brevity we shall say,
across that circuit,
and
L^
is
Therefore
19
where
F19 G19
11^ are
circuit arising
L2
and
,
L2 i2
current *8
The quantity M,
dsds
is
,
,
the flux of magnetic induction across or the flux across i2 of unit current in
\
i
of unit current in
l}
and
Mi2
is
of
of
in the
first circuit*
Therefore
round
19
H^
are
337]
tial at
61
circuit,
any point in i lt arising from ? 2 in the second with a similar meaning mutatis mutandis for Mi^
.
Now
is
the quantity
equal to
*
It
is
{*i(M
^dz\
_
therefore equal to
dx
^dy
T/^dx
~dy
Tr dz
where the
it
are the
in integral is taken round ^ and F, G. and of vector potential of the whole field at components
first
,
every point in
^ with
,
similar
meanings
The
result
may
be written as
"
ds
r4i
taken over both the
circuits.
'
Replacing
by /a,
2
may
be written
and since
= rrr
ff=
the expression
rrr
may
also
be written as
where the sextuple integral extends over the whole field. As and the final expression must above stated, if /x 1, F, G,
each be multiplied by
ju.
H of the
=
the
+ T + ^~ dz dy
we
are
now
considering.
62
[33$.
For in such a
equation
T + ay + :r = Tax dz
where
u, v,
at all points
ing equation
over
all surfaces
of discontinuous variation of u,
v,
w.
Now
F = p fff dx'dy'dz*,
whence
j
where r
dx
}j.
u'
 (
) dx'dy'dzf
of the corresponding surface over all the surfaces of discontinuous variation of u, integrals and the triple integral being taken over all space of continuous variation of the same quantity.
Therefore
by the
are the components of magnetic induction at every point in the field, we know that
338.] If
dH a= d& dz
=
0=
dF dH dz
>
dy
dx
dG dF = dx
ay
whence we get
+
dy
0,
dy
But
dz
v '
dF dx
.'.
dG

dH = dz
dy
dc db 
dy
dz
339]
.
63
Similarly,
dc da 3 =dz dx
db
 da dx dy
If
S be
by the curve
$,
it
follows
fr a
curve
or the integral of the magnetic induction round any closed s is equal to the flux of current over a surface bounded
4irfjL.
it is the expression of the fact mentioned above, that the line integral of magnetic induction round a closed current i in any field is equal to 4 IT pi.
It
is
energy of a
in this respect that the expressions for the potential field of two shells
differs
from that
for the
two equivalent
currents, or
currents
potential energy for a field of any number of closed is, by an obvious extension of the above reasoning, to equal l
*JJJ
where F, G,
/ / /
(Fu + Gv + Hw)dxdydz,
the components of vector potential at any from the whole field, or as before to point arising
'uu' + w' + ww'
,
H are
Iff!'
over the whole
field.
dxdydz dtfdy
,,,,,,
dz*,
339.] Since, as
we have
da
seen,
db
dc
__
dx
dy
dz
64
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT.
[339.
tubes throughout all space, and that for any such tube the flux of induction through an orthogonal section is constant. Such an induction tube may be called a magnetic circuit.
At every point we have the equations a /ua, &c., so that the magnetic induction is connected with the magnetic force by the same formal relation as the electric current with the
electromotive force.
be the aggregate of all closed or infinite electric currents embracing an induction tube or magnetic circuit, 4vi is the
If
i
circuit.
is,
ji.
by analogy
to
Ohm's
CHAPTER
XIX.
normal to the shell's surface a normal drawn from the negative to the positive face of the shell (Art. 267). We shall speak of the current and shell as mutually equivalent.
It was observed by Faraday that if a closed circuit, with or without electromotive force of its own, be moved in the field of
a magnet, a current is induced in it or the current already existing in it is increased or diminished during the motion,
;
notwithstanding that both the strength of the battery and the This induced current is resistance of the circuit be unaltered.
reversed in direction if the motion be reversed, and increases
the resistance
It
disappears rapidly
is
by
There
then an
electro
may
effect is of course produced by moving the magnet the field of the circuit, and therefore also by variation through of the strength of the magnet, because any such variation may
The same
be brought about by bringing a new magnet into the field to It is produced by variation coincide with the existing magnet.
On the of the magnetic field in which the circuit is placed. other hand, the behaviour of a closed current is not affected by
VOL.
II.
66
[341there
which
it is placed, if
laws of induction between magnets and closed electric currents by a method founded on the conservation of energy. 341.] If a closed circuit with current / be disconnected from
the battery, and the current allowed to decay in its own field, that a certain quantity of heat is, not influenced by external induction,
generated in the circuit during the decay. The circuit in virtue of the current in it has a certain intrinsic energy, which
is
can at any time be got in the form of heat by disconnecting the Let denote this quantity of energy wires from the battery. Let i be the current at any instant after disfor the current i.
connecting.
is
dt, denoting the resistance of the circuit, and since this can only be obtained at the expense of the intrinsic energy of the circuit, we have
i
^= dt
Ri*,
H=
rRtfdt. Jo
For a given circuit the intrinsic energy is a function of i. It is the same in whichever direction through the circuit the current passes, and therefore contains only even powers of i.
We
shall therefore
assume
H= J Li
2
,
circuit,
L*T= **. dt R di
or
'
and
if
7 be the
initial current
*/>'.
and
/'
This intrinsic energy is independent of the nature of the magnetic field in which the decay takes place, so long as that field
342.]
ield
67
would give
to Faraday's law,
the current.
nected again with the battery, and the original current energy is restored to the circuit
/
;
re
and
It follows that
the chemical energy spent in the battery during the establishment of the current /in a constant magnetic field exceeds the heat
generated in the circuit during the same process by the intrinsic energy of the circuit with the current /; and therefore including
and
both processes, namely the decay of the current from / to zero, its reestablishment, the field being in each case invariable
during the variation of the current, the whole chemical energy spent is equivalent to the heat generated in the circuit.
342.]
Now
let
field,
and
as
w^ane
//
considering a theoretical case only, let it be due to a umfotm magnetic shell of strength $, which we can maintain coireljgmt or vary at pleasure. In this field let there be a circuit connected^
;
with a battery and we shall suppose that either by varyin^C^^ the electromotive force of the battery, or by suitably adjusting the resistance, we can maintain the current constant, or make it
vary in any way, notwithstanding the effect of induction in any motion of the circuit.
circuit
Let now $, the strength of the shell, be constant, and let the move with constant current / in obedience to the mutual
between the
shell
and
circuit
from
an
initial position
of work, W,
certain amount to another position B. is done during this motion ly the mutual forces.
having arrived at B, let the wires be disconnected from the battery, and the current allowed to decay by resistance.
circuit
The
Then
let
the wires,
still
disconnected, be
1
.
B to
A
1
without current.
may
be effected
Then
let
For although a current will be established inductively in the wires moving in the magnetic field, yet by diminishing without limit the velocity of the motion we can, owing to resistance, diminish without limit the current at every instant during the motion, and therefore the work done against the electromagnetic
forces.
68
[343.
and the current I restored with the circuit in its original position at A. The system has thus performed a complete cycle, in which external work has been done by it, and heat has
been generated.
with
all
the conservation of energy the chemical must be equivalent to W, together the heat generated in the circuit from first to last
By
throughout the
cycle.
latter part of the cycle from the instant of to the complete re establishment of the disconnecting at current / at A, we have to do only with the decay and re
as
we have
with
It follows that the chemical energy spent during the motion is equivalent to W, together with 7 constant from A to
is
to
W+
We
f RPdt.
JA
infer now that Faraday's electromotive force of in343.] duction caused by the motion of the circuit through the magnetic
field, is
/ which
/.
to diminish
Let
order to maintain
we have
to
by
E'.
We may
number
E + E':E. Then the chemical energy spent in the with current / per unit of time is (E + 25')I, that is, battery R Iz \ff I\ and the chemical energy spent in the motion from
proportion
Aiollis
We have then
f'*r JA
fRPdt +
or
W = fRPdt + / W = /Jf
 = E'L
therefore
at
345]
69
But by Oersted's
Law
dT
dW = T ^dM r
forces.
^
ut
^'7=7
E =
T?>
E', is
<=
(it
344.] Similar results are of course obtained by moving the >nstant shell while the circuit remains at rest. And if the shell
brought up from an infinite distance with 1 and $ constant, te work done by the magnetic force due to the current is
from
any variation of the strength of the shell, as is the same thing as bringing a shell of dQ from an infinite distance to coincide with the strength The work done in that process by the magnetic original shell. and this requires the force of the circuit is therefore IMdcf)
.
Now
to
(f)
+ d(f),
expenditure in the battery of additional chemical energy IMd(f>, to maintain / constant. have, then in this case E'I=.IMd($>, And generally if $ and J/both vary, or E'=Md<}).
We
*&+iA
dt
dt
force of induction is
j
345.] If we were to perform the cycle of Art. 342 in the reverse direction, disconnecting at A, reconnecting at B, and moving
I from
B to A,
we
in overcoming the mutual forces of the circuit and shell, instead of gaining work as in the former case. In this
(M(j>) is negative, or
work
case If or
ctt
we have
in order to main
tain
I constant
So long
as
E'
is less
in absolute
spent, or
(E+&)1
is
magnitude than E, the chemical energy less than El, that is, less than RP. The
70
external
[346.
forces, or
IfydM,
is
converted into heat, and the chemical energy of the battery is / be greater in absolute magnitude saved to the like extent. If / cannot be maintained constant unless the than E) the current
battery be reversed, in which case the chemical processes may be an accumulator. In such a case the
external work done is equivalent to the heat generated plus the chemical energy gained by the reversal of the processes. In all these cases if be heat generated, C chemical energy spent, and
JF mechanical work done by the forces of the system, W, and in case of an accumulator C, may be negative. where
C=H+
346.] It appears from the investigation of Chap. XVII that, when the circuit and shell move under the influence of their
own mutual
=j
is
positive.
And
$
would,
if it existed alone,
/,
opposite direction to
that
is
a current tending to
the
motion.
This law
is
result of the
Conservation of Energy. once from Faraday's experiments. For suppose a closed circuit without battery to be moved in any direction through the field
of a constant magnet.
An electric current
is
induced in
is
it,
which
This generated. heat can only be accounted for as the equivalent of mechanical work done during the motion. That is, the induced current
must be such
as to resist the
let
<
motion by which
it
was induced.
be again constant, and let the circuit 347.] Secondly, move as before under the influence of the mutual attraction or
repulsion of the circuit and shell but instead of maintaining the current constant against the electromotive force due to the motion
;
And
let us so adjust
the
battery as that,
shall be
348.]
71
In this case the chemical energy spent is all consumed in heating the circuit, and the mechanical work done by the forces
cannot be done at the expense of chemical energy. the expense of the intrinsic energy of the system.
It is
done at
i is
less
than
/,
and the
intrinsic
\L
2
.
The
2 i
2
difference
energy, or
\L{I
is,
}, is
gained, that
\L {I 2
lifydM.
Making /
=
or
di,
we
between
and
Lidi + itydM
Ldi+
= 0, $dM = 0.
<
might call this process an adiabatic process by analogy to Thermodynamics. As in the first case we may make vary and instead of M, and if both vary Ldi f d(M<f>) 0.
We
348.] Thirdly,
we may maintain
rest.
E=
i
Let
instant, then the chemical energy spent per unit of time and the heat generated is Ri 2 have in this case,
.
Ei
We
that
is,
cit
4 (M<p)
= Li^+EiRP, ut
or
We may
as
follows.
The energy drawn from the battery per unit of time over and
above the equivalent of the heat generated
If
72
THERMODYNAMIC ANALOGY.
[349.
Again, the whole energy drawn from the battery, in excess of the heat generated while the system of the circuit and shell
goes through any series of changes whatever,
is
/,
this
becomes
f
The mechanical work done against the forces is The whole work, chemical and mechanical, is \LI2
\i
.
349.] In order to illustrate the interdependence of chemical and mechanical work in the changes of the system, we will make
treatises
our circuit perform a cycle analogous to that through which in on Thermodynamics the working substance is made to
It will be underpass in the working of a perfect heat engine. stood that our apparatus is as purely theoretical as the perfect heat engine. Let the shell $ be maintained constant. Let l
be the
initial
L
value of
to of
from
M= M
M=M
the
M, and (first process) let the circuit move electro2 with constant current i, the
The battery being suitably adjusted. mechanical work done by the forces (which is done, as we have seen, at the expense of chemical energy) in this process is
motive
force
Mi
M3
Fig. 45
The second
that
is,
$dM= 0, and
energy
is
shall continue
from
M=M%
tolf=lf3
expense of
in this process
fi<bdM = 
=
if
i'
L(i*i'*),
be the current
when the
circuit reaches
350]
THEEMODYNAMICT ANALOGY.
third
Z
73
i
The
M=M
process
,
shall
to
be with
is
constant current
from
The mel pass by a second adiabatic process from J/4 to chanical work done by the forces in this process is 2$(J/4 1Q. The fourth process shall be adiabatic from to lt
.
M M=M
),
M=M
in it is
\L(i
f<i
and
is
equal and
We
have then
for the
Now
by the
relation
= 0,
and fourth processes we have
in the second
whence
M^M = M^M
Z
And
at
or
{M^iM^i),
if
ii'=
the work that would be gained if *'=(). denote a small quantity of chemical energy spent by 5Q the battery in excess of the heat generated during the process,
If
Here
M^i M^i is
bQ
And,
as before,
= id{
We
of Thermodynamics,
thus see that, comparing our cycle with the ordinary cycle i to the corresponds to temperature, Li +
thermodynamic function, corresponds to volume, and i$ to pressure, and instead of the heat of the reservoir we have the
chemical energy of the battery as the source from which useful
M$
work
is
derived.
Case of two
circuits.
<
350.] Let us now substitute for our magnetic shell of strength the equivalent electric current. Let this current be denoted
74
by
*
[35I/.
circuit
hy
The action of the substituted circuit on the original circuit being the same as that of the shell, we have for the chemical energy spent in the original battery, over
and above heat generated,
li^d
and
by ^ and
But by the same reasoning the chemical energy spent in the battery of the substituted circuit must exceed the equivalent of
heat generated in that circuit by
And
in the
two
circuits is
fad {L^
that
is,
li^dM.
Therefore the whole work, chemical and mechanical, required system of two circuits in the given position is,
to construct the
This expression we define to be the energy of the system. It is a property of the system, depending only on the values of ^ and i2 and the coefficients I/ I/2 and M, that is, the forms of the lt
,
circuits
and is independent of the mode or route by which the system was brought into its actual
relative position,
is,
and their
position, that
of
its
past history.
It
is
which would be generated in the system during the decay of the two currents in one another's field, were they simultaneously
disconnected, and the circuits kept at rest. The corresponding expression for the energy of
two magnetic
352.]
75
A^
Hi^i 2 + \
i^
A2
2
,
where i
A^
is
the
work required
in its
own
field.
351.] If the two circuits move under the influence of their own mutual forces we have in the first circuit
ZjtjfJtft,
= constant,
first circuit
or LI cH l
+ d(Mi 2 )=O
l
be
so adjusted that
E =P
i
1
during
any variation of the current. must hold for any small variations
This gives the ordinary laws of induction in the first circuit ? being constant, (i) due to variation of the current 2 viz. or (2) due to motion of the circuit i 2 with constant current
,
Jj* l
di
dt
i=
Jxl ~r
M
.
di*
>
dt
or
*J
di,
dM
'iy
first
in the
two
cases respectively.
circuit, as
for
instance, if it be without battery, the current instantaneously induced in it by a sudden generation of the current i 2 in the
,
y
In
lt
as it
its
inductive effect
and the
electro
motive force of the battery in that circuit being supposed conenergy spent per unit time in the battery
during the creation of the induced current, or R 2 i2 2 the heat generated per unit time in that
,
Ez
exceeds
circuit.
The
additional energy spent in the battery supplies the energy \ of the induced current.
Ll i : 2
the
closed
circuits
in
may be expressed as follows. make the energy of the system, suddenly created,
minimum, and
352.]
i
Given ^
is
determined.
The
two
circuits
76
as well as
[353.
For
let
be maintained constant
in the second circuit while the first circuit performs the cycle. The mechanical work done at the expense of chemical energy con
sumed in the
magnetic
cuit over
i.
first circuit is
shell.
the same as if the circuit iz were a The chemical energy spent in the second cirit is
2 I
and vanishes
353.]
circuits
We
may
stant, that
is,
have hitherto supposed the coefficients L^ L 2 conwe have treated the circuits as rigid. But the be flexible, or flexible and extensible. In either case
is
variable,
causes
circuit
may
be
unaltered.
circuit to be constant,
and
we
shall have, as in
fitBit
^{L^+MiJ.
cases,
we may
shall be constant, or
E =
Now we
lines
Mi 2
The
is
proportional to the
number
of
of magnetic
first
through the
the
circuit that
first, if flexible, is
to cause
any element of
so to
move
is,
as
to take in as
many
first
each
element of the
direction at right
effect of
angles to the
itself.
In
like
manner we may
itself is to cause
first circuit
on
every element to move across the lines of magnetic induction due to the circuit itself.
In any
is
move
which
done by
energy
this is supplied either at the expense of the of the system (if the batteries be so adjusted as only to
it,
and
compensate
for the energy converted into heat) or at the expense of the batteries if the currents be constant. All cases are
354J
77
ERi =
if
^ (L t
or
=
its
if
both currents vary. 354.] If there be three closed circuits each with
if
own battery,
first
and
12
/ /
and second
3/13 and
2%
have corresponding values for the other two pairs of circuits, the chemical energy spent in excess of the heat generated is
+ / i&dMn + i^dM^ + / i i dM
2 3
23
is
j i^dM^J i^dM^j
And
2 s
dM2y
therefore the energy of the system, or the sum of the chemical and mechanical work required to construct it in its actual state and position, over and and above the equivalent of
heat generated,
is
and
so
on
for
circuits.
And
for this
we may
uu
ax ay dz dx ay az,
or
\l
U(Fu + Gv + Hw)dxdydz.
78
ROTATING CONDUCTOR.
Rotation of a conductor in a magnetic field.
[355.
The velocity o> round an axis in its plane at right angles to F. flux of magnetic induction through the curve is then aFcosat,
time being measured from an epoch when the plane of the curve We have then, to determine the current is at right angles to F.
i
Out
where
is
This gives
^
=
ff2
..
(R
cot).
p
Let
(*>L
= tan a.
Then
this
becomes
di
and
dt
 <JaF
(R* + a>
2
2
sin
(co t
+ a)
)*
force is
Ri + It~,
ttu
that
is
a>aF&aia>t.
co t
is
maximum when
a.
n TT.
= 2n+ ITT
And it is owing a. retarded in phase by TT to this retardation of phase that work is done in the complete
The current
is
cycle.
is
is
J
is
id (M<f>), where
M$
and
this
**
VRt + tftfJ
smu>tcos(wt + a)dt;
cycle, integrating
TTO)
.
from 2 TT to
0,
sin a.
The work
is all
357]
MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY.
1
79
magnetised
effect
when
soft iron is
by a force varying in a cycle. Professor Ewing in Phil. Trans. vol. clxxvi. part 2 Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. vol. xxii.
P
175
be varied,
if at all,
The variations in the magnetic field may however be due to the electric currents themselves, if, for instance, there be in the field magnetisable matter which, on creation of the curcurrent.
rents,
In any such
case, if
be the energy of the same system of currents in a field devoid of be the energy of the induced magnetisable matter, and if
W. magnetisation in its own field, the total energy will be That is, the process of magnetisation tends to check the currents,
and increases the draw upon the batteries necessary to maintain the currents, by the quantity W.
E+
Concerning the
357.]
coefficient
of magnetic permeability.
If
to a closed current or
be the resultant magnetic force at any point due system of closed currents in vacuo, we
have
^dy
dz J
\dz
dx
\dx
dy
If we integrate this through all space within an infinitely distant surface S, we obtain, since the surface integral vanishes,
That
is,
since
dF
dx
and
dH dG + h dz =
dy
everywhere,
&c.,
V ^=47rw,
2
= \fW(Fu +
80
[3 5 8.
358.] The above expression denotes the energy of the system in vacuo, or in a standard medium in which the magnetic perlet a system of molecules capable of induction be scattered through the becoming magnetised by for coefficient of field, so as to form a uniform medium with
meability
IJL
is
unity.
Now
/u,
magnetic permeability. The molecules will become magnetised by induction, and the energy of the same system of currents in
the altered medium will be W> where ^is the energy of the induced magnetisation. In order to determine W, let us define the nature of the uniform medium as follows. If a plane of unit area be taken perpendicular to 7, it will intersect certain of the molecules.
E+
be the quantity of magnetic matter on the intersected molecules which lies on the positive side of the plane per unit of 1 + 4 TT area. Then ^ by Chap. XI. And the energy of
Let
QR
2 magnetisation is J QR per unit of volume. energy of the currents in the altered medium
given by
E'= 
= (1 + 47r<)) f/T R

dxdxds
It follows that, comparing one uniform medium with another with similar currents, the electromagnetic forces on elementary And if they are expressed in terms currents vary directly as p.
of
J? ,
G, 77,
we must make
&c.
all closed,
and exert zero force at all points. And therefore the magnetic force on a unit pole due to the system of currents is independent of ^ as appears from Art. 330.
360.]
But
if for
a closed current
we
magnetic
un
altered, are
no longer
closed,
shell.
360.]
MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY.
force is
81
the same as that
The magnetic
no longer
zero,
but
is
due to a magnetic shell representing the solenoids, namely a magnetic shell formed on the original shell with reversed sign
<f>.
The
force
is
fx
<, that is
//,
original shell.
Comparing one uniform medium with another, the magnetic forces due to similar systems of natural magnets
vary inversely as ju. Also the energy vanes inversely as
/x.
We
another,
electric current
and a magnetic
by the equation
VOL. n.
CHAPTER XX.
OF SYSTEMS OE MEASUBEMENT.
I.
we found that
like kind, e
ARTICLE 361.] IN Chaps. IV, V, treating of Statical Electricity, the repulsive force between two electrical masses of
ee'
apart, is
^.
This law
assumes the definition of unit of electricity to be that two such units placed at unit distance apart repel each other with
unit force.
According to this definition, the quantity of electricity which answers the description of the unit depends on the units of In mathematical language, length, mass and time employed.
the unit of electricity has dimensions in length, mass and time. If we denote the unit of length by L, that of mass by M, and that of time by T, we know that force measured statically is of
dimensions
defined,

^.
has dimensions
or,
as it
is
usual to express
it,
L2
and
e
:
ment
ee'
found it necessary subsequently to modify the state362.] that the repulsive force between e and e' at distance r is
We
medium
If
in which e and
are placed.
we
364]
ELECTROMAGNETIC UNIT.
/
83
==^
The quantity
thus
K=
same
and / at distance
in another
medium, in order
and
to produce the
e'
same
force at the
</K.
But
K does
It is in this relation a
mere numerical
electrostatic
We
definition thus.
The
unit of electricity is such a quantity that two electrostatic units I repel placed at unit distance apart in a medium for which
K=
We
II.
Of the
rents
363.] Let there be two infinite parallel wires carrying curi and i' at distance r The force of attraction on apart.
is
au..Zii =
drJo
Jr
in
which
+ a?
expression p. denotes the magnetic permeability of the medium. Let em be that quantity of electricity which, according to the usual conception of a current, must flow through a section of either wire
in unit time, in order that, the parallel currents being at unit 1 the force on unit distance apart in a medium where /x length
of either current
may
be unit
force.
so
defined as the unit of electricity. It is called the electromagnetic The quantity /u is unit, or the unit in electromagnetic measure.
ML
=
,
K in case of
the
is
of the dimen
has dimensions
Therefore
e ~
z
^.
But
has dimensions
^.
.
have thus obtained by independent methods two distinct quantities of electricity. ee and em either of which may be G 2,
364.]
We
84
taken for the unit.
COMPARISON OP UNITS.
The numerical value of the
ratio
[365.
which they
bear to one another depends on the units of length and time emSince ee is of dimensions M^L% T~ l and e.m of dimensions ployed.
,
e
,
it
follows that
is
of dimensions 
that
is,
of
dimensions
,
Now
the
number by
e
ee
determined by experiments in
air
If equal, or very nearly equal, to the velocity of light in air. that velocity be denoted by v, that is if it be v units of velocity, vee then whatever units of length and time be employed, e m
This fact
the foundation of the Electromagnetic Theory of as discovered by Maxwell. Light 365.] If the experiments be made in any other medium than
is
air,
the magnitude of
ee is, as
we have
^=
.
seen, altered
if v
becomes
VK.
Similarly e m becomes
e
Hence,
be the value of
the ratio
e
e
as determined in air,

*T
In
where
K=
and p
=
en
its
all
experiment
nearly as
fj,
is
Hence the
ratio
varies
1
.
/K
Of the Dimensions of K
366.]
in Electromagnetic Measure.
force, or e
We
Tl/TT
^ represents a ^
i.
has dimen
sions =.
In the
electrostatic system,
shall be numerical,
em
,
where
e.
= []yftl$T~ l],
of zero dimensions.
But
if for e
we
write
68.]
sions are
85
forces
3I*L
we must,
two
may always bear to each other the same ratio whatever be the units of length and time, attribute dimensions to K. In this
ee'
case
=g
has dimensions
2*2
ML
^, and 1
ee
has dimensions
ML. Hence
^2
dimensions
Of the Dimensions
367.]
as
of
</>
strength $ and unit area not within its substance regards points equivalent to a certain current i round the boundary of the shell
uniform magnetic
its
is
action
at
multiplied by the factor p which denotes the magnetic permeaAs this equivalence is independent of the bility of the medium.
units of length, mass and time,
as
[LI.
<
Now
,
in electromagnetic measure
ju
has dimensions
or
M^I/*T~ l and
is
of zero dimensions.
M^L%T~ l
_Z?,
and
(7,
are those of ?
>
that
is
M^ L~^T~ l
in electromagnetic measure.
Pole,
368.] Let m denote a quantity of imaginary magnetic matter forming the positive face of the shell of strength <. Then, m varies directly as the thickness and inversely as being given,
<
(/>
and since
d>
has dimensions
M^L?T~
l
,
those of
are
We
86
[369.
Chapter XVI, from the assumption that magnetic matter repels like matter with a force varying inversely as the square of the
distance,
from which
l
it
follows that
M? L% T~
tricity.
for the
same reason
We can now find the dimensions of the unit of magnetic matter in the electrostatic system, a point about which there was at one time some controversy, as follows. In order to express the equivalence of current units we have,
and
shell in
any system of
L
In the
is
of the
same dimensions as p
J.
electrostatic
system
= M*L?Twe
1
,
and
/u
=
m
e
,
^ whence
has dimen
in electrostatic measure, or as
shall call it
sions
1$.
Were
medium
in nature
we should
= FJ
for Clausius'
by a
different
method,
as follows.
force
between a
shell of strength
$ and
It has the
same dimensions
as $i, that
r
is,
dimensions
me
IT'
system, in which e
as before.
or
m e [jjl^frJ'
;
= \M^L^T~ Y\
unit
is
and therefore
me
[if*Z/*],
determined by the electrostatic conditions above mentioned, all the functions of it are said to be
the electric
When
expressed in the electrostatic system. And when it is determined from the force between two currents, the functions are
said to be expressed in
electromagnetic units, and we shall denote the system selected by the suffixes e and m respectively.
37 J ]
TABLE OF DIMENSIONS.
87
The
electric
mass
ee
or e m .
(2) (3)
magnetic mass
or
mm
electric current ie or i m .
(4)
u,, n)
with v
R.
(5)
(6)
or
Pm with Q and E or Em
,
(7)
(8)
(9)
/3
,
and
y.
A.
(10)
(11)
f or/m
e
and
(12)
superficial
<re
and
<r
components of magnetisation
,,
Ae
.
or
4m
with
B and
(7.
(13)
(14) (15)
electric potential
\f/ e
or
\j/
(16)
Cm
(17)
,,
magnetic permeability
/xe
or
jj,
371.] The connection between the dimensions of these quantities in the two systems is determined by the considerations
referred to above.
mi
Jj
= force

Also, since
i is
electricity passing
'
we have
1 r
^
Now
(*
WVe
rn^e
T
and
^m^m
88
Therefore
TABLE OF DIMENSIONS.
[37 1 
em
^=^ T
and
^=~ m T
e
Taking
we have
cr
l
>
J5r
^ e = Em em = Energy =
e
e
=
e.
because
7\
JH L " ~ J^
and
^
am
ae
/\
(8)
=
=
^i
ee
*
L
e
because
&&
am
*
=F
^ L
r
F ~L
um
=
3m
W>m
(9)
L
,
because a e
m = a m mm
e
ML
(13)
+ * = em = T
,
because
\js e
ee
= =
\j/
em
ML* = Energy = 
(14)
~tH
=
***'6
~j,
because
le nie
l m m,m
= Energy.
Z2
372.]
TABLE OF DIMENSIONS.
89
372.] Having thus determined the ratios of the units of these several magnitudes in the two systems, it will suffice to determine the dimensions of each in either system, as follows
:
We
= M*L%T~\
therefore
P,
HfT
77
2
= [*
2"'],
Pa = [Jf*i
2"],
I
1
.*,.
j~*
'
?n
MLT*
Pm
CHAPTER
FIELD.
XXI.
XVIII we
magnetic properties of a field of electric currents, based upon the experimental law of Oersted, namely the equivalence of mechanical action of a closed circuit and magnetic shell suitably
related to each other.
In Chapter
first
XIX we
discovered
by Faraday,
field arising either from field, in the intensities of the currents or the configurations changes and positions of the circuits ; and, reasoning from these experi
magnetic
forces,
mental data, we investigated the laws of such electromotive generally denominated inductive electromotive forces.
first
subject from
another and more strictly dynamical point of view, and to shew how the same results appear to be deducible from the aforesaid
know that the production of any current field depends a supply of energy from some external source, as for upon instance, from chemical combination in the case of battery
excited currents.
We
When
there
is
converted into
mechanical kinetic energy, and whether there be such visible motion or not, some portion of this derived energy is converted
into molecular kinetic energy or heat, the amount of this heat conversion, or dissipated energy, being dependent, by laws already
explained,
upon the
field,
376.]
DYNAMICAL METHOD.
91
nexions are at any instant broken, the current manifestations do not immediately cease, the electromagnetic actions are not im
mediately suspended, and heat continues for a sensible interval of time to be generated in the conducting circuits.
374.]
Now,
else
as
Maxwell
nothing
fore
way
it arises,
is
we conclude
amount
of energy in excess, and independent, of the energy which has been converted into heat in the circuits, and of any purely mechanical energy which may exist in the circuits themselves, if
these are in motion.
partly kinetic, in the current
We assume this energy to be electric energy, and partly potential W> so that the total energy
in addition to
field,
is
of the circuits,
the
sum
T +
e
W+
D,
know from Chapter XI, Vol. I, that 375.] depends in different parts of the upon the specific inductive capacity field and vanishes with K, also that depends upon the re
We
sistance
in the circuits
field
For the present we will assume that we are dealing with and R are infinitely small, throughout which both
and D evanescent, so that the total energy and therefore that would remain in the field if the battery connexions were at any instant severed would be Te or Te increased by any
,
material
exist
;
kinetic energy of visible motion, supposing such to this Te is assumed to be a function (f>(i,q) of the current
(i)
intensities
(q)
where the
form of
376.]
to exist,
has to be determined.
Now,
(q),
if in any dynamical system a force F is observed q which tends to increase any generalised coordinate of
infer that the potential energy of that system and the kinetic energy greater in the (q + bq) configuration than in the (q) configuration by Fq b q. If, therefore, in any current field we observe such an electro
position
we
would be
less
magnetic
force, we infer that if, after breaking the battery mnexions, the circuits were transferred from the q to the
92
q
DYNAMICAL METHOD.
[377.
+ bq configuration, and the same currents were then reestablished in the q + bq configuration, the total electrokinetic energy would be increased by q bq, in other words, that in a
field
of
two
circuits
batteries requisite to
in the (q
same
as
(q) configuration,
d(f)
.7^,
i.e.
dj
= F
checked action of the force 7^, that is without breaking the connexions, the intensities remaining the same, an additional
Fqbq of material kinetic energy of the circuits would ensue, making the total draw upon the batteries in this case 2Fq bq. The energy of the whole field, in fact, being supposed to consist of the potential energy of uncombined chemical elements in the batteries, and the electrokinetic energy and mechanical kinetic
energy of the
field,
in the actual passage from the q to the q\ dq configuration is 2 q and this is equally divided between mechanical and electro
two
closed circuits,
and
if
q be
one of the coordinates determining the relative position of these circuits, each supposed to be rigid, we know from the Oersted
where ^ and
and
M= II both
Hence we
dTe
or
dM
=
q' is
it
where
posing
379]
378.]
surface
DYNAMICAL METHOD.
To determine
i
l
93
\j/,
we
observe that
i^M
is
i
either the
product of
bounded by
into the flux of magnetic induction of 2 across any i lt or the product of i2 into the flux of
i
(the
positive direction of such fluxes being estimated by rules already given), or it is half the sum of such products, and therefore
that
e)
q,
of relative
half the
sum
of such products.
Hence we
infer,
although not with the same certainty as in that so far as Te is a function of one of the q'
as
coordinates determining the shape of the ^ circuit, that is, so far Te depends upon the i circuit supposed to exist alone in the
field, its
any
surface
bounded by
where
/* /*
Ll
and
,
L2
are
respectively equal to
*^
ds2 ds 2
circuits,
T
.
is
Ln
or
\ { i l (Zj i,
negative of e 379.] This expression Art. 333 for the potential energy in a field of and it is, as was there proved, equal to
iz
+ Mi^) }
two curre
where p^ and
field
_p 2
and
circuits
?'
re^'
spectively.
and
to
dT
^
l
dT and ~
respectively.
for
The expression
94:
DYNAMICAL METHOD.
[380.
ds
or
e
ds
fff(
Fu + Gv + Hw ] dxdydz,
the notation being the same as therein explained. 380.] If the circuits, being themselves flexible and free to
batteries,
and
if
and
U2
be the
electromotive forces in the respective circuits, we know that the draws upon the respective batteries in time dt are E^dt and
i^dt respectively.
But
is
dT
~dt, and
of
mechan
dT
energy equal to
is
j^dt.
equal to
T (i + Mi ^2
*
.
77"
7"
clt
+ ^ i2 2 ) 2
dt
latter is equal to
^F
~
dt,
where
is
the electro
magnetic force corresponding to a (q) coordinate of configuration, and 2 indicates summation extending to all such coordinates in the system. If q be a coordinate of relative position of the
two
,
circuits,
assuming each to be
rigid,
we know
that
Fq
is
^ i a = do
and
if
flexible,
but
we know
that
is
>
j
and therefore
field electric
d 
/i* dL,
dM
i<?
dL
(,V+2^s+X,,)*+(
381.]
DYNAMICAL METHOD.
draw upon the
95
And
Equating
this to the
known
total
or
=
Now E
l
*i
~ j (LA + MiJ +
i
2
t
(L,
i2
+ J/y
and E% must be such functions of i 19 i 2 and the coefficients defining the circuits, that on interchanging these quantities in the expression for E19 the expression for K2 must
,
result
and conversely, whence it follows from the last written equation that the two following equations must be true, viz.
381.] In most of the ordinary cases of current fields which or the present themselves for investigation the quantity
potential electric energy existing in the field is inappreciable in comparison with the electrokinetic energy, or in other e
It is words, no appreciable error results from neglecting K. the dissipation coefficient. otherwise, however, with quite
This
always of sensible magnitude, so that for all except ideal circuits the correct expressions for the electromotive purely forces in the two current field are
is
v
1
_ dP\ ~~
~dt
7?
l
,
1?
or
is
neglected.
of the
its
and
other shell or current, we infer that if a closed circuit with current i were situated in the field of a magnetic shell whose magnetisation is always uniform, though with either constant or
96
[382.
in the circuit
required to
maintain
 (L& + Jf* + R^ =
a)
or
R^ =   (L& + Mi,),
and
(L^ + MiJ + E^ =
or
R^ =  (Z
+ Mi2) and
a t,
+ Jf^);
=E
dt
in a steady
(I/2
^'
M ^)
are said to be the electromotive forces in the circuits arising this use of the term electromotive force is from induction
;
^
it
existed in the
field,
electromotive force in
would be
and
if there
R
whence
it
il
=_
(Zjt'j);
in
by
2)
=r
(M<$).
7
The
quantities
(Mi.
clt
and
j(M(f)) dt
are
therefore
re
shell
i^.
383.] Maxwell has arrived at the same expression for the electromotive force of induction in the case of two closed circuits,
but from a
much more
first
He
gives in the
384.]
97
and
induction of
sists
on
X X is
appears that two possess the reciprocal property that the on A. In this conequal to that of
that of a circuit in the field of a magnetic shell. Again, whereas it has been assumed by us that the electro
magnetic force between circuits carrying currents is the same whether the circuits are in rest or motion, i. e. that, when the
intensities of the currents are given, the electromagnetic force
is
a function of the coordinates q only and not of their time variations, Maxwell justifies this assumption by the results of
experiments especially conducted for that purpose. He then assumes that the current intensity, called by us the time variation y of a coordinate of electric position y.
i t is
And
y and y
in the same
way
and
q.
On
by
these hypotheses he investigates the field of two currents the application of the Lagrangean equations for ordinary
first case,
an
ideal field in
which
The
total electrokinetic
energy
of such a field
is
a homo
fs and qs with
coefficients
He He
shews,
as
will
electrical coordinates
readily be admitted, that the y's or cannot enter into the expression.
fact that the electro
also shews,
magnetic forces are independent of the qs, that the expression for T must be of the form Te + Tm where Te is a homogeneous
,
quadratic function of the ^'s, and Tm is a homogeneous quadratic function of the qs. 384.] Suppose then that, the field being at rest, all mechanical or visible motion is prevented by the application of
the requisite generalised component of force (f' q ) corresponding to each generalised coordinate q, where is therefore equal and opposite to the electromagnetic force q
F F
VOL.
II.
98
[385.
Tis
electrokinetic or
!/^N^0
dt\d^
becomes in this case
dg~
we
arrive at the
Therefore,
when
there
is
mechanical motion,
we have
where
a quadratic function of the <f s with coefficients functions of the q's, or in Maxwell's notation
is
Tm
If,
move were
should have
acted on
by any
electro
motive forces
and
we
l^L^y "
didy
dy
15
fL^L^y= dt
dy 2
dy
dT
+ My,) = 7
i.
e.
in our notation
^
(Mi 2 ) and
(Mi^
respectively.
385.]
as
is,
386.]
99
That
to say, it
is
_(_^. +
,
Ltf
^
,,.
dM
or
dTe
_<L+^, dt dt
the mechanical work done by the electromagnetic
d Tm
where
force.
Tm
is
If the change in the system were such that the current intensities
"''*^r
If
^r
and
we
Ex
R2
but continue to
neglect
Tm
386.] Suppose therefore that we have two closed circuits C^ C.2 of resistances and 7?2 in any field. Let Ct be called l the primary and C2 the secondary circuit, and let there be no
and
C2
.....
;
(1)
or
RI
2
I i dt 2
+Z
i
1'
+ Mi
= constant
..
sJ'i JO
dt
(2)
where the
sufiixes
t.
and
and
From
we
have, supposing
C2
to be rigid,
or
i
=e
commencement
of the time.
supposing
to be zero at the
2,
100
[387
If the variation
interval
t,
j
(^h)
so that at the
the magnitude of
i.
becomes
rt
The quantity
its
i 2
dt
is
and
^o
and
final
values of
If, for
Mi^
instance, the
two
circuits
i^
be suddenly excited in
C: and
And
if
vary, then
B.J J
circular wires such as
,* =(*..,)<,
If the circuits consisted of long straight parallel wires, or of would result from sections of the same
in
cylinder, it is easily seen that the induced current such as would resist the motion of C^
.
C2
is
This
is
XIX.
387.]
fields,
By
we get
reasoning precisely as in the case of the two circuit for a field of any number of such circuits
ds
ds
ds
9
where the integration is extended round all the circuits, and F G, II are the components of vector potential of the whole field
at
circuit.
closed currents
\ and
it
is
equal to
jj
where p l
is
the
component of momentum of
the
field,
and
is
equal to
L^ + Mi^ or
dT
dii
388.]
101
If there be any number of closed currents it may be shewn, by precisely the same reasoning as in the case of two currents, that
them, as
i,
is
>
where p
= Li +
is
1,
Mi'
or jr
a
,
that
is,
that the
d
inductive electromotive force
at
7
dT
=^
di
i
t
and
i2
it
71
or
jr ClTt
L^ + Mi^ was
bounded by the
/ /
circuit of il
that
is
[la
+ mb + nc}dS,
where
a, b, c
are the
components of magnetic induction of the whole any point of S, or to the line integral
field at
round the
circuit of
^ where
,
F, G,
H are
the components of
vector potential of the whole field at any point of that circuit. So by reasoning in all respects the same, it may be shewn that whatever be the number of closed currents in the field,
Li+lZMi'
in
or ~*
dT
is
which
0, b, c
or F, G,
field.
to the investigation of expressions for proceed 388.] the electromotive force in a closed circuit, either at rest or in
We
now
We have
circuit is
where
and the integration is taken round the complete circuit. That is to say, if <r be the total resistance in the complete
circuit calculated
the current
by the equation
102
[389.
If at each, point of the circuit there were an electromotive with components P, Q, R, and if oj were the resistance per unit length in the circuit at that point, we should have
force
being the same at each point of the circuit and equal to the value given by equation (A). The magnitude Oj_ varies generally from point to point of the
circuit,
=(f
From
this equation it follows that P', Q', .$' are derivatives of
\jf,
some function
dF
which dx
satisfies
dt 'ds
dy + dG_ "ds + dt
i
dHdz
~dt"ds
+ d$ ds
constant throughout the circuit, and therefore that the most general forms of the expressions for the components of the
is
electromotive force at any point of the circuit are given by the equations
but
389], In the next place, suppose that the circuit is not at rest, is varying in form, or position, or both, from time to time. Consider any element ds of this changing circuit. The electro
may
two parts which may be separately calculated, viz. (i) that arising from the intrinsic variation of the surrounding field and which would exist if the element ds were at rest (a) that arising from the motion of ds. The first has for its components the magnitudes
;
~ dJF
dt'
~W
dG
dH
dt'
39 1 ]
or
103
more generally,
"
7
^_^i
dt
dx'
/7
" _^_^t dt
7T
__^_^i "
dt
dy'
dz'
f
r>
where
r
>
at
at
of the whole surrounding field (including the remainder of the circuit) at ds.
390.]
To
same
as if ds
all
were
itself at rest,
changed in
Hence,
observe that it must be the and the remaining field unmoved in a space animated with
we
of ds,
component translational velocities component rotational velocities, the time variations of F, 6r, and H, referred to axes fixed relatively to the element and instantaneously coinciding with those of reference, would be, for F,
if #, y>
,
z were the
3 its
and e^
o>
o>
dF
jx dx
dF
y dy
dF
*
dz
+ a>,0o>
a Zr,
G and
H, since F, G,
H are
com
in ds arising both from the variation of the field of ds are given by the equations,
P = x dF dF T+2/5dx
.
.
+zT+c>s <> 2 #
.
dF
dz
dy
dF d^ + j + dx dt
,
Q and
c
R.
dF dG dy dx
and
dF  dff =
dz
dx
b,
we
get
dF
dG
dG
dH
+ZJ dy
dF
az + cx + u l H<
d\f
Q = xdy
dF
+yy
dH 
F+
dG
dt
d\jf
dy
f
dy
R = x +y dz y dz
391.]
dF
dG
The electromotive
round the
circuit, or
104
becomes in this
that
ELECTEOMAGNETIC FORCE.
[392.
dx

dz
0) 2
2
dy  ^sT"'
3
dy
J
dx
6>a li 3
 ^i dz T
"
dz
>
T"^
60
'
dy !^

dx
*> 2
~T~
>
the part under the integral sign in the last term being a complete differential the term itself vanishes.
And
For closed
P, Q,
circuits, therefore,
is
mental evidence
derived, it is indifferent
R
p
_
equations,
.
cylz^ d^ j^, dx dt
dF
= az
d
ex
da ~   d^
=
dt
dy
dff
We
with current
of intensity i be situated in a magnetic field, the total increase of material kinetic energy corresponding to any variation in the form and position of the circuit is equal to the corresponding variation in the integral
ds
ds
ds
that
.
is
to say to
'
f
f
__ + + V^^" ^^"
dG dy
~~
dFdx
dH d
392.]
ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE.
under the above integral sign
105
The
coefficient of 8 x
may
be
written
df^dx dx ds
or
dF^dy dy ds
dF^dz
dz ds
/
dy
,<fe\
^ ds
ds'
dF T + ds
( ^
dy
as
/
coefficients of
dy and
dz.
dx
d
d
ds
da:,
dy
bfds
ds
d = by,
ds
dz
g
ds
^
ds
And
or the total increase of the material kinetic energy for any change in form and position of the circuit is the same as if
each
nents are
.
dy
dz \
i(c^b ds')ds, ^ ds
If
i(ac)ds, ^ ds ds^
dz
dx \
we
circuit
=
ds
ds
,
ds
where 60, 6$, b\j/ are angular displacements of the element ds round the axes, the total increase of the kinetic energy may be
written
106
ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE.
[393.
fdO
\ds
dz
ds
Tds
dH
rds
dx^^
dx
dy\.
]
+ br ds
ar)$zt ds/
)
that
is
to say
it is
on by the
last
the same as if each element ds were acted mentioned force together with another whose
dfl
dff
components are
dff
'** ''**
and
also a
,
r
''**
T
moment whose components are ./^dy ^dz\ ,/^.dz r dx\ i(H2G}ds, i(Fr H)ds, ^ ^ ds ds J ds ds '
Since
/.
i(Or ^ ds
./^dx
r,dy\ , Ff)d8. /
ds
i=
^
dx
ds,
r.d^, ids, ds
T^^^ tds
J
ds
component forces on the whole circuit are the same whichever view be adopted. Also, since the total moment round the axis of z on the second
separately vanish for a closed circuit, the
hypothesis
(
is
equal to
/.
M^^+^^ + K^^)
/
dF
dG
^dy
^dx
dy
dz^
dz
,e.to
it
dz \
dz
dx
is
moment round
the same
axis of the forces existing on the first hypothesis, for the moments round x and y
and similarly
393.] It appears therefore that in dealing with a complete rigid circuit we may take indifferently for the action on each
component
394]
./ dy i(c^V
ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE.
,dz\s 6 )bs,
ds/
zero.
107
ds
i(a c ds' V ds
./
dz
ds
ds
with moments
So
impossible to decide
results,
ments on flexible circuits have been interpreted as pointing to the conclusion that the electromagnetic action on each element is a single force perpendicular to the element, and therefore
that
it is
last written.
394.] In these investigations we have supposed that we were dealing with circuits in linear conductors (like copper wires)
and have determined the electromotive and electromagnetic actions on each element from the condition that such forces and actions shall be consistent with certain known experimental results when the whole circuit is
either rigid or flexible,
forces
considered.
instead of a single linear circuit, or an aggregate of detached linear circuits, we had to deal with a continuous conIf,
ducting mass,
we
mass there
P, Q,
is
an electromotive
should infer that at each point of such a force whose components are the
fore that
determined by the preceding investigation, and thereelementary currents will be set up within the substance,
if u, v,
such that
<r
the resistance
any
point,
= P,
du
dx
I
(TV
= Q,
l
<rw
fi.
If
u, v,
dv __ __
dw __
dz
dy
at each point,
we may
of appropriate transverse section a from point to point, and such that la is the same throughout each circuit, where
But la corresponds
considered,
to the
and
.
dx
ds
d8 = I^ad8 =
ds
dx
udxdydz, &c.
108
DISPLACEMENT CURRENTS.
[395.
Therefore each volume element dxdydz of the substance is subject to electromagnetic action either represented by forces
X, Y,
Z and moments
f
ff
I/,
M,
/J 7f
where
rl
X = \u tv\w L
or
W
}(cv
(HvGfw)dxdydz,
element and the magnetic in\
7
7 7
&c.,
by
duction, Viz.
with
field
395.] These results have only been strictly established for a of closed currents. Maxwell, indeed, maintains that with
the extended meaning of current described, Art. 263, every current in nature is a closed current, and, whether this be
conceded or not,
ment
it seems clear that in any field the displacecurrent, if it exist, should be included with the conduc
tion current in estimating the phenomena. In point of fact, most substances in nature are neither perfect conductors nor perfect insulators, the large majority combine
both properties, and therefore admit, as explained in the article above mentioned, both of conduction and of displacement in
different degrees.
at
and R are the components of electromotive force (J), any point of such a substance, there will be, supposing the substance to be isotropic like glass or resin, an electric displacement at that point, whose components f, g^ and k are
If P,
P,
Q, and
KR
respectively,
K being
;
when
force are
more complicated. Hence the total components of current u, v, w will, in ordinary substances, be determined (as shewn in Chap. XIV) by the
equations
df
dq
dh
396.]
DISPLACEMENT CUREENTS.
109
where p, q, r are the components of the true conduction current, and are determined in accordance with Ohm's law by the equations
P
what
is
or
= CP,
*
= CQ,
= CE,
'
being
called the
conductivity
the reciprocal of
396.]
q,
The
quantities
the specific resistance per unit of area. g, and h are in fact connected with p,
and
by the equations
TT
The
stance,
ratio ^
insulators.
This remark
electrostatical questions
by
making K infinite.
we pass to the perfect conducting limit The apparent inconsistency is due to the
cases, as
different units
shown.
The recognition of the displacement components f, g, h with their time differentials/,^, h necessitates the introduction of the
electric potential
plicity, in the investigation of the inductive forces of the field. If we regard, as above, /, g, h as possessing the properties of a ic current, it will follow that the component inductive electro
of the form
for
>
_
dH
jr
when the
u, v,
G,
H are
arej+/, q+g
+h
respectively.
The dissipation D or heat conversion depends only upon p, q, r, and the potential energy only upon /, g, h, the former being,
in fact,
rrr / r
JJJ
and the
latter
(]*&+?*
being
110
397.]
MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY.
The magnetic
force
[397.
tical at all
If there be such matter (the magnetisation being due only to induction) then, as we know from Chap. XVII, the components 0, #, c of magnetic induction are connected with the components
a, /3,
= \iy,
were
fx,
is
In
this case
we have
da dz
dc
=

db

dc
dx
= 47r/uv,
db 
 da
dy
dx
where
the
a', /3',
field,
y arise from the magnetic action of the currents in and therefore satisfy the equations
do!
.
dy
dz
 dy =
=
dx
477V,
dp do! dx dy
as proved above.
And
a", /3",
y"
arise
^LYdy
dz
dz
dx
^
dx
field
da"
dy
is
The
reciprocal
analogous to the
coefficient
K in the electrostatic
=
i
the general value of the electric potential in the latter expressed by the equation
As
is
F=
with similar values for
magnetic induction are
a
G and
ff,
= dff
dz
dG
>
&c.,
dy
398.]
MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY.
Ill
dH
ay
( j x v
398.] So long as we are dealing with an infinite field throughout which fM has the same value at every point, the equations as
sufficient,
but
if
the value of
ju
changes
dis
continuously over any surface or surfaces, the values of F, G, will not be completely expressed by the equations
and the
like.
We
field,
matter.
The magnetic force a, (3, y at any point may be regarded as composed of two forces, (1), (04, fi lt yj arising solely from the currents; and (2), (a2 2> y 2 ) arising from the induced mag,
netisation.
Similarly, the
b c (a lt lt t )
and
(a 2
composed of (Flt
G19 HJ
dc
and (F2
G2
ffz)
And
as above
dz dy
Therefore, since
C,
db
= dc,
dy
db,
_i
dz
&c.,
&c.
dG l
::
dx
dF, 5 dy
(I),
Di
_dF,
dz
^
~~*
dff,
dx
^V ^=47r^ dx
2
where
J =
l
d /l dx
^ + ^.
dy
dz
same
letters
/x changes suddenly from /x to f/, and the with and without the accents represent correspond
/x
and
But
a,
a/,
whence
= 7
f*
>
and similarly
for
#,
and
112
/ and
satisfied
c/.
ENEEGY OF THE
FIELD.
[399.
(I)
are
by the assumption
The
difference of the
where
4irA
=
+
V
and
nA'/*
a'
&c., &c.
Therefore
a/ a/ r
Also
/*
= =
a2
+... &c.
=
f*
(II)
Hence
F, G,
H at
Z^
field are to
be determined
where
jPx
^j,
and
F G
2
,
are
together with
to (II).
the
three
superficial
equations
corresponding
in any field of electric currents in 399.] The total energy which there is no material motion consists of three parts
:
(1)
The
electrokinetic energy
\
which
is
equal, as
we have
shewn, to
rr r
The
which
is
equal to
fff\f*
399]
(3)
113
W> which,
supposing the
Now
since
F=
fff
"*****>
du
it
follows that
u U
and that
Therefore
=F
~"
''
dF
^,du
dTe
~dT
dH
Also
Since
op
= P,
4
aq
= Q,
err
= R.
dW
iff
Since
P,
Whence, by
addition,
we get
dy
is
where S
But
a surface bounding the whole field. the first of these terms is clearly zero, and the second
is
currents
be
all
closed,
in virtue of the
equation
VOL.
du Tdx
dv
Tdy
+ Tdz
dw
II.
114
Therefore
f
[400.
dE
dt
= dT + dD + dW = 0. dt dt dt
e
field,
then we
know
dT
=^
(Jit
arising from the motion of the element. Now if we are dealing with a field of closed
we know
is
equal to
r
l
dp dx
\~dt'd~s
J
where the
Also
.
d g dy dt'di
dH
Wfo)
dz^
'
closed circuits.
if q
.,
dF
dt
circuit, j
=
,
2 =
dq
dt
and similarly
is,
for =
and
=
dt
dt
But
energy
Tm
such that
dTm ~~
where
,
__
C.(dF_
dx
+'+'
dG dy
dH
dz^
dF dG dH
=
>
02
7eft
>
r
have the
Whence
it
follows that
///'
And we
get as before
dt
dE __dTe dD == ^r "^r + ^r +
*
dW
"5r
dTm + "sr __
fff \ P u + ^ + R w ] dxdV dz in a field of clos ed circuits =fff \(cy bz)u + (az ex} v + (bx ay }w
'
As shown
dx dy dx.
av}z} dxdydz,
whence the
4oi.]
401.]
POYNTING'S THEOREM.
115
The expression
for
Ifffl
differs, as
shown above
(Art. 357),
therefore either
only by a surface integral over a surface infinitely distant, and volume integral may be taken to express the
whole of space.
with Maxwell, we regard this electrokinetic energy as localised in regions of magnetic force (a, b, c) rather than those of currents (u, v w), then in dealing with a finite space we shall
y
throughout this space, and the time variation of this integral will be the time variation of the electrokinetic energy within 6
the space.
The
we
by the equation
D=
where the integral
is
W we
regard as expressed
w=
With
T
it
these assumptions
may be
T + D+W+Tm
e
is
equal to the
where P, Q,
are the
force at
116
[402.
S independent
402.] In the case of a substance in a varying magnetic field where there is no material motion we have seen that P, Q, R, the
components of electromotive
force at
any
by the equations
___<W_d
~~dt~"dx'
o^ ^=
dx
^~dt
7?_^_^i
dy*
dz'
mu e Therefore
since
dP
f^
dy
dQ
dR dz
=V

\k
dF
dx
also
dG
dy
dH =
dz
0.
But we
know
that
whence
it
follows that
Now
if p
field
we know
dg_
"*"
that
dx
#+
^
is
d_h_ ~
dz
2
'
dy
and therefore
Kp
= V
^.
Whence
in the
it
follows that
field.
403.] Again, if there be material motion in the field proved, Art. 389, that
we have
a)
G<*> 2
dF =, H+ + d^ dx
dt
,
for
Q and
R.
co
If the substance be of invariable form we know that w 1 have the same values throughout, and also that
o>
* This proposition was first demonstrated byProfessorPoynting, D.Sc., F.R.S., in a paper published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of London for 1884. It being proved, as above, that the time variation of the energy within a closed surface is expressible as a surface integral over that surface, Professor Poynting assumes that the flow of energy through each surface element is the argument of that surface integral. This theory, with many interesting consequences, has met
117
0)
= dy
dx
j
0>
= dx =
dz
dz
,
dy
dx
dy = dz = p
dy
dz
dx __ dii J == dz __ A _ dx dz dy
lerefore
4?rv
=  7j
ax
dz
dx dy
>
dP
re
get
dx
+ d$ +dR_ + dz "
dy
as before,
and
\j/
is
distribution.
If
we adopt
dF
&c.,
d^
we get
where
Since P,
quantities
Q,
dP_
dQ
dy
in the
if
,7
I
dR
dz
dx
V=Fx + Gy + Hz.
R
J
two expressions
differ
only by the
/> respectively, it is indifferent which dz dy forms are employed in the case of closed currents, only it is important to remember that in the one case the ^ is the potential of free electricity, and in the other case that it differs from
that potential
by the quantity
\}/'
or
Fx + Gy+Hz.
NOTE. The field equations arrived at in this Chapter are those principally in and which will be employed in subsequent pages. Many other relations might have been obtained see especially some very interesting papers on Electromagnetic
use,
;
Waves by Mr.
Mag. 18871889.
CHAPTEE
XXII.
we
is
find that simultaneously a current, called the induced current, generated in any other closed conducting circuit in the field.
Similar
if instead
of linear conductors
we have
hollow conducting shells of any shape. The problem sents itself, to determine the laws of this induction,
at
now
pre
405.] In Maxwell's view, as already stated, the total current any point consists of (i) the true conduction current whose
components are denoted by jo, q, r, and (2) the displacement current whose components are /, g> k. And all currents as thus
conceived are closed currents, so that
T + ay + az = J Tax
universally, if u
du
dv
dw
Again,
if
P,
__^^P
'^rdt
if
_^_^Q
~^W
K_d]i
4irdt'
of the
C be
the conductivity,
K in
medium. In the present investigation we regard space as sharply divided into conducting and nonconducting space, C being infinitely Also the greater than K in the former, and zero in the latter.
dielectric space is inappreciable
compared with
in con
where
is
the velocity of
407.]
CURRENTS ON CONDUCTORS.
y
119
F=
we may
fx
 dxdydz,
&c.,
neglect all the displacement currents /, g, h as containing the very small factor K, unless the time variations of the electromotive force are comparable in rapidity with the vibrations
which constitute
light.
be appreciable although
K be inappreciable.
dP
,
may
then in calculating F, (?, H> on which magnetic phenomena depend, treat the conduction currents as the only currents, and as alone satisfying the equation of continuity
We may
du fa
with
its
dv
dj
+ ~fa
dw
corresponding superficial equations. (See note at end.) distribution of electricity on the surface of a con406.] is on this theory to be regarded as the terminal polarisaductor
will generally
cause the superficial distributions and their statical potential to Now the variation of the statical potential depends on vary.
the number of electrostatic units of electricity which pass through It, and the forces derived from it, will
our investigations, although the magnetic effect of the same displacement currents, which depends on the number of electromagnetic units,
is
inappreciable.
:
and 407.] Induced currents are always decaying by resistance of there being no reany conclusions reached on the hypothesis
phenomena. But the currents are undergoing variation from two causes, (i) by induction, (2) by resistance, and for mathematical purposes we
sistance cannot of course correspond to actual
where necessary, assume resistance to be zero, in order to calculate the time variation of induced currents due to induction
shall,
alone.
120
CUEEENT FUNCTION.
[408.
Of
408.]
Any
which the
resultant current
be everywhere a current sheet. The space between two current sheets very near each other shall be called a current shell, and the perpendicular
tangential shall be defined to
distance between the
two sheets
its thickness.
If at any point on a current shell a line be drawn on the sheet at right angles to the current, and da be an element of
that line, h the thickness of the shell at P, then the ratio which the quantity of electricity crossing the area hda per unit of time bears in the limit to da is called the superficial current at P, or
the current per unit of length. will, where necessary for disu v t ws the components of the superficial tinction, denote by current, retaining M, v, w for the component currents per unit of
,
We
area.
Of
409.] If we take for a current sheet the plane of xy> the condition of continuity becomes, as is easily seen,
du8 ,dv8 ~7 7 dx ay
1
*"
must
exist a function
of
x and
y>
such that n8
= ^ dv
and
v,
doc
This
is
generally, if the condition' of continuity be satisfied for current shell, there exists a function, $, of x y> and #, called any the current function, such that at each point on the shell
9
More
u8
v8
d<b = n ~
dd>
dy
mji dz
. l
w
which
satisfy
dd>
dx
Ll
dd)
_L, dy
8 8
+ mv + nw =
0,
and, as will be
410.]
For
if
CURRENT FUNCTION.
121
proportional to the perpendicular disdc tance between these surfaces, that is, directly proportional to r
the currents form a shell between two neighbouring c f do, the resultant current per unit of
Again,
if
a function,
the condition of continuity be satisfied there must exist <J>, such that
u= dd& _^^?, dz dz
dy
dy
"~
^^?__^?^?
dx dz
dz dx
_(Md3> _dSd$>
dy dx
dx dy
so that the resultant current is along the intersection of surfaces <J> constant and S constant.
two
These values of
u, v,
du dx
dv
dy
+ ~dz~
de = m,
dw
'
Now
dS
ax
writing
dc = lr
dS
,
dS dz
= n dc
h
dy
And
for $>dc
we have
for the
components of super>
currents
ut
vs
= hu =
dm n ~dy
.
m ^
dz
d<j>
d<b
= =
d$ v n
dz
,
f, dx
d<b m~^l
dd>
dx
dy
^>
The function <, if given at every point on a surface, completely determines the currents at every point. Evidently, for a closed surface, $ + C determines the same currents as <, if C be any
arbitrary constant over the surface in question.
Of the
410.] If r be the distance from the element dS of the shell to the point P, we have for the components of vector potential
at P,
122
CURRENT FUNCTION.
[411
If the surface
S be
closed,
we have by
t
Art. 271,
0,
<fec.
//(
And
therefore
d
dy
d
dz
\
]
(^>
JCY d/o
' r
so that
.F,
(r,
7? are linear function of the $'s with coefficient Evidently the same is true of the
=>
>
derived functions
&c.
ax
dy
potential due to
COROLLARY.
rent sheet
is
The vector
any spherical
cur
the sheet.
tangential to any spherical surface concentric with For, taking the centre for origin, let a?, y, z refer to a
a?',
y,
to a point
and
let
0,
in the form
2^=
extended over
all
T
l(Fu
8
/ /
+ Gv + Hw }dxdydz
s B
the currents.
But
sheet,
u f> vs>
+ mv + nw
8
0.
The
412.]
123
expression contains therefore more variables than it has degrees of freedom, and it becomes desirable to transform it, by substi
tuting <, the current function, as the independent variable. Given any system of current sheets, let us apply the theorem
of Art. 271, using the function
F$
for
of that article.
That
the
first
Treating
Gcf)
and
way, we obtain
The
first
We
will
term of
member is equal to 2 T. now suppose all the surfaces closed. Then the second the righthand member vanishes, and therefore for any
Also
dz
if
H
dy
1,
d(^__dH_<m
dx
Therefore
d^__^__^
dx
dz
dy
^_^_15 dx dz
~~
dy
dv
412.] It
is
is
continuous through
to take the
current sheet.
it is sufficient
We
then have
dl
dv
d 12
dz
dF
dy
dG
dx
t.ny
F = /YT" dxdydz, G = f
that
is,
f/
.F
densities
and G are the potentials of imaginary matter of u and v respectively. Therefore by the general theory
J
T7I
/~1
of potential functions,
=
and
=
,
corresponding to tangential
components of
force,
IF
and
=
dG
jis
may
con
CvV
tinuous. It will be observed that T is expressible as a quadratic function of the $'s with coefficients functions of the space coor.
dinates.
dH dG &c ~r
>
>
j
are expressible as
and therefore
y
is
so expressible.
Shells.
<
413.] The vector potential due to a magnetic shell of strength over a closed surface $, being taken as positive when the
<
positive face
is
iyff
which are the same as the components of vector potential of a current sheet with current function over the same surface.
</>
It follows that the components of magnetic force or magnetic induction due to the magnetic shell at any point not within the
substance of the shell are the same as those at the same point And therefore the magnetic potential of
the magnetic shell differs from that of the current sheet by some constant at all points external to the shell and by some, but
;
all
41
5.]
MAGNETIC SCREEN.
The magnetic
potential due to
125
any
shell of
414.]
uniform
strength
$ over
a closed surface
is
Such a shell corresponds to and no system of electric currents. The magnetic potential due to any system of currents on S is the work done in bringing a unit magnetic pole from an infinite distance to the point considered, and may (Art. 329) have any one of an infinite series of
47T0 at all internal points.
values differing by a constant according to the route chosen for It is not necessary for our purpose to define this the pole.
magnetic potential, as we are concerned only with its first differential coefficients, which are unambiguous. It would not,
however, be difficult so to define it as that the magnetic potential due to the currents shall be equal to that due to the corresponding
system of
to
closed surface, X2 the magnetic potential due magnetic system outside of S, there exists a deany arbitrary terminate distribution of magnetic shells on S, whose magnetic
415.] If
S be any
Ii at all points within S. equal to be the density of a distribution of matter over S whose potential has the value Q at all points on S. That
potential
is
For
let q
determines
1
q,
is
equal to
Let
which
S,
be that function of
satisfies
the condition
V2
=q
wards) at
points on S.
This function
possible
and deter
Then
For
let 12
be the magnetic potential of the system of shells on Let r be the distance from any point
the normal
126
But
MAGNETIC SCREEN.
[416.
since
is
within S
2
V2
()
Also V $ at all points in the external space. Therefore by Green's theorem applied to S and external space,
external space.
And
therefore
n
I
/
I
J CKp
l
JJ
5 <*J>
//!
416.] COROLLARY. There exists a determinate system of currents on any closed surface S, whose magnetic potential, together with that due to an arbitrary magnetic system outside of S, has some constant value at all points on or within S, namely, the system
of currents whose current function
is $,
where $
is
the function
last article.
We
magnetic system.
It will be easily seen that we might reverse the problem, and system of currents on 8 whose potential together with that of an internal magnetic system should have the value zero
find a
throughout the
Example.
of 12
Then
the value
may be expressed in spherical surface harmonics, including generally a constant term. Then at any point on or within 8
on 8
also
a=l =A
2A n Yn
417.]
Therefore,
127
^! dr
And
centre,
from the
,
4irr
47T
w+ 1
and on S
^ ~
A at all points within S, which has potential and cannot be represented by any system of electric currents
on
S.
/ /
Yn dS =
take for the current function of the currents forming the . netic screen
mag
from which the current at any point can be determined by expressing Yn in terms of the usual surface coordinates.
417.] Before entering on the consideration of the general problem of induction on surfaces, we will treat a simple case, that namely in which we have a conducting spherical shell S, and
electric currents are
surface
concentric with S.
Let
u, v,
WQ, VQ,
be the components of the given currents on S ff the com6r those of the induced currents on S,
ponents of vector potential of the given currents, F, G, of the induced currents. a be the radii of $ Let
,
H those
and S
respectively.
Then the
electrokinetic
system
is
_
As
rrr(
I
JJJ
extended over
+(H + H) (W + w)
Q
dxdyds,
the currents both original and induced. the effect of induction alone apart from resistance, the
all
128
[417.
dt
du
=
dt dv
V at all points on S,
dt
d dT =0 dw
with the condition that induced currents can exist only in the shell.
If
we
take the
is
common
a
condition
y m ^. z <u
a
w^o
f\
we determine
u, v,
w by
0, &c.,
and
correspond to a system of closed superficial currents are therefore the solution of the problem.
on
S.
They
dT
Since
=
= F,
=9
d
&c.,
dT
by making
0,
5
= 0,
&c., unconditionally,
we
obtain
rest,
dt
=dt
is
from
at all points
on
S.
,
Then the
currents u Q) #
WQ
can be expressed in a series of spherical harmonics referred to the common centre of the spheres. It is sufficient to treat one be a solid harmonic term in this expression. Let therefore
harmonic of order
WQ
for origin,
u^ VQ
z dd)
~~
~a
~~
i/
dd)
'
dy
d(f)
a dz
~~
x
V ~~
11
z dfy
'
a dz
dd)
a dx
"~
x d(p
a dy
a dx
And
therefore u0) v
4 1 8.]
129
Suppose on 8
= B Yn
n
then on
8,
FQ =
r
J
()
Bn Yn
by
Art. 66.
therefore
And
and therefore on
Similarly
Hence we
^O' vo
see that u, v,
wo5 and
since
U^V^WQ
currents
closed currents
on the outer sphere, u, v, w constitute a system of on S. = 0, &c., In the general case, the equations ~ + 418.] dt dt
system of values
for ^, #,
0.
will determine a
on
$,
which do not
+ mv + nw
We must
therefore have
recourse to another
method of
solution *.
A
current function,
is
General Solution.
,
...
Sr on which
;
0, the
given as a function of the time at each a given varying magnetic field and certain point, constituting
* It may be suggested that pression for energy,
to the ex
=
d\
dt
0.
We should thus
~dJ
obtain
dF
Tt
=l
d\
y
dG
dT
==m
dS ==n d\
dt
>
~dt
when
d\
is
an indeterminate multiplier.
potential on
determinate values for v, w on S, satisfying But, as will be shown, they cannot satisfy the condition of continuity except in
,
By
this
A.
0.
VOL.
II.
130
[418.
induction.
be the magnetic potential of the given currents, that of the induced currents.
Let
Then
*<*"> //
in which the
which
<
is
integral relates to the surfaces S19 ... Sr on at every point, and the second relates to the given
first
,
rCC,
(
If F, of vector potential of the currents u, v, ^v on S, determined by the method now under consideration, and of the external system, the first term of the righthand member is zero, because the vector potential is normal to S, the second because there are no currents within 8. If the condition of continuity be satisfied by u, v, w on S, the third term is also
zero,
d ^d F te + G
rr d\,dF H ^> (S + dG + dH W
ay
and therefore the lefthand member is zero, and therefore at all points within S. Therefore there exists a function x of x, y, z, such that within 8
&c.,
_dx p _d X G ~ F ~te'
And
dy>
~ _X H_d dz'
is
Ms
since F, G,
constant over 8.
= dF
dG dH r+v + r = dz dx
dy
Therefore
0,
within 8.
all
Therefore
F=
G=
points on 8. unless 6r
The method
^=0,
0,
H=
at all points = at points within S, and A suggested can therefore never lead to a solution, lead to a solution. This cannot be generally the
0,
H=
0, at all
case.
41 8.]
1
131
remaining surfaces
is
to be determined
by
induction.
Now
</>
on Sr+l
...
Sn
The potential of free electricity, except the forces of induction. if it exist, and the forces derived from it, can have no effect
on
it
Further, the system has as many degrees of freedom as contains variables, namely the $'s.
</>.
If therefore the external magnetic system be generated continuously, the corresponding system of induced currents on
e
r .n, ...
Sn
ThatiS>
d&^_ ~ )
dv
,
That
is,
on Sr+1 ,...Sn
V2
^T
at
= 0;
=
;
and
at
all
points
=
within any of
those
surfaces
and therefore
of the
at
\
has
dt
surfaces
Sr+l ,...SH
But, as already proved, there is for each surface only one determinate system of closed currents which has this property. see then that the system of closed currents which will be
We
Sr+l
...
Sn
is
the determinate
system which we found above, making the magnetic potential constant upon or within each of the surfaces Sr+l ,...Sn As closed currents come into existence outside of ^r+1 ... S n by any
.
,
is
formed on Sr+1
...
Sn
resistance,
and cease to be
2,
132
a complete screen. their formation. 419.]
STATICAL POTENTIAL.
We
law of
On
this hypothesis,
and neglecting
resistance, the
any of the
surfaces
magnetic force will be zero at every point within $r+1 ,...$M it remains to consider the
;
electromotive forces.
Since the magnetic force is zero at every point, we have, writing F, G, If for the components of the complete vector potential, due as well to the original as to the induced systems,
d^dF __ d^dG
dy
dt
_dd#__[^
dx
dt
^.^_A^?
dz dt
.
dx
dt
dz dt
dy
dt
It follows that at all points within the surfaces Sr+1 ,...Sn there exists a function \j/ of #, ^, and z such that
t
^_^i __^I_^ dx
dt dt
dH _d^
dt
dy
dz
and
at every point within
AT JNJ
dF
dG
surfaces
^
1
any of the
>
Sr+1 ,...Sn
ow
dF dt
rr
dG dt
T~
A and
dH r
dt
electromotive force, produce, according to the theory of electrostatics, on the surface of the conductor 8 a distribution of
electricity
points within
and therefore causing at all having potential 8 an electromotive force equal and opposite to
*/>,
the resultant of
7 =>
>
and
rr
dt
at
dt
This distribution,
and
its potential
)
\/r,
rr
at
are thus led to expect that, in response to the variation of the magnetic field outside of a conductor, there will be in
We
electric
currents re
ducing to zero the magnetic force, and (2) a distribution of free electricity on the surface reducing to zero the electromotive force, at all points within the conductor.
420.] The potential function
v/r
at
which we arrived
in the last
422.]
ASSOCIATED FUNCTION.
surface,
133
P, Q,
the components of a
dP
dx
at all points within S.
dQ
dy
+ dz
dS
=()
Then x of #,
such that
y>
z,
2 at all points within 8. at all points on S, and V x will call this function the associated function to P, Q,
We
E for
the surface
S.
The
vectors
JT
d  x

dx
have a resultant
421.] If P,
in the
,
dx n  U/

dx  
dy
dz
S.
and
dy
 = "_*?<> dx
\J,
&c OcC.,
P^*=0, <2^=0, dx dy
at all
satisfied,
and
*&=<>
dz
For these further conditions being points within S. there must exist a function x', such that at all points
,
within S
/
9
P *
= <*X 7dx
n d* = 7"
(/
,
'
7? /I
= ^x 7
And
dy

dz
therefore
Then
at
all
points on 5, and
therefore x'
V2
(x'x)
=
and
And
constant,
d\
^
422.] If P, Q, and 72 be the components of an electromotive force, and if $ be a conducting shell, then, whether the conditions

= j^
dx
&c.,
dy
134
statical distribution
ASSOCIATED FUNCTION.
whose potential
l
,
[423.
is x
For
letP=P + P
/
and Pj = ^
civ
>
P Q E
1
,
potential x> and produce the effect stated. P', Q', E' form wholly closed curves within S, and do not affect the potential.
423.]
Let now
>
~>
j^
variation of vector potential of any magnetic system outside be their associated function for S. of S. Let \l/
Let
=r
at
TT at
at
vector potential of the system of currents on 8 which forms the magnetic screen to the external system. Let be their \//
associated function for
S then
9
for the
magnetic screen
it
follows that
at
all
\^,
F + F by F,
&c.
&c.,
and
\^
+^
by
we have
dF
77
d^lr
<w
7
ax
=
,
0,
The
associated function to
r.
dt
that distribution of free electricity on the surface the statical force due to which is equal and opposite to the force whose components
dF
are
TT> &c.
(
at
425]
KESISTAXCE CONSIDERED.
therefore since
135
And
__dF
~~dt'
are
~"5' "~di
_dG _dH
distribution formed on
components of an electromotive force, we have a statical S whose potential is //. There may of course be any free electricity in the field. But
we have to do with it only so far as it appears to be required by the conditions of our problem. And from that point of view \j/ is a single and determinate function of #, y, z, which is known when
,
dF
,
clt
424.] According to this theory, superficial currents, and none but superficial currents, are continually being created on any solid conductor by direct induction. We may regard the solid as
made up
of an infinite
number
on the outer
shell,
shell
sistance
would continue to
be,
a complete
magnetic screen,
effectually preventing the interior strata from becoming affected. But in fact the currents in the outer shell decay by resistance,
and cease to be a complete screen. By this means the interior portions of the solid become gradually, but perhaps within a
time sensibly instantaneous, pervaded by currents.
Shells.
425.] It comes the effect of variation of the external magnetic field. next in order to consider the effect of resistance alone without
variation of the external
field.
shell
Ohm's law
U=
a
U.
h
a
= =
dF
dt
1
d rdx
(rv= v g
h
a
dG
dt
d*
3
37~~T~ dy
dz
(A)
crw
= rW =
h
8
dH d*
j
dt
136
in which
o
EESISTANOE CONSIDERED.
[425.
dF dG
=>
dH
,
at
at
33 and V. at
o
constant.
Let us suppose the shell to be of uniform material and Then we have by differentiation
^dx
dz / dt ^dx dy dy If therefore the at all points within the substance of the shell. currents are derived from a current function, and if F, G, and
relate to
any varying magnetic system, including the currents in the shell themselves, it follows that V 2v at ajl points
shell.
But
adding,
by
I,
m, n, and
we have
dF
"
dG
dt
dH
~dt
d*_ ~
dv
dt
=
the
associated
and therefore
is
by
rr
>
definition
.
function to
\lr.
dF
7T
>
dG
rr '9
dH
dt
dt
dt
Any
derived from
system of closed currents in a uniform conducting shell any arbitrarily assigned current function can be
caused by the electromotive forces due to some varying magnetic system, including the currents themselves, with the associated
function belonging to those forces. relate exclusively to If, however, it be prescribed that F, G, the system itself, that is, if it be a system decaying in its own
field in
satisfied unless
the absence of external forces, the equations (A) cannot be or, or the thickness of the shell, be suitably chosen
at every point.
j
For in
dt
=7
>
and
dt
rr dt
and there..
fore also
j
>
which the single unknown quantity has to satisfy at each j~ This is not generally possible. But if /$, point on the surface.
427.]
SELFINDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
137
li
We may
satisfied,
conceive a system in which these conditions are and continue to be so during the whole process of
decay, in which therefore equations (A) hold true when differentiated according to t. might call such a mode of decay of
We
The complete
=
solution of
or
d/t
as a
function of the time, which can only be effected in special cases. will here consider the case in which the currents 426.]
We
are such
is
the currents decay pan passu, bearing at every instant during the process the same proportion to one another.
conducting
as
that
all
we
shall
have
dv8
dw8
A
;herelaw me
is
Idu
dF
dt
must hold
A.r'j
d<b
&c.,
^^
dt
A (p
and
dt
,
^^ ~
and since T
is
a quadratic function of us

v8
iv 8
dt
expressing the rate at which heat is generated in the decaying Also if 19 G 19 &c. denote the initial values of those system.
functions
when
The constant A
Any
called the modulus of the system. of currents in a shell which has this property of system
is
decaying proportionally in
selfinductive system.
its
own
field shall
be defined to be a
427.]
may
proceed to investigate the conditions that a system be selfinductive, and its properties when it is so.
We
138
SELFINDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
[428.
Let us denote by
to the vector
v/f
dF dG 77 77
?
>
and
AH dt
dt
dt
Also
F,
G,
and
H.
^ = A*,&o.,
dt
and
** = _A*X,4c.
dx
dx
in this case
and therefore
_ _ __
F+^ d_
u8
G+
H+ w
8
a d
__
dy_
vs
dz_ ~
<*_
>
h\
428.] Now if for any conducting shell we choose an arbitrary current function $, the quantities u s vs w s F, G, H, and x are The vector all determinate at every point as functions of 0.
>
,
F+ ~ G + y^
,
>
jST+
p
is
necessarily in
by
definition,
but
it is
resultant current.
not generally in the same line with the But unless it be in the same line with the
and there
express the condition which the current in order that the system of currents
be capable of being made selfinductive. They express only one condition, namely that two lines, both ascertained to be in a given plane, shall coincide.
derived from
it
may
It
may
43]
SELFINDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
This
is
139
tion in
(f>
only, because F, G,
given.
429.]
values of
fulfilled,
As
<
there are as
many
disposable quantities,
namely the
at all points
on the
point,
there
is
at least
one function
that if
which
satisfies
the condition.
We
S be
If
<
many.
F, G, ff,
a sphere, and in certain other special cases, there are be any function which fulfils this condition, then
x> derived,
and
from
it satisfy
equations (B),
dx
__
dy
^__ ~ h\
~~
suPP ose
'
at each point
on
S.
But Q generally
varies
on the
surface.
In order to make the system with $ so chosen actually selfinductive^ we must so choose h as to satisfy equations (B) or
= XQ
If
<r
at every point.
be constant, this determines the relative thickness at every point which the shell S must have in order that it may be selfinductive with the current function <.
any system of currents on a surface the tangential component of vector potential coincides with the current at every point, the system can be made selfinductive by properly
If for
shell.
For
^
is
made
equal and
defini&c.,
F+ ~,
any one
order, as n.
Then
140
SELFINDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
[43
u
and therefore
therefore,
u, v,
w
66,
And
by Art.
2n+l
4rra
2n+l
u
v
and F: G u v w at all points on the surface. The vector potential then coincides with the current, and X = 0, \l/ = 0, and the shell, if of uniform material and uniform thickness, is selfinductive with $ = AYn and A constant. (2) S a solid of revolution about the axis of z, and $ any function
: :
=
S.
For the currents are in circles in planes parallel to that of #, #, and so evidently are the lines of resultant vector potential, and
therefore the vector potential coincides with the current at every
point,
and
are in the
and so therefore In this case x = are the lines of vector potential. an ^ ^ (3) In any case if $ be a function of z only, and if x> being the
the
circles,

it,
0,
the system
is self.
F+~, dx
&c., are in this case in the intersection of the tangent plane with
Hence
and
An
example of this
is
given
later,
SELFINDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
the axis of z for one of
its
141
it is
shown that must be proany point the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent
axes of figure.
And
On
We
w decays according to the same law. Now Therefore the magnetic potential, is such a linear function. 12, the variation of 12 due to resistance alone, there being no variation of the external
field, is
given by j
A 12.
field
But the
variation of
12,
given by
"
do,
~dt~
_
''
dQ
dt
9
'
12
field.
we have
da_ =

Ai
da,
=
J
dt
dt
t
from which
12
may
Let
be determined as a function of
field is
whenever
given.
EXAMPLE
comes
I.
^
ctt
be constant.
or
12
^(16^).
finite, this
If
we make \t
represents the ideal case of socalled impulsive currents, that is, a system of finite currents supposed to be created in an infinitely
In this case the short time, and Ct represents the impulse. Ct and 12 is independent of the resistance. equation gives 12 If, on the other hand, we make A t very great compared with unity, as we always may do by sufficiently increasing the resist
we
obtain 12
=Q
A
That
is,
12 varies inversely
142
as
SELFINDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
resistance.
[431.
The resistance in this case plays a part that of mass in the motion of a material system analogous to
the
under
finite forces
from
rest.
Suppose, for instance, there be several conducting shells, and a magnetic system external to all of them, whose magnetic
potential
is
made
to vary so that
~
Cvt
is
constant.
And
sup
pose that the systems of currents generated in the shells are selfinductive then, according to the result last obtained, the
;
in
to the
resistances.
This
started, that
be regarded as existing in conductors only, because, although no substance is a perfect conductor or a perfect insulator, the resistance in socalled insulators bears a very
induced currents
may
high
EXAMPLE
field
S be given by
& = AcOSKt,
K is
constant, and
Then
at
any
internal point
we
Let
= K cot a.
Then
and
^+
at
at
12
= A cos K
t
t.
To
q =
cot a,
and
or
A + A' +
A'
A
2 l+cot a
s
432.]
SELFINDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
143
11=
And
for the
.4
sin a (cos K
a).
cotasinxtf)
= A sina sin(K
{
a)}
2ir
of a complete period*.
/c,
a becomes nearly
field
and
sin a
=
has the
proximate as we
1 and nearly the same phase, the state of things to which we apdiminish indefinitely the thickness, or increase
,
This
is
Now
we may
number of
shells successively enclosing one another, and the formulae above obtained to each shell. Let the shells apply be of such thickness that each is self inductive with the given
infinitely thin
currents.
is
time K
it.
later
than in the
immediately outside of
shell,
The
which
h,
bears to
disturbance
of the
type
in
is
question penetrates
j:
the
solid.
This
This
velocity
is
upon outer ones. assumed in the above investigation that the system
is
selfinductive.
treated
This, if true at
problem
is
by Professor Larmor,
144
EOTATING CONDUCTOR.
[433.
at every instant, because the values of at all points in or within the shell are multiplied by the same factor cos &t.
or more selfinductive systems of currents may and if they have the same on a conducting shell modulus, or value of A, they combine to form one selfinductive system with that same value of A. For let Fl &c. relate to one
433.]
Any two
coexist
system, and
F2 &c.
to another.
Then
at
surface
=A
and therefore
% 4 u.
2 is
number of systems.
434.]
shell
whose surface
angular velocity
the following case. Let a conducting a solid of revolution, revolve with uniform about its axis of figure in a field of uniform
P, at right angles to that axis. Let the axis magnetic force, of rotation be that of y> and the direction of the force that Let us take any plane through the axis fixed in the of x.
conductor for the plane of reference, and let time be measured from an epoch at which the plane of reference coincides with Then if Q be any point on or within the conductor that of xy.
distant r from the axis,
and through
and such that a plane through the axis makes the angle with the plane of reference, Q
the potential at Q of the external field is Pr cos (<at + Q). By the change of position of the field relative to the shell
we
shell at
symmetrical with respect to that particular plane the axis which coincides at that instant with the plane through of xy. Let us suppose that the system of currents induced at
which
is
is
a selfinductive system.
We
have
systems successively created, symmetrical with regard to successive planes through the axis fixed in the conductor.
series of selfinductive
.
435]
EOTATING CONDUCTOE.
have then, to find the potential at
145
We
of the induced
currents,
<m
Pr
cos (at
and
& =
+ 6) d& ~
Pwrsin (f +0)
whence we obtain
& + I2 = Prcosacos(co +
a having the value cot ~*
fl= Prsmasin(o +

a),
a),
may calculate in this case the mechanical work done 435.] unit of time in turning the conducting shell. For this is per the same as would be done if the currents were at each instant
replaced by the corresponding system of magnetic shells over It is therefore the surface with strength $.
We
if
no
field,
and therefore
of the
j^dS dv
dS
mag
Now
dv
where
/3 is
offigure,and
Also
ddO. = _
dt
dv
<$>
^ ^ +9)
a),
= PAcos(a>t +
rr d
where
is
Hence
is
dl
// ***;**
proportional to
/*2rr
/
dOsm((Dt + 0)cos(a>t +
a),
Jo
that
It is proportional, as in the case of the single closed circuit treated of in Art. 355, to the sine of the retardation
is
to sin a.
146
might in any of the preceding cases suppose a core 436.] of soft iron within the shell and separated from it by a thin The magnetic potential of lamina of nonconducting matter.
the
field in
We
is
form
A cos acos(W
which
it is
The
placed *.
If
ratio
we were
assume that the magnetisation bears a constant to the magnetic induction, we should have for the deterto
li
mination of
=
dt
where
C is
constant,
form as
before.
As the
lished, it
relation
soft iron is not perhaps sufficiently estabnot be safe to draw any but the following general may conclusions, viz. (i) the magnetisation of the iron will be always
magnetic induction in
retarded in phase as compared with the field in which it is placed, and therefore as compared with the external field (2) if this retardation be not very great the magnetic field due to the
;
core will at all points on the shell be of the same sign as the external field, and the effect of the core will be to increase the
Further, as soft iron, although magnetisable, is a conductor, there would, were the surface of the soft iron continuous, be also induced currents on it which would create a magnetic field of the
opposite sign to that of the induced magnetisation, and so tend to diminish the induced currents in the shell. But this may be
obviated by making the core consist of insulated iron wires running in directions at right angles to the currents in the shell.
This is usually done in forming the core of the armature of a dynamomachine. 437.] The treatment of special cases is reserved generally for the following chapter, but in order to elucidate a general prin*
We assume here and throughout the chapter that the oscillations of the field
.
437]
ciple of
147
results there
Az^ where A is constant, be generated in an ellipsoidal shell of which one axis coincides with z the system will be selfinductive when the thickness of the
shell at
any point is proportional to the perpendicular, or, from the centre on the tangent plane at the point. The component currents per unit of area are then
u= Ay
y, w=0;
Ax
*7+t+7'_
dS d<j>
dy dz
_ dS d<fr __ 2Ay ~
dz dy
b
2
then
is
cc z  +  ?/ + 
soid
the equation to a similar, similarly situated, and concentric ellip', whose linear dimensions are to those of the given ellipsoid
1
.
a&r:
It can
And we shall suppose r < 1 and $' an inner ellipsoid. now be shown that if we form on the ellipsoid & a shell of
,
uniform material similar to the given shell S, then the generation of the given system of currents on the given shell S will cause
by induction a system of currents of the corresponding type, but For let F, (?, in the reverse direction, on the inner shell '.
be the components of vector potential of the given currents in And let I", G\ H' be the outer shell, x their associated function.
the corresponding functions for the inner shell.
is
selfinductive,
we have
all
Now
by the
definition
('+$*
L 2
t,t
148
[438.
j^,
V2 u =
Therefore
and therefore
at all points
on the
ellipsoid $'.
is,
That
dp
JTjl
at all points
on y, substituting
=
for
\F
and
ty for
\\,
as in Art. 427.
is, the continuous increase of the given currents on 8 acts an electromotive force tending to produce the reverse currents w on S'. u, v, and since this system of currents on S' is selfinductive, its But
That
as
own selfinduction will not cause currents of any other type to appear in ST. This type of currents will therefore be induced with the opposite sign to those in the outer shell. have dealt with the case of an ellipsoid only. But 438.]
We
may
be extended thus.
a?,
Then we may divide the space within S into a series of similar concentric and similarly situated shells, each being between two
surfaces such as
and 8
= c + dc,
where
<
Let us suppose that in each of these shells, if a conducting a system of currents with $ for current function would be Let an inner conducting shell be so formed. selfinductive.
shell,
shell
let
be formed on
S,
i.
e.
between S
and
Then
it
the given type of currents be generated in it, can be proved by the same method as we employed in
the case of the ellipsoid that a system of currents of the type < would be generated by induction in the inner shell, provided only that the functions u and v or
t
dS
d(j)
dS d(f>
dy dz
'
dz dy
439]
SOLID CONDUCTORS.
149
V 2u =
0,
and similarly
V 2v =
at all
As
longer act as a complete magnetic screen to the internal portions of the solid. These accordingly become subject to the influence of a varying external magnetic field, and currents are excited in
them
also, so
;
currents
process
that in time the whole solid becomes pervaded by and this time is perhaps generally so short that the
is
sensibly instantaneous.
The laws of
dx
*
dt
_=
=
0.
dy
(B)
d
dt
+ mv + nw
class it is frequently
more
For instance, convenient to retain the variables F, G, and If. if S be a solid sphere of uniform material, and the external
concentric with S,
magnetic system be due to closed currents on spherical surfaces we shall have no statical potential \j/, and
The treatment of this class of the problem admits of solution *. cases is reserved for the next chapter.
* See the
fessor
Niven, R.
150
[439
NOTE to Art. 405. It may be objected to the reasoning in the text, that although the displacement currents in any finite space have inappreciably small magnetic effect, yet that of the displacement currents in all space may nevertheless be apprein space, and let the Let us then consider three points R, Q, and ciable.
vector potential
F be required at 0.
force
TT"
I
at
R,
if
QR =
r',
and therefore an
^*
elementary current
contains the term
r
O
O
OR =
r.
potential at
derived by this process from the elementary current u at Q is found by intein space. It is therefore grating the last expression for all positions of
R
I
r"
I
"
V
where a
is
JLL B n d6 d<f)dr +
{
Jo Jo
finite
rr
Jo Jo Jo
^s rr
any
term, or external integral, is not inappreciable even when multiplied But if Q be within the sphere of radius a, the value of the external If the elementary integral is independent of the position of Q within that sphere. current at Q be part of a closed current wholly within the sphere a, there will for
The by K.
first
u. Hence it follows that if the every element u be a corresponding element sphere a includes all the closed currents excited in the field, the vector potential at O derived from them does not contain any terms derived from displacement currents induced in external space. And the effect of all the displacement
is
made
inappreciable
by the
factor
47T*
CHAPTEK
XXIII.
have been investigated in the preceding chapter. The treatment of special cases may frequently be more readily
effected by the application of the equations of the magnetic field arrived at in Chap. XXI, and some of these cases will be now considered. Before doing this it will be advantageous to re
capitulate the magnitudes of most frequent occurrence notation by which they are usually expressed.
and the
These magnitudes
magnitudes as follows
at
any
.
point of the field, otherwise called the vector potential with components
F, G,
a,
b>
H.
c.
The magnetic induction The magnetic force The total electric current
surface
.
a, /3,
y.
referred to unit
.
u v
t
w.
r.
The conduction current The electric displacement The displacement current The electromotive force
And, secondly,
scalar
J,
f,
q,
g<>
^. ^.
/, #,
P, Q, R.
magnitudes, namely
The electric potential The conductivity The dielectric inductive capacity The volume electric density The superficial electric density The magnetic potential The
resistance to conduction
... ...
:
\l/.
C.
K.
*
'
&
.
o(
.
/*
152
The
[44 1
will
be
employed without
special
It is only in a few substances, such as soft iron, that the magnetic permeability (//,) has a value differing sensibly from unity, and in the examples treated of by us we shall assume that
/x
is
distinctly stated.
441.] The components of the total current referred to unit of area must satisfy the equation of continuity or, as it is sometimes called, of no convergence, viz.
:
du IT ax
at every point.
+ T+ ay
dv
dw
7
=
p+f, q+g,
r
dz
If
n, v,
/i
becomes
^4.^4.^*4.^
da
"*"
dy
dz
"*"
dt
^4.^4.^^0 ~ \dx dz /
"*"
i.
e.
dp ~ dx
~ dy
da
dr dz
dy de
=
= 0,
S,
dt
the interpretation and truth of which are obvious. If u, v, w vary discontinuously over a surface on opposite sides of that surface being u, #'; v,
the values
,
v'
w, w' re
u) + m(v
v) + n(w
v,
w')
= 0.
we have
the
In
all
are finite
equations
V
If
M,
F= 4Tm,
<9
47TV,
#= 4vw.
and the
corre
w become
infinite over
any
surface S,
sponding current components referred to unit of length us) vs w s) the lastmentioned equations are replaced by dF dF' dG dG'  =477^, dff dH' = 4irw8 3 3
,
be
dv
dv
dv
dv
dv
dv
where
F and F' are the values of and similarly for G and H*.
*
on opposite sides of S
The
being
left to
are superficial,
e.
By some writers
44 2 ]
Since a
153
=
dy
dz
it
follows that a
is
always continuous
similarly for b
and
c.
At such surfaces this is not necessarily true, but as proved above (Art. 412) the resolved part of the magnetic induction along the normal, which is identical with the normal component
of magnetic force (
is
),
always continuous.
442.] If
o,
vp
= P,
oq
Q,
crr
= R.
4 7T
XL
whence
it
vi^Lj)
where
i
is
and in this
case, if over
any
cr
and
f, g, h
7
>
=
>
and
dH r
The
is
equal to
are written
dF  dF =
r
dv
iiru,
dv'
dF
dv
h
dF =
dv
>
4irw, the
dv F'
and dv' being normal elements in the directions of the regions wherein
are the respective values.
F and
154
and
is
[443
by the equation
The elimination
is
quent purposes is only required for two cases, viz. (l), where on is zero, in which case we get both sides of the surface
dF
dt
+w
dG +n dH\ +
dt
) dt '
,d^
/
o
dtf ^o^ = dv dv
0,
and
0.
and
(2),
where on one
side
is
is
infinitely large, in
K
but since in this case
.
/
(T
d^__ dv
~dT~~
~dv
'
0
or ^
is infinitely less
than =
the equa
tion reduces to
the same as in ordinary electrostatics. The first case corresponds to that of two adjacent conductors, and the second to that of a conductor in contact with a dielectric.
have proved in the preceding chapter that at any 443.] point in the field at which the electromotive force is finite,
the intensity of the displacement current in electromagnetic measurement is infinitely small, and at all points within a
conductor
current.
it
We
the cases therefore contemplated in the following investigations which have reference to good conducting substances
all
In
in dielectric and practically insulating media, we shall assume, as in the preceding chapter, that the only currents are conduction
The displacecurrents and limited entirely to the conductors. ment currents,/,^, k, will be treated as nonexistent in estimating
444 J
155
the conditions of continuity within, or at the boundaries of, conductors, and in determining the electromotive or electro
magnetic forces in the field. The electromotive forces, however, arising from the electrical distributions determined hyf,g, ^ and
their
space
variations
are
finite,
employed
444.]
as above.
We
equation of continuity
du dx
necessitates the equations
dv
~dy
dw
Jz
_
'
_ ~~
dz dy
~~
dy dz
dz dx
dx dz
w=
when the
dSdd>  = dy dx
dx ay
closed surfaces
currents are flowing in the shell or space between the S c + dc where $ is some arbitrary c and 8
function called the Current Function. If instead of referring the currents to unit of area we treat them as superficial currents that is, currents referred to unit of
length
on the surface S
c,
plained above,
u
v
=n =

dm ~dy
eld)
m^t dz
d(j)
)
 n
,
dz
dx
dd)
w=
which
satisfy the condition
m~ dx
dd)
~i
dy
0.
lu+mv+nw =
tude,
namely the thickness of the shell between the surfaces and S = c + dc in which the currents flow.
156
[445.
c,
d_
//*<
with corresponding values
for
dz
dy
J r
G and H, and
also
445.]
We
current,
magnetic and we now proceed to do the same for the field due to certain given systems of currents on certain closed surfaces.
This
is
field in
have already, in Chap. XVIII, investigated the the neighbourhood of an infinite rectilinear
completely determined
when
F, G, If are
known
at
every point, also since at all points not situated on the surface the investigathe magnetic force is derivable from a potential
all
such points.
0,
For example, suppose the sheet to be spherical with radius u, v, w are given by the equations
z d<b
.
=

a dy
</>
=x
a
d(j)
'
z 
dz
dd> T>
ax
tp
=
dx
dy
where
everywhere except at the surface, must be everywhere finite and continuous, and satisfy the condition of no convergency
dF
dx
at all points.
dG
dy
dff_
dz
At
the surface,
if
F,
G H'
',
t
F
dr
G, H without,
dF dF dr
T dr
47TW,
dG dG' dr
=47717,
dH dtt' 5= r
4lTW.
dr
it
dr
follows that the
solution
solution
Since F, G, of the
is
problem
is
446.]
157
Now
the equations in F, G,
i
H may be
\j
i
satisfied if
j.
j.
=
=
i j.
\d
ctij
az/
=
\a
az
a ax'
j
>vided
jro
at all
^a dx a dy/ be everywhere finite and continuous, and points not on the surface, and on the surface
V 2P
be
dP_
dr
dP*_
dr
where
P and P
all
are external
Also at
d&_dG^dII__x
dx
dz
d?P
dxdy
f*2!\_?
dxdz*
^"
a
l
dy
a
1
^ dx
Id, dP
2
dP
dP\
V P=0;
dr
}
a dr
It follows, therefore, that the field is completely determined is known, and this by mere differentiation when the quantity
quantity from the conditions which it of matter of density over the spheres
<
satisfies is
the potential
for
surface.
We
by what
we know
dz
that
when
,.//*.
The conditions to be satisfied by P indicate that the most general form which can be assumed by it is a series of
446.]
spherical
158
[446.
is
is
a surface
The
surface condition
f dP dP
dr
gives, corresponding to each
dr
= ~ 47T0
i,
on the
sheet.
,
And
the equation
gives, if
12,
at points
without and
O^fr,,
If,
and
Or
(i
l)^)V,
as
is
= AY
on the
sheet,
we have
12
4ni
/o\ <+1 v
r<,
n/ 12'= t+1r
2^+1
If
first
where order, and therefore $ be of the form A cos angular distance from the axis z, then outside of the sheet
47T
the
..
447]
159
at the centre
Or the
that of a small
magnet
and moment
3
Aa 2
And
the internal

field is
and equal to
Since
is
3a
a function of 6
is it
_1 d$
whence the
or
^ gin
any meridian
=A
sinOdO
2 A.
round the sphere's surface, and n be the total number of the number of windings from the pole to latitude 6 is
coils,
= AY2 where Y2 is the superficial zonalharmonic of the second degree with axis z, and therefore spherical
447.] Again, let
<f>
equal to
 2
>
where
is
z.
id
>r
is
that of a homogeneous
as in the last case,
Since
<
is
a function of
only
it follows, is
in parallels of latitude
160
[448.
If produced
by
we must
2,
re
member
is
change of sign in
that
in sin 20.
as in the last case (see Maxwell's Electricity, vol. II. Chap. VII. 448.] If the sheet were an infinite plane, we might treat it as
a particular case of the spherical sheet by supposing the radius to be infinitely increased, but it is more interesting to investigate
it
#, ^,
the several
equations become
= y
0,
d<f)
3
v=
~)
ax
d<l>
w=
0,
and therefore
H=
ay
F and
finite, as also
their differ
when z =
dz
0, in
which
case
dF dF r
dz
dz
4:TTU,
da dG'  =
dz
dF
dF' = dz
>
and 7dz
dG
dG' = dz
7
' ,
these
dF
dz
~=27ru,
dF
dx
dG
dz
dG_
~~
dy
w f =
provided
dp
r i
dp r = r Or
dx
dy
where
everywhere except upon the sheet, and continuous as well as its differential except upon the sheet, and at the sheet
finite
V2P =
P be everycoefficients,
448. ]
161
As in the case of the sphere, therefore we infer that potential of matter of surface density $ upon the sheet.
then, since
is
the
dQ.
dx
= dG__dH^
dz
dy
'
__
dx
and
12
dxdz
=
dz
for
in this case
is
a series of
p_
^^ ^
and
sheet,
on the negative
side,
where
sf is
measured in the
opposite direction to
and
\j/
satisfies
the equation
where V, 2 stands
d2
for
==
Or
Where
if
cj)
dar
d2
55

\l/(%,
form
i 7T _ j
e
I
^(x,y)
and
Pon
* The possibility of expressing <f> as required in the text follows from the possibility of expressing any function of the position of a point on a spherical surface in a series of surface spherical harmonics.
**
For
if
(t),
we know

A,
d'
y may be
If (a) be the radius of the sphere and be very large, then in order that x and finite 6 must be very small, and therefore, unless i be very large, this
equation becomes
^ =
0,
but
if i
VOL.
II.
162
[449.
^2
fr 2
6
#
c
2
T=
1.
Here
if
w be
plane at #, y,
z,
~tf*
'
Let
Then
be equal to
Az.
2
y = A'&fr,
6
X v=A^, a
.
w=
(,
v, 20
The
and
G must
V*F =
0,
V 2 6r =
finite
sheet,
must be everywhere
and continuous, as well as their differential coefficients, except on the sheet, where these last satisfy the equations
dF
dv
dFf
=
SS=
y
4'jrA'ST^^s
o*
dG
dv
dGf
dv
dv
x
47T./1
t7^
c?
Now we may prove, as in Chap. XVII, Art. 318, above, that the conditions determining F, F', G, G' may be satisfied by taking
and
A2
and
A2
^
for
G'
and G,
where
**
o
2 2 V(a + A) (6 + A) (c + A)
.
whence,
if
sin0
r,
and
rcos<,
rsin.<j>',
and therefore
therefore
V^ti + ^w
2
(V + m ) u =
2
x
0,
where
the reciprocal of the infinitely large radius of the sphere divided the infinitely large order of the spherical harmonic.
is
by
449]
163
For,
by reasoning
dv
^?_^^ ~ dv
ab 5 c
_^L d<&'
^T_^L_
~
we have A * x J^L
9
dv
dv
a 5 bc
d<& n
And
therefore
4?/,
6r'= 4irabc
Ax.
Also
rZfL
cfe
= ^!
^
cfy
^L. dx
= _ 4 7ra j c ^3_^
(
d& 2
._
da2
dy
dx
That
is
^nabcA
If the ellipsoid become a sphere of radius (a) the values of
u and v become
A , ft 7 ff
and
a
A O.JU
.
Q_
.Y
And
>
agreeing with the results already obtained *. Of course the method here employed might have been applied
to the sphere substituting = for
da*
r
dtf

?5
da
2
d*o
db*
Also we might in the ellipsoidal case have obtained the values of and G directly from the general equations
The quantity
in this Art.
when a =
c corresponds to
in Art. 446.
164
[450.
ddS
450.]
tandis,
2,
a?
should have obtained a similar result, mutatis muby taking* currents in planes parallel to those of y3 z and respectively, whence it follows by superposition that if we
We
CGT
y
db 2
da?
da 2
Cm
da2
nit
x
db 2
Am
do2
__
y
db 2
Biv
x da 2
dc2
d<?
i.
e. if
Ax
J j'K
""
7 *<
"l
By
7 /T* 7 >**
"l"
Cz
7
JL
2
~~
rfc
2
db 2
c^c
Ja 2
c^a
^6 2
field of
~Z~"li'~(?'
Again, with the same ellipsoidal sheet
let
us take
Atxxz
,
0,
0.
Now
_/ V
a
we have
d
f
(^<w)
^) + ^(
d<&\
,
^) = 2(^
2
;
11
TT2/
Similarly
^(y,^)
d f d<b\ = 2(, )
d3>\
(^)^(
and
it is easily
member
is zero.
45I]
Also
165
V
it
(2/*)
0,
Whence
and
F we assume
the forms
db 2
the conditions
dc*
V 2F = VF'=
everywhere, and
F= F
at the
It
may easily be
J
"ffl
Tjl/
dv
is
dv
F
it
and
I",
and similarly of
G and
G' are
9
If jP'=
therefore
,,
b2
f, then
'
is
G '=
f
=, a?
and
*L M(
and
"b
Ma
2
'
My
&'=
y j(
+ p) ^ ^
Or the potential of the field within the sheet is a homogeneous function of a?, y, z of the second degree. Compare Art. 447
above.
451.] Hitherto we have investigated the nature of the field arising from the existence of currents of assumed form on given
with certain assumed forms of <p (the current without any reference to the way in which such function), currents are excited or maintained, or the laws according to
surfaces, that is
which when once established they tend to decay under the influence of their mutual action and the dissipation into heat
by
resistance.
know
that
law of decay
is
where L is the coefficient of selfinduction as above explained. In the general case of currents on a conducting sheet, we
166
[45 1.
last chapter that unless the current function a certain condition, this law of proportional decay will not hold true and the type of currents will not be maintained
throughout the decay. In other words, the direction of the electromotive force at
each point in the sheet will not be coincident with the direction of resultant current at that point, and in cases where this condition can be satisfied,
it
will in
existence of
In
distribution of free electricity over the sheet. spherical sheets of uniform thickness the condition can be
a/
tribution.
(ru=
dF dti  ^
at
ax
and
dF dF' dr
dr
4iru
G and H,
v and w,
d d d
?L\\
(^
d \ ~~ ^
dx~'
fy~yfa)lTn\d^~~*~d7s~drl'~
therefore
x d^lf ^ a dx
y ~ +=7^ = a a
d\l/
z d^lf
d\l/
dy
\^
dz
dr
at the sheet,
and since
\fy
be denoted by
we have
W"^""^T
we should have
*
,dP
dP\
dP __
=
$ were
PA Y + ^* r 4. 27TT
Therefore
,
A
<
V 
rf*
= Ae~
452.]
167
first
where
is
the value of
at
any time H,
12 all
from the
estab
Whence
law e~
Kt
it
follows that
G,
where \
=
a
R.
452.] For the infinite plane sheet, with the notation already employed, our equations become, at the sheet
dydt
2 TT
dydz
dx
d*P
dxdt
a_
27T
d*P _
dxdz
_<ty
dy
 dz
Since
j\f/
=
:
at the sheet,
and
V 2 ^ =
>
we have
whence, writing
E for
dt
we have
*??o" dz
at the sheet.
form
where
the value of
(
4.*(,y)
Vj
2
+m )
2
a?,
\/r
= 0,
time
t
P at
any point
y, z at the
will be a series
at
any time
will be a series of
terms of
4...fc.
The values of
those of
G,
and
12 at
P
if
dP
by J
differentiation, being'
5
?
dP
3 dx
,
dP
and
^ fa
,
as
above shown.
dy
Hence
infinite
plane sheet, and be then allowed to decay by resistance under their mutual actions, the magnetic field on the positive side of
is
the same as
if
168
[453
unchanged in magnitude and direction, and the plane moved parallel to itself with the velocity R towards the negative
direction.
Of course exactly similar results hold on the negative side of the sheet, the field of decay being obtained by moving the
sheet in the positive direction. 453.] Finally, consider the case of the ellipsoidal sheet
= 0,
or the current function
Az.
dA
y
~di
d^f
Htf
cZ<f>
~lfa'
d\jf
dA
dt
da 2
dv
'
~
dz
Assume that a
for
varies inversely as
>*A
'
cwr a< /
5"
*"""
"
"^
ay
(2)
=
Eliminating
\j/
(3)
between
(1)
and
(2),
we get
or
dt
47T
~K
e
,
where
454]
169
when
agreeing with the result already obtained for the sphere = b = c and i 1 because Rf aR.
From
we get
d\jf
x dty a 2 dx
y
W"
d\l/
z
c
2
d\l/
dy
dz
dv
The density of superficial distribution may be readily found )m the values Mxy and , , , ,
Mxyda
\js
d<f>
internally
and externally,
see Art.
is
450 above.
arbitrary but
454.]
The assumption a
by no means
by the condition of proportional decay or the mainsnance of the current type in accordance with the results established in Chap. XXII. For if s be the specific resistance of the
iccessitated
substance and h the thickness of the shell at any point, the condition of proportional decay with the type of currents selected is
dx
dy
u

and
~
dz
0,
dx
riiere
some constant.
Now
\l/
satisfies
the equations
dv
and
= IF} mG
2
upon
S,
whence
dition
\l/
Cxy where
V ^= C is a
s
within S,
constant, and the further con
^
dx
requires that h oc w,
170
[455.
455.] Hitherto
we have
which given systems of currents have been supposed to be established in conducting sheets of certain forms, and then allowed to
decay by the dissipation of their energy into heat under the influence of their mutual action.
have now to consider the more general case of such conductors placed in a given magnetic field, varying from time to time according to any assigned law, and to investigate the properties of the total resultant field arising from the given
magnetic field, or, as we shall generally call it, the external field and the field of the induced currents in the conductor, as these last decay by dissipation under the influence of their mutual inductive action and that of the external field.
We
As a simple example of the application of the field equations to such a problem, we will take the case of an infinite plane conducting sheet in a variable external field, and will assume
that a system of currents, with current function of any type, has been established in the sheet by induction.
Let
&, v,
instant, F, G,
12 their
be the component currents in the sheet at any the components of their vector potential, and
potential.
,
magnetic
Q
,
Also, let
F G Hy
12
from the given external field, these last being given functions both as to space and time, while the former are quantities to be
found.
Our equations
G+ G
for
F smd
G.
Therefore
we have

at the sheet
?,
dt
dt
dx
(TV
dG dG d^ =  ~ ~>
;
dt
dt
dy
dF
r
=
JT
2TTU.
dG dz
=
dx
dz
= dP
2lTV,
Or
dP = 
dy
456.]
d^
INFINITE PLANE
AND MOVING
POLE.
171
(df^ __
dz^dy
f^_ dx _ ^_(^o_^^o\ dx
'
dt^dy
'
R
~27r'
or
^_^
dz
dt
dtdz~dtdz = ^o,
dt
y and y being the magnetic forces at the sheet normal to the plane arising from the induced and external field respectively.
Since
of space,
 + j~
it
at the sheet,
and
2
\
in other parts
follows that
^
(?
,
is
determined until
and
actually given in terms of #, y, z, and t. 456.] The solution of the problem, therefore, involves the determination of 12 as a function of #, y, , t satisfying the conditions 12 finite and V 2 12 at all points of space not upon the
sheet,
and the equation (A) at the sheet, or when z = 0, Ii being a given function of as, y> z, and t. For example, let the given external field be that of a unit pole
Let
b
moving normally
,
be the
to the sheet with the velocity (w). initial coordinates of the pole
and
a, b y c
its
we have
c
SL =
= ,
suppose.
If equation (A) can be solved for all values of a?, y, z and t, the value of 12 thus found will of course satisfy (A) at the sheet, and if it also satisfies the remaining conditions it must be the
t
<m
i. e.
<m_<m
"~dT*
x, y, z^ t to
a?,
d* ~~dt
y,
where
or
172
INFINITE PLANE
[45^.
where f is to be replaced by z + lit after the integration of the second term on the righthand side. Hence in this case
_12
or
= 1_ * r w+R w 12 =
1
.
This value of
12 satisfies
upon
i. e.
at the pole,
it is
however,
we write
for 12
or 12
'
instead of
where
i.
from the optical image of the moving pole in the sheet, we observe that equation (A) on the
e. if
/
i.
be the distance of
#, y, z
sheet,
e.
when
0, is satisfied
~dz
__ _o_ __ V ~
~dt
provided
dT~~~~~dt
whence, as before,
wR /
And
this value of 12 is finite at every point
on the positive
0.
side
V 2 I2 =
is
on the
Since 12
= T
jK
dP dP d  =
z
C
/ 12, n
dz
dt
dt
we
on the positive
458.]
INFINITE PLANE
173
must take w negative 457.] For any practical application we or the pole approaching the sheet from an infinite distance, whence we get on the positive side
dP_ dz

_ ''~
w+
1/7 and ^
is
=
w
d&
dz
moving normally
component
velocities,
P would become
r
Jo
or
V(x
log(/
R
where
~ 4
F2
12
whence
^P r
reduces to
f 458.] Again, suppose the external magnetic field to be that of a unit pole describing a circle parallel to the sheet with uniform
angular velocity (to). If the origin be taken at the projection of the centre of this circle on the sheet it follows that 12 and therefore also O,
,
are functions of the time merely so far as they are functions of the angle (</> suppose) between the radius rector of the projection of the point to
refer
174
[459.
scribed
If therefore (a) be in this case the radius of the circle deby the pole, and we use the 12 ', function as above de
scribed,
we have
=and
suppose,
_P
where f
 $
is
and z
\
(/>
for
f after integra
Whence
12 or
at
The
in
tegration cannot be effected in finite terms. 459.] The question last treated may also be investigated by the application of the formulae of electromotive force in a
moving conductor.
let there be a plane conducting disk infinitely with uniform angular velocity u> about a normal large revolving
For example,
J3 Q
any point in the plane of the disk arising from the induced currents and the given magnetic field respectively, the
force at
force of the
motion are
where
It
is
^=
dt
\j/
dt
dt
if
any, of elec
one symbol x/f, so that, if the origin be taken at the point where the axis meets the disk, in which case
trical distribution in
dy
dx
dz
460.]
175
dF
dG
dz
Eliminating
\^
from the
first
for
we get
R dy 'a dy = a> dy
T
x
Te
^'
an equation agreeing with that of Art. 455 above. be the current function and To determine ^ we have, if
<f>
therefore
= 9
a
^j
<y=
"9
ax
,
,,
J and
cc
+
,
2/
= r,
460.] It must be carefully remembered that \j/ in this case is not the potential of electrical distribution, but differs therefrom
by the quantity x//, as above explained. For suppose the disk at rest and the
the
field
we know, a quantity
and
a,
may
/3
FQ
as
G may
/3,
same way
y,
Also we
176
EQUIVALENT SHEETS.
[461.
dz
Similarly in this case
dr\dO
d_
dO
~dd
Similarly for

\jf,
as determined
v//,
given external system are not necessarily equivalent throughout the interior of 8, but may differ from each other by forces derived
superficial, placed in
any given
magnetic
field,
we may
inductive action by supposing the field replaced by this equivalent current system upon any properly chosen closed surface S surrounding the conductors.
This surface
sheet,
is
462.]
If,
EQUIVALENT SHEET.
177
starting from this equivalent sheet and current system as known, we arrive at any results concerning the induction pheno
mena on
the given conductor surrounded by S, we conclude that the same results hold true for the state of the conductor in the field
charge be placed upon the conductor neutralising the abovementioned difference of electromotive force which may
exist
between the original field and the equivalent system. That is to say if, in the case of the conductor under the
influence of the equivalent system, we find a certain current function </> and electric potential \j/, then in the case of the con
we
should have
the same current function <, but generally an electric potential function \j/ + \^ different from \js. If the conductor be a spherical surface, and the equivalent sheet a concentric spherical surface, the potential \jr is always zero, and the same is true for an infinite conducting plane under the
influence of
an
462.]
infinite
We
phenomena
in
by
on
In this case the equations of Art. 445 above hold true with the additional condition 0.
H=
0,
Therefore
we
get
~
(Hz
= =
and since
V2
\j/
\^
everywhere.
j,d_(d]F
d^(d^
Also
+ ML\*L(*E. + ^L\ +
~ + dx
~=
dy
d^)"di(d^
0,
d^)
dt
(^ + dG Vdb
=
dy)'
upon the
instant,
dF
j
dG
H
j~
at
any
we have
d_,dF
dt
dG^
\dx
dy)~
always.
and therefore
VOL. n.
dF
=
f
dG
dy
dx
178
But
TRAIL OF IMAGES.
[463.
know
if the equivalent current system be suddenly excited, we that in this case there is an impulsive excitation of currents
= 0, G + Gn = 0, and since ~ + ^ dx
dy
is
,_
dF
=
f
dG.
dy t7
dF
=
dG
f
=
dy J throughout any subsequent variation of the equivalent systems. Hence, if u and v be the component induction currents on the
plane at any instant,
das
dx
du
~T~ H
dv
r
dx
== ^>
dy
is
</>
may
= <ty ^,
dy
dx
satisfied
by
P at the
sheet
is
d*
dt
d#
dt
d>
P
may
cfe~~
or
'
dT~
I
'
~dt
where
is the value of arising from the image of the equivalent sheet behind the plane of (x, y\ the integration being performed with f constant and z + Rt being substituted for f
'
463.] This result is capable of an interesting interpretation. In the first place, the sudden excitation of the equivalent
current system gives rise to the impulsively excited currents in G at all points on the and G the plane such that Q
F= F
and
plane, and
that
F=
FQ and G=
G's are potential functions it follows at all points on the negative side of
the plane, i.e. the side opposite to the equivalent system, and therefore that upon that side the induced system forms a perfect
(i.
e.
463.]
TBAIL OF IMAGES.
179
lent system), or the effect of the induced system on the negative same as if the currents on the equivalent
magnitude and
position,
were ex
actly reversed in direction. By symmetry it follows that the effect on the positive side of the plane of the induced currents in the plane is the same as
these reversed currents of the original system each formed with the optical image of the original currents behind the plane, and
therefore on the positive side of the plane the magnetic effect of the induced currents is the same as the exact magnetic image of
the original system on the equivalent sheet optical image of this system in the plane.
situated
at
the
Suppose now that the given external system having been suddenly excited remained constant, we have seen (Art. 452) that the corresponding induced system would decay by resistthe plane and all points on the positive side of the plane would be the same as if the induced system retreated negatively from the plane, other
ance in such a
way
that
its
magnetic
effect at
wise unchanged, with the uniform velocity R. If however the given system vary with the time, then when the current function is <, the value of arising from this sys
tem
at a point x, y>
z,
is
~'dS
# ,^
,
<f>
where
ZQ
and
dS being an element
image of
this
and
therefore
from the
system in the
infinite plane
corresponding value of
is
given by
=
'
/y<
JJ ~/
where
^=
. <
dS being an element of the image and therefore equal to dS If therefore at some instant r from the origin of time be
varied
by
37
bt,
is
given by
180
TEAIL OF IMAGES.
the time
r.
[464.
At
is
position at
t this image has retreated to R ( ?) from its and therefore the total value of P at the time t
given by
with regard to
by
parts,
2
o
because
when r=0
or
t.
464.] In the particular case of a moving pole of intensity m^ suppose the motion to be parallel to the plane.
At any remote
instant from the time considered let the pole very great distance from the
is
being in
effect
is
a system of currents on
points on the positive (or actual pole) side to an equal pole at the optical image of the given If now the given pole move parallel to the plane with pole.
in successive equal any given velocity u through spaces intervals of time 8 1, the effect is the same as successive creations
ut
of small magnets of moment mu b t in the line of motion of the pole, the direction of magnetisation being that of the pole's motion. The corresponding induction effects are equivalent to the creation of successive optical images of these magnets on
the opposite
The
result
and combining these with the recession of these E as representing the decay by resistance. of the process, supposed to have continued for an
side,
is
infinitely
at
that
instant the same as an infinitely long bar, terminating at the instantaneous optical image of the given pole, inclined to the
465.]
181
and magnetised
sheet.
When the motion of the given pole is inclined to the plane sheet the general result is the same, but the inclination of the magnetised bar is different. When the pole describes a circle
parallel to the sheet the
is
magnetic
eifect of
is
that of a helix on the right cylinder whose transverse section the described circle, magnetised in the direction of a tangent
T)
tan" 1
u
cal
to the plane,
pole.
image of the
is
given with
much
instructive detail
by Messrs. Mascart and Joubert in their treatise already quoted, and the results arrived at are identical with those obtained by
the preceding analytical treatment. 465.] In the last chapter we investigated the case of the
spherical conducting sheet in
any
field.
be replaced by the equivalent system on a concentric spherical surface, the equations of Art. 451 hold with the substitution of + P for P.
If the
field
\j/
= 0.
)
R( ^
^  ~] =
ar dr
/
at
I (P + P
at the sheet.
any given instant must be expressible in a series of t must be of the spherical harmonics, and therefore at any time
at
PQ
form
2A
)
if
Yn
A
where
is
a given function of
t.
Whence,
constant,
be of the form
cos(*^
+ a)
we
P respectively,
M+1
,
if
tan/3
cos/3
182
466.] .Fcos (kt
[466.
force
In this case therefore, as shown above (Art. 446), the currents are in circles parallel to the plane of #, y, and by what was proved in the article referred to, the interior of the shell is a
field
field is
that
of a simple magnet at the centre of the sphere with axis in the axis of z and moment at any time t equal to
/3)
where
tan/3
IT)
=.
cite
(a),
revolving with constant angular velocity (o>) about a diameter, coinciding with the axis of z in a uniform magnetic field leads
to exactly similar treatment. For let the sheet be at rest
and the field revolve round the same axis with the same angular velocity reversed, the. relative motion is the same. With the same notation as before, we get at the surface of the
sheet the equation
If
and a point in
have
=j
o>,
and therefore
If Q be expressed in a series of spherical harmonics, the most ih general form of that of the n order is, as we know, a series of terms of the form
If
b
we assume
for
Pa
of the
will be
467.]
183
or writing
f for 1
And
^ O cos/3c
where tan
/3=j0.
7 assumes
the form
^ O cos0, and
and there
is is
independent
of
(f).
In
is zero,
no induction
F be
.4
PQ
and
cos ($
)>
becomes
+a
/3).
field is
that of a
uniform force perpendicular to the axis of revolution, and inclined at the angle (3 to the original line and with intensity
diminished in the ratio of cos/3 to unity, where
tan/3
= 3R
a oo
The induced
currents on this sphere are the same as if the field with uniform force Fcosfi in the
By what has been already proved therefore the internal field of the induced currents is one of uniform force, and the external
field is
i/a cos.
In the particular case of the spherical shell revolving round the axis of z with uniform angular velocity (o>) in a field of uniform
force a
,
/3
we may
184
[468.
468.] We know, Art. 446, that the system of currents derived from the current function
i. e.
with components,
BzCy,
force,
CxAz,
y are
.B,
Ay
Ex,
field
of uniform
whose components
.A,
a,
/3,
8rra
and
8na
.
C.
........
2.

(2)
(3)
Eliminating
between the
3o
first
therefore
C is
o
zero,
reduced to
Aoc + By
or
OTTtt
1
 (aaJfj3y),
and
3,
The elimination
of
\fr
between
and
3,
gives

we get
If
2.
= tan
=
e,
= tan
2
6,
and
tan ^
= tan
6,
A/a 2 + /3 2
VV + A>
cos g >
= tan
469.]
185
Or the system of induced currents on the moving sphere is the same as that which on the fixed sphere would produce a constant force in a line perpendicular to the axis of rotation
q
1 inclined at the constant angle tan"
~f>
aco
force of the
resolved perpendicular to the same axis, equal to the resolved part of the force of in the direction of that line.
given
field
is
is
rotating round the axis of figure c, and let the thickness of the shell be proportional at each point to the perpendicular from the
centre on the tangent plane. If we assume a system of currents to exist
this shell,
upon
<
is
_
And
force,
Bz
tZ7
__,
CT
Az __,
upon the sheet the uniform
/3,
so that
1TZ
and
w=
186
If
now
y
for
a
we
write
and
for
we
write p our
sp
fiz
= <oy * d\b ,
Therefore
P/3(
T+
j)
= w(a + o
),
therefore
^ + o=
/; t
fta
1
/3
/3
where
Ps /
co
(
^a 2
+
,
1 \
2 )> c / r
whence we
the sphere.
470.] In the case of the revolving sphere of Article 468 the quantity \l/ is identical with i// or Fx + Gy + Hz.
1, 2,
3 of that Article
jc
coy,
2/
6oa?,
4;
= 0.
And
therefore, since
and
47 r J
Fob
SOLID CONDUCTORS.
or
\//,
187
+ Gy + Hz,
reduces to
i.
e.
to
\f/,
is
no distribution of
free
electricity in this case. In the case of the revolving spheroid of the present Article, Fib + Gy + Hz or \/ will be found by similar treatment to differ
from
\jf
Mzy Nzx upon the spheroid. And therefore with values Mzy
Nzx
within, and
_
db 2
dc*
__
da*
dc*
M'zyN'zx
upon the spheroid.
471.] Hitherto we have applied the general field equations to the investigation of the phenomena of induction in closed conducting sheets of special forms situated in a variable magnetic
field.
principles hold
existence,
constituting the magnetic screen to the external field comes into by induction, in the sheet.
The
is
effect
of the
conducting sheet
dissipation of their
by
energy into heat. In this process of decay they vary, and thus exercise mutual inductive influences. In certain special systems,
at
which may with propriety be called selfinductive, their intensity from their first establishment diminishes accordany time
Ki
ing to the e~
law, where
A.
is
a coefficient depending
upon the
188
SOLID CONDUCTORS.
[472.
shape and resistance of the conductor, and these special systems alone are easily amenable to mathematical treatment.
As shewn above, Art. 431, in the very important class of cases in which the external system varies periodically, the field in the
interior of the sheet also varies periodically but
with retarded
intensity.
pass to the consideration of a solid conductor of form the same general principles hold, but their application
When we
Thus, the first effect of the excitation of the external system be regarded as the establishment of superficial currents, constituting a perfect screen as before, and if the resistance were
may
would vary by
resistance,
own
intensities
and thus by their variation modify their and induce currents in the interior mass, which
superficial
currents.
still
If the external
problem would be
is
more complicated.
even in
is
its
simplest cases,
bounded by infinite parallel planes or concentric For these cases it has been treated with great spherical surfaces. generality in special papers to which the reader is referred *.
conductor
473.] By way of illustrating the general treatment, we proceed to investigate the question under very restricted and special conditions.
* See, amongst others, a paper by Professor C. Niven in the Phil. Trans, of the Eoyal Society, 1881, part II; also a paper by Professor H. Lamb, Phil. Trans., R. S., 1883, part II; and a paper in the Philosophical Magazine, already quoted in the text, by Dr. Larmor, January, 1884.
189
and at
all
G, H are everywhere
external points
finite
V 2 jP, V 2
V 2H
and vanish at
F and
F
G and
G^,
If and
infinity.
dF
dx
dG
dy
+ jdx
dv
dH = 0,
dw
dz
everywhere.
dy
+ nw
law,
hold always at
474.] Take
by an
y
it.
magnetic
field
in front of
by the magnetically equivalent current system on a plane parallel to the boundary of the conductor as above explained.
Replace this field
field
PQ may
dP
And
satisfied
then, as
we know,
all
by
F=^, dy
provided
G=~, dx
ff=0,
^=
0,
P be
finite, to
vanish at an
190
[475.
its
infinite distance
along with
Suppose
the form
PQ
A Q e me
<j)
(x,
y) cos
kt,
where
(since
V P=
2
conductor)
we must have
Assume
pression
(P
of
P within
gi u fo)
(^
(3) cos fo
+ x (3)
and
(P) of
P without
{A
since
cos (fa)
P outside
V 2 P=0.
The equation
becomes therefore
(* + 2i*)co.*l+ (* + V^ \dz
2
c?^ /
2 OT
^C dz
whence by equating coefficients of smJct and cos&t we obtain two equations for the determination of \}f and >( 475.] The general solution is somewhat complicated*, but if,
as frequently happens,
powers
the
may
be neglected, since
of ,
\jr
and x depend
at least
upon
first
power
we may
neglect
on the righthand
side of the
 whence ^ (z)
,
and
or
* The approximation is equivalent to neglecting the action of the induced currents in the conductor in comparison with that of the given external field.
476.]
SOLID SPHERE.
last
191
The
become
term
is
infinitely great
when
z is infinitely large.
P is
2m
In the external
field it is
At
where
P and
j
~2^'
^o ~4^
P
f
2J
is
2m
And
2m
P is
2
4m
476.] If the conductor be a sphere of radius a, let the equivalent current sheet be the surface of a concentric sphere, then
we know
that a magnitude
may
and therefore
taking
all
the required
equations
can be
satisfied
by
provided
P satisfies
the equation
192
and be
finite
SOLID SPHERE.
[477.
everywhere and continuous, as well as its differential coefficients, and in the external space satisfy the equation
VP=
2
0.
VP=
2
0,
and therefore may be expressed in a series of spherical harmonics with coefficients functions of the time. Let any term in
be of the form
and
let
P be
and
a n+
/a
n+1
r dr
r2
{\(r)cos Kt
477.] If
be small, and
its
is satisfied
P internally, and
determining
r dr
477]
SOLID SPHERE.
193
The
solution of
which
is
where
C and
Therefore
D are arbitrary. P=
always
finite,
Since
is
the term
+1
is
inadmissible,
and
we get
P in the
external space
wh ere
=
P at the
+2
a
surface,
and
(2yi
"" _
wZ>)
=a,
And
the value of
P externally is
be equal to
It
these
for
Art. 455.
VOL.
II.
194
478.]
[478.
The
case of the
by a process similar to that employed in the case of the spherical sheet, the equation
being replaced by
and
type
for every
K,
field
of order n and
tor
r internally,
P=
and
for
P externally
field
For instance, in a
of uniform force
parallel to #,
P =
and
Jr internally
TTco/r =   \ aA
2
r sin 9.
case of the revolving solid sphere may also be in vestigated by the direct application of the equations of electro motive force in moving conductors. These are
479.]
The
cru
ycocc
~dx
(1)
dz
' /
where
a, ft,
479]
195
,
,8
and
if
we
these
dx*
dy
d\i/
dz
Whence
/du
cr(/3
^dz
dw\ dx/)
= coa
/dv
,
dw\
)
<r(
^dz
a)/3
/ox (2)
dy/
a system of currents in the sphere, all in planes perpendicular to the axis of y, and such that at each point
if
Now
= 0,
u=Az,
= 0,
Ax
and
solid
and
A
Also with this system it must satisfy the equations
is
=
"27"
clear that
W=
</>(r)
_***.
<T
2 v ./r= Z o.
O"
!B
2 outside the sphere. within the sphere, and V 2 F 0, V G If we assume as the solutions of these equations
H=
we
get
=  + C,
* (r)
 + C"
2
O 2
196
where A, B,
[480.
continuity of F,
It is easily seen that the results agree with those already obtained.
rotating round the axis of figure in a field of uniform force, the equations are all satisfied by the assumption of the component
currents at each point
Ai
.
= 0,
w=.
x
a2
j
4
provided
Therefore
Assume that
or
47To)a f
We
have to determine
and
z,
\/r,
so that
(z(f))
and
(a?^)
= x.
If we divide the spheroid into an infinitely large number of similar spheroidal shells, the parameter in any case being X, the value of (x, y, z) may be assumed to be $ (A), i. e.
and that of
\^(#, y, z) to
be
Let
<j>
and
\^
be of the form
and
constants.
48 1.]
SOLID SPHEEE
AND SPHEROID.
197
Then we have
or
and
F=
a2 + c 2 )(2c 2 +3a
2
rt
we have
where
tinuity of Fj G, 3
dv
and
=
dv
at the surface.
481.]
also, to the
The external field for the solid revolving sphere may same approximation, be determined by the following
sphere
be
divided
into
a number of concentric
spherical shells of uniform thickness adm, where dm is the same small fraction of unity that the thickness is of the radius a of
the whole sphere. The radius r of any shell will be ma. If the effect of the induced currents be neglected, each separate sheet may be regarded as a spherical sheet of radius r ( ma) and
resistance </
field
of uniform force.
Externally therefore the magnetic effect of the induced currents in this shell under the external uniform force a
will be,
by
magnet
at the centre
with moment
here
= ma
and
tan/3
q _/
198
[4$ 2.
cosp=
is
dm
=
So4
,
So
2 TT a 4 a n tow
So
dm
magnet
at
The
moment
27TC&
4
Cf
equal to
/
CO /*!
m dm
27Ttt
CO
>
or
So
15o
and direction of magnetisation perpendicular to the axis of revolution and to the resolved part of the constant force of the field
perpendicular to that axis.
similar treatment
it
may
number of
similar
The
shell is readily
external field of the induced currents in each revolving determined by the results of Art. 480 in terms of
to
the parameter
1,
field
may
be found.
482.] In this and the preceding chapter we have considered cases in which an external magnetic field is made to vary, and
closed electric
with or without changes of statical In another class potential, are thereby induced on conductors.
currents,
of cases the given variations are those of electromotive force, the primary phenomena being the oscillations, forced or natural, of electric distributions on the conductor. To these cases great
importance has recently been given by the experiments of H. Hertz (Wiedemann's Annalen, 18871889) repeated and
extended by Dr. O. Lodge, Professor Fitzgerald, and others. Let us then suppose a conductor placed in a field of oscillating
and, as before, we will suppose the system to be selfinductive, that is, one in which the value of any function at time t is formed by multiplying its initial value by the
electromotive force
factor
483.]
199
In any such case the whole system may be divided into tubes Let +q be the quantity of eleccut out by
Then
?
at
that tube.
Let
its positive and negative ends respectively. the external force in the tube,
Then,
if feospt
be
all the currents throughout the system, the displacement currents in the surrounding dielectric, including continue to bear the same ratio to one another, may be put
But
since
by hypothesis
72
in
the form
^TTJ,
where A
is
geometrical relations of the system. For the same reason we may write
V A
V = , B
where
c is
in question.
So our
a solution of
which
is
2
da
(_i + Ac
Rep
i \
There
is
^
if
If \cp 2
1,
or
TT
V\c
that
is
is,
external force be
no difference of phase.
In this
case the conductor is said to be in unison with the external system. 483.] If the given distribution be formed on the conductor
under an external
equation becomes
force,
and that
(B)
200
[483.
where
W
2
Re
Re 2Ac
2Ac
If
If ffic
jR c
2
>4\c,
this gives
= ^e'
2Ac
The time
of oscillation
is
and
if
is
negligible compared
in the
form
And
an equation of this form holds with the same p for every of flow, it follows that Ac and Re must be the same for tube
as
This is the condition that the assumed proportional variation may be possible. It appears thus that to every conductor with such a distrievery such tube.
bution of electricity as we have supposed, there corresponds, if R be small enough, a definite time of vibration, called by Hertz
fundamental tone. It is only in very special cases that the numerical value of this time can be calculated. Hertz (Wiedemann's Annalen, 1887, No. 7) considers the case of two metal spheres each of 15 cm. radius connected by a straight wire 150 cm.
its
c in length, and Jem. radius. For such a conductor Ac and must be the same for every tube of flow by symmetry. Hertz,
on certain assumptions,
finds
7r\/Ac
seconds.
483.]
201
tubes
Thomson
CHAPTER XXIV.
AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.
ARTICLE 484.] IN the preceding chapters we have found that two closed circuits with currents i and i' possess energy of their
/ /
mutual action
ii'l
OOQ
field
of closed
currents
is
The proof
closed conducting circuits, where no account is taken of the variation of the statical distributions of electricity or the statical
potential.
It is only for circuits of this character that we are strictly justified in using the above expression for the energy.
We may call
485.] Generally in
a system of such circuits a purely magnetic system. any field of currents we have what used to
be called unclosed currents, that is, statical distributions forming on the surfaces of conductors, and variations of the statical
potential.
closed, if
we take
in the insulating or partially insulating space, of any field of currents is still represented by
f[f(
u, v,
Fu + Gv
and
currents.
ments.
Maxwell's theory, as thus extended, is consistent with experiIt is possible however to explain experiments with closed
circuits
energy between elementary currents. Ampere's law especially, as extended by Weber, has met with very general accept
486.]
ance.
203
Helmholtz' treatment requires explanation with a the electromagnetic theory of light. We therefore propose to devote the present chapter to the conshall assume that sideration of some of these hypotheses.
And
view
to
We
every pair of current elements exert on each other a certain force, or possess energy of their separate action. When we speak of a force acting between two current ele
ments, we must be understood as meaning a force acting between the elementary conductors in which the currents flow in virtue
of those currents
;
for
we cannot
any other sense the subject of mechanical action. But for brevity we shall follow the example of other writers on the subject by speaking of the action as between the currents.
486.]
We
shall
If
CP
or ds,
ds', infinitely short lines, represent the directions of two elementary electric currents, then in our notation
C'P'or
two
= = 6, LP'C'C =
CC'
r,
LPCC'
tf,
C
Fig. 47
C'
CP
>
and C'P'=
e.
dr
jds
*<?=%,, ds
cose
d
ds
(rcosfn v
i
dv dr
ds ds
,
d?r
r 377?
dsds
and we
shall
denote by
the current in
ds, that
is
the quantity
of electricity which passes in unit of time through a section of ds. In the ordinary Similarly i' shall denote the current in ds'.
notation
u, v,
are
of the
204
[487.
Tcos
J
For
/
f nna cos Tcos
ft (9
ds.
T r
nr\o fi cos 0'
r
f*f*ria Tcos T
(
& 
ds
, ,
r cos 0'
(r cos
/jrdfc
by integration by
closed circuit
term disappearing
for the
487.] The four quantities r, e, 0, 0' completely define the relative position of any two elements of electric currents. If therefore these elements possess energy of their mutual action, or exert a
on one another, this energy, or force, must be capable of expression as a function of r, e, 0, and 0', together with ids and i'd*'.
force
488.] It
I.
is assumed generally in these investigations That the effect of any element of a current on any other
:
element
is
That
is, it
is
proportional to
II.
its
components.
That
is,
CP,
CQ
from C, and
/^^y /
.
parallelogram
RPCQ,
iCP
iCQ
are
for all
purposes equivalent
to the
Fi
This
It is found
we
by diminishing the dimensions of the currents, be made to differ as little as we please from that of the straight current OR. Hence we infer the truth of the law.
can,
CPR
489.]
205
If ds be the length of the elementary current at C, ds^ and ds.2 its components, we shall denote by e, c l9 and e 2 the angles which they respectively make with ds'. And in like manner the
suffixes
or 2 applied to any function of r, e, 0, O',ds, and ds' shall x denote that ds l or ds.2 is concerned in its formation.
If/ (r, e, 0, 6') ds ds', or shortly/, be such a 489.] DEFINITION. function that for any whatever two components of ds, as ds l
/ is
said to
We
can
now
prove the
following proposition. If/(r, e, 0, 6'), or shortly/, be any function which obeys the and 0', law of composition, and is symmetrical with regard to
f must be
where $
of the form
cos 0',
r.
and
\j/
(r)
By
hypothesis
By projecting on
cos
or
d*',
l
dsl + cos
ds,
ds2 ds
1 j
ds
1 + cos
ds9
e
2
~
.....
(2)
and 6 remaining constant. That is, conlet e vary, ceive ds' to be the radius vector of a cone of which C' is vertex,
and
r
Now
the axis.
Then
e l5 e 2
changes, and
affected.
Then by
differentiation
^ = ^^^ + o%^^ df df df de d
l
ds
sin
= sm
d~ ~
ds,
:
de ds
H sin e a
df^ds,, ~ 3=
de ds
and these equations being true for any three directions in any plane, and whatever the lengths of ds l and ds2 we must have
,
df
sine df
dfl=
c?e 1
df,
c?ez
sin6 1
sine2
206
or
[489.

sin e de
j is,
given r and
8',
independent of
only.
and of
0.
and
is
therefore a function of r
and
0'
That
is,
(3)
an undetermined function.
r,
Again, by projecting on
we have
2
ds.2)
or
cos 6
cos
0, 1
ds
cos
2 z
ds
(4)
and, as before,
/.<
.......
and
2
(>
Let vary, e and 0' remaining constant. That is, let r be the radius vector of a cone whose vertex is 6", and whose axis is
parallel to ds'.
Then
7 
as
varies, 6 1
vary with
,
it, e,
e2
and
(5)
0'
remaining constant.
And by
, 7
,.
differentiation of (4)
7/1
2
and
we have
^/ d0
_ ~ G%
4^ ^ ^ + d8 ^ d% dd dB dO
7
,,
7/1
'
ds
ds
dQ.ds.
de.ds,
And by
d8
sin 0j
0',
d^
sin
c?02
or
;
sin
jOdd
is,
given r and
independent of
and
6.
Hence
where
From
And by
integration,
/=
<l>
(r,
P)
cos
+ * (r,
0') cos 0.
49I]
207
#')
because
and
0',
And V (r,
ditions,
6')
\f/
(r)
cos
tf,
function of r only.
We
<j>
find
then that f,
if it satisfy
\j/
(r)
cos
cos
6',
where
<
(r)
and
\^ (r)
r.
490.]
We
theorem as
follows.
Firstly, let
idsi'dsf be the force which the element ids exerts on the element ids'. shall assume that this force acts in the line r, so that
We
action
The
force
must
and tf> and therefore must then be symmetrical with regard to the conditions ; and therefore we may write satisfy
f=(f)(r) cos
\js
(r) cos
cos
0'.
of the functions
(r)
and
fy
(r),
we
have recourse to another experimental law, namely, III. In similar systems traversed by equal currents the forces
are equal.
sions.
r)
^>
all
and
^( r )
Hence we get
/=
where a and
491 .]
ratio
COS
j
y COS
COS 0'>
b are constants.
between
'
and
'
b.'
To
this
another experimental law. It is proved, namely, or supposed to be proved, by experiment, that IV. The force exerted by any closed circuit on an element
of another circuit, resolved in the direction of that element, is
zero, or the resultant force is at right angles to the
element.
208
[492.
We
=2
which
is
Ampere's
result.
circuit of
an element
cos
r*
2
is
* I
T r
i I
cos 0'cfe
=i =i
I
3
r cos 0'
(r cos tf)
ds + i
$ cos
cos 2 tfds
(r cos 0')
ds + i
=+
(since
3a
/Vcos'tf' dr
I
j
ds f 5e
C
/
g cos
cos 2
ds,
on integrating by parts
= (5 _ Ijf)
and according to law IV
closed circuit.
TI cos
cos
0^,
This requires
which
is
Ampere's law.
492.] The method of quaternions is admirably adapted to the will therefore, followdiscussion of questions of this kind. in the main Professor Tait in his work on Quaternions, give ing
We
satisfies
the ex
The
force
on
'the
element
whose type
 cos
cos 0'
ds ds,
d*,
of the closed
492.]
209
We
may
+ 3 cos
r,
cos 0'>
i ds'i'ds',
scalar.
Now
^ cos
ds
=a
d (r
cos
and
for
is zero,
so that
cos
ds
r cos &'d
rcos0'^/,,
because
=
dr
cos
0.
ds
Now
Let
it
dr
is
be denoted by
r
3
Then we have
C CrcosOcosO'ds
3
/r cosds
Adding a
\
ds C n ,ds arcosO'3a r
J we
obtain
^
Cr
r cos
6 c?s
d/
r3
S.dsdfdsS.rdJ
~^~
in the notation of quaternions. Now the type vector on the righthand side is by a known theorem (Tait's Quaternions, 2nd edition, Art. 90) equal to
F.ds
It
is
therefore perpendicular to ds
is
and therefore
9
tegral vector V. ds
perpendicular to ds'
as
was to be
210
The
[493.
493.]
resultant vector
circuit
and
is
in
It
is
the circuit in question. It is remarkable that this vector, determined by Ampere's method, is identical in direction with another vector which we
have determined from totally different considerations, namely, the magnetic force due to the circuit.
For the
directrix, as
'
we have
whose type
type vector
is
The
is
them.
If
9
dz
/y
dz
,
dx
ds
nt
dy
ds
ds
ds
ds
ds
p
and the ^component
~7T~
T
dy
ds
=
dz
ds
,
ds,
that
is,
~
dy
j clz
,
G,
H being
But this is the ^component of potential of the closed circuit. magnetic force due to the circuit. Hence the directrix and the
magnetic
force are identical in direction.
XXI,
we have proved that, according to the theory of Chap. the mechanical action upon any closed circuit s of any other closed circuits may be represented by a force on each
Further,
element of
perpendicular to the element and to the magnetic But this is the direction of
495]
211
cir
494.] If
we were
dsds', there
would
.,
cos
^^
r*
dsds
Now
all
closed circuit s
is
angles to
ds'.
But the
integral expression
'cos e
dsdsf
r
does, as
ds'.
we have
The explanation of the apparent inconsistency is as follows. Assuming a separate potential for separate pairs of elements and
a force derived from
it,
we
tacitly
be displaced unconditionally in any direction without reference to any other elements, whereas in calculating the energy of
we tacitly assume that no displacement of any element can take place except conditionally on the circuit remaining closed. In the one case the displacement of the element
closed circuits
PQ
for
into the position P'Q'is the substitution of P'Q' foi'PQ, in the other it is the substitution of the broken line PP'Q'Q
PQ.
495.] It follows from these considerations that if both circuits are closed, Ampere's law of force, and the assumption of potential
dsds',
force
with closed
law.
on any element of either circuit. Therefore no experiments circuits can conclusively establish or disprove Ampere's
It does
not appear that law IV, which is the basis of Ampere's theory, has been conclusively established by experiments.
usually relied
circuits
;
IV
are
We
P 2
212
[496.
a parallelogram, one side of which coincides with the perpendicular to the plane of the circle through its centre. It is found
that a current sent through the second closed circuit does not tend to move the circular conductor round its axis. But by
symmetry
potential.
this
must be true, for any law of force which has a The experiment cannot therefore be relied upon as
establishing Ampere's law. Again, in the experiment described in Maxwell, 2nd edition, Vol. II, 687, we have 507, modified in
two cups of mercury on a plane, and a wire passes through them, and is bent between the cups in the form of a circular arc. The wire between the cups forms part of a voltaic circuit, the current entering through the mercury in one cup and leaving through the
mercury in the other cup. If any other closed circuit be brought into the neighbourhood, it is found not to move the wire round an axis through the centre of the circle of which it forms part. In this
case
axis
would not
alter
the position of the current, but would merely place a different It portion of the wire in position to carry the same current.
if
cannot therefore alter the potential of the electrodynamic forces they have one.
Concerning Weber s Hypothesis.
496.]
Weber
as follows.
He
gives a physical explanation of Ampere's results assumes that two quantities of electricity, or, as
we may
equal to
statical potential
also a potential
"
is
dr
Wt)
where
a constant.
,
C ,drJ
,C
d*r
or as
we may
write
it
'
~^
dt*
ee'
Let us now assume that an electric current consists of equal quantities of positive and negative electricity moving with equal
497]
213
e in
Then considering
,
ds and
e'
in
els',
and
r the distance
dr
dt
v and
v'
= v dr +v Ts
dr
d/'
e'
respectively,
and
if v
and
force
between
'
and
e' is,
omitting
(7,
*rYd?ee/ f
W^
/2/^r
2
"Sd?j
\
i(^
T\
'^r ^r>
The
in
It
is
force
between
in ds and
/ moving
r/,/ is
v'
if.
therefore
dsz
is
The force between e in ds and the system of e' and e' in d/ found by adding together the two expressions. It is therefore ee' d*r ee' ,dr dr , 2r2 dsds dsds
By symmetry,
with velocity
i
for ev
and /
e in the element ds the force upon moving And writing v is the same as the preceding. for /#', we find for the force between the two
4u' d2 r
r
2ii'
2ii'dr dr
r 2 ds ds'
dsds'
(
j
that
is,
r2
differs
9
2r T~rr
dsds'
d*r
dr dr
ds
I J
T~3T(
which
497.]
We
now
ef in the reverse suppose t/, the velocity of e' in ds' and of to vary with the time. Then, as before, direction,
dr
dr
dr
214
But
[497.
=V
/dr
And
by
f e
on
e contains, in addition
it,
the term
,
dv' dr
dt ds'
2r
that
is,
Zr
e'
f
.
dt
But from
and
e
=
dt
same term;
e'
so
and
&j
,.
r dt
and therefore
r dt
e
dv'
dt
But
these
two equal
forces,
on e in direction ds and on
the
e'
in the
The electromotive
ds'
force in ds
forms part
is
di' Tcos
/
cos
that
is
ds
r
,
,
dtj
that
is,
as
That
is
if
F denote the
dt
vector potential
498.]
215
may
con
among
498.] It will be sufficient for our purpose here to follow the more general method of Helmholtz, in order to investigate the effect of unclosed electric currents, if such exist in the field.
The energy of two elementary currents ids and i'd*' may be and & It must assumed to be symmetrical with regard to
'.
e 4(r) cos
^ (r) cos
cos
0'.
as before, that
(r)
and
\jf
(r)
respectively,
For, for
circuit,
any closed
circuit in relation to
an element ds of another
ds
,
.
Tcos
I
cos 0'
ds
=
a
as
Tcos
I
as, as
And
when
.,
applied to closed
circuits is reduced to
/ycose i ds i / /
.
ds
,
.
The
cos
cos tf
 in the expres
sion for the energy is matter of indifference so far as closed circuits are concerned.
stants a
In any case we require only to know the ratio of the conand b. We may therefore put the energy in the form
adopted by Helmholtz,
T= A
I
\
j"* 2
6
^^r

= A* \  cos + r
(r
*
~
dsds
)
^2
> idsi'ds'
r
idsi'ds',
Stefan, SitzungslericMe, Vienna 1869. Carl Neumann, Ueber die den Krdften Electrodynamischen zuzuschreibenden Elementary esetze, Leipzig, 1873. Helniholz 'Crelle's Journal,' vol. 72.
<
Ursprungs
Clausius,
Vol.
X,
p. 255.
216
where A
is
[499
of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic unit of electricity, and K is an uni and i' being expressed in electrostatic units
;
determined constant.
Also
and
*'
The
first term
involving
is
we have
seen,
to\A 2
as the
involving
d2 r
=.
asas
depend on the existence of free electricity in and on variation of its potential with the time, and therefore on the existence of unclosed currents, if free electricity in motion have the properties of a current.
the
field,
We may write
./
dr
, ,
dr
dr
dr
And
if r denote the distance of the element of volume dx'dy' dz', in which the component currents are w' i/, w' from the point #, y> z at which the component currents are u, v, w^ then, in forming the expression for the energy of the whole field, the
9
d</dr
S can be
dr
'
dr
dx dy dz dx'dy'dz'.
We
it,
shall
now assume
that a surface
described en
closing the
or (lu
through
+ mv + nw),
8, is
where
I,
normal to
Then
distance
a?,
^,
#,
denoted by
r,
let
8.
500.]
217
Integrating by parts,
(lu'
becomes
+ mrf + nw') dS
of which the
500.] If
first
term
is
zero
S.
all
Tx +
at all points,
du'
dvf
dy
and therefore the second term also vanishes, and and the second term in
the expression for the energy of the field vanishes. But if there be unclosed currents, and if an electric current is equivalent to a transfer of electricity, then in Helmholtz' theory
dp d^ + ~dtf*lM~ ~dt'
duf
di/
dw'
where p is the volume density of free electricity in the element dxdy'dz', and the integral becomes
that
is,
L /YTr V
^
8 and the
en
if
the potential of free electricity. Again, applying Green's theorem to the surface
V be
closed space,
j
we have
in the nota
tion of Chap.
which the two surface integrals vanish if S be distant enough, because whatever free electricity exist in the system, its algebraic
of
sum being
zero,
dS must
be zero
a?,
if
suffi
y, z as centre.
218
We
since
2 78
2 =r
showing the dependence of the second term in the expression field on free electricity and on variation of
501.] Let us assume
for
its
or
at
Then we proceed
as follows.
We
have
,dr ^ + ^' +w
{
dr
dxdydzdx'dy'dz'
Integrating the last expression by parts throughout the space within 8, and neglecting the surface integral, it becomes
that
is,
dxdV d*>
is,
that
is
i /T/V V^
5oi.]
219
enclosed space,
And
we have
And
therefore
we
d
have, finalty,
Yr
dr
dr
dr
dxdydz dx'dy'dz*
And
field
becomes
2T =
A*
Again,
.
A^
rrr/dvj.
(
&]]]
/ = (u V
ii'
dsds'
d2 r  ^dsdi
d dx
+

d
v
dy
=
dy
j

dx
dy
j* dz
field
The expression
for the
energy of the
becomes then
+ (H +
^^
And for the components of electromotive force, so far as they depend on the movement of electricity, we have, by Lagrange's
equation,
220
[502.
K dd*
dt
*"*
.
2
"*
dtdx'
cfa
dG I
XL
IK dd^ ~
2
2
eft
dy
(H*.
;
dH
to which
IK ~~~ d
may
502.] According to Ohm's law, we have for the diminution of the current by resistance in every element of volume,
and
for the
where
is
.,
x7vl/
ET/__
Jji
/>'
1
/"f
I
tf
/7\I/
flty
'
Z/'
IT"
~2~~^"'
we may
2M*y'
<Z*
obtain the equations of motion in the form given by Helmholtz, viz. in any body presenting electrical resistance,
__dV
'
dF'
dt
'
dx
and since
V ^'s
(1
K] dxdt
'
R
fty A *(^+J*T:L\. R dt
in'
V*&~(l^*\~
r9
I
(
TTI
dydt u~ v
\dy
'
47T
/dV
dH'\
v^o^Srydt^a)
'
503.]
221
we put
dv
dF dG dH
rrr\ f du
=then we have
(see Art.
504)
=  K dV
since
^T
V *=
2
dV
2 =at
^__dG\ =
(
,*H dG,
A
.
dF
dG
dH.
3)' dx J
( ^ dz
dF\
d*V
and
dy dy da
c?^
d/3
dz
/ = A['Tru\
vu~ Y
;
I 3
dxdt'
dy dx
da
,
dydt'
d(3
T aa;
It
dy
d*V.
).
ZT
as well as
G,
H are
or mass
of electricity in motion be
equivalent to a current, then according to Helmholtz' formula, unless K 1, two such currents or moving masses should have a
222
,.
,
.
[504.
term
cos

cos 0'
.
^T We
that this
is supported by any experimental evidence. Helmholtz further proves that, if K be negative, the 504.] expression for T may under certain circumstances be negative.
To
this
end we
first
rrr dFdG
JIJ
For
dFdG
= rrdG dS f J
IJ
the surface integrals being taken over the abovementioned disBut these surface integrals are of the order tant surface S. 3, and therefore vanish if S be distant enough. Therefore
Simikrly,
rrrdFdG. rrrdFdG, dxdydz JJJ to ITy =JJJ^^ ****** rrrdFdff. crrdFdH. dxdyd* dxdydz, =JJJ JJJ ^ ^
dt
&c.
dF
Again,
=
dx
h j
= &c. dG dH =
h 5
dV
rr
dy
dz
For
since
III
dx'dy'dz,
,
&c.,
and
77
&c.,
=
ff^u'dy'dz'
T/^i Staid*
of which the surface integrals are over the surface S, and therefore vanish if that be distant enough.
504.]
Therefore
223
dF
do
if
dt'
Again,
u=L.V*F, 47T
..
= ?V*G,
47T
w= _L 477
/7T (Fu
is
suffi
Similarly
rrr
Jff
fffodxdyd,
^) + &c.
=
We
have then
224
Also, as
[505.
we have
seen,
by
(1),
we
dxdydz
And
therefore
^l
2
2T =
fff(F*+Gv+Hw) dxdydz
^ ^v
~
.
505.]
To
recapitulate
the results
of
this
investigation.
We
have
(1)
dF
dF
505.]
225
According to Maxwell's theory this assumption is untrue if n, v, w include the displacement currents. (2) On Helmholtz' assumption concerning the energy of ele1
mentary
2
currents,
T = A*(F*++Hm) dxdydz
certain circumstances this expression for be negative, as in Weber's theory it is. negative
if K
Under
T may become
The contro
versy whether this is or is not physically possible is discussed in Maxwell's Chapter XXIII. It is possible perhaps to imagine
a system of moving electrified masses which shall make T in the above expression negative if K be negative. In any case where the electrostatic distributions are due to induction, as in the
cases treated in Chapters
XXI
be inappreciable compared with the magnetic energy of conducting circuits, and therefore cannot affect the sign of the
will
total energy.
The
difference
du dx
where
n,
?;,
dv
dy
are the
components of the
total current.
Ac
cording to Maxwell,
du :Jdx
+ :F+
dy
dv
dw
j
dz
is
u, v,
w.
dp
dx
+ dq + dr_
Ty
d ,df
dg
'dz"^dt^^"d^
+ dh^ _ Tz)"
~ dp
dt
j,
q,
r being
VOL. n.
CHAPTEE
XXV.
~
dt
In the investigation of the induction of electric currents in conductors we have treated of cases in which the displacement currents have no appreciable influence on the conduction currents.
We
now come
may
be nonexistent, the
Maxwell displacement currents having the field to themselves. shows that in a medium absolutely nonconducting, but capable
of dielectric polarisation, electric disturbances may exist, and are propagated through the medium with velocity varying as
where
K is
and
fj.
its
magnetic permeability, and that light consists in the medium with the
J. J.
corresponding magnetic oscillations. The subject has been treated by H. A. Lorenz, Professor
We
main the method elaborated by Lorenz, how some of the phenomena of light may be explained on this hypothesis.
* H. A. Lorenz, Ueber die Theorie der Reflexion und Refraction des Lichtes Schlomilch Zeitschrift XXII, XXIII. J. J. Thomson on Maxwell's Theory of Light, Phil. Mag. series 5, vol. ix. p. 284. Rowland, Phil. Mag., April 1881, June 1884. Glazebrook, Report on Optical Theories, British Association 1885, and works there cited. Hertz Wiedemann's Annalen, 18871889.
507.]
227
Inasmuch
tional importance
we
shall
assume that
JJL
that
magnetisable matter exists in the medium, so that the magnetic induction is identical with the magnetic force. We will also
assume,
firstly,
that there
electric current at
The components
h^ f,
y
of
the components of dielectric displacement. as having all the magnetic properties of an electric current, so that
We
/= J in\d
"
fr
dz
J_ (da
lir^dz
1
_dy^
da,
dx)'
(A)
d(B
where
a, /3, y are the components of magnetic Also the equation of continuity becomes
force.
T+/+T =0, dx dy dz
whence
also
df
da
dh
(B)
 + ^ 4dx dy dz
we
It is understood that /, g, h, K, and all the other functions shall have to make use of, are expressed in the electrounits.
magnetic system of
4rA dt
dx
d\fr
,dG
(C)
where
\jf
is
228
From
[508.
we
dx
dz 2
u/
dxdy
U
1
dxdz
<
vu
\ff
Lr\
z
t* IJT
tr
dt
dy
dt
dzz
dx 2
dydz
dydx*
It
may
be observed that Helmholtz's system, Art. 498, etc., now under consideration to equations of the
,
',
H'
As we only
\l/
require
a particular solution, we
may
assume
0,
(I)
= r p cos E )
q, r its
where p
cosines,
is
direction
and
&
ITT
,_
~r~ ( vt
(lx
\
my
f
nz j J
= 27T/ ^r
^
(
lx{^
my + mz\
l
'i?
>
being the periodic time, A the wave length, and v the wave
velocity, so that
Also we have
v F=
=
(II)
H =.
same phase
Av
r/jsin^
All points in any plane whose normal is at the same time. Any such
/,
m, n are in the
is called
plane
the
dx
dy
dz
dx
dG
we have
dy
dz
dF
dx
d_H_
dz
dy
509.]
229
and by equations
pi + qm + rn
or the dielectric displacement
is
= 0,
And
since
/= ppcoaE, &c.,
a
we have
qn)
=
K.
(rw
pcosE, v
.
(3=~(pnrl)poosE, K v
(Ill)
y=~(qlpm)And
that
therefore also
la
is
+ mfi + ny =
and
pa + q(3 + ry
= 0,
and
medium
The
electrostatic
is
The
volume
is
qm + rn
0, is also
equal to
is
thus shewn
how
magnetic disturbance
isotropic
may be
VK
Now, comparing
dif
ferent
measure,
media, K, or more accurately Kp, in electromagnetic is found to be inversely proportional to the square of
with p
medium whose
specific
inductive capacity
K.
230
Hence
disturbance.
510.] It comes next in order to explain on this hypothesis the phenomena of reflexion and refraction, when light passes
Let p
p lt p
by the
belongs.
suffix
or
which
it
Let us take the plane of incidence for the plane of xz, and the plane of separation for that of yz. In that case,
Z
Then
or if the
= cos0, m = 0, E ~ ^~~~ C S
~Y
= sin0.
constant
we must add an
arbitrary
and
wave
In order that on the plane of separation x = the phase may not differ from that of the incident
we must nave
sin 6
v
sin 0'
sin0
This is in no way dependent on the theory as to the nature of light vibrations. The problem then is, given the direction, 0, of the incident wave, p Q q Q r the direction of its dielectric displacement, and
,
/o
the amplitude, to determine the two unknown quantities p1 and p', the amplitudes of vibration in the reflected and refracted
relations.
One we can
obtain inde
511.]
231
that
pendently of the direction of displacement in the incident wave, r the other depends upon their values. is, of p Q <?
,
is
the refracting
medium
is,
since
=?
2
t?
,
wave
2( 3
y cos0,
wave wave
p^v^coaO,
/2
/D
u/8 cos0
/
.
We may
on the whole
assume that the energy flowing towards the plane is That is, there being equality of phase for the zero.
p*)v*coa0
= p'V
cos0',
8m*0cof0ssf^8inWeoB0'
.....
(1)
This
is
one relation.
This also expresses the fact that the energy of a wave of the incident light is equal to the sum of the energies of the corresponding waves of the reflected and refracted light.
on the 511.] The form of the second relation will depend direction of dielectric displacement in the incident light.
We
will treat separately the two cases, Case I in which the dielectric displacement is perpendicular to the plane of incidence, or
and by symmetry
/ =
x
0,
f=
is
0,
&c.
that
is,
/
Any
solutions.
= p
sin0
cos.E',
gQ
= 0,
\=p
cos0 cosfi.
actual case
may
Case I. The electrical theory requires that the electromotive force in either direction parallel to the plane of separation, shall
be the same on either side of that plane. Now the electromotive force at right angles to the plane of incidence on the side of
232
[5
1 I.
is
A
(ff
\ffi),
and on the
side
of the refracted
or
<7o
<7i
That
is,
neglecting
common
(p
factors,
2
+ Pl )sin
we
= p'sin
0'
.......
(2)
Combining
and from
this
with
(p
(1),
obtain
Pi)sinOco80
= /o'sinfl'cosfl', .....
(3)
(2)
and
(3)
^~ Po 8111(0' 0) sin
,
sin
COROLLARY
+a
Yy
sin e cos
>
a'
K.
7, sin0 v
i
cos^.
And
therefore
o
+a
=a
'
Similarly
it
and
/3
+ /3
= =
/3'.
is, the magnetic force does not change discontinuously at the plane of separation.
That
This
result,
treats as
which we have deduced from (1) and (2), Lorenz an independent relation, and uses it instead of (l).
be observed that the energy passing in unit time
It will
at
any point through unit area of any plane is proportional to the product of the magnetic and electromotive forces at the See Art. 401, point and to the sine of the angle between them.
note.
512.]
233
512.] Next, let the dielectric displacement be in the plane In that case of incidence.
gQ
= 0, / =
p sinOcosE,
=p
cos0 cosE,
as before,
Then we have,
/+/,=/',
theory the dielectric displacement perpendicular to the plane of separation is the same on either side This gives of that plane.
that
is,
by the
electrical
(Po
(2)
Combining
(l)
and
(2),
Whence
Pl
~~ PQ
Po
8in20sin20/ _ "
sin 2
tan(0'Po
0)
+ sin 2 0'
These
results agree
From this polarised perpendicularly to the plane of incidence. and the results above obtained it is inferred that dielectric
displacement in the plane of incidence corresponds to optical polarisation perpendicular to that plane, and vice versa.
As
(2)
and
(3) the
Or, following Lorenz's method, continuity of a, /3, and y. the continuity of these functions, we may deduce (1) assuming as a consequence.
If 7T
co
be the angle
made by the
direction of displacement
section of the plane of the wave and the plane of incidence, and if o) l5 &/ have corresponding values for
with the
common
we
find,
cases,
tan a)!
= tanco
+
1
0'
COS007
tan a/
= tan
o)
cos
06'
234
513.]
[513.
is
rever
sible in direction, so
gives real values for cos 6 and cos 0', so that if light is incident at angle 0' on the righthand side of the plane of separation, it will be refracted at angle 6 on the lefthand side. If, in
this case, the amplitude of the polarisation in the incident ray
be m^, and that of the reflected and refracted rays respectively, we shall have
(1)
and m'
For
incidence,
ra,
=m
(2)
For
sin
20'
sin 20
sin20'+sm20'
sin 0'
sin(0
2
0)
sin
sin20
'
sin20
sin0
we
=P
p'
>'
(p<?
 w*i
2
)
/
If
sin
>1
Q'
v'
sin
remains
we have total reflexion. For these values of real. For application of the theory to the resulting phenomena see Lorenz's treatise above referred to.
515.]
514.J
235
We
rest.
We may
VK
=>
however conceive
with velocity
V,
to be
medium
The effect of a motion of the wave will not be considered. of wave motion be that of y, the direction of
#,
displacement that of
we
shall
field
equations
Chap XXI,
dy
TT
dy
dt
dy
TT
dy
dt
0,
and nd
dy
whence
d*f ^ =
dy*
r K
df
fd^f
(^ \dt*
d V ddt'
rr
dydt
Assume /= a
'
cos
and
E *
where
t' is
a constant.
This gives
and
in
which the
1
compared with
VK
>
vK
=. H
V 2
>
On
the Passage of a
515.] If the conductivity be finite instead of zero as hitherto supposed, Maxwell's theory gives us
* See a paper
by Professor J. J. Thomson,
Phil.
Mag.' 1880.
236
[515
CP,
f=
P,u
= p+f,
etc.
,
'"
'=///>*<.
andtherefore
dx
dv
dy
dz
Also
du dx
dy
+ 3 = dz
dw
0,
and therefore
dF
dx
dQ
dy
= f 3
dH =
5
0.
dz
From
these equations
we get
and
therefore
V / = 4* tf
2
eft
+^+ ^
2
2
c^cc
( \dx
+
dy
+>
dz'
(1)
Differentiating equation (l) with regard to #, responding equations in g and h with regard to
spectively,
and the
cor
y and
z re
d /df da dh\ d /df da dh\ + dz / 47rC(/ + / + dz / + ^(^ + ) )== dt \dx d? \dx
dy
/ dy
0.
a?,
all
the functions
for the
^<fy
>
^ dz
f
etc. are
dy
And
therefore
we have
normal displacement /, in
such a wave
(1)
4 IT
C jf+K
dt
dt
/=
0.
throughout, or else /varies as e~H the conducting medium be bounded by the plane of yz, light flowing from that plane, and if on that plane the functions be periodic, they must be periodic at all points within the
f=
Now
if
conducting medium.
must be zero
6.]
237
throughout,
we have
We may
where
assume as solution
'T is
K
'
~~
*~
must be taken.
And
C2
if
= be very
small,
1
C*l
at any given point all the functions of the time, but affected by the functions are periodic factor f**vcx a stationary wave. see that if the wave be
9
We may
call a
wave in which
We
stationary, it can,
dis
placement.
516.] Let us
now
from an isotropic nonconducting medium into a partially conducting medium, separated from the former by the plane of Let the plane of incidence be that of xz and let us take yz.
9
the case of optical polarisation in the plane of incidence, or the dielectric displacement in direction y.
If the dielectric
be
/ocosZ?,
two
is
parts,
displacement in the conducting medium magnetic force in that medium consists of one derived from the displacement current, and the
the
The value
of its
^component
= (p ' ^
cos
tf.
238
517.]
We
shall
now
find, as
magnetic and electromotive forces be continuous, as we found them to be between two insulating media, there must be a difference of phase between the reflected, the refracted, and
that, if the
the incident wave at any point on the plane of separation. For let us assume
for the incident wave,
.27.
Then we
(1)
shall
have
7
by the continuity of electromotive force in ^, = (a.2 cosE + b z sin^ ) sin 2 0' ((a + a^cos^ + ^sin^sin^
force in (2) by the continuity of magnetic
z,
(aa cosEb
1
smE)sinOcos0 = (a
+ (a
Equating
coefficients of cos
sin
2
b z cos E)
TG
r
sin 6' cos 6'.
J\.
E and
sin E,
we have
four equations
unknown
quantities c^ b l9 a 2 # 2 .
The
of (2),
bl
existence of the second term in the righthand member which is introduced by the conduction, forbids us to make
which would reduce the three waves to the same phase on the plane of separation. We have in fact a difference
b2
0,
and
reflected
wave tan" 1
 and
a2
We have
But the treatment of problems of this class is frequently much facilitated by the employment of the exAs for instance in the ponential instead of the circular function.
practicable.
case of
Reflexion from a metallic surface.
As
the
medium
conductor,
let us replace
treated of in the last article becomes a pure the circular function cos by the corre
sponding exponential form. Let us then suppose light passing through a dielectric or perfectly insulating medium and incident
on a metallic
surface.
8.]
239
of xz, and the plane of incidence that of yz. optically polarised in the plane of incidence.
Then
we have
a displacement
and
^=*
reflected light
For the
and
shall
have in
lieu of the
displacement
where u
= p'
~E v~l
'
and
sin
tff),
or
sin
^
,._..,,.
in
which
P and
6',
and therefore
/o'
imaginary. If now the conditions assumed in Arts. 510, 511 remain formally true with these symbolical values of the variables, we
47TO
in z
(PQPI)
whence
sin
cos
=
t 6
^
=
cot &'>
.....
.
3 a)
^l co
Pi
cot ^,
.
sin
^^
usual to determine the intensity, p v of the vibration in the reflected light by taking the real part of this expression.
It
is
240
[519.
is
of the problem in the form now presented not peculiar to the electromagnetic theory of the nature of We therefore follow it no further. light.
The treatment
519.] Helmholtz supposes the dielectric to be capable of molecular polarisation, and investigates the laws of propagation of this polarisation, arriving at results analogous to those of
Maxwell.
tromotive force becomes polarised, or charged with equal and opposite amounts of electricity proportional to the electromotive
force,
same nature
as
those
of small conductors, so that representing the amount per unit area on a plane at any point normal to the resultant force by a, of opposite sign to Maxwell's displacement. If/, g, k be the components of polarisation at any point, the electrical density of polarisation is
this
<r
is
(df_
dg_
,^\.
dz
/
\dx
dy
Helmholtz supposes the variations of these polarisations to possess the electromagnetic properties of ordinary currents, as
we
currents.
have supposed with regard to Maxwell's In this theory therefore if the only
displacement
electricity
in
no conduction, we have
where
force,
is
and where
as given in Chap.
XXIV.
In
this theory
however J, or
dF
ax
dG dH +=+ 7, is
.
ay
dz
shown,
is
equal to
k^
52O.]
241
Hence we get
or representing ^
df
+
~~
da
f
dh
by j ,
dJ_
di~
Again,
*V
If however the
/I + 47T6
"4^"'
independent
ofory + y^ + 3=0;
is
it
constant.
difficult
interpret
Helmholtz's
theory of
propagation of electric polarisation through the dielectric unless we assume a passage of electricity independent of conduction, that
is
In
is
be independent of the time, J becomes zero, and it \lf hard to distinguish between Helmholtz's theory and that
fact if
of Maxwell.
Anisotropic Media.
520.]
We now
242
\_$2O.
corresponding to three mutually perpendicular directions in space, assume the medium to be homofixed in the medium.
We
geneous, and these directions, with the corresponding values of K, the same at all points.
Taking these directions for axes of #, y, and z, we and z the corresponding values of K. by x y
will denote
K K
,
We
shall
"
dF
lit
<^
_
dt
dy
dz
K
As
tinuity requires that
dt
df
d9
dh
=Q
and therefore
dx
(B)
dy
dz
From
==
dy_<W
dv
dz
,
tc
and
= dH dG
dy
dz
etc.,
we
,
.o
~Z~.
"
dxdy
v v dt*
dxdz
dt
dy
dxdy d ff
J
(D'j
dydz
We may
assume as a solution
^=
0,
(la)
= rpcosE;
>
521.]
where
i
243
_2'jr E (vt
/
/T
(lx
+ my + nz))
2X 2A
xx
/ = 27r (t v
JL
l>x \'
V
'
F= 
(Ila)
H=
As
before,
A.
rpsinE.
velocity of a
wave
m,
n.
As we
shall see, v is
The
medium,
+ Qm + rn =
or the dielectric displacement is in the plane of the wave. And substituting in (D') the values assumed above for F, G,
H,
we have
v 2p
ffc^i &
ft*.
^v
r
"K
;...(!)
thatis
remembering that
jt?,
and
r,
and
we have
p*
x
q*
r1
Ky
(E)
g
And
is
wave motion
in direction
I,
m, n,
q,
to the ellipsoid
R 2
244
The
tude of
[522.
points in the
medium.
We
we
homogeneous
522.] If
p:q:r,we have
As the
result
and
(~ + ^ + K ' ^) ^K x K
y
z
3q,
_L
r
m,
= 0,
the ratios
T
and
r
can be determined.
with the
dielectric
ellipsoid is
an
ellipse,
which we
or
will call
LMN:
and
if
we seek
minimum
con
sistently with
2
'lr~
~^
Ay.
Ay
i/ y.
~^
A.J
j
W
= 0.
2
i
'
and
Ix
+ my
nz
This gives the same determinant as before. Hence we see that for given direction I, m, n of the wave motion, the direction of dielectric displacement p, q, r must be one or other axis of the
ellipse
LMN>
and
v,
to that axis.
A wave
is
the wave velocity, is inversely proportional may move in the given direction /, m, n
velocities according as the direction of that of one or the other axis of the ellipse LMN. displacement If, however, all points in the plane perpendicular to /, M, n be given in the same phase of displacement at the same instant,
and that displacement in any other direction in the plane than either of the two axes of the ellipse LMN, the displacement We must resolve it cannot be propagated as a single wave.
.
524.]
into
245
two components parallel to the two axes of the ellipse Each component of displacement is then propagated as a separate wave with velocity inversely proportional to the axis of the ellipse to which it is parallel.
LMN.
LMN
Of
523.]
force are
dH a= u,i
dy
dQ
ucr
dz
K)
nq
\
) 3
(Ilia)
And
therefore
la+
m(3
+ ny =
0,
or the magnetic force is perpendicular to the wave direction, and, as will be seen in the next Article, it is also perpendicular to the
Of
524.]
The
directioncosines
>
of the
electromotive
force
are
proportional to
So
~
,
from
through the
OP of the
on the
tangent plane at P.
whose
^>
direction
cosines
proportional
is,
to
Jr Kx
>
and
&y
&z
jo,
q and
r, I,
m and n
that
the electro
motive
force,
wave motion,
are
/?p,
The components
of displacement
,
qp, rp.
246
[525.
2 And since OP, OQ, and the direction of wave is pv motion are coplanar, that is the resolved part of the electromotive force in the plane of the wave. But the electromotive
that
force has a
2 pv tan
POQ,
component normal to the plane of the wave namely that is pv 2 tan e, suppose.
the plane of the displacement, the electromotive
525.]
force
Now let
and the wave motion be that of the figure. Let OP be the dielectric displacement, and therefore an axis of the ellipse
LMN
to the dielectric
I,
Let
OS
be the normal
m, n
If we make OS= to the ellipse we find from (E) that the locus of 8 is
LMN.
OP,
thatis 
where
526.] Let us
version.
now
Let
invert the system with unit radius of inthen become P', and Q, Q'. Then OF=v.
And
At
let
OS
such that
Ov= OP'= v.
Then
(1),
v, is
y* _!L
z*
2
0.
We
vector to
at
any point
is
527.]
(2)
247
Q'
is
the
new
ellipsoid
(3)
The
locus of
P'
is
of the
per
new
be drawn
is
through
ellipse
ellipsoid
an
(5) Therefore if in
and make
the plane of the figure we draw OF=OQ', the equation to the locus of
07 A.
V
OQ',
is,
as
above shown,
,
V 2 C2
"
We
is
new
through Vv
the
perpendicular to the figure is a tangent plane to V surface or locus of V. The v surface is therefore the
locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent plane to the Fsurface. The reader may verify analytically that the surface whose equation is
with
v2
is the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent plane to the surface whose equation is
V 2 A 2
with
527.]
is
known
in physical
and from the preceding reasoning it follows that the wellknown application of its properties and those of the ^surface to the determination of wave and ray
optics as the wave surface,
velocity,
placements in the
248
[528.
OF, the radius vector to the which a disturbance originating V. Let all points in a plane at right angles to Ov be in the same phase at through the same instant, that is, assume the wave front to be perpendicular to Ov. Then the plane Vv is also a wave front,
It follows, for instance, that
Fsurface, is the velocity with is propagated in direction at
and the line OF is the line of quickest passage of the disturbance from one wave front to another.
528.]
We can
find
by a known construction the direction of the refracted wave when light passes from an isotropic into an anisotropic medium separated by a plane from the
former or rather the path of each of the two refracted waves since the
two
surfaces
which we have
called
the fHBnr&ce and the Fsurface respectively can be formed from either axis of the ellipse and each
LMN,
Let
PA
in the isotropic
of the figure.
Then
Fig. 50.
the
angle
of
incidence,
PAB
the position of
in direction
, being
shall
known, we know
be the
first
in
AB such
is
that
point
same phase with A. About A as centre describe the Fsurface. Through B suppose a line drawn perpendicular to the plane of the figure, and through
which
in the
AB
this line a
tangent plane to the Fsurface touching it in V. on this tangent plane. Let Ov be the perpendicular from
is
Then Ov
V the
is
Ov
is
not generally
530.]
249
As
light.
two
sheets, there
are
directions of
Ov and
OF for
given direction
PA
then that, given the angle of incidence 0, there are two determinate directions of wave motion in the crystalline
see
We
medium, and therefore two determinate angles of 0\ and 0'2 one for each of the two refracted waves.
,
refraction,
And
each
>
uity of phase. 529.] The direction of wave motion for either refracted ray being now determined, the direction of its dielectric displacement is also
is
tion of the incident light. But although the direction of displacement in either refracted ray is independent of the polarisation of the incident light, the
is not. And, as we shall see, it is possible by suitably choosing the plane of polarisation of the incident light to reduce to zero the amplitude for either refracted ray, so that only one of the two refracted rays will exist. Suppose <o to be the
amplitude
angle made by the plane of polarisation of the incident light with the normal to the plane of incidence. Then for a certain value of w, suppose o> a one of the two refracted waves disappears,
,
and and
the other disappears. Then any given displacement in the incident light may be resolved in directions denoted by o> a
for
<o b
<o
one, that in
Let
coj
o> a gives rise exclusively to exclusively to the other, refracted ray. be the angle made by the dielectric displacement of the oo
reflected light
same
with the normal to the plane of incidence, a/ the wave, o> being so chosen that there shall be only one. Also let p p 15 // denote the amplitudes of displacement for the three waves respectively. Then p 0, 15
for the single refracted
,
6'
and
The
are given. And we have to find oo, G> I} p 19 and //. value of o> so found is the value <o a which causes the other
&>'
,
530.]
tions.
250
[530.
of Art. 510.
of
as in that article, (p
~Pi
^ 3 cos &
The energy per unit of volume in the anisotropic medium is by Art. 521, where //is the amplitude of dielectric disThe direction and velocity with which it flows placement. are represented by OF, and the projection of OF on the normal
,
is
+v
since e
side
= POV
/
2
VOv.
(v' cos0'
3
+ </
sin0'sina/tane)
and therefore
for
r) /
0'sina/tane}.
(1)
three
more
By
(Pocoscoo
+ ftcosaj^sm2 ^
= /cos a/ sin
0'.
...
3
(2)
the continuity of electromotive force in the section of the planes of incidence and separation,
By
common
(p sin co
cos
+ / sin
6' tan. e
(3)
By
(Posincoo
...
4
/
(4)
From
2
(/o
(3)
and
2
(4)
co
x)
we
sin
sin
co
p* sin
=/
and subtracting
2
+/
/
sin
smo/tane
this
2
from
(1),
3
(p
cos
co
pt
(2),
cos 2 cousin
cos
/2
/)
cos
o)
sin
cos0 /3 ;
and dividing by
(p coso)
ft cos
cousin
cos
0'.
(5)
and
(5)
from
and o^
p^
and p.
531.]
251
we
obtain
sin
7
sin
cos
co
cos 6K),
we
obtain
2p
sinco sin
0cos0
2
cos 0'
cos 0)
+ / sin
7
0' tan e
= tan
sin
cos 0'
r
co
cos
1
sin
2
7
tan
) 2
7
cosco sin0
, 7
sin
tan
c
7
tanco cos0
cos o/ sin
if
the
medium be we
isotropic,
0.
(2)
and
7
(5),
obtain
sin
sin
cos
co
7
cos
7
),
co
sin (0
(4),
 0).
And
2 PJ sin
sin
cos
7
=p
and therefore
sin
co
cos
sin
cos
p sin
tan
sin
cos
sin
cos
sin
tan
'
co
sin (0
which agrees with Art. 512 if e = Finally, we obtain from (2) and
0. (5),
sin (0
 0)
these are the amplitudes of displacement perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and we see that they are connected
Now
by the same
relation, as
are isotropic.
is
at right angles
force as in Professor
252
[532.
532.] It appears therefore that certain phenomena of light can The theory explained on the electromagnetic hypothesis. however in the form hitherto given fails to explain certain other
be
phenomena, e. g. the rotation of the plane of polarisation, under the influence of magnetic force. This investigation shews that on the usual hypothesis concerning the
force
nature of dielectric displacement the magnetic normal to the plane of the wave due to any system of
is zero.
the system gives rise to no magnetic force in the normal to the wave, we should expect that any magnetic force in that direction due to external causes would have no influence on the
As
system.
found, on the contrary, that in certain media a magnetic the direction of wave motion causes the plane of polarisation to rotate from left to right, as seen by an observer
It
is
force
in
If
we suppose the
still
we
get on our
hypothesis no magnetic force normal to the wave, and therefore cannot conclude that the normal force would cause the plane to
rotate.
Maxwell gives an explanation of this phenomenon (Magnetic Action on Light, Chap. XXI) by resorting to a more general conception of dielectric displacement ; instead of linear displace
ment he assumes two circular motions in opposite directions. 533.] Professor Kowland has also given an explanation of the
phenomenon (Phil. Mag., April 1881) which is intimately connected with the electromagnetic theory of light. It was first observed by E. H. Hall of Baltimore * that an electric current in
the plane, if of magnetic force. Professor Kowland assumes that the displacement currents in dielectric space have the same property. And
this he interprets as
a plane conductor under a magnetic force normal to free to choose its course, is deflected across the lines
an
electromotive force
where
is
Mag. April
1880.
533]
253
Suppose then a wave of plane polarised light advancing in direction y, with a constant magnetic force /3 in that direction due
to
\lr
external
causes.
Then g
0, as
in preceding cases,
force the
components
Also
/=
\d*F d?
whence we obtain
d
dt
that
is,
Kp ^ ^ + :pl
"L^L I __
n_
d *H
o,
d d*F)
=Q
A solution
of these equations
is
F = r cos
27
A A
(vt
y) cos mt,
= r cos 27T m
r=z
?/)
sin
TW^,
where
m=
1
/xA
/4
2 /3 2
per unit
thus.
The new
electro
motive force
If
we
assume positive
velocity
v,
the force on
if
same reasoning,
254
[534
same absolute velocity, the force on it will be is ev. The new force Xwill thus act in the ( ( e) v), same way on positive and on negative electricity, and it there
that
77
f=
4?r
J7
f=
X.
4?r
According then to the usual conception of an electric current, as consisting of equal quantities of positive and negative electricity
moving with
can be no true electromotive force of the kind assumed by Rowland, though there may be deflexion of the current across
the lines of magnetic force. But if we suppose positive and negative electricity to be involved in the current asymmetrically,
there
may
and
be a true electromotive force such as Rowland assumes, phenomena may be the true one.
electromagnetic theory of light developed in this Chapter was limited to the observed approximate agreement between the
These researches of H. Hertz, confirmed and developed by Dr. Oliver Lodge, Professor Fitzgerald and other investigators, must be regarded as supplying weighty and independent evidence of the truth of the theory.
INDEX.
The references are
Ampere's
theory
of
to articles except
electrodynamic
action, 490495.
current sheet, 449, 453, 469. Ellipsoidal mass, magnetic induction in, 318. Energy of electrostatic system, Chap. X. of electromagnetic field, 399Ellipsoidal
Faraday's laws of induction, 340341. Felici's experiment, 383. Fluids, theory of two, 80.
Force, lines, tubes, and flux
of,
99.
I,
and
art. 275.
Heat generated by
218.
electric
current,
55>
5!9
493132.
Images, electric, 110117Induction of electric currents, 342348, Chaps. XXII and XXIII. Infinite conducting plane, induction
in, 448, 455. Inverse square, law
of,
of,
131,
Chap. XIV.
neg
97, 279.
of,
and application
Electrification,
description
of
pheno
Laplace's equation, 47. Lenz's law, 346, 386. Light, electromagnetic theory
of,
XXV.
Chap.
XVIII,
Magnetic action on light, 532, 533. Magnetic circuit and resistance, 339. Magnetic induction, Chap. XVII. Magnetic screen, 416. Magnetism, general theory, Chap. XVT.
Poisson's theory of induced.
39'. 393
39 1
Electrostatic
cases,
equilibrium,
particular
Chap. XVII.
256
INDEX.
Rotation of plane of polarisation, 532.
Selfinduction, coefficient of, 353, 378. Selfinductive systems of currents, 426,
Measurement, systems
of,
Chap.
XX.
Ohm, law
of,
204.
Orsted, law of, 323324. Oscillating statical distribution, theory of, 482, 483.
Peltier's observations, 224, 226. Permeability, magnetic, 315, 3 1 6, 35736o, 397. 398. Poisson's equation, 47. theory of induced magnetism,
433Solid angle, a definition of, 270. Solid conductors, induced currents in,
472477.
Specific inductive capacity, Chap. XT. Spherical current sheets, Chap. XXIII. Spherical harmonics, Chap. II.
Thermodynamic
cycle, 349.
Chap. XVII.
Polarisation
of dielectric, 176, 182,
Chap. XIV.
Polarisation of light, 511. Positive and negative, conventions concerning, Chap. XV. Potential, Chap. III. Potential, magnetic, 285288, 315, 316,
Thermoelectric currents, 242251. Two dimensions, electric systems in, Chap. VIII.
XX.
Vector potential of currents, 335337. of magnetic induction, ,, 311314. Velocity of light, 506509, 405.
Velocity of propagation in dielectric,
509, 514, 515. Voltaic currents, Chap. XIII. Volta's contact theory, 219221, 226.
Wave
XXIII.
THE END.
THIS BOOK IS
AN INITIAL FINE OF
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WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY WILL INCREASE TO SO CENTS ON THE FOURTH DAY AND TO $t.OO ON THE SEVENTH DAY OVERDUE.
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1942
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