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Clartniwn

THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM


WATSON AND BURBUBl

HENRY FROWDE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE

AMEN CORNER,

E.G.

Clarmtwn ^

THE

MATHEMATICAL THEORY
OF

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM


I

H.

W. WATSON,
AND
S.

D.Sc., F.R.S.

FORMERLY FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

H.

BURBURY,

M.A.

FORMERLY FELLOW OF ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE

VOL. II

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRODYNAMICS

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS


M DCCC LXXX1X
[

All rights reserved

M\l

PREFACE.
THIS volume
cation
is

mainly concerned with the applitheory to current phaenomena,

of electrical

magnetic manifestations. The subject has been greatly developed mathematibut cally and experimentally in the last few years
;

especially in their

much additional insight has been gained into the relations between them, the intrinsic nature both
while
of electricity covered.

and magnetism remains yet to be

dis-

stated in the preface to our first volume, the cannot be regarded as physical realities, although they are most useful as the basis of a theory
electric fluids

As

accounting for and to some extent predicting electrical And as regards the magnetic fluids, phaenomena.
it

may

be doubted whether their existence would


all if

have been conceived at

the order of discovery

had been inverted and the magnetic properties of electric currents had become known to us before,
instead of after, those of the loadstone and so-called

permanent magnets.

Not that the Ampere theory

of the electromagnetic constitution of natural magnets would have been sufficient, inasmuch as it fails to

include and explain

many

of the

phaenomena of

in-

duced magnetism. In this volume we have proceeded on the

lines laid

VI

PREFACE.

down by Maxwell, adopting his conception of displacement and displacement currents, but not so as to
exclude reference to other theories.

According to this displacement hypothesis of Maxwell, adopted in a modified form by Helmholtz also,
there

a wave propagation of electric disturbance through different media with a velocity depending upon certain measurable electric and magnetic prois

perties of the media, and it is found that the velocity as so determined agrees, within no wide limits,' with

Hence the velocity of light in the respective media. an electromagnetic theory of light has been propounded, of great beauty and simplicity, and free from some of the difficulties attaching to the older
undulatory theory founded on the wave propagation
of disturbance through an elastic luminiferous ether. Until very recently, however, this electric disturb-

ance propagation was hypothetical only and fortified by no independent experimental evidence; but within
the last two years the researches of Hertz in Germany, based upon experiments with rapidly oscillating charges
of electricity in finite conductors, experiments which have been reproduced and developed by Professors

and others in Great Britain, have supplied independent and almost demonstrative eviFitzgerald, Lodge,

dence of the existence of this disturbance propagation, and thus have invested the Maxwellian hypothesis

with great additional

interest.

We trust that the

importance of certain portions of

our subject and the advantage of considering them under different aspects may excuse the detail with

PEEI*ACE.

Vll

which they have been treated; this remark applies especially to the interesting but difficult investigation
of induced currents in sheets and solids treated of in

Chaps. XXII and XXIII. In this investigation

we have

restricted our ex-

amples to such as would serve to illustrate general principles without involving too much analytical complexity,

indicating memoirs and papers in which special cases requiring more elaborate mathematical treatment have been considered.

In Chap. II, Art. 19 of our first volume, at the bottom of page 21, there is an error in sign in the

fundamental definition of differentiation with regard to an axis this error is repeated again in Art. 25, and
;

leads to the omission of the sign factor ( expression for zonal spherical harmonics,

l)

in the

we

desire

therefore to notice

and
to

correct

it.

acknowledge a correction by Dr. J. Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, who has pointed See his out an error in the latter part of Art. 141.
also

We

desire

very interesting memoir 'On the potential of the electric field in the neighbourhood of a spherical bowl

charged or under influence

'

(Phil.

Mag., July, 1887).

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
ART.

XV.

PEELIMINARY THEOKEMS.
PAGE
266-270.

On

the usual convention with regard to Signs

1-3

271-274.
275.

Stokes's

Theorem

3-7 7-8

Extension of Art. 12

CHAPTER

XVI.

ON MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
276-277.
Description and Definitions

9-10
10-12

278-280.
281-284.

The Law

of Force

285-291. 292-295. 296-302. 303-304. 305-308.

Theory of Magnetisation Magnetic Potential Elementary Magnets and Magnetic Solenoids


Magnetic Shells Lamellar Magnetisation

12-15 15-19
. .
.

19-21

21-25
25-27

Energy

of

Magnetic Systems

27-32

CHAPTER

XVII.

MAGNETIC INDUCTION AND INDUCED MAGNETISM.


i

Definition

tll-314.
$15-316. 517-320.
321.

and General Property Vector Potential of Magnetic Induction Induced Magnetism and Magnetic Permeability
.

....
.

33-35

35-39

39-41
42-48
48-49

Comparison with Electrostatic System Limitation of the Theory

CHAPTER

XVIII.

MUTUAL KELATIONS OF MAGNETS AND CLOSED ELECTEIC CUKKENTS.


322.

Energy

of

two Magnetic

Shells

50-51

323-325.
325-326.
327-

Oersted's

Law

51-54

Mechanical Action between Electric Currents

System of Measurement

....

54

54-55

X
ART.

CONTENTS.
PAGE
Line Integral of Magnetic Force round an Electric Current Laws of Mechanical Action
.

328-330. 331-334.
335-338.
339.

55-56
56-59

Vector Potential of Electric Currents

59-63

Magnetic Circuit

63-64

CHAPTER

XIX.

INDUCTIVE ACTION OF CURRENTS AND MAGNETS.

FARADAYS

LAWS OF INDUCTION.
340-341.

Statement of Faraday's
Cycle of operations Lenz's Law

Law
and Shell
.

65-67

342-345.
346.

Circuit

67-70 70
70-72

347-348.
349.

Adiabatic Process

Analogy

to

Thermodynamic Cycle
:

72-73 73-76
76 77

350-352.
353.
354. 355.

Two

Currents
Coefficient of Self- Induction

Flexible Circuits

Three or more Circuits


Rotation of a Conductor in a Magnetic Field
.

78-79

356-360.

The

Coefficient of

Magnetic Permeability

79-81

CHAPTER XX.
ON SYSTEMS OF MEASUREMENT.
361-362.
363.

The Electrostatic Unit The Electromagnetic Unit


Eatio of the Units
.

82-83
83

364-365.
366.

83-84
.

The Dimensions

367-369.
370-372.

of in Electromagnetic Measure Dimensions of magnetic quantities Table of Quantities and their Dimensions

84-85

....
.

85-86
87-89

CHAPTER

XXI.

GENERAL EQUATIONS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD.


373-376.

377-382.
383-387.
388-391.

Dynamical method of finding Electromagnetic Force Treatment of two Circuits


Maxwell's Investigation of the Laws of Induction Electromotive Force in Closed Circuit .
Electromagnetic Action on Closed Circuit Displacement and Displacement Currents

.......
.

90-92
92-96

96-101
101-104

392-394.

395-396. 397-398.
399-401.
402-403.

Magnetic Permeability Total Energy of Electromagnetic Field

The Function^

.........

.... .... .......

104-108
108-109 110-112

Poynting's Theorem

112-115

116-117

CONTENTS.

XI

CHAPTER
ART.

XXII.

THEORY OF INDUCED CURRENTS ON CONDUCTING SURFACES.


PAGE
Displacement Currents
404-406.
407.

may

be neglected in certain cases

408-409.

. Effects of resistance to be regarded separately . . Definition of Current Sheets, Current Shells, and Current

118-119 119

Function
410.

120-121
122

Vector Potential of Current Shell

411-412.

413-414. 415-416.
417. 418.

Energy of Current Shell Comparison with Magnetic Shells


General Proposition Formation of Magnetic Screen Special case of Induction Concentric Spheres
.
.

122-124

124-125
125-127 127-128 129-131

General Solution

419-424.
425.

The Associated Function The effect of resistance in Conducting

132-135
Shells
.
. .

135-137 137-141 141-144

426-430.
431-433. 434-435.
436.

Self-Inductive Systems General Properties of Self-Inductive Systems . Eotation of Solid Conductor in a Magnetic Field
Effect of Soft Iron Core

144-145
146

437. 438.
439.

Similar and Concentric Ellipsoidal Shells General treatment of Similar Surfaces


Effect of Resistance in Solid Conductors

.... ....
.

146-148
148
149

CHAPTER
440-444.

XXIII.

PARTICULAR CASES OF INDUCTION.


The General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field. form assumed by them when Displacement Currents can be neglected

........
. .

151156
156-160
160-161

445-447.
448.

Field of Spherical Current Sheet Field of Infinite Plane Sheet

449-450.
451.
452.

Field of Ellipsoidal Sheet

453-454.

Decay by Decay by Decay by

resistance in Spherical Sheet resistance in Plane Sheet


resistance in Ellipsoidal Sheet

.... ....

162-165 165-167
167-168 168-169

455-460.

Plane Sheet with External Electromotive Force


Infinite

170-176
176-181
181-182

461-464.

Principle of Equivalent Sheet applied to the case of an

Conducting Plane

465-466. 467-468.

Spherical Sheet

Revolving Sphere Revolving Spheroid Solid Conductors


Solid

182-185 185-187
187-189 189-191 191-196

469-470.
471-473. 474-475.
476-470.
480-481.

bounded by

Infinite Plane

Solid Sphere

Solid Spheroid

196-197

Xll
ART.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTEE

XV.

PRELIMINARY THEOREMS.
ARTICLE 266.] IF be a point in any plane, and Q a point in the normal through 0, we may say that the direction-cosines of the normal are those of the vector OQ, suppose /, m, and n, or
those of the vector

Q 0, namely

/,

m, and

n.

If

we

define the direction-cosines of the

normal to be those of
side of the

OQ, then

OQ

is

called the positive

direction of the normal,

QO

the negative direction, and

is

on the positive

plane.

267.] If OP and vector through 0, it

OP be two neighbouring
is

positions of a radius

arbitrary whether we consider the area described to be positive when the radius vector turns from OP to But according to the OP', or when it turns from OP' to OP.

usual convention, the direction in which positive areas are dein the plane POP' is scribed by the radius vector round

determined according to the direction arbitrarily chosen as the If, namely, Q be positive direction of the normal to the plane. on the positive side, then the any point in the normal through
radius vector through describes positive areas when its motion as seen from Q is in the opposite direction to that of the hands
of a watch. 268.] Consider a closed plane curve, and a point passing completely round it, and a radius vector from the moving point to a
fixed point

in the plane of the curve. The algebraic sum, according to the foregoing convention, of the areas described by the radius vector during this motion is evidently independent of in the plane. If it be positive, the motion of the position of the point round the curve is in the positive direction if it be
;

negative, the motion of the point B t VOL. n.

is

in the negative direction.

THE USUAL CONVENTION EESPECTING SIGNS.

[269.

According to this convention the integral \xdy taken round


a closed curve in the plane of xy
tive.
is positive,

and

y dos

is

negais

Similarly

zdx

is positive,

and

xdz negative, \ydz

positive,

and

zdy negative.

If

cosines of its normal,

da be any elementary plane area, I, m, n the directionwe have, taking the integrals round its

boundary,

fxdy=+nd<r,
I

ydx
zdx

nd<r,

=
=

+md(T,
md(r,

I
i

xdz

ydz
%

+ ldcr

zdy

Ida.
surface

Let us next consider a curved


curve or curves.

It can be divided into

bounded by a closed an infinite number of

elementary plane areas. Let us choose the positive side of any one of these. If the surface does not cut itself we thereby determine the positive side of every other element, and so ma}' determine the positive side of the surface. In what follows it
will be assumed, unless otherwise stated, that the surface does

not cut
269.]

itself.

Hence we can

define also the positive direction of motion

for a point passing

round the bounding curve of any surface, whether plane or not. For taking an element of the surface part of whose boundary is the elementary arc PP' of the curve, and
side of that element, we determine by our convention the positive direction of the point's motion along PP', and therefore its positive direction of motion round

having chosen the positive

the bounding curve of the surface. 270.] If the bounding curve of a plane area be traced out by a radius vector through a point not in its plane, the solid angle

subtended at

by the area may be defined

as the smaller portion

2/I-]

STOKES'S THEOREM.

as centre of a spherical'surface of unit radius described about It may be defined as positive or cut out by the radius vector. negative according to the motion of the radius vector, namely
positive, if the point of intersection of the radius vector

with

the bounding curve moves, as seen from 0, in the opposite direction to that of the hands of a watch, negative if in the same
direction.

If the direction of motion of the point be taken as

positive or negative with reference to the normal according to the definition in Art. 268, then the solid angle subtended at by

the area

is positive or negative according as is on the positive or negative side of the plane. The solid angle subtended at by any finite surface is the

sum

areas into

of the solid angles subtended at by all the elementary which the surface can be divided. It is, according to

this definition, a single- valued function of the position of 0.

Stokes' s Theorem.

be an element of a single surface bounded by a closed curve, ds an element of the curve, I, m, n the direction-cosines of the normal to the surface at the point #, y^ #, and let be
271.] Let
d(T

any function of
(

SB,

y>

and

z.

Then

shall the surface integral

-- n
/

da taken

over the surface be equal to the

line integral

P -=- ds

taken round the curve in the 'positive

direction.

PQ be the value of P at the centre of inertia of the surface element da: Through that centre of inertia let axes be drawn parallel to those of x, y^ and 2, and let #', y', 2'
For
let

be the co-ordinates referred to these


curve bounding da.

new
of
'

axes of a point in the


at
of, y',

Then the value


dx
'

is

'

dy

dz

curve becomes
rdscf
v

P-j-jds' /da/

taken round this elementary

-TJ ds
dsf

,dtf ,daf dP, dP^ z +~^ J/V^jyj.^i J/V^Ljy-u "T J/V^i,/' tf-r/M + -ri /-T7r+ dz dx ds? ds' ds' dy

dP

,,

dP2 dpo

B 2

STOKES'S THEOEEM.

The
curve

first

two terms are

severally zero because the elementary

is closed.

The

last

two terms

are equal to

n-j-^dv and

+ m -da- respectively.

dP

Hence
I

And

since
for

we

dtf <ZP N. dP -~ - n-~)d<T= CP,ds. ) ds dz J dy may regard P as constant over do- the theorem is
da-

proved

the elementary area

and

its

bounding curve.
integral

Hence

in the case of a finite surface the surface


is

//o /P
is

m--- n -j}d<r

equal to the

sum of all the

line integrals

ds round all the elementary areas into

which the

surface

(t/s

divided.

is

But in this summation every part of each line integral taken twice, once in the positive and once in the negative
;

belong to the final bounding curve so that the line integrals cancel each other except those relating to the bounding curve. It follows that, for the whole surface
direction, unless it
all

and

its

bounding curve,

COROLLARY
surface.

I.

The

surface integral

is

zero for

any

closed

2,

If X, J, Z be any three functions of #, ^, and the theorem to each of them we may obtain an by applying expression of the form

COROLLARY

II.

dZ dT^ -^
dy

-3-li-Wi-;---T-) \ dz ' dx /
dz

,dX

dZ^ + n ,dY dX -(-i

\dx

-T-

dy

And
and
e

if further

X, Z, and Z be the components of a vector R, be the angle between and ds, we have

/R

cos

ds.

272.]

STOKES

THEOREM.
as,

272.] Let r be the vector from the point

y, z to the origin.

Let p be a vector drawn from the origin with direction-cosines Let us so choose I, m, n, and making with r the angle 0. the positive side of the plane of r and p as that when seen
from a point in the normal through the origin on the positive side the shortest way to turn / to coincide with p would be in the
direction of

watch-hand movement.

Then the

direction-cosines

of this

normal are
1

nymz
so

Iz

nto

mx

ly

In the normal
proportional to
f, g,
7i.

drawn

let us take a vector

whose length

is

2~> and let its components be denoted

by

Then we have

^_ ny
Iz

mz
nx
ly
/,

*.

d
'dx
dz
(2)

y 9

mx

r6

== l^~7 v

dy

d 1 -- m ^~ \)~*
dx/ r
J

If therefore in (1)
positive
'

we make

P = ->

and take p

parallel to the

normal to the surface at the element da, we obtain the

equations

Similarly,

=//^'
f,
77,

(3)

If r be measured to the point the foregoing equations become


x

f instead of to the origin,

/= in--- m-T7.)-j V dri d^'r


(7=1 l-^-i J V
fl d

d \1

(4)
^.l
J

7l-T>)-J

d/r

STOKES' S THEOREM.

[273.

because

,,, and therefore

p^l^l
-77

h=(m df V r* = (f - #) +
-j-f.

. I

d xi
drj/r
)-,
2

(ij

?/)

+ (f -

),

>

-5

>

r d 1 and -r>- are the negatives of -r- dxr


,

d
-z

1
t

dy

and -7-- respectively.


9

d I far

273.] If with the same meanings as before of 0,f g, cos^

Ji

we make

*=

>

then shall

dv ""j~ dx

dh dg = ^-- T'

dv
~~~Tc
dc,
>

dy

dz

= dh dq ^-- 3^5
drj
,

with corresponding- equations


For
v

for

etc.

dy

drj

tf"" a?)

/, d ""V^TZ v

\ + ^T" +-5>|d/ r df
d-r]

dv

d2

d2

d2

because

(_+_+__)_. =
follow

^2

d2

d2

x 1

The remaining equations


c?a?

by symmetry.

dy

dz

df

drj

by

differentiation of (2)

and

(4).

274.] If ds be an element of the curve bounding the surface a, and between the normal to the be, as in Art. 272, the
surface at the point a?, y, then shall #> ?/, * to 77,
,

z,

angle and the vector r from the point

2 75-]

EXTENSION OF ARTICLE 12.


o-,

7
line integral

the surface integral being taken over round the bounding curve. -d For

and the

remembering that the direction of the normal at independent of f 77, and (.


,

so,

y, z, is

But by

Art. 272,

ffkd*

[ jj- ds,

rri t Therefore

d
r dz
drj
_

dc,J J

T?

fr cos 6 d<r=
7

pd
[

r dv

ds

ds

-rr~( ds
,

ds.

.dz

"
s }

dy

The expression
is

*"&

5F

the ar-component of the line drawn in the positive direction to the plane of r and ds, and equal in length to perpendicular

3-

where $

is

the angle between r and


if

ds.

275.]
tions,

We

proved in Art. 12 that


-|,

u and

u' be

two func-

both

of lower degree than

satisfying the conditions

y-

=
-j

at all points on a closed surface S,

and

V 2 u = V 2 */ =

u' at all points on or outside then u necessary for our purpose to extend this proposition to any two functions of negative degree without

at all points outside of S,

of S.

It

is

now

restriction.

Let

be any point within

S, r

the distance from

to

any

point in space.
1.

Then

and

are both of lower degree than

Therefore by Green's theorem applied to external space,

S and

infinite

EXTENSION OP AETICLE 12.

[275.

That

is,

And

as this is true for all positions of

within

S, it follows

necessarily that

nu'=

must have a maximum


suppose P.
could

at all points on S. For if not, u u' or minimum value at some point on S,

And by making
rr
integral
/ /

approach sufficiently near to


ft

P we

make the

(uu') -^

-- dS differ from

zero.

have then at all points on S. Also u u'=. at all points at an infinite distance. Therefore u u' must be zero at all points in space outside of S. For if not it must have a maximum or minimum value at some point outside of S. And
this is impossible

We

UM'=

by Art.

53, since

V 2 (n

?/)

at all points

outside of S.

CHAPTEE

XVI.

ON MAGNETIC PHENOMENA*.
ARTICLE 276.] Certain bodies, as, for instance, the iron ore called load-stone, and pieces of steel which have been subjected
to certain
perties,
If,

treatment, are found to possess the following procalled

and are

Magnets.

near any part of the earth's surface except the Magnetic Poles, a magnet be suspended so as to turn freely about a vertical axis, it will in general tend to set itself in a certain azimuth,

An disturbed from this position it will oscillate about it. has no such tendency, but is in equilibrium unmagnetised body
and
in
if
all

azimuths
is

alike.

It

found that the force which acts on the body tends to

cause a certain line in the body, called the Axis of the Magnet, to become parallel to a certain line in space, called the Direction
of the

Magnetic Force.
direction of the

The

magnetic

force is

found to be different

If the two points in at different points of the earth's surface. which the axis meets the outer surface of the magnet be called

the ends of the magnet, and that end which points in a northerly direction be marked, it is found that the direction in which the
axis of the

magnet

sets itself in general deviates

from the true

meridian to a considerable extent, and that the marked end points on the whole downwards in the northern hemisphere and upwards in the southern.

The azimuth of the direction of the magnetic force, measured from the true North in the westerly direction, is called the The angle between the Variation, or the Magnetic Declination.
direction of the

the Magnetic Dip.

magnetic force and the horizontal plane is called These two angles determine the direction of

* The introductory portion (Arts. 276-282) of this chapter is taken almost without alteration from Maxwell's 'Electricity and Magnetism,' vol. ii. chap. I.

10

MAGNETIC FORCE.

[ 2 77-

the magnetic force, and, when the magnetic intensity is also known, the magnetic force is completely determined. The deter-

mination of the values of these three elements at different parts


of the earth's surface, the discussion of the

manner in which

they vary according to the place and time of observation, and the investigation of the causes of the magnetic force and its
variations, constitute the science of Terrestrial

Magnetism.

axes of several magnets have been determined, and that the end of each which points north has been marked. Then, if one of these be freely suspended, that 277.] Let us
is

now suppose that the

in such a

way

as to be free to turn in all directions about

its

centre of gravity, the action of its weight being thereby eliminated, and another brought near to it, it is found that the

two marked ends repel each other, that a marked and an unmarked end attract each other, and that two unmarked ends
repel each other.

If the magnets are in the form of long rods or wires, uniformly and longitudinally magnetised called bar magnets, it is

found that the greatest manifestation of force occurs when the end of one magnet is held near the end of the other, and that
the phenomena can be accounted for by supposing that like ends of the magnet repel each other, that unlike ends attract each
other,

and that the intermediate parts of the magnets have no

sensible mutual action.

278.]
are

The ends of a long thin magnet such as those just described commonly called its Poles. In the case of an indefinitely

thin magnet, uniformly magnetised throughout its length, the extremities act as centres of force, and the rest of the magnet
appears devoid of magnetic action.

In

all

actual

magnets the

magnetisation deviates from uniformity so that no single points can be taken as the poles. Coulomb, however, by using long thin rods magnetised with care, succeeded in establishing the law
of force between two magnetic poles as follows
:

repulsion between two magnetic poles is in the straight line joining them, and is numerically equal to the product of the

The

strengths of the poles divided by the square of the distance

between them.

2 8O.]

MAGNETIC FORCE
is

"

1i

That

to say, in the case of

two

ideal bar or needle

magnets

in the presence of each other the mechanical action between them is exactly the same as if at the poles of each there were

placed a charge of electricity, one positive and the other negative, numerically equal to the strength of the pole.

is

measured in terms of a certain

279.] This law, of course, assumes that the strength of each pole unit, the magnitude of which

may be deduced from

the terms of the law.

The unit-pole is a pole which points North, and is such that when placed at unit distance from another unit-pole, it repels it with unit of force. A pole which points South is reckoned
legative.

If m l and m2 are the strengths of two magnetic poles, if I be the force of repulsion, all exthe distance between them, and

ssed numerically,

then

Whence

follows that the dimensions of the concrete unit -pole are the same as those of the electrostatic unit of electricity,
it

namely, f as regards length, mass. See Chap. XVII post.


established

i as

regards time, and \ as regards

The accuracy of this law may be considered as having been by the experiments of Coulomb with the torsion balance, and confirmed by the experiments of Gauss and Weber, and of all observers in magnetic observatories, who are every day

making measurements
results

of magnetic quantities, and who obtain which would be inconsistent with each other if the law of force had been erroneously assumed. It derives additional support from its consistency with the laws of electromagnetic

phenomena.
280.] It is not possible to obtain an ideally perfect bar magnet such as we have been considering, and if so obtained it would be
equally impossible to maintain its strength unaltered for any length of time, for reasons hereafter to be mentioned. If, however, we

imagine such an ideal magnet to exist and


always the same, and
call this

then

all

its strength to remain the magnet of reference, magnet experimental evidence points to the following conclusions.

12
(1) That, as has

MAGNETIC THEOET.

[281.

been already implied, if either pole of the of reference were brought near to the middle point of magnet any bar magnet no mechanical action would be apparent, and
such action would be feeble at all points near to the middle of the magnet. (2) If the bar magnet under investigation were broken into two or more pieces of any lengths equal or unequal, then each of the pieces thus obtained would form a short magnet whose
positive and negative poles are at those respective extremities of each short magnet nearer in the unbroken state to the correspond-

ing poles of the original magnet.

by any process whatever to obtain a whose poles are of unequal strength, and therefore immagnet
(3)

It is impossible

possible to isolate a pole.

The

mechanical energy

multiplication of magnets by fracture and creation of is not inconsistent with the conservation of

energy, because after fracture and before separation the adjacent poles of the several magnets neutralise each other, and the act
of separation involves mechanical work.

Magnetic Theory.
281.]

The resemblance mentioned above

(Art. 278) between the

mutual action of bar magnets and of bodies charged with equal and opposite quantities of electricity at the poles of these magnets
could hardly
fail

to suggest the conception of magnetic matter

or magnetic fluids endowed with properties of mutual action according to exactly the same laws as the supposed electric fluids ; and indeed such an hypothesis has proved capable of explaining

some of the phenomena of magnetism as successfully as the twofluid hypothesis explains the phenomena of statical electricity. At the same time such fluids have even less claim to be regarded as physical realities in the magnetic theory than they have in the electrical. They are nothing more than mathematical fictions
of great use in the enunciation and systematisation of the laws of magnetic phenomena.
282.]
of

The two-fluid theory of magnetism assumes the existence two magnetic fluids called positive and negative respectively.

283.]

MAGNETIC ^THEORY.

13

and attracting or repelling according to exactly the same laws as govern the actions of the positive and negative electric fluids.

In the magnetic theory, however, there is nothing that corresponds to a body charged with electricity. The molecules of all substances which are capable of manifesting magnetic action are supposed to be charged with exactly equal quantities of both
fluids,

to the separation of these opposite fluids within each molecule that the phenomena of magnetisation are ascribed.

and

it is

Each separate molecule

is

thus regarded,

when

magnetised, as

having acquired the property of polarisation, that is to say there is a certain line moving with the molecule, such that if by
turning the molecule the direction of this line
is

reversed, then

the magnetic action between this molecule and the surrounding The particular mode of separafield is exactly reversed also.
tion of the fluids within each molecule does not enter into con-

any more than the particular shape of the molecule. As a very simple case we might suppose the molecules of a substance to be equal and similar prisms or cylinders, and the sepasideration,

ration in each to take place by the aggregation of all the positive fluid at one end, and all the negative fluid at the other, i. e. by

equal positive and negative superficial distributions at opposite ends. Each molecule would thus become an elementary bar

magnet
tion

as above defined, the end on which the positive distribu-. was situated being the positive pole. If a finite prism were built up of a very great number of these molecules placed end to end, the positive pole of any one of them being in contact with

the negative pole of the succeeding one, the mechanical action of equal and opposite contiguous poles of contiguous molecules would
neutralise each other,
finite length,

and there would remain a bar magnet of

the strength of whose poles was exactly the same as the strength of the poles of the molecular magnets. This
conception however of the particular shape of the constituent molecules or of the particular mode of fluid distribution within

each one of them,

is not,

and XI, Vol. I, we discussed the properties 283.] In Chaps. of a medium consisting of an infinite number of discrete infinitesimal molecules of any shape whatever, each of them containing

as above said, essential to the theory.

14

MAGNETIC THEOEY.

[284.

either in solid or superficial distribution exactly equal quantities

of the positive and negative electric fluids, and we proved that if $ dx dy dz were the algebraic sum of the mass of the fluids within the elementary volume dxdydz in the neighbourhood of the point
#, y, z

in such a

medium, and

if

a- x

were equal to the triple integral

%(pdxdi/dz taken over an unit volume throughout which the

and of the electricity within each moleand the same as it is in the neighbourhood of uniform, the point so, y, z in the actual medium, with similar meanings for (T y and o- g then <rx cry <rz are components of a certain vector <r and that if a plane were drawn through #, y, z the directioncosines of whose normal were I, m, n, then the algebraical mass
distribution of molecules
is

cule

of the fluids
this plane,

and ltfx + ma- -f nvz y The vector a.

within or upon the molecules intersected by situated on the positive side of this plane, is
so obtained
sc,

we

defined as the polarisation of the


<r x
,

medium

at the point

y, z,

and the quantities

a-

y,

and

o- 3

as

the components of polarisation at that point. proved also that if pdxdydz were the algebraical sum of the electrical fluids within the volume element dxdydz in such a

We

medium,

i.

e.
z,

that

if p

were the
dor

electric

volume density at the

point x, y,

then
p
~

"t*T

over any plane in such a medium whose normal direction-cosines were I, m, n there were superficial electric distribution, then o~x (r v (TZ and <r must be discontinuous at points that
if
, , ,

And

on the plane

and that

if

crx

and

a- x

<r

and

cr^,

crg

and

cr^

were the

values of these quantities at any point of the plane on opposite sides of it, then the superficial density of electrical distribution

over the plane at that point would be

284.] If in the
replaced

medium above by magnetic fluids, we

described the electric fluids be


arrive at the conception of a

magnetised mass in the theory we are now developing.

In

286.]

MAGNETIC POTENTIAL.

15

conformity with" the usual notation


(r

we

shall replace the symbols

x)

<r

and d z by A, B, and C

respectively,

and the symbol

<r

Instead also of the terms polarisation and components of by polarisation as denoted by the aforesaid symbols, we shall em/.

respectively.

ploy the terms magnetisation and components of magnetisation It will be understood that we are here treating
of the effects instantaneously produced

or magnetised molecules,
polarisation

by a system of polarised and not of the means by which their

may be produced, maintained, or destroyed. If we assume the existence of these polarised or mag285.] netised molecules, it follows that there will be a magnetic potential
and magnetic force at every point in the
field of

a magnetised

mass, each in all respects possessing the properties investigated in Chap. Ill, Vol. I, and that with the molecular arrangement and distribution just described, if be the potential at any

point in the

field,

the distance of the element dxdydz of the mass, or of its surface element dS from the point f, 77, f at which the potential is estimated, and the volume and superficial integrations

where

r is

extend throughout the volume of


spectively.

The

surface-integral

S and over its surface rer ma} be more accurately written


d^
(g)

in the form

^rri(A-A')
the summation

+ m(B-B') + n (C-C')
over
all

2 extending

the elementary surfaces at


,

and C, and discontinuity in the values of A, the quantities I, m, n being direction-cosines of the normal of such element in each case the simpler form first written con-

which there

is

templating the case of a single


isation within its

magnet with continuous magnetvolume and surrounded by a non-magnetised

medium.
286.] Restricting ourselves to case (l), and integrating each term for #, y, and z respectively, we obtain the equation

16

MAGNETIC POTENTIAL.
is

we may

If the coordinates of the point at which V express the equation in the form

required be

77,

If
at
a?,

be the angle between r and the resultant magnetisation


y, #,

we have

according as

we
f,

consider r to be
77,

drawn from f

77,

f to

a?,

y,

or

from

#, y,

to

respectively.
force at the point
f,
77,

287.]
are

The components of the magnetic


(IV
=
77
,

dV -r-r>

and

--r^-,
r/
<;

r/F

and they are usually denoted by

the symbols

a, /3,

y respectively, so that

we have

with corresponding equations


288.]
if

for

/3

and

y.
7
,

From

the

expression (1) for the potential T

we

see that

A,

/?,

be constant throughout a magnetised mass,

-//and

this case the

depends upon the superficial magnetisation only. In magnitude and direction of magnetisation are the
If the mass be

same at every point throughout the mass.

cylindrical with its generating lines parallel to the direction of -f nC will be zero at all magnetisation, the quantity IA +

mB

/at points on the curved surface, and will be equal to + /and the two flat ends respectively. In this case let rt denote the
distance of the point at which the potential is to be found from a point in the flat end for which IA + + nC /, r2 its distance

mB

from a point in the other

flat

end.

Then

if

we denote by dSl

289.]

MAGNETIC POTENTIAL.
flat

17

and dS2 elementary areas of the

ends respectively,

If,

further, the dimensions of the flat ends be small


TJ

compared
),

with

and r 2

this

assumes

the

form
all

m( --TI TZ

where

m=

/Y

IdS.

Such a body has then


;

the properties of a bar


if it

magnet, as described in Art. 277

and

be broken into any

number

of cylindrical parts

each part will separately the phenomena described above are


thesis.

by sections parallel to the flat ends, that possess the same properties, so
explained by this hypocalled a

In

this case each

end of the bar

is

magnetic
pole.

pole,

one
or

end the positive and the other the negative

Also
if

#&,

dS,

is

called the strength of the pole.

And

h be the

length of the magnet, mh is called the moment of the magnet. / is called the intensity of magnetisation. It is the magnetic

moment

divided

by the volume of the magnet.


if

289.] Again,

we take the

magnetised mass at the point

expression for the potential of a as given by the equation r/, f

and suppose the direction of magnetisation to be uniform at every


point,

we

obtain the equation

=-

/"/Y

JJJ

d d

)Idxdydz +m-r + n-^{ -^ r


drj

d-

d^}

where / is the magnetic intensity at each


are the direction-cosines of the direction of

point,
/.
,

and

/,

m, and n

distribution

of an electrical rj, C the volume occupied by the magnetised subthrough stance and in which the density at a?, y, z is /, the above equation
If Fj denote the potential at the point
is

equivalent to

,-.

where
VOL.

i is

the line through

f,

r),

f parallel to the given direction of


C

II.

18

MAGNETIC POTENTIAL.

[290.

If the magnetisation be uniform throughout in magnetisation. as well as direction, the equation becomes intensity

diJJJ
where
F"
is
,

di

the potential at f rj, of a mass of uniform density the volume of the given substance. unity occupying 290.] If therefore we know the potential of any given electrical
distribution at

any

any law,

we can

point, either uniform or varying according to at once by mere differentiation determine the

potential at that point of a corresponding magnetic distribution of given intensity and uniform direction.
at the point

For example, the potential of a sphere (rad. a) of density unity, distant r from the centre as origin, is rj,
,

2 TT

if

be external to the sphere,

and

(a

--)

if

P be

within the sphere.

Therefore the potential of a sphere of uniform magnetisation parallel to the axis of x is

I
and

4-7T

as
-3

..

for an external point,

/-

for

an internal point.
its

And
case

the magnetic force has for

components in the former

and in the
l

latter case

--

4-rr

T
'

0~~

"l

respectively.

291.] Again, the potential unity at any internal point


as axes of co-ordinates is

F~
,

of an ellipsoid of uniform density to the principal axes 77, f referred


to be given

known

by the equation

where L, M, are certain known functions of the semi-axes, 0, #, and c. Therefore the potential of an ellipsoidal mass with uniform

293-]

PARTICULAR FORMS OF MAGNETS.

19

magnetisation I parallel to the line i whose direction-cosines are is I, m, n at the internal point f, r/,
or

where A,

.Z?,

and

are the

components of magnetisation at each

point of the mass.

proceed to consider certain particular cases of one of which, namely that of a uniform bar magnetisation, magnet, has already been noticed.
292.]

We

now

An

Elementary Magnet.
f,
77,

We

have seen that the potential at the point

due to a

magnetic mass

may

be expressed in the form

JJj

dxdydz,

where I is the resultant magnetisation, r the vector from #, yy z to and the angle between I and r. If the dimensions of the f, 77,

magnet be

infinitesimal, this

may

be put in the form

I8k

^-

>

when S

is

the transverse section, h the length of the magnet in


/.

direction of

is called the strength of the pole, and ISh the moment of the magnet. Bar magnets of uniform magnetisation may be regarded as elementary magnets, so far as relates to points in the field whose

The quantity IS

distance from
sions.

them

is

great compared with their linear dimen-

293.] Definitions.

A line either straight or curved drawn through

any magnetised mass, so that its tangent coincides at every point with the direction of the resultant magnetisation at the point, is
called a line of magnetisation.

A tubular surface

constructed in any magnetised mass, so that

the line of magnetisation at every point on the surface lies on the surface, is called a tube of magnetisation. And when the transverse section of the tube is indefinitely small, it is called an
elementary
title

of magnetisation* C 2

20

PARTICULAK FOEMS OF MAGNETS.

[294.

If throughout the space bounded by any closed surface

S within

a magnetised mass the distribution be such that

^+^ + ^ =
dx
dy
dz
at every point,

(A)

and therefore the integral

rrrtdA

Ww+w.+x****
taken throughout the space
is zero, it

dB

do\,

follows that

//
taken over

is

zero,

I,

m, n being the direction-cosines of the

normal to
If
sections

S.

S be formed of a tube of magnetisation and two transverse S1 and S2 then since lA + mB + nC=0 at each point on S except points on 8 or 82i it follows that if II be the resultant magnetisation on S13 and I2 on S2 measured in both cases out,

wards from

S,

ff
A magnetic

**%**'*

distribution satisfying the condition (A) is called

A
294.]

Magnetic Solenoid.

A magnetised mass in which the distribution is solenoidal


is

bounded by an elementary tube of magnetisation,

called a

Since the potential at the point simple magnetic solenoid. is given (. 77, f of any magnetised mass, by the equation
t
,

=///
if

dx dy dz,

we replace the volume element dxdydz by Sdh, where 8 is the transverse section of the tube perpendicular to its axis at the
point whose distance measured along the axis of the tube from a fixed point in the axis is ^, we have

The product IS at any point of the

solenoid

is

called the strength

295-]

PARTICULAR FORM& OF MAGNETS.


is

21
its

of the solenoid, and


length.

by Art. 293 uniform throughout

The

potential therefore becomes

rl

and r2 being the distances of the ends of the solenoid from the
;

point considered

or writing

for IS, it is

---rl
r2

The uniform bar magnet already considered is a particular case of the simple magnetic solenoid, and it follows from what is here proved that the same magnetic effects would be manifested by
the bar, whether the magnetisation were uniform or not, provided
it

were

solenoidal.

295.] When a magnetic mass is bounded by an elementary tube of magnetisation, but the distribution is not solenoidal, it is called a complex magnetic solenoid. have, as before, for

the potential

at the point
/

We P the equation V = flSdr ah = r<*r dh. -3-77-

r*

dh

/ J r*dh

In

this case

is

a function of

^,

and the equation becomes


r dh

complex magnetic solenoid may also be found by the superposition of elementary tubes of magnetisation in a mass of solenoidal distribution, touching each other, but of unequal lengths, so that the extremities of each elementary tube are on
the surface of the solenoid.

with

its surface

point,

If a filament of such a mass be taken some tube of magnetisation at every touching and with transverse section very small, it is called a comfor

plex magnetic solenoid.

The expression

7
ri

evidently becomes as before


rz

-j=-

dh

dh,

and may be regarded

as arising from the poles of the solenoid together with a distribution of imaginary magnetic matter of
linear density
jj-

along the axis of the solenoid.

22

MAGNETIC SHELLS.

[296.

296.] If the distribution of magnetisation in any magnetic mass be such that all the lines of magnetisation can be cut ortho-

gonally by a system of surfaces,


magnetisation. A, B,
C,

we know

that the components of

must
,dC

satisfy the equation of condition,


""

dZ

~ dC*
dj/ 3

^ ^ W
(dA
all

dA.

""

dB} " fa )

When this condition is satisfied, the mass at every point. between any two of the surfaces may be divided into elementary portions, each bounded by a tube of magnetisation, and two
surfaces

which cut the tube and

the lines of magnetisation

within the tube at right angles, the distance between the transverse surfaces measured along a normal to either of them at every
point being indefinitely small. magnetic mass bounded by two surfaces satisfying this condition is called a magnetic shell, the normal distance between the surfaces at any point is called the
thickness of the shell at the point,

and the product of

this thick-

ness into the resultant magnetisation at the point is called the strength of the shell at that point. When the strength of the shell

uniform throughout, wise a complex magnetic


is

it is called shell.

a simple magnetic

shell,

other-

297.]

A simple

magnetic

shell

may

therefore be otherwise de-

fined as a thin shell of magnetised matter in sation is everywhere normal to the surface,

which the magneti-

and

its

intensity at

any point multiplied by the thickness of the shell at that point is uniform throughout. The product thus found is the strength of the shell. If it be denoted by 0, and if m, n be the direction,

cosines of the normal to the shell, h its thickness, evidently Ah l(f), Bh m<l), Ch ncf) Z&=$. If, the arrangement being in

other respects the same, the above-mentioned product is not uniform throughout, that is if the strength varies from point
to point, it constitutes a complex magnetic shell. complex magnetic shell may be conceived as made up of simple magnetic shells superposed and overlapping one another, in the same way as a complex solenoid

may

be conceived as composed of over-

lapping simple solenoids.


298.]

To

find the potential at

any point

P (,

?;,

f)*of a simple

299-]
*

MAGNETIC

SLHELLS.

23

magnetic shell. The potential V at P due to any magnetised mass is, as above shown, given by the equation

V=

rrr T cose
I
-3%J %J \J

dx dy dz,

where / is the resultant magnetisation at the point #, y, z of the mass, r the distance from #, y> z to P, and 6 the angle between If we replace the volume-element the direction of I and r.
equivalent hdS> where dS is an element of one of the transverse surfaces of the shell, and k the thickness of the

dx dy dz by
shell at dS,

its

we have

Evidently from the above given to cos 0, this integral will be positive interpretation or negative according as the face of the shell presented to be that of positive or negative magnetisation.
(/>

where

denotes the strength of the shell.

The

integral

/ /

%- dS

is

the solid angle subtended by the

shell at 0.

The

side of the shell

on which

is

positive magneti-

sation, or

towards which the magnetisation

is

measured,

is

the

positive side of the surface (Art. 268).

299.] If therefore we denote by o> the solid angle subtended by the shell at the point in question, V $to where the sign is moves from a point determined as just now mentioned. As
;

close to the shell

point close to the shell


to

on one face round the boundary of the shell to a on the opposite face, V passes from 27T0

according as the passage is from the negative to the positive or from the positive to the negative face of the shell and if the passage be through the shell the same increase or decrease by 47r< takes place in the
or from
to
27i(/>
;

+ 27T0

+ 2 77$

value of

on passing from a point on one face to a very near face, but this result does not imply disin the value of V inasmuch as the thickness of the continuity
point on the opposite
t

shell,

although small,

is finite.

24
300.]

MAGNETIC SHELLS.
The
potential of a magnetic shell at
1

[300.

any point not in

its

substance being

<//
,

^-dcr,
rj,

it

follows that the ^-component

of force at the point


.

is

ds df r

ds

r3

ds

r
/3

by Art. 274, with corresponding expressions for 301.] Let us write

and

y.

**=*
V
f=
r ds

Then

also

-n

l - dS

Similarly

and

dH = -=-- dG

-TTT

S' not 302.] Again, let the point f, r;, f be on another surface cutting the shell, bounded by a closed curve let I', m' n' be the
; y

direction-cosines of the

normal to

$'.

303.]

LAMELLAR MAGNETISATION.
//

25

Then

I'

a + w'/3 + n'y }

da-'

the integrals being taken round the bounding curve of the


surface ^.

303.] If the distribution of magnetisation throughout any mass be such that it may be divided into simple magnetic shells each of

which

is

either closed or terminates in the surface of the


is

magnet,

the magnetisation

said to be lamellar.
exists a function

In lamellar magnetisation there


coordinates such that
A A

of the

_ =

d$
-

dx

T? /}

= d(

f>
j

r<
(J

= d$
dz

dy

Fig. 44.

For

if it cut

F
be

a curve of any form be drawn through such a mass, and and two consecutive shell faces, 8 and $", in the points as in the figure, and if the coordinates of these points
if

#, ^, z

and x + da, y + dy, z + dz, and

if di

denote the thickness

of the shell which

is parallel to the resultant magnetisation,

we

have
di
or

= A dx + B dy +
,
.
-

dz,

Now

/rfi is

the increase of the

shells traversed

sum of the strengths of all the the curve from a fixed point in it, due to the by

26

LAMELLAR MAGNETISATION.

[304.

element PP' of the curve, such increase being- reckoned positive when we proceed along the curve in the direction of magnetisaIf this sum be called <p, it is clear that with the supposed tion.
independent of the form of the curve from the fixed point to P, and is a function of #, y, z only.
constitution of the

magnet $

is

Therefore
or

Adx + Bdy+Cdz

d<t>,

A
A
is

d(j)
>

JJ

ax

d(f>
j

= d$ -rdz
It

ay

The function $

called the potential of magnetisation.

must

be carefully distinguished from the magnetic potential. 304.] To find the potential at any point of any lamellarly magnetised substance.

If f *7> C be ^ ne coordinates of the point and A, B, C the components of magnetisation at the point x, y^ z in the substance, and V the required potential, we know that
>

where T

\/(#

f)

+ (y

2
??)

4-(2

C)

an(l the integration is

taken throughout the mass.

In

this case
Ul

-r

^=

-j
a?/

ty

cte

dz

where

the potential of magnetisation. Therefore "by Green's theorem


<

is

r-flii4the symbols having their ordinary signification. If 6 be the angle between the normal to dS measured out-

wards and the line r drawn from dS to

f,

77,

f,

the equation

becomes

CO s d

V=JJ--r-.dS-JJJ<t>V*-dxdydz.
If
5

rrr.
2 y -

_ 72 1

^j

C be without the mass,

is

everywhere zero, and

the equation becomes


r2

If the point
for

77,

be within the mass, then the equation

/^becomes

305.]

ENEEGY OF MAGNETIC SYSTEM.


'

27

r=//*^ +4 , W
<

where (0)

is

the value of
integral

at

T;,

f
*s

The double
12.

/ /

-^^

d$

generally represented
close to the surface S,

by
one

The values of
47T

12 for

two points

just within

by

($),
;

and the other just without the mass, clearly differ where (0) is the value of $ within the mass close to

whence it follows that the value of V is continuous on crossing the surface, as it should be by Chap. Ill, inasmuch as it is the potential of matter of finite density.
the point

The Energy of a Magnetic System.


305.] It
is

proved in Vol.
is

I,

Art. 166, that the potential energy

of an electric system

given by the integral \\ \\Vpdxdydz,

is the potential of the system, and p the volume where density of electricity, at the point #,y, z, the triple integral being re-

placed

by the double integral \l\Vffd8

for surfaces of superficial

electrification.

By

reasoning in

all respects

similar to that used

in

obtaining the above-mentioned result,

we

obtain for the

potential energy of

any magnetic system,


i

so far as concerns

the magnetic forces alone, the expression

dB

dC

netised

the volume integral extending over the substance of the magbodies and the surface integral over their bounding

This is the work done in constructing the system the magnetic forces. In an actual magnetised body it against may be the case that other intermolecular forces are called into
surfaces.

The above expression does play in constructing the magnet. not include work done against such forces. Again, the relative potential energy of one portion of an

28
electric field

ENERGY OP MAGNETIC SYSTEM.


with reference to the other portion
is / / /

[306.

Vpdxdydz,

where p is the volume density of the first, and V the potential of the second portion at the point as, y> z. Similarly the relative of one system of magnetised matter in the field potential energy
of another system
is

in

which A, B, and
is

relate to the first

and

to the second

system. This expression

equivalent to

It

is

this relative potential

with which we

shall

be mainly con-

cerned in the following investigations.


306.] On the potential energy of a magnetised mass in a field of uniform force.

If X, 7,
required,
it

be the components of the

force,

W the

energy

follows that

If
/ /

we denote the
IK,

integrals

UAdxdydz^

//

\Bdxdydz, and
above ex-

Wdxdydz by

mK, and

nK

respectively, the

pression becomes

W = -JT/jfY^Xf m Y + nZT) dx dy dz.


netic
is called the magthe quantity moment of the magnet, and the line whose direction-cosines are I, m, n is called the axis of the magnet. If R denote the constant force, and e the angle between -Fand
If, further,

P + m* + n* = l,

the axis of the magnet, the potential energy

is

given by

W = -RKco8.
Any
region on the earth's surface is sensibly a field of uniform and Q be the azimuth and horizontal magnetic force. If
<

307.]

ENEKGY OF MAGNETIC SYSTEM.


and

29

inclination of the axis of the magnet,

magnetic being vertical and that of x in the meridian,


responding

quantities for the

force,

8 and f the corthen the axis of z

X = R cos f cos
/

5,

= cos

cos <,

Y = R cos f sin w = cos sin $,


{ cos

8,

Z = R sin f
w
6)

= sin

0,
.

and therefore

W = KR

f cos

cos

(<

+ sin { sin

If therefore the

magnet be suspended by

its

centre of inertia,

so as to be free to turn about that point, the generalised

com-

ponent of force tending to increase $, or the moment of the force tending to turn the magnet round a vertical axis, is
rL

W -

>

or

KR'cQs f cos

sin

(<

8)

and similarly the moment of the force tending to increase the inclination of the axis to the horizontal plane is
ft

>

du
307.]

or

KR

{sinf cos0

cos f sin

cos

(<

8)}.

magnetic potential energy of any lamellarly substance in a magnetic field. magnetised If be the potential energy required,
find the

To

=
</>

/T<

j? dS-JJfo

V Vdx dy dz,
2

being the potential of magnetisation at the point mass, and V the potential of the field at that point.

#, y, z

of the

If the potential energy required be relative to 2 magnetisation entirely without the mass, then V V

a
0,

field

of

and the

equation becomes
r

4?<Mi
or

W=

I \<t

where

a, /3,

y are the components of force due to the

field at

the

30

ENERGY OF MAGNETIC SYSTEM.


/,

[307.

element dS, and the element.

m, n are the direction-cosines of the normal to

transverse surfaces

If the mass be bounded by a tube of magnetisation and the S and $2 each of them everywhere at right
,

angles, to lines of magnetisation,

TF=

(^

/J^ + ^ft + ^y^^

the surface integrals being taken over S1 and S2 respectively and the normals being measured in both cases from S^ to Sy
If the surfaces S1 and S2 be very near to each other so that the mass constitutes a uniform magnetic shell of normal thickness
i,

where

4> is

the strength of the

shell,

and

If the field be that of another uniform magnetic shell of strength 4>', we know from Art. 301 that

where

F=v[ r "*f, J ds
therefore

G'=V^ds>, J r ds

H'J

r ds
shell
<!>',

the integrals being taken round the contour of the

ds ds'
cos

ds ds'
,
,

dsds
r

where

the angle between the elements ds and ds'. If the energy required be that of the lamellarly magnetised mass in its own field, then we have by Art. 304,
e is

dx

dy dy

dz

dz
2

'

j j j d* (jp + tto))**<h/
,d(j)

/^<K 2 \

308.]

ENERGY OF MAGNETIC SYSTEM.

31

And

in the case of a uniform shell of strength

3> this

becomes as

above
the former of the two double integrals being taken for each pair of elements of the contour of the shell.

The These two terms are of the same order of magnitude. energy therefore is not in this case represented by the integral

The whole energy of the mass placed


field is

in the given external


,
.

Cr^fdV +
+ (K

cZflx

*dd

+ ** /Y/V 2 *******

308.] On the potential energy of a given magnetised mass in the field of an elementary magnet.

If x^y^z be the middle point of the axis of the elementary its moment, 6 the angle between its axis and the magnet,

line r

drawn from

we know from

77, f in the magnetic mass, 298 above that the potential V of the Art.

#, y,

z to the point f

.'

'.

McosO
^
,

elementary magnet at

77,

<;

is

or

r3

m, n, being direction-cosines of the axis of the elementary its moment. magnet, and If this axis be denoted by the symbol h-^ the last expression
/,

is

M-rr(-)

in the notation of Vol.

I,

chap. II; therefore

be the potential energy of the whole If therefore netised mass in the field of the elementary magnet,

mag-

32
A, B, and
at

ENERGY OF MAGNETIC SYSTEM.

[308.

C being the components of magnetisation of the mass and the integration being taken throughout the mass. f, rj, If the magnetised mass be also an elementary magnet we may regard it as consisting of the single element ddrjd{, which may also be written as k a, where k is the length of the secondary
elementary magnet and a determined by the equation
its

transverse section, so that

is

drj

or
elf

the direction-cosines of the axis, and of magnetisation, of the second magnet. intensity Now //fca=Jf2 the moment of the second magnet, and

where

A,

/x,

v are

the

d
d

(A.-F v

+
,

d
jOi

dt]

+ ^^>) = TT d' dh
2

if

hz be a line through f
Therefore

T;,

^ coincident with the second axis.


l * z

W = M M 4~

4- ( -) '

If
AJ,
r,

be the cosine of the angle between the two axes and ju 1>2 A 2 be the cosines of the angles they make respectively with
get

we

And from

this equation we may determine the force on either in any direction and the couples round any given axis magnet arising from their mutual action by the ordinary methods of

generalised coordinates.

CHAPTER

XVII.

MAGNETIC INDUCTION AND INDUCED MAGNETISM.


ARTICLE 309.] In Art. 191, we proved that when an infinite plane is situated in a uniform medium of polarised molecules, whose polarisation normal to the plane is n-, the average force at

any point on the plane arising from the molecules intersected by 4 TTO-. the plane is If, therefore, a plane element dS be drawn through any point

of a magnetic mass, large in comparison with the superficial dimensions of a magnetised molecule, but so small that the polarisation of the mass is sensibly the same as that at P all

over dS, the force at

P normal

tised molecules intersected

magnetic polarisation adopted the force is

to dS arising from the magnedS will be 47r<r, where <r is the by normal to dS at P, or in the notation now

and the

flux of force over

dS

is

Now,

if a,

/3,

y be the components of the total magnetic force

at P, the total flux of force over

Hence
dS
are

it

dS is (la + mfi + ny)dS. follows that the flux of force over dS arising from

the magnetism in the field

when

the molecules intersected by

removed

is

The

force

whose

flux is thus determined is called the magnetic

induction at

P normal

to dS.

Its

components

parallel to the axes

of reference are

They
VOL.

are
IT.

generally denoted

by the symbols D

a,

b,

and

re-

34
spectively, at P.

MAGNETIC INDUCTION.
and are
called the components of magnetic

[310.
induction

310.] If any closed surface S be drawn in space, the total flux For the quantity of the magnetic induction through S is zero. of magnetic matter within S is

Therefore,

by Art.

42, the total flux of the


-

magnetic

force

through

8, or

j
is

equal to

-4-7T /
j

Therefore

Since

/ / {la

+ mb + nc}dS =

for all possible closed surfaces, it follows that

da -= dx

db
-f-

dc
f-

-=

dy

dz

-j

_ =

at every point. It is proved in Art. 191, above referred to, that if a small

cylinder be taken whose base

is

dS and height very small

in

comparison with the linear magnitude of dS, then the average force within this cylinder normal to dS arising from the included

magnetic molecules

is

4770-,

or in the

magnetic notation

Whence

it

follows that if a crevasse be formed

by emptying
is

this cylinder of the included molecules, the average force within

the cylinder normal to

dS

arising from, the rest of the field

in other words, this force is the magnetic induction as above


defined.

312.]

VECTOR POTENTIAL.

35

It will be observed that the magnetic induction components


satisfy the

no-convergence condition da db dc

T + ay + dz = T T ax

'

but that the magnetic force components a, /3, y do not generally do so on the other hand, a, /3, and y are always derived from a potential, but a, b, and c are not so, unless the components of
;

magnetisation A, B, and C are so derived. The magnetic induction and magnetic force are the same in
all

regions devoid of magnetic matter. 311.] Since the flux of magnetic induction

closed surface whatever, this flux


surfaces

is zero for any must be the same through all bounded by the same closed curve, and therefore must

be equal to a line integral taken round the curve. Let I, m, n be direction-cosines of the normal at any point of a surface 8 bounded by the closed curve #, and let a } b, c be

the components of magnetic induction at P. Then, if F, G, be vector functions of the coordinates f, ry, f of any point in which satisfy the conditions

H
S

_dff
we know, by

dG -~"~'

dF -~ dH _dG dF ~"~'

Art. 271, that the line integral

j(
taken round the curve

Ts

+0 ^ +H

ds

8 is

equal to the surface integral

determined by the above written quantities F, G, equations are called the components of the Vector potential of magnetic induction, and sometimes also the components of the
Magnetic momentum.
312.]

The

In Arts. 285, 286 we have found the expression

for the

of any given magnetic field, and ordinary or scalar potential we now proceed to do the same for the components of the G,

vector potential.

This involves the solution of the simultaneous

differential equations

D 2

36

VECTOR POTENTIAL.

[312.

dH da = dj~d{
The
solution is

dV

dF
'

dH

dV
4

~d*
d&

d{~d*
dV
-rfc

"dr,

^-^

dF

the distance between the point f, rj, f at which and the element dxdydz^ and the F, G, all space. integrals are taken over For remembering that

where r

is

are to be found

d 1 T? ~ T
77

d 1 -3 dx r
y,

with similar relations


values of F, G, and
dr\
If,

for

and

f and

^,

we have with
d
i

these

da
d

rrr

TZ^-T

d
-=-

rrr
/ / /

drjJJJ

B-rr~ dxdydz

dr

drjJJJ

drjr

dxdydz

Also,

by Art. 286,

if F*

be the scalar magnetic potential,

dv
Therefore

dH da --

dv
*f

T7r+-r?-

d-n

dC

d = T-

rrr n di, /// B-- dxdydz *vJjf ^f"


.

d rrr n di, -77. / / / B -dxdydz ^fjJJ drir

Here the
throughout measured.

integrals in the right-hand


all

member

are extended
is

space, including the point from which r

We may consider

them

as divided into

two

parts, (i) for all

space outside of an infinitely small sphere described about the

3-]

VECTOR POTENTIAL.

37

point in question as centre, (2) for the space within that small Then in forming the integral (i) for the external sphere. we may differentiate under the integral sign; and this space
causes the right-hand member to vanish, because in this case, the point from which r is measured not being included in the
limits of integration,

V2 - =

for

every point.

The external

space therefore gives

^_^ + dq =0
7

drj

>

<*r ^^ V * 7 f

Secondly, for the space within the infinitely small sphere we may, if A> B, C be continuous functions, put them outside of

the sign of integration as constants. Then the first two lines of the right-hand member of our equation vanish by symmetry and the third line becomes 4TrA. Hence, the integration for
:

the space within the small sphere gives

dH_dG
dif]

dV
d

And combining

the two results

we have

for all space

dH
j

dG
~T[

dV
-Jr.

~ 477 ^>

dH
or
arj

dG
a
z-rr

= a + ^TT A = a.
dH = __
6,

dF
Similarly,

dG_dF =
If A, B, and C are discontinuous at the point considered, we may obtain the same result as follows
313.]

B ^t- A ^)- dxdv d*

in

of

which the double integral is over every surface of discontinuity and B, and throughout the triple integral B and A are continuous. Treating G and also V in the same manner, we obtain

38

VECTOR POTENTIAL.

[314.

dH
1
c?J

dG
df
TJ-

dV + TF = d

d CriB-vnA. iB-vnA. T~ / / ^ drjJJ

*"
d

d
77-

fA TnA-lC
'

/ /

dS

^Cv/J

lA+mB + nC dS

rrri,dc

dlJJJ r

%-

JA

if

The integral taken throughout the space outside of the small sphere enclosing the point considered is zero by Art. 312, because we may perform the differentiations under the integral
sign.
triple

When we

integrals Of the double inquantities under the integral sign are finite. the first represents the force in y, due to a distribution tegrals

integrate throughout the small sphere the in the second member vanish, because the

of density

IBmA

over the surface of discontinuity passing

That is, through the point considered. 47rm(lB Treating the other double integrals in the same way,
for the

mA).

we

find

sum

of the three

Therefore, as before,

dH ~ da
or
?T7

dV =

=
<^C

&c.

= &c.
C
d,

314.] When the magnetisation is lamellar A, J3, and derivable from a potential 0, and therefore in this case a>
c are so likewise.

are

and

Referring to Art. 304, we see that in such a mass the quantity in that Article called fi, or

r^

~a
dS,

is

the potential of magnetic induction, and that the components of this induction are

3 1 5-]

INDUCED MAGNETISM.

39

In this case

rrr(d<i_d$
JJJ \dydz

\<

dz'dy]
n
) dy' r

mor

dz

=
by
F, G,

The

quantities denoted

H in Art. 301, are the


uniform magnetic
shell,

comand,

ments of vector potential

for a

there stated, for such a shell

idy
integration being taken round the shells contour. These results might have been deduced from the expressions

le line

for F, G,

and

.3"

just found for

any lamellar mass.

Of Induced Magnetism. 315.] Hitherto we have treated of magnets and magnetic lolecules in their mechanical relations only, considering magletisation

leans

as an invariable quantity without regard to the which it can be produced, altered, or destroyed. In by iture no such thing as an invariably magnetised body exists, [agnetisation is always changing, and in particular the magnetition of any substance generally changes with the state of
ie

magnetic field in which the substance is placed. Magnetion is said fco be induced in it by variation of the field, if renerally, a piece of iron tends to assume magnetisation
)riginally
if partially in a direction opposite to that of the field, that is, lagnetised, such a direction as to diminish the magnetic potential of the

unmagnetised, or additional magnetisation

ield.

If the field were one of electric instead of magnetic force,

the magnetisable substance a conductor, it would become )larised in that direction, and the polarization would be pro-

40

INDUCED MAGNETISM.

[315.

In Poisson's theory of induced portional to the inducing force. magnetism this is the action which ensues in the molecules of
magnetisable masses

when brought

into

any magnetic

field.

The molecules become


magnetic
force.

polarised to a degree proportioned to the Hence, it follows that the mathematical treat-

ment

of such a magnetisable

medium would

that of the dielectric

medium

exactly resemble considered above in Chapters

and XI, the magnetisable molecules taking the place of the small So that if a, /3, y were the comconductors of that chapter.
ponents of total magnetic force of the field at any point, we should have an additional magnetisation in the neighbourhood
of that point arising from induction whose components were, in the notation of that chapter, Q a, Q(3, and Q y respectively, the l symbol K being generally used for Q in Poisson's notation
.

The quantity

+4

-n

is,

to that represented by K to, and it is in Poisson's

therefore, in all respects analogous or 1 + 4 TT Q in the chapters referred

Further, A, B, and

notation generally denoted by //. the components of induced magnetisaC,

tion, are respectively equal to xa, */3,

and *y. It follows from the results arrived at in the aforesaid chapters, that the magnetic potential at any point in a magnetisable mass,
in

any magnetic

field, is

- of the potential

at the

same point in

air or

different values of

vacuum, and therefore that in comparing two media with /u, the intensities of the fields arising from

magnetic systems vary inversely as /u, that is, a, /3, and y, the forces derived from magnetised molecules, vary inversely On the other hand, the vector whose components are as ju.
similar
juo, /u/3, /xy is

always independent of /A. the magnetisation of the mass arises entirely from induction, the last mentioned vector is the magnetic induction,

When

and in this case the magnetic induction at any point in any medium due to any given magnetic distribution is independent of /u, and whatever be the changes of medium, the flux of
1 It is assumed in the text that we are dealing with iron, by far the most important of magnetisable substances. In certain substances induced magnetism is of the opposite sign to that stated in the text. Such substances are called diamagnetic. Iron, and substances which behave like it are paramagnetic.

3 1 6.]

INDUCED MAGNETISM.

41

magnetic induction over every closed surface is zero, and the magnitudes F, G, H, are independent of p. In all cases the flux of the vector /xa, /x/3, /my over any closed
surface is equal to the algebraic the surface.

sum

of the

magnetism within

If a homogeneous mass without magnetisation, but of being magnetised by induction, be placed in a magcapable netic field, the magnetisation which it assumes is, according to this theory, lamellar and solenoidal.
316.]

For let V be the magnetic potential, including as well that of the field as that of the induced magnetism. Then we have at every point in the mass

dV
r dx fx-T-j
dy
dz

dV B = -MT~> r
n C

= -)Lt dV
ju,

And therefore since the mass is homogeneous and M F, and the B, C are derived from a potential
is

constant,

tion

lamellar.

Again,

if p

magnetisabe the density of magnetic matter


0.

within the mass,

V 2 V+ 4?rp =
dA

Also, as

shown above,

dB
or

dC

whence

it

follows that p

0,

and

dA
dx

dB
dy

dC_
dz

or the magnetisation is solenoidal. case of a lamellar mass is conceivable in

which the

force,

due to the mutual attraction of the faces of every magnetic shell into which the substance is divided, is always equal and
is opposite to the separating force to which the magnetisation at every point. so that a 0, y According 0, /3 due, to the experiments of Thalen (Maxwell, 430) this condition is

42

INDUCED MAGNETISM.

[317.

very nearly reached by soft iron, for which therefore 128 TT+ 1.
//,

32,

and

On this theory it follows that to any problem in in317.] duced magnetism there corresponds a problem in specific inductive capacity, and any such problem may be investigated on the
for principles developed in Chap. XI, with the substitution of 1 + 4 TTK. of that Chapter, where /x the symbol If V be the known potential at any point of the given magthat of the induced magnetism, and netism in the field, and
/ut

we

confine our attention to the case of isotropic media, the in equations for the determination of the unknown quantity

terms of the given quantity

V are
dV
is

of the form

dV

dV

dV

,dV

dV

throughout regions wherein variable, and

ju

either invariable or continuously

over surfaces separating the media at which


tinuously from
/ut

//,

to

//,

where p and

o-

are the

changes disconvolume and

any given fixed magnetism in the neighbourhood of the point. In the case of a single magnetisable mass bounded by a given surface and placed in air or a medium
superficial densities of
is unity, and in a given external magnetic field, there be no fixed magnetism in the mass, the above equations are reduced to V 2 F' 0,

for

which p
if

and

and

*.
/4

(F

+70+^<7+70 =
dV' dV'
dv'
-j

0.

The
f r//5

last

equation becomes, by the substitution of

+ 477 K

dV __
dv
0,

'

dv
dv

because

dv

and

it is

more generally written in

this form.

3 1 8.]
318.]

INDUCED MAGNETISM.
For
all

43

cases of concentric spherical boundaries it is

easy to determine

in suitable spherical harmonic functions,

has been so expressed, with the common spherical centre as origin. The particular case of a sphere with magnetic per-

when

meability

JA,

surrounded by air in a
a?,

field

of uniform magnetic

force F, parallel to

is

specially treated in Chap.

XI

above

mentioned.
If in the results there obtained

we

write

/u

for

we get

for

the resulting magnetic potential


sphere

in the space

outside the

and

for

the potential

Vl

in the sphere

And

for the superficial

magnetisation of the sphere at any point

"~

jn'

a?
*

The method may be extended

to a mass bounded

by the

>

ellipsoid
cc

a?

i/

%?

&*"

1?

surrounded by air and in a field of constant force F. For if denote the integral r d\
<

L 7p
where A
is

a function of

a?,

^, z

determined by the equation

*
2
i

f
\

*
\

72_i

2_i_ X

-i
a?,

m
V
'

we know

that x
(JuGL

is

the ^-component at

y,

^ of the attrac-

tion of a mass of density unity bounded by the ellipsoid, and therefore it satisfies the conditions of vanishing at infinity, and

at all external points.

44
If

INDUCED MAGNETISM.
$ denote the value of
<j>

[318.
that
is

when

A.

0,

to say, for

any point on the

ellipsoid, it follows that


-j

the function

da?

satisfies

of the ellipsoid.

the above conditions, and is equal to x at the surface Also at the surface,

(*&?
da
2 '

=
_

x
-jj-

x
1

(
J-5J-

az

dty^l

a?

x d dx

11
1_

d
1_

z
us

TX

d(b _L.

b'*

dy
z
c
2

tfdz

da 2

da da?~
ivx
a?

tax
d(j)

dA.

y d\
IP

d\} d

d$
da?

\a?

dx

dy

dz\d\

da?

where

is

the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent


z.

plane at x, y,
AI Also

And from

d\2x
_
(nr,
Therefore
]L \

(1),

I = - -rr2 a?bc where X = 0,


d<l> -~

d\

when X

= 0.
2z

da?

d\

d\

da? \

VTX ===== IPX --1__ .....


a?

dfa o

a?

(2)

da?

/
'

UUL

d<$> Q

da

obtain a solution by assuming for the potential of the external space

we

and

for the potential,

Vl

of the internal space

where

is

a constant to be determined.

Again, on the surface

dV --dv

dV.
ju

dv

= 0.

319.]

INDUCED MAGNETISM.
last equation gives us,

45

The

by means of (2),

or

which determines A.

When

=6=

c,

^> = - -Lda? 3a

' 3 ;

the elKpsoid then becomes a sphere, and

as before.

The

superficial

magnetisation

is

dv
If the given field had been one of constant force whose components were F, G, ff, then the internal field would also have

been one of constant force whose components were

-F
r-;
)

~G
.

and

-H

And

the superficial magnetism at any point would be

x
|

y_
2

H
We may
apply a similar treatment to the case of a
,

319.]
shell

bounded by concentric spherical surfaces with radii a and and situated in air in a field of uniform force F. Let F, F', and V" be the potentials in the external space, in the substance of the shell, and within the hollow respectively
;

then

it is

clear that

46

INDUCED MAGNETISM.

[320.

where

is

a constant, will at

all

points satisfy the condition

V 2 F=0. Also 7 at
where
If
finite.

infinity

becomes

Fx+

Q, and

V and

V"

are every-

A = C(l -

-3),

and

D = ^(l - ^),

the values of the

potential will be everywhere continuous. The surface conditions require that

dV

drr = a

-dV' drr

dV' and w -;

dV'
,

whence we get

or eliminating and reducing,

Also

Therefore

And
value
is

the hollow

is

field of

uniform magnetic force whose

320.]

A similar

method may be applied

to the case of a shell

320.]

INDUCED MAGNETISM.

bounded by concentric and confocal ellipsoidal surfaces surrounded by air in a field of uniform force parallel to one of the axes.
Let the equations of the outer and inner
ively be
ellipsoids respect-

^*+lb+-* 2 2 I c a2
and
let

Sil

>

and

T^Ta2 A,
d\ dk

ft

2 TT-T-

A,

+ c2 T^~T = A,

*>

$ and

$' denote the integrals

and

r J\

and $ and $' the corresponding integrals


for any point x, y} being determined by the equations
x*

for

0.

The value of A
y*

z in the respective integrals

a?

1,

and

-=

y*
^

z2
;

It will be observed that

id therefore that at
<

re

forming measure A from the inner

any point in space $ = (//, provided that we measure A from the outer, and in forming </>'
ellipsoid.

values of the aforesaid potentials F, F"', and V" for the external space, the shells substance, and the hollow will be

Then the

n by the following equations

V=-Fx I-

V"

= Dx,

48
where

INDUCED MAGNETISM.
d(j>'

[321.

A=C

J7

da2 with the

superficial conditions at the outer

and inner
dv

surfaces

dV = dv

IJL

dV' dv

and

dV'
jx

-=

dv

= dV" -r

At

the outer surface

dV
dv"

Fxtff

where

is

plane at #, y, z of the outer surface.

the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent Substituting in the first of

the superficial equations and dividing by equation in the constants.


Similarly,

^ we

obtain a linear
.

-.y,,

we

should find that at the inner surface -^


,

dv

and

dv

are each divisible

by

-^

where

is

the perpendicular from

the centre on the tangent plane at the point x, y, z of that surface, whence we should get a second linear equation these two equations in A)
,

C,

combined with the two given above give a

complete solution of the problem. 321.] The theory of induced

magnetism given above does not adequately explain the phenomena presented by soft iron or
other rnagnetisable substances when placed in a magnetic field. According to the theory, the intensity of magnetisation induced

should be proportional to the force, and so capable of increase without limit. And the magnetisation should immediately dis-

321.]

INDUCED MAGNETISM.
force.

49
is

appear on removal of the

Neither of these conditions

It is found that the magnetisation actually fulfilled in practice. assumed by soft iron tends, as the inducing force is increased,
to a definite limit,

and that

it

disappear on removal of the force.

does not immediately or entirely It is found also that if the

force pass through a complete cycle the magnetisation is always retarded in phase, as a consequence of which work is done in the

Other theories have been invented to explain the actual phenomena, of which the best known is that of Weber, discussed by Maxwell, Chap. VI, Vol. II. The reader may also It is not our purpose to consult the works in footnote below *. dwell on this branch of the subject, which belongs rather to
cycle.

treatises
*

on the physical properties of

iron.

p. 141 ; Dr. Hopkinson, Phil. Trans., part II, p. 455 Professor Ewing, ibid., p. 523 ; Lord Kayleigh, Phil. Mag., Vol. XXII, p. 175; Mr. Bosanquet, ibid., Vol. XIX, pp. 57, 73, 333 ; Vol. XXII, p. 500.

Warburg, Wiedemanns Annalen XIII,

Vol.

CLXXVI,

VOL.

II.

CHAPTER

XVIII.

MUTUAL RELATIONS OF MAGNETS AND ELECTRIC CURRENTS.


ARTICLE 322.] WE now return to the consideration of the system of two uniform magnetic shells of strengths $, </>' respectively ; and, until otherwise stated, it will be understood that we are dealing with a medium in which the magnetic permeability is unity. As above shown, the potential energy of

mutual action of the two

shells,

that
<

is

the work which would

be done in constructing the shell

against the forces exerted

by the

shell $' is

where

a', b', c' are the components of magnetic induction, or, which is here the same thing, magnetic force, due to the shell $', and the integration is over the shell <. The surface integral
<ff

represents the flux of magnetic induction of the shell the shell <p, or, as we may otherwise express it, the
lines of

through
of

number

magnetic induction of the

shell $'

which pass through

the shell $.

The expression
(la

+ mb' + nc') dS
we
shall

admits of being put in several other forms of which have occasion to make use viz.
;

the angle between ds and ds taken round the bounshall denote the integral dary of both shells.

where

e is

We

cos e

dsds

, ,

by M.

324.]
Also

OERSTED'S LAW.

51

round the boundary of the

shell $,

where

F', G',

are the

com-

ponents of vector potential of magnetic induction due to the shell $'. It appears from the last expressions that the quantity
of
either shell if the

form of the surface of bounding curve be given. If the shells be rigidly magnetised, and if they be capable of relative motion without change of shape, they will so move as
in question is independent of the to diminish the quantity M, according as and $'
i

work

<

<' M, that

is

to increase or diminish

have the same or opposite signs. in the same way if there be many magnetic shells, or Exactly
field,

magnetised bodies, in the

invariable shape so move as to increase the flux of magnetic induction due to the field through its contour.
will, if free

a rigidly magnetised shell of to move without change of shape,

its

Evidently any such diminution of the potential energy has equivalent in kinetic energy of visible motion of the shells,

or in external

work done.
field in

323.] It

was discovered by Oersted that the


electric current is a

the neighfield.

bourhood of a closed

magnetic

The

definition of this field, usually accepted as the result of experi-

ments,
shell at

is

that the magnetic

field
its

due to a uniform magnetic


is

any point not within

substance

the same as that

due to a certain closed electric current round the bounding curve of the shell. The direction of the current is the positive direction as defined in Art. 269, taking for the positive normal to the shells surface a line drawn from the negative towards the positive face of the shell.

The strength

of the current

is

pro-

When we come to treat of the portional to that of the shell. units of measurement, we shall see that in a certain system,
called the electromagnetic system, the strength of the shell is

numerically equal to that of the current. 324.] An infinite straight line may be regarded as the edge of a plane magnetic shell, every other part of the boundary of which
is

infinitely distant.

According to the law of equivalence above E 2

52
stated, such

OEKSTED'S LAW.
a shell produces the same magnetic
field

[324.
as

an

electric current in the infinite straight line.

magnet be brought into the field magnet may be regarded as a magnetic shell, or aggregate of We might then form the integral parallel magnetic shells.
'cos 6

Let a small bar Such a of the infinite shell.

dsds
for the infinite straight line

,
,

with the boundary of the

shell or

The bar shells composing the magnet in any given position. magnet, if free to move, would tend so to place itself as to
this integral a maximum, and, according to the law of equivalence above stated, it will behave in the same way when for the infinite shell we substitute an electric current in the
infinite line.
}

make

Let us take the direction of the current

for axis

of z and a plane through C, the centre of the magnet, for that of xy, the origin being at the intersection of this plane with

the infinite straight line. Then, first, let the axis of the magnet in the plane of be constrained to lie in a radius drawn from xy> but be free to rotate about an axis coinciding with that of
z.

In

this case the integral


cos e

dsds
f

0,

whatever be the length CO, and whatever angle

it

makes with

The magnet therefore a fixed plane through the axis of z. will be acted upon by no couple tending to turn it round the axis of z. It is found that this is in fact the case.
Secondly, let the centre of the magnet be fixed, and let it be turn in a plane perpendicular to the current. In this case the integral is a maximum when the positive pole points
free to

towards the right of a man so standing that the current flows from his head to his feet and facing the magnet. It is found

The experiment that the magnet does tend so to place itself. the law of equivalence might therefore be regarded as confirming above stated.
ferent way.

The experiment can also be interpreted in a somewhat difThe magnet may be regarded as consisting of a

325.]
positive
force

OEBSTED'S" LAW.

53

and a negative

pole.

And

the current as exerting a

on the positive pole in the tangent to a -circle drawn through the pole round the origin as centre in a plane percateris paribus,

pendicular to the current, in the direction above indicated, and, an equal and opposite force on the negative pole.

Since in the

first

case there

is

no resultant couple tending to

move the magnet as a whole round the origin, it follows that the moment of the force acting on the positive pole round the
for

and opposite to that acting on the negative pole every position of the magnet. Whence it is inferred that the force on a pole due to the current in the direction of the
axis is equal current.

tangent varies inversely as the distance of the pole from the For a magnet of invariable shape the experiment
is

admits indifferently of either interpretation. 325.] As the magnetic field due to a closed electric current

the same as that due to the equivalent magnetic shell, it follows that the mechanical effect of the field on the conductors carrying

the current

is

the same as

its

mechanical
i

effect

on the

shell.

be maintained constant, the circuit, if rigid, tends to move so as to increase or diminish the coefficient If, that is the flux of magnetic induction through it,
is,

That

if

the electric current

exactly as the equivalent shell would do if rigidly magnetised. If q be any generalised coordinate on which the value of or 9

depends, the mechanical force tending to increase q in a system of magnetic shell and electric current (the magnetisation of the shell and the electric current being both constant, and the

shape of shell and circuit invariable)


fore if the
</>

is

icf)

-7-.

And

there-

constant under its own system move with i and mutual forces so as to make q become q + 5 q, it acquires kinetic energy of visible motion of the shell or conductors or both, or
does work, equal to
i<f)

-y

S^.
shells

In the corresponding case of two

we

said that this kinetic

54
energy, or

OERSTED'S LAW.

[326.

work done, was equivalent

to the diminution of the

potential energy of position of the two shells caused by the In the case of circuit and shell now under consideramotion.
tion, it is true that

the forces are derived from

i<j>

as

from

a potential.

Nevertheless, to ascribe to the system potential

energy of position would not be a complete account of the phenomena. Because, as we shall see later, the motion involves an increased expenditure of chemical energy in the battery to maintain the current constant over and above

necessary for this purpose

what would have been had the system remained at rest. And

the external work done by the system has its exact equivalent in the additional chemical energy spent in the battery.
electric circuits

326.] If for the two shells with currents

we
i

substitute the
i',

and

their

two equivalent mutual mechanical

action,

assuming the currents to be maintained constant, is the same as that of the shells. They tend to move so as to increase
the quantity
.,

i'

/Tcose n dadr>
,

or

n'M.

..,

Any
ductors.

variation of ii'M has

its

equivalent in external

work

done or kinetic energy of


But, as

we

shall

motion acquired by the consee later, the motion of the conductors


visible

with constant currents involves in

this case

an increased expendi-

ture of chemical energy in each of the two circuits equal to the So that in the whole chemical energy is external work done.

drawn upon

to twice the

amount

of external

work done

in

addition to the heat generated by resistance in the circuits. 327.] The equivalence of electric currents and the corresponding

magnetic shells affords a measure of electric quantity differing from that employed in Part I, Chap. IV. For instance, two
infinite parallel

magnetic

lines attract each other if

therefore

two

infinite

bounded by two parallel straight magnetised in the same direction. And parallel straight currents, if in the same
shells

direction, attract each other

with a force proportional to the

product of their intensities.

electricity theoretically as the quantity

Hence we might define the unit of which must pass through

a section of either current in unit time, in order that the currents

329.]

OERSTED'S LAW.

55

being at unit distance apart the force on unit length of either may be unit force. See Chap. XX.
328.] If any closed curve

S be drawn

in the field of a

mag-

netic shell, the line integral of magnetic force round S must be zero, whether S cut the shell or not, because the force is derived

from a single valued potential. If, however, the curve cut the shell once, and so embrace the bounding curve of the shell, we may take two points P and P\ in the curve infinitely near one
another but on opposite sides of the shell, and the potential at P 2 TT $ at P', where </> is the strength of the will be 2 77 <, and
shell.

Hence the work done by the magnetic


f

force

on a unit
of the
4
TT

P to P* always outside shell is 4 770, and in passing from P to P through the shell
magnetic pole in passing from
force

0.

If now for the magnetic shell we substitute the equivalent closed electric current i, we see that the line integral of magnetic

current,

on a unit pole round a closed curve S, not embracing the is the same as in the former case, and therefore zero. But if the closed curve S embrace the current, inasmuch as no

part of S now corresponds to the space between the faces of the shell, the magnetic force is at all points of S in the same direction round S and its line integral on a unit pole round S
9

must be

+ 4-Tr?',

or

4-ni,

If the electric current


circuit, this

according to the direction taken. were an invariable property of the


to

result

would be contrary

the conservation of

But in fact the electric current can only be maintained energy. by a continuous expenditure of energy in a battery or otherwise, the amount of which per unit of time is altered during any time variation of the magnetic field in which the circuit finds itself; and we shall see later that the passage of a magnetic
pole round the closed curve S embracing the current must, if the current be maintained constant, involve the expenditure of an Ini or amount of chemical energy in the battery equal to

+4

TT i

as the case

may

be, over

and above what would otherwise


constant current
i

have been expended in maintaining the

against the resistance of the circuit. 329.] It thus appears that the magnetic potential due to a closed constant current i, if defined with reference to mechanical

56
forces only,

OEESTED'S LAW.

[330.

may have any

one of an infinite number of values

It is the work done in differing- from one another by 4iri. a unit pole from an infinite distance to the point conbringing sidered by any path arbitrarily chosen, and differs by 4?n for

every time that this path embraces the current. In the case of the infinite straight current already treated,
the potential
is

4?

tan" 1 -, where the plane of

as,

is

perpen-

dicular to the current

and the origin in the current, and we


z.

pass from the axis of x to that ofy by turning in the positive


direction, the current

being in the direction of negative

330.] The

effect of variation of

between one uniform medium


Chapter XIX.
It
is

the magnetic permeability /z and another will be considered in

sufficient here to point out that the line

integral of magnetic force taken round a closed current % in the positive direction is 4tri whatever be the nature of the medium.
3

follows from the relation between magnetic force and induction in a field of magnetisable matter (Art. 315), magnetic that the line integral of magnetic induction round the same
it

Whence

closed current is 4irpi.

331.] Now let / denote the current i referred to unit of area, so that if a be the transverse section of the tube through which

the current

flows,

la

i.

Let

n, v,

be the components of
T I

/.

Then we have

dx
ds

= u.

&c.

Let
tt

7', ?/, v',


_ ,

w' have similar meanings for the current

i'.

Then

..,cose

-dsds

faj^
.cose

j^fy
ds ds'
r
r

fajj
dsds'
_

= la la
And
..,

dsds
r

= la I a
,,

,ds dsf

dsds
4-

= uu
therefore

wf + ww'

ads ads.

/YCOSC
1 1

r rrrrcuu'+w'+ww'

//////"

~ dxdydz dxdydz
.

taken over both currents.

333-]

OERSTED'S LAW.

57

Now
, n' /-/-COB* dsds'
.

II

is

two

the mechanical work which would be done in bringing the circuits with constant currents i, i' from an infinite disTherefore, also,

tance to their actual position.

'uu' + w'+ww'

,/,/,, dxdydzdx dy dz
.

represents this

same amount of mechanical work.

should obtain consistent results, so far as closed circuits with constant currents are concerned, if we assumed that
332.]

We

the mechanical work done in bringing the two elementary currents

udxdydz, u'dx'dy'dz'

from an

infinite distance to their actual position is

dxdydz dtfdy'dz', and


every pair of parallel elementary currents, but that between two mutually perpendicular elements no work is
so
for

on

done.

Or, which

is

the same thing,

we

should obtain consistent

results so far as closed circuits are concerned, if

we assumed

the following law of force between elementary currents, viz. that two parallel elementary currents if in the same direction
opposite directions repel, each other with a varying directly as the product of their intensities, and inversely as the square of the distance between them, but that
attract,

and

if in

force

mutually perpendicular elementary currents have no mutual


action.

333.]

We have

found
'uu'

-Mir
to be the

+ vv + iow

dxdydz dx'dy'dz'
to bring

amount of mechanical work required


i, i'

two

closed circuits with constant currents

from an

infinite dis-

tance to their actual position. Evidently, the work done in the case of three or more closed circuits will be the sum of

a number of expressions of this form for each pair of circuits. Now, any single closed current may be regarded as the limit

58
of a

OERSTED'S LAW.

[333.
currents

number of

similar

and

parallel closed

made

to

and on that principle we might culate the mechanical work required to construct it. For
coincide with each other,

cal-

the mutual potential energy of two masses of volume density u and u' respectively, and is finite if u and ?/ be finite, even if the two masses occupy the same space. If, therefore, 2, u^ v, w, the currents referred to unit area, be finite, the mechanical
is
<o

work done in bringing n


from an

closed circuits, each with current

infinite distance to coincide


it consists

with one another

is finite.

Further,

of

- terms, each of the form

and

therefore,

when n

is infinite, it

is

independent of

n.

We

will denote the limiting value of this expression for a given


circuit or closed curve

when n

is infinite

by

^Li

2
.

The whole work done

in constructing the closed current

will

include, in addition to the above

terms, n other terms,

each representing the work done in creating the closed current


-

in

its
z

own

field.

We

cannot assert that the expression

^Li

represents the whole

work done in creating the

current,

without asserting that the sum of these n terms vanishes when

-^ terms, compared with that of the other an assertion which may be precarious. If this assumption can be made, the whole mechanical work
is

infinite,

done in constructing a system of two closed

circuits, is

Now,
to

and Z 2 are essentially .Z/! shew that L^L^M*.

positive,

and

it is

not

difficult

It follows, therefore, that the mechanical

work done

in con-

335-]

VECTOE POTENTIAL OF CUEEENTS.


two closed
circuits

59

structing the system of


is

with constant currents

essentially negative.

may call the above expression the potential energy of the two circuits, provided it be always understood that it relates to mechanical work only.
334.] In the case of a uniform magnetic shell of strength $, we saw (Art. 307) that the potential self-energy of the shell is not
2

We

-T//
but
is

/Ycose dsds,

>

that quantity increased

by

and we know that the potential energy of any magnetic system In fact, since $ is essentially positive. Idv> where dv is the

thickness of the shell, the latter term is preponderant, and the potential energy of two such shells may be written

shells
is

for two where X x and A 2 are no longer the limiting values of whose contours coincide. The quantity within the bracket

in this case essentially positive.

Of
335.]

the Vector Potential of Closed Electric Currents.

The quantity

</>

ridx / -j-ds ^J rds


.

round the boundary of a magnetic

shell

<

is,

as

we know,

the

^-component of the vector potential of magnetic induction of the shell.


Similarly,
i /

-j-

ds
i,

ds

is

called the ^-component of vector potential of the current more generally


/ / /

or

dxdydz,

III' dxdydz,

~ dxdydz

60

VEOTOE POTENTIAL OF CURRENTS.


and
z

[336.

are called the #, y,

components of the vector potential

of

i, i,

by

field,

the integrals being taken over the whole space occupied and if there were any number of closed currents in the the same integrals taken over the whole space occupied
currents, are called the
a?,

by those

y,

and z components of the

vector potential of the whole system, and are denoted as before This is on the assumption that by F, G, and respectively.

//,

For

it will

be shown

later,

that if

ju

we must

take

fj.

dxdydz, &c.
field,

336.] Recurring to the two-current 1, the quantity L lt or

and supposing that

/r
JJ

cose
dsds',

taken for every pair of elements in the circuit of

l9 is

the flux

of magnetic induction of unit current in that circuit across any surface bounded by that circuit, or, as for brevity we shall say,
across that circuit,

and

L^

is

the similar flux for the current ^.

Therefore

round the circuit of


vector potential at current in it.

19

where

F19 G19

11^ are

any point of that

circuit arising

the components of from the

L2

and
,

L2 i2

have similar meanings with reference to the


or
cose

current *8

The quantity M,

dsds
is

,
,

the flux of magnetic induction across or the flux across i2 of unit current in

\
i

of unit current in

l}

and

Mi2

is

the flux across


across
i

of

in the second circuit, and Mi^

similarly is the flux

of

in the

first circuit*

Therefore

round

19

where F^, G^,

H^

are

components of vector poten-

337-]
tial at

VECTOR POTENTIAL OF CURRENTS.

61
circuit,

any point in i lt arising from ? 2 in the second with a similar meaning mutatis mutandis for Mi^
.

Now
is

the quantity

equal to

*
It
is

{*i(M
^dz\
_

therefore equal to

dx

^dy

T/^dx

~dy

Tr dz

where the
it

are the

in integral is taken round ^ and F, G. and of vector potential of the whole field at components
first
,

every point in

^ with
,

similar

meanings

for the second integral.

The

result

may

be written as
"
ds

r4i
taken over both the
circuits.

'

Replacing

by /a,
2

&c., the expression

may

be written

and since

= rrr
ff=
the expression

rrr

may

also

be written as

where the sextuple integral extends over the whole field. As and the final expression must above stated, if /x 1, F, G,

each be multiplied by

ju.

337.] The quantities I, G, condition


-*dx

H of the
=

last Article satisfy

the

+ T- + ^~ dz dy

at every point in a field of closed currents such as

we

are

now

considering.

62

VECTOE POTENTIAL OF CURRENTS.


field,

[33$.

For in such a
equation

the condition of continuity necessitates the

T + ay + :r = Tax dz
where
u, v,

at all points

vary continuously, and the correspond-

ing equation
over
all surfaces

of discontinuous variation of u,

v,

w.

Now

F = p fff- dx'dy'dz*,
whence
-j-

where r

V(x-x'f + (y-yj + (z-z'f

dx

}j.

u'

- (

) dx'dy'dzf

of the corresponding surface over all the surfaces of discontinuous variation of u, integrals and the triple integral being taken over all space of continuous variation of the same quantity.

The 2 indicating the summation

Therefore

by the

aforesaid equations of continuity.


a, b, c

are the components of magnetic induction at every point in the field, we know that

338.] If

dH a=--- d& dz
-=

0=-

dF dH --dz

>

dy

dx

dG dF = ---dx
ay

whence we get

^_i = _v ^ + dx ^dx -.r dz


6
2

+
dy
0,

dy
But

dz

v '

dF dx
.'.

dG
-

dH = dz

dy

dc db -----

dy

dz

339-]
.

VECTOR POTENTIAL OF CURRENTS.


.1
,

63

Similarly,

dc da 3-- -=dz dx

db

--- da dx dy

If

S be

a closed surface bounded

by the curve

$,

it

follows

from these equations that

fr a

curve

or the integral of the magnetic induction round any closed s is equal to the flux of current over a surface bounded
4irfjL.

by S multiplied by In other words,

it is the expression of the fact mentioned above, that the line integral of magnetic induction round a closed current i in any field is equal to 4 IT pi.

It

is

energy of a

in this respect that the expressions for the potential field of two shells

differs

from that

for the

two equivalent

currents, or

The former gives a The

latter only at such points as are free

potential at every point in space, but the from currents.

currents

potential energy for a field of any number of closed is, by an obvious extension of the above reasoning, to equal l

*JJJ
where F, G,

/ / /

(Fu + Gv + Hw)dxdydz,

the components of vector potential at any from the whole field, or as before to point arising
'uu' + w' + ww'
,

H are

-Iff!'
over the whole
field.

dxdydz dtfdy

,,,,,,
dz*,

339.] Since, as

we have
da

seen,

db

dc

__

dx

dy

dz

at all points, it follows that the

magnetic induction forms closed

64

MAGNETIC CIRCUIT.

[339.

tubes throughout all space, and that for any such tube the flux of induction through an orthogonal section is constant. Such an induction tube may be called a magnetic circuit.

At every point we have the equations a /ua, &c., so that the magnetic induction is connected with the magnetic force by the same formal relation as the electric current with the
electromotive force.

be the aggregate of all closed or infinite electric currents embracing an induction tube or magnetic circuit, 4vi is the
If
i

magnetic force in the


If
tube,

circuit.

denote the magnetic induction through a section of the


-r-

is,

ji.

by analogy

to

Ohm's

law, called the magnetic re-

sistance of the circuit.

CHAPTER

XIX.

INDUCTIVE ACTION OF CURRENTS AND MAGNETS.


ARTICLE 340.] IT has been established by Oersted's experiments that the magnetic field due to any uniform magnetic shell is the same at any point not within the substance of the shell as
the magnetic field due to a certain closed electric current coinThe strength of this ciding with the boundary of the shell.
current in electro-magnetic units is, if the magnetic permeability be unity, equal to the strength of the shell, and the direction of the current is the positive direction, determined by taking
for the positive

normal to the shell's surface a normal drawn from the negative to the positive face of the shell (Art. 267). We shall speak of the current and shell as mutually equivalent.
It was observed by Faraday that if a closed circuit, with or without electromotive force of its own, be moved in the field of

a magnet, a current is induced in it or the current already existing in it is increased or diminished during the motion,
;

notwithstanding that both the strength of the battery and the This induced current is resistance of the circuit be unaltered.
reversed in direction if the motion be reversed, and increases

the resistance

with the velocity of the motion. if the motion cease.

It

disappears rapidly
is

by

There

then an

electro-

motive force in the circuit due to the motion, which we


call

may

the electromotive force of induction.

effect is of course produced by moving the magnet the field of the circuit, and therefore also by variation through of the strength of the magnet, because any such variation may

The same

be brought about by bringing a new magnet into the field to It is produced by variation coincide with the existing magnet.

On the of the magnetic field in which the circuit is placed. other hand, the behaviour of a closed current is not affected by
VOL.
II.

66

FAEADAY'S LAW OF INDUCTION.


field in
field.

[341there

the nature of the magnetic be no time variation of that

which

it is placed, if

with those of Oersted,

From these facts, combined Helmholz and Thomson deduced the

laws of induction between mag-nets and closed electric currents by a method founded on the conservation of energy. 341.] If a closed circuit with current / be disconnected from
the battery, and the current allowed to decay in its own field, that a certain quantity of heat is, not influenced by external induction,

generated in the circuit during the decay. The circuit in virtue of the current in it has a certain intrinsic energy, which
is

can at any time be got in the form of heat by disconnecting the Let denote this quantity of energy wires from the battery. Let i be the current at any instant after disfor the current i.

connecting.
is

Then the heat developed

in time dt at that instant

dt, denoting the resistance of the circuit, and since this can only be obtained at the expense of the intrinsic energy of the circuit, we have
i

^= dt

Ri*,

H=

rRtfdt. Jo

For a given circuit the intrinsic energy is a function of i. It is the same in whichever direction through the circuit the current passes, and therefore contains only even powers of i.

We

shall therefore

assume

H= J Li

2
,

depending only on the form of the


the present to be invariable.
This gives

circuit,

where L is a coefficient which we assume for

L*T-= -**. dt R di
or

-'

and

if

7 be the

initial current

*/>'.
and

/'
This intrinsic energy is independent of the nature of the magnetic field in which the decay takes place, so long as that field

remains invariable with the time

but any time variation of the

342.]
ield

FAEADAY'S LAW OF INDUCTION.


rise to

67

would give

to Faraday's law,

and would therefore

induced currents in the circuit according alter the rate of decay of

the current.

If after the current has ceased the circuit be con-

established, the intrinsic

nected again with the battery, and the original current energy is restored to the circuit

/
;

re-

and

this takes place at the expense of the battery.

It follows that

the chemical energy spent in the battery during the establishment of the current /in a constant magnetic field exceeds the heat

generated in the circuit during the same process by the intrinsic energy of the circuit with the current /; and therefore including

and

both processes, namely the decay of the current from / to zero, its re-establishment, the field being in each case invariable

during the variation of the current, the whole chemical energy spent is equivalent to the heat generated in -the circuit.
342.]

Now

let

there be any magnetic

field,

and

as

w^ane
//

considering a theoretical case only, let it be due to a umfotm magnetic shell of strength $, which we can maintain coireljgmt or vary at pleasure. In this field let there be a circuit connected^
;

with a battery and we shall suppose that either by varyin^C^^ the electromotive force of the battery, or by suitably adjusting the resistance, we can maintain the current constant, or make it
vary in any way, notwithstanding the effect of induction in any motion of the circuit.

circuit

Let now $, the strength of the shell, be constant, and let the move with constant current / in obedience to the mutual

attractive or repulsive forces

between the

shell

and

circuit

from

an

initial position

of work, W,

certain amount to another position B. is done during this motion ly the mutual forces.

having arrived at B, let the wires be disconnected from the battery, and the current allowed to decay by resistance.
circuit

The

Then

let

the wires,

still

disconnected, be
1
.

moved back from

B to

A
1

without current.

This last-named motion

may

be effected

without doing any work

Then

let

the wires be reconnected,

For although a current will be established inductively in the wires moving in the magnetic field, yet by diminishing without limit the velocity of the motion we can, owing to resistance, diminish without limit the current at every instant during the motion, and therefore the work done against the electromagnetic
forces.

68

FAEADAY'S LAW or INDUCTION.

[343.

and the current I restored with the circuit in its original position at A. The system has thus performed a complete cycle, in which external work has been done by it, and heat has
been generated.

energy spent in the battery

with

all

the conservation of energy the chemical must be equivalent to W, together the heat generated in the circuit from first to last

By

throughout the

cycle.

latter part of the cycle from the instant of to the complete re establishment of the disconnecting at current / at A, we have to do only with the decay and re-

But during the

storation of the current,


is,

and therefore the chemical energy spent

as

we have

seen, equivalent to the heat generated.

with

It follows that the chemical energy spent during the motion is equivalent to W, together with 7 constant from A to

the heat generated during that motion, that

is

to

W+
We

f RPdt.
JA

infer now that Faraday's electromotive force of in343.] duction caused by the motion of the circuit through the magnetic
field, is

in such direction that the current due to


is, it is

existed alone, resist the motion, that


direction to

would, if it a force in the opposite


it
is,

/ which
/.

causes the motion, that

to diminish

Let

this electromotive force be

a force tending W. Then in

order to maintain

constant during the motion,

we have

to

increase the electromotive force of the battery

by

E'.

We may

suppose, without altering 7, the

number

of cells increased in the

E + E':E. Then the chemical energy spent in the with current / per unit of time is (E + 25')I, that is, battery R Iz -\-ff I\ and the chemical energy spent in the motion from
proportion

Aiollis

We have then

f'*r JA

fRPdt +
or

W = fRPdt + / W = /Jf
- = E'L

therefore

at

345-]

FAKADAY'S LAW or INDUCTION.

69

But by Oersted's

Law
-dT

dW = T ^dM r
forces.

W being the work done ly the


Hence
and
id

^
ut

^'7=7

E =
T?>

the electromotive force of induction, or

-E', is

<=
(it

344.] Similar results are of course obtained by moving the >nstant shell while the circuit remains at rest. And if the shell

brought up from an infinite distance with 1 and $ constant, te work done by the magnetic force due to the current is

from

any variation of the strength of the shell, as is the same thing as bringing a shell of dQ from an infinite distance to coincide with the strength The work done in that process by the magnetic original shell. and this requires the force of the circuit is therefore IMdcf)
.

Now
to

(f)

+ d(f),

expenditure in the battery of additional chemical energy IMd(f>, to maintain / constant. have, then in this case E'I=.IMd($>, And generally if $ and J/both vary, or E'=Md<}).

We

*&+iA
dt

dt

and the electromotive

force of induction is

j-

345.] If we were to perform the cycle of Art. 342 in the reverse direction, disconnecting at A, reconnecting at B, and moving

with constant current


external

I from

B to A,

we

should have to spend

in overcoming the mutual forces of the circuit and shell, instead of gaining work as in the former case. In this
(M(j>) is negative, or

work

case If or
ctt

we have

in order to main-

tain

I constant

to diminish the force of the battery.

So long

as

E'

is less

in absolute

spent, or

(E+&)1

is

magnitude than E, the chemical energy less than El, that is, less than RP. The

70
external

FARADAY'S LAW OF INDUCTION.

[346.

work which we do against the

forces, or

IfydM,

is

converted into heat, and the chemical energy of the battery is / be greater in absolute magnitude saved to the like extent. If / cannot be maintained constant unless the than E) the current

reversed, as in the case of

battery be reversed, in which case the chemical processes may be an accumulator. In such a case the

external work done is equivalent to the heat generated plus the chemical energy gained by the reversal of the processes. In all these cases if be heat generated, C chemical energy spent, and

JF mechanical work done by the forces of the system, W, and in case of an accumulator C, may be negative. where

C=H+

346.] It appears from the investigation of Chap. XVII that, when the circuit and shell move under the influence of their

own mutual

attractive or repulsive forces, /<


force

=j-

is

positive.

And
$

therefore the electromotive


57- ,

due to the motion, or

would,

if it existed alone,
/,

produce a current in the


resist

opposite direction to

that

is

a current tending to

the

motion.

This law

is

called Lenz's law.

result of the

Conservation of Energy. once from Faraday's experiments. For suppose a closed circuit without battery to be moved in any direction through the field
of a constant magnet.

It appears here as a This also appears at

An electric current

is

induced in
is

it,

which

This generated. heat can only be accounted for as the equivalent of mechanical work done during the motion. That is, the induced current

on cessation of the motion decays, and heat

must be such

as to resist the
let
<

motion by which

it

was induced.

be again constant, and let the circuit 347.] Secondly, move as before under the influence of the mutual attraction or
repulsion of the circuit and shell but instead of maintaining the current constant against the electromotive force due to the motion
;

by increasing the strength


let

of the battery, as in the former case,

the current be allowed to diminish.


i

And

let us so adjust

the

battery as that,

being the current at any instant,


.

shall be

2 equal to Hi, or Ei=-Ri

348.]

FAKADAY'S LAW dp INDUCTION.

71

In this case the chemical energy spent is all consumed in heating the circuit, and the mechanical work done by the forces
cannot be done at the expense of chemical energy. the expense of the intrinsic energy of the system.
It is

done at

For the intrinsic energy at


energy
is

A is \LI' At any other point B in


2
.

the supposed course the current

i is

less

than

/,

and the

intrinsic

\L

2
.

The
2 i
2

difference

energy, or

\L{I
is,

}, is

between these quantities of the equivalent of the mechanical work


}

gained, that

\L {I 2

lifydM.

Making /

=
or

di,

we

find for the relation

between

and

during this process

Lidi + itydM

Ldi+

= 0, $dM = 0.
<

might call this process an adiabatic process by analogy to Thermodynamics. As in the first case we may make vary and instead of M, and if both vary Ldi -f d(M<f>) 0.

We

348.] Thirdly,

we may maintain
rest.

force of the battery constant, that is

U, the original electromotive HI, where / is the

E=
i

current with the circuit at

Let

be the current at any


is

instant, then the chemical energy spent per unit of time and the heat generated is Ri 2 have in this case,
.

Ei

We

that

is,

cit

4- (M<p)

= -Li^+Ei-RP, ut

or

We may

combine our results into one formula


is

as

follows.

The energy drawn from the battery per unit of time over and
above the equivalent of the heat generated

If

be the electromotive force of the battery

72

THERMODYNAMIC ANALOGY.

[349.

Again, the whole energy drawn from the battery, in excess of the heat generated while the system of the circuit and shell
goes through any series of changes whatever,
is

If the current be initially zero and finally

/,

this

becomes

f
The mechanical work done against the forces is The whole work, chemical and mechanical, is \LI2
\i
.

349.] In order to illustrate the interdependence of chemical and mechanical work in the changes of the system, we will make
treatises

our circuit perform a cycle analogous to that through which in on Thermodynamics the working substance is made to

It will be underpass in the working of a perfect heat engine. stood that our apparatus is as purely theoretical as the perfect heat engine. Let the shell $ be maintained constant. Let l

be the

initial
L

value of
to of

from

M= M

M=M
the

M, and (first process) let the circuit move electro2 with constant current i, the

The battery being suitably adjusted. mechanical work done by the forces (which is done, as we have seen, at the expense of chemical energy) in this process is
motive
force

Mi

M3
Fig. 45-

The second
that
is,

process shall be adiabatic as explained in Art. 347,

such that Ldi +


.

$dM= 0, and
energy
is

shall continue

from

M=M%

tolf=lf3

The mechanical work done


its intrinsic

ly the system at the

expense of

in this process

fi<bdM = -

=
if
i'

L(i*-i'*),

be the current

when the

circuit reaches

350-]

THEEMODYNAMICT ANALOGY.
third
Z

73
i

The

M=M

process
,

shall

to

J/= J/4 where

be with
is

constant current

from

so chosen that the circuit can

The mel pass by a second adiabatic process from J/4 to chanical work done by the forces in this process is 2$(J/4 1Q. The fourth process shall be adiabatic from to lt
.

M M=M
),

M=M

The mechanical work done

in it is

\L(i

f<i

and

is

equal and

opposite to that done during the second process.

We

have then

for the

whole mechanical work done by the

system at the expense of chemical energy in the complete cycle

Now

by the

relation

= 0,
and fourth processes we have

in the second

whence

M^-M = M^-M
Z

And

therefore the whole mechanical


is

work done by the system

at

the expense of chemical energy

or

{M^i-M^i),

if

i-i'=

the work that would be gained if *'=(). denote a small quantity of chemical energy spent by 5Q the battery in excess of the heat generated during the process,
If

Here

M^i M^i is

bQ
And,
as before,

= id{

We

of Thermodynamics,

thus see that, comparing our cycle with the ordinary cycle i to the corresponds to temperature, Li +

thermodynamic function, corresponds to volume, and i$ to pressure, and instead of the heat of the reservoir we have the
chemical energy of the battery as the source from which useful

M$

work

is

derived.

Case of two

circuits.

<

350.] Let us now substitute for our magnetic shell of strength the equivalent electric current. Let this current be denoted

74
by
*

INDUCTIVE ACTION OF CIRCUITS


2
,

[35I/.

and that in the original

circuit

hy

be the values of the constant coefficient


stituted circuits respectively.

i Also let L and 2 lt L for the original and sub-

The action of the substituted circuit on the original circuit being the same as that of the shell, we have for the chemical energy spent in the original battery, over
and above heat generated,
li-^d

{L^-}- Mi2 }, by replacing


i

and

in the formula of Art. 348,

by ^ and

But by the same reasoning the chemical energy spent in the battery of the substituted circuit must exceed the equivalent of
heat generated in that circuit by

And

the whole expenditure of chemical energy in excess of heat

in the

two

circuits is

fad {L^
that
is,

+ Mii} +fad {L^ + MiJ,

-^Ltf + MiJi + ^Ljf+fijidM.


is

Also the mechanical work done against the forces

li^dM.
Therefore the whole work, chemical and mechanical, required system of two circuits in the given position is,

to construct the

in addition to the equivalent of heat generated,

This expression we define to be the energy of the system. It is a property of the system, depending only on the values of ^ and i2 and the coefficients I/ I/2 and M, that is, the forms of the lt
,

circuits

and is independent of the mode or route by which the system was brought into its actual
relative position,
is,

and their

position, that

of

its

past history.

It

is

equivalent to the heat

which would be generated in the system during the decay of the two currents in one another's field, were they simultaneously
disconnected, and the circuits kept at rest. The corresponding expression for the energy of

two magnetic

352.]

INDUCTIVE ACTION OF CIRCUITS.

75

shells is (Art. 334) J

A^

Hi^i 2 + \
i^

A2

2
,

where i

A^

is

the

work required

to construct the shell

in its

own

field.

351.] If the two circuits move under the influence of their own mutual forces we have in the first circuit
Zjtj-f-Jtft,

= constant,
first circuit

or LI cH l

+ d(Mi 2 )=O
l

provided the battery in the


1 L

be

so adjusted that

E =P
i
1

during-

And, in any case, this relation from a position of rest.


due

any variation of the current. must hold for any small variations

This gives the ordinary laws of induction in the first circuit ? being constant, (i) due to variation of the current 2 viz. or (2) due to motion of the circuit i 2 with constant current
,

Jj* l

di
dt

i=

Jxl ~r

M
.

di*
>

dt

or

*J

di,

dM

'iy
first

in the

two

cases respectively.
circuit, as

If there be initially no current in the

for

instance, if it be without battery, the current instantaneously induced in it by a sudden generation of the current i 2 in the
,

second circuit should theoretically be


current
i

y-

In

this case the

lt

as it

comes into existence, by

its

inductive effect

diminishes the current in the second circuit,


stant, the chemical

and the

electro-

motive force of the battery in that circuit being supposed conenergy spent per unit time in the battery
during the creation of the induced current, or R 2 i2 2 the heat generated per unit time in that
,

Ez

exceeds

circuit.

The

additional energy spent in the battery supplies the energy \ of the induced current.

Ll i : 2
the

The law of induction between two


absence of resistance

closed

circuits

in

may be expressed as follows. make the energy of the system, suddenly created,
minimum, and
352.]
i

Given ^

is

determined.

The

cycle of Art. 349 can be performed with

two

circuits

76
as well as

INDUCTIVE ACTION OE CIRCUITS.


with circuit and
shell.

[353.

For

let

be maintained constant

in the second circuit while the first circuit performs the cycle. The mechanical work done at the expense of chemical energy con-

sumed in the
magnetic
cuit over
i.

first circuit is

shell.

the same as if the circuit iz were a The chemical energy spent in the second cirit is

and above the equivalent of heat generated in


},

2 I

and vanishes

for the complete cycle.

353.]
circuits

We
may

stant, that

is,

have hitherto supposed the coefficients L^ L 2 conwe have treated the circuits as rigid. But the be flexible, or flexible and extensible. In either case

is

variable,

causes

M to vary, although the form of the other


it, i2i

and any variation of the form of either


circuit

circuit

may

be

unaltered.

Suppose the form of the second


the current in the cases already treated,

circuit to be constant,

and

to be also constant, then

we

shall have, as in

fit-Bit

^-{L^+MiJ.
cases,

And, as in the preceding


as that either

we may

shall be constant, or

so adjust the battery constant, or l JR^.

E =

Now we
lines

have seen that


circuit.

Mi 2
The

is

proportional to the

number

of

of magnetic
first

induction of the second


effect of

through the
the

pass the second circuit on


it

circuit that

first, if flexible, is

to cause

any element of

so to

move
is,

as

to take in as

many
first

of these lines as possible, that


circuit will

each

element of the

tend to move across them in

direction at right

assume that the

effect of

angles to the

itself.

In

like

manner we may
itself is to cause

first circuit

on

every element to move across the lines of magnetic induction due to the circuit itself.

In any
is

case, if the circuit

move
which

to the forces of the system

or alter its shape in obedience act upon it, mechanical work

done by

energy

this is supplied either at the expense of the of the system (if the batteries be so adjusted as only to
it,

and

compensate

for the energy converted into heat) or at the expense of the batteries if the currents be constant. All cases are

354-J

INDUCTIVE ACTION OF CIRCUITS.

77

included in the formula

E-Ri =
if

^- (L t

only one circuit vary, or

or

-=
its

if

both currents vary. 354.] If there be three closed circuits each with
if

own battery,
first

and

12

denote the value of

/ /

ds1 ds2 round the

and second

circuit in direction of the currents, while

3/13 and

2%

have corresponding values for the other two pairs of circuits, the chemical energy spent in excess of the heat generated is

+ / i&dMn + i^dM^ + / i i dM
2 3

23

and the mechanical work done against the forces


i i

is

-j i^dM^-J i^dM^-j
And

2 s

dM2y

therefore the energy of the system, or the sum of the chemical and mechanical work required to construct it in its actual state and position, over and and above the equivalent of

heat generated,

is

and

so

on

for

any number of closed

circuits.

And

for this

we may
uu

further substitute the general form

ax ay dz dx ay az,

or

\l

U(Fu + Gv + Hw)dxdydz.

78

ROTATING CONDUCTOR.
Rotation of a conductor in a magnetic field.

[355.

355.] Let there be a uniform field of magnetic force F, and a

wire forming* a closed plane curve of area a rotating with angular

The velocity o> round an axis in its plane at right angles to F. flux of magnetic induction through the curve is then aFcosat,
time being measured from an epoch when the plane of the curve We have then, to determine the current is at right angles to F.
i

in the wire, the equation

Out

where

is

the resistance, and

the self-induction, of the wire.

This gives
^

=
ff2

..

(R

sin (tit-o)L cos

cot).

-p

Let

(*>L

= tan a.

Then

this

becomes

di

and
dt

- <JaF
(R* + a>
2
2

sin

(co t

+ a)

)*

and the electromotive

force is

Ri + It~,
ttu

that

is

a>aF&aia>t.
co t

The induction through the curve The current is maximum when


at

is

maximum when
a.

n TT.

= 2n+ ITT

And it is owing a. retarded in phase by TT to this retardation of phase that work is done in the complete
The current
is

cycle.
is

For the mechanical work done

is

J
is

id (M<f>), where

M$

the induction through the circuit, that

-and
this

**

VRt + tftfJ

smu>tcos(wt + a)dt;
cycle, integrating
TTO)
.

becomes in a complete a?F 2R


or

from 2 TT to

0,

sin a.

The work

is all

converted into heat in the wire.

357-]

MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY.
1

79
magnetised

Compare the corresponding


;

effect

when

soft iron is

by a force varying- in a cycle. Professor Ewing in Phil. Trans. vol. clxxvi. part 2 Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. vol. xxii.
P-

175-

356.] In Arts. 342-348


shell to

be varied,

if at all,

we supposed the magnetisation of our only by causes independent of the

The variations in the magnetic field may however be due to the electric currents themselves, if, for instance, there be in the field magnetisable matter which, on creation of the curcurrent.
rents,

becomes magnetised by induction.

In any such

case, if

be the energy of the same system of currents in a field devoid of be the energy of the induced magnetisable matter, and if

W. magnetisation in its own field, the total energy will be That is, the process of magnetisation tends to check the currents,
and increases the draw upon the batteries necessary to maintain the currents, by the quantity W.

E+

Concerning the
357.]

coefficient

of magnetic permeability.

If

to a closed current or

be the resultant mag-netic force at any point due system of closed currents in vacuo, we

have

^dy

dz J

\dz

dx

\dx

dy

If we integrate this through all space within an infinitely distant surface S, we obtain, since the surface integral vanishes,

That

is,

since

dF
dx
and

dH dG + ---h dz =
dy

everywhere,
&c.,

V ^=-47rw,
2

= \fW(Fu +

= E, the energy of the system

80

MAGNETIC PEEME ABILITY.

[3 5 8.

358.] The above expression denotes the energy of the system in vacuo, or in a standard medium in which the magnetic perlet a system of molecules capable of induction be scattered through the becoming magnetised by for coefficient of field, so as to form a uniform medium with

meability

IJL

is

unity.

Now

/u,

magnetic permeability. The molecules will become magnetised by induction, and the energy of the same system of currents in
the altered medium will be W> where ^is the energy of the induced magnetisation. In order to determine W, let us define the nature of the uniform medium as follows. If a plane of unit area be taken perpendicular to 7, it will intersect certain of the molecules.

E+

be the quantity of magnetic matter on the intersected molecules which lies on the positive side of the plane per unit of 1 + 4 TT area. Then ^ by Chap. XI. And the energy of

Let

QR

2 magnetisation is J QR per unit of volume. energy of the currents in the altered medium

Hence the whole


is

given by

E'= --

= (1 + 47r<)) f/T- R
-

dxdxds

It follows that, comparing one uniform medium with another with similar currents, the electromagnetic forces on elementary And if they are expressed in terms currents vary directly as p.

of

J? ,

G, 77,

we must make
&c.

as in Arts. 334, 335.


is solenoidal by 359.] The system of induced magnetisation Art. 316. And in the field of electric currents the solenoids are

all closed,

and exert zero force at all points. And therefore the magnetic force on a unit pole due to the system of currents is independent of ^ as appears from Art. 330.
360.]

But

if for

a closed current

we

substitute the corresponding

magnetic

shell of strength <, the solenoids, in other respects

un-

altered, are

no longer

closed,

but begin and end in the

shell.

360.]

MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY.
force is

81
the same as that

The magnetic

no longer

zero,

but

is

due to a magnetic shell representing the solenoids, namely a magnetic shell formed on the original shell with reversed sign

and strength systems together


strength
<f>+

<f>.

The

force

due to the original and induced

is

the same as would be caused by a shell of


,

fx

<, that is
//,

occupying the place of the

original shell.

Comparing one uniform medium with another, the magnetic forces due to similar systems of natural magnets
vary inversely as ju. Also the energy vanes inversely as
/x.

We

see further that


cateris paribus,

another,

comparing one uniform medium with the law of equivalence between an


shell is expressed

electric current

and a magnetic

by the equation

VOL. n.

CHAPTER XX.
OF SYSTEMS OE MEASUBEMENT.
I.

The Electrostatic Units of Electricity.

we found that
like kind, e

ARTICLE 361.] IN Chaps. IV, V, treating of Statical Electricity, the repulsive force between two electrical masses of
ee'

and /, at the distance r

apart, is

^.

This law

assumes the definition of unit of electricity to be that two such units placed at unit distance apart repel each other with
unit force.

According to this definition, the quantity of electricity which answers the description of the unit depends on the units of In mathematical language, length, mass and time employed.
the unit of electricity has dimensions in length, mass and time. If we denote the unit of length by L, that of mass by M, and that of time by T, we know that force measured statically is of

dimensions
defined,
-

-^-.

Therefore, if e be the unit of electricity so


;

has dimensions

or,

as it

is

usual to express

it,

L2
and
e
:

ment
ee'

found it necessary subsequently to modify the state362.] that the repulsive force between e and e' at distance r is

We

it depends, c&teris paribus^ -y, because

on the nature of the

medium
If

in which e and

are placed.

be the specific inductive capacity of the medium,

we

364-]

ELECTROMAGNETIC UNIT.
/

83

found, in Chap. XI, the force to be


affects

-==-^

The quantity

thus

the magnitude of the unit, because if in a


,

K=
same

and / at distance

medium where we must produce any given


force,

in another

medium, in order
and

to produce the
e'

same

force at the

distance, use e *J~jL

</K.

But

K does

not affect the

dimensions of the unit.


factor of zero dimensions.

It is in this relation a

mere numerical
electrostatic

We

must then complete our

definition thus.

The

unit of electricity is such a quantity that two electrostatic units I repel placed at unit distance apart in a medium for which

K=

each other with unit force.

We

shall denote the unit so defined

II.

Of the

Electromagnetic Unit of Electricity.

rents

363.] Let there be two infinite parallel wires carrying curi and i' at distance r The force of attraction on apart.
is

length a of one of them

au..Zii -=-

drJo

Jr

in

which

+ a?

expression p. denotes the magnetic permeability of the medium. Let em be that quantity of electricity which, according to the usual conception of a current, must flow through a section of either wire
in unit time, in order that, the parallel currents being at unit 1 the force on unit distance apart in a medium where /x length

of either current

may

be unit

force.

Then we may take em

so

defined as the unit of electricity. It is called the electromagnetic The quantity /u is unit, or the unit in electromagnetic measure.

here of zero dimensions, for the same reason as


electrostatic unit.

Hence aii'-=i ii'-=i


Therefore
e
ii'

sions of force, -=^-.

ML

=
,

K in case of

the

is

of the dimen-

has dimensions
Therefore
e -~
z

-^-.

But

has the same dimensions as

has dimensions

-^-.

.
have thus obtained by independent methods two distinct quantities of electricity. ee and em either of which may be G 2,
364.]

We

84
taken for the unit.

COMPARISON OP UNITS.
The numerical value of the
ratio

[365.

which they

bear to one another depends on the units of length and time emSince ee is of dimensions M^L% T~ l and e.m of dimensions ployed.
,

e
,

it

follows that

is

of dimensions -

that

is,

of

dimensions

-,

or the unit of velocity.

Now

the

number by

which any given physical


is

velocity, as for instance that of light,

expressed varies inversely as the unit of velocity, and there&

fore varies directly as -ee

e
ee

It is found that the ratio


is

determined by experiments in

air

If equal, or very nearly equal, to the velocity of light in air. that velocity be denoted by v, that is if it be v units of velocity, vee then whatever units of length and time be employed, e m

This fact

the foundation of the Electromagnetic Theory of as discovered by Maxwell. Light 365.] If the experiments be made in any other medium than
is

air,

the magnitude of

ee is, as

we have
^=
.

seen, altered
if v

becomes

VK.

Similarly e m becomes
e

Hence,

be the value of

the ratio
e
e

as determined in air,
-

*T
In

where

K=

and p

=
en

its

general value will be


**

all

media within the range of

experiment
nearly as

fj,

is

nearly equal to unity.

Hence the

ratio

varies

1
.

/K

It is found that the velocity of light in different


j
'

media varies accurately or very nearly as ~7=

Of the Dimensions of K
366.]

in Electromagnetic Measure.
force, or e

We

have seen that

Tl/TT

-^ represents a ^
i.

has dimen-

sions -=-.

In the

electrostatic system,
shall be numerical,
em
,

where
e.

= []yftl$T~ l],

this requires that

of zero dimensions.

But

if for e

we

write

the electromagnetic unit, whose dimen-

68.]
sions are

DIMENSIONS OF MAGNETIC QUANTITIES.

85
forces

3I*L

we must,

in order that the same

two

may always bear to each other the same ratio whatever be the units of length and time, attribute dimensions to K. In this
ee'

case

-=-g

has dimensions
2*2

ML

-^-, and 1

ee

has dimensions

ML. Hence

K has dimensions -^ in the electromagnetic system.


In like manner, in the electromagnetic system has zero but expressed in the electrostatic system it has dimensions,
//,

^2
dimensions

Of the Dimensions
367.]
as

of

</>

the Strength of a Magnetic Shell.


shell of

strength $ and unit area not within its substance regards points equivalent to a certain current i round the boundary of the shell

uniform magnetic
its

is

action

at

multiplied by the factor p which denotes the magnetic permeaAs this equivalence is independent of the bility of the medium.
units of length, mass and time,
as
[LI.
<

must have the same dimensions


p
i

Now
,

in electromagnetic measure
ju

has dimensions

or

M^I/*T~ l and

is

of zero dimensions.

magnetic measure has dimensions

M^L%T~ l
_Z?,

Hence $ in electroThe dimensions


.

of the components of magnetisation J,

and

(7,

are those of -?

>

that

is

M^ L~^T~ l

in electromagnetic measure.
Pole,

Of the Dimensions of a Hypothetical Magnetic


or Magnetism.

368.] Let m denote a quantity of imaginary magnetic matter forming the positive face of the shell of strength <. Then, m varies directly as the thickness and inversely as being given,
<

the area of the shell.


sions as
-7-,

(/>

must therefore have the same dimen-

and since

d>

has dimensions

M^L?T~

l
,

those of

are

We

might have obtained

this result otherwise, starting, as in

86

DIMENSIONS OF MAGNETIC QUANTITIES.

[369.

Chapter XVI, from the assumption that magnetic matter repels like matter with a force varying- inversely as the square of the
distance,

from which
l

it

follows that

must have the dimensions

M? L% T~
tricity.

for the

same reason

as the electrostatic unit of elec-

We can now find the dimensions of the unit of magnetic matter in the electrostatic system, a point about which there was at one time some controversy, as follows. In order to express the equivalence of current units we have,

and

shell in

any system of

L
In the

is

of the

same dimensions as p
J.

electrostatic

system

= M*L?Twe

1
,

and

/u

=
m
e
,

^ whence
has dimen-

in electrostatic measure, or as

shall call it

sions

1$.

Were

there only one


>

medium

in nature

we should

have written f-y]


contention that
369.]
e

= FJ

and there would be room

for Clausius'

m = [M*L*T-*]. We can also determine the dimensions of m


The
i is
.

by a

different

method,

as follows.

force

between a

shell of strength

$ and

a circuit with current

It has the

same dimensions

as $i, that
r

is,

dimensions

me
IT'
system, in which e
as before.

or

m e [jjl^frJ'
;

This must hold in any system, and therefore in the electrostatic

= \M^L^T~ Y\
unit
is

and therefore

me

[if*Z/*],

determined by the electrostatic conditions above mentioned, all the functions of it are said to be
the electric

When

expressed in the electrostatic system. And when it is determined from the force between two currents, the functions are
said to be expressed in

electromagnetic units, and we shall denote the system selected by the suffixes e and m respectively.

37 J -]

TABLE OF DIMENSIONS.

87

370.] Thus, the following- magnitudes present themselves for consideration.


(1)

The

electric

mass

ee

or e m .

(2) (3)

magnetic mass

or

mm

electric current ie or i m .

(4)

component of current per unit of area ue or and w.


electromotive force at a point

u,, n)

with v
R.

(5)
(6)

or

line integral of electromotive force

Pm with Q and E or Em
,

(7)
(8)

vector potential e or mt with 6? and H. magnetic induction ae or a m , with 6 and c.

(9)

magnetic force ae or a^, with


electric displacement

/3
,

and

y.
A.

(10)

(11)

with g and electric densities, solid) pe and pm

f or/m
e

and
(12)

superficial

<re

and

<r

components of magnetisation
,,

Ae
.

or

4m

with

B and

(7.

(13)
(14) (15)

electric potential

\f/ e

or

\j/

magnetic potential !2e or 12 m

(16)

conductivity (inverse of resistance) Ce or e or m specific inductive capacity

Cm

(17)

,,

magnetic permeability

/xe

or

jj,

371.] The connection between the dimensions of these quantities in the two systems is determined by the considerations
referred to above.

mi
Jj

= force
-

For instance, we have the equation mi ML


or
j

= -=^- in both systems.


.

Also, since

i is

measured by the amount of

electricity passing
'

over the section of the current in unit of time,


as the equation of unit dimensions,

we have
1 -r-

-^

Now

and therefore by the above-mentioned equation

(*

WVe
rn^e

T
and

^m^m

88
Therefore

TABLE OF DIMENSIONS.

[37 1 -

em

^=^ T

and

^=~ m T
e

Taking

therefore our magnitudes in the above order,

we have

c-r
l

>

--J5-r
^ e = Em em = Energy =
e
e

=
e.

because

7\

J-H- L " ~ J^
and
^
am
ae

/\
(8)

=
=

^i
ee

*-

L
e

because

&&

am
*

=F

-^ L

-r-

F -~L

um

=
3m

W>m

(9)

L
,

because a e

m = a m mm
e

ML

(13)

+ * = em = T

-,

because

\js e

ee

= =

\j/

em

ML* = Energy = -

(14)

-~tH

=
***'6

-~j,

because

le nie

l m m,m

= Energy.

Z2

372.]

TABLE OF DIMENSIONS.

89

372.] Having thus determined the ratios of the units of these several magnitudes in the two systems, it will suffice to determine the dimensions of each in either system, as follows
:

We

have shewn that

= M*L%T~\

therefore

P,

HfT

77

-2

= [*-

2"'],

Pa = [Jf*i

2-"],

I
1

-.*,.

j~*

'

?n

MLT-*

Pm

CHAPTER
FIELD.

XXI.

THE GENERAL EQUATIONS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC

ARTICLE 373.] IN Chapter

XVIII we

investigated the electro-

magnetic properties of a field of electric currents, based upon the experimental law of Oersted, namely the equivalence of mechanical action of a closed circuit and magnetic shell suitably
related to each other.

In Chapter
first

XIX we

described certain electromotive actions,


in the case of circuits in a variable

discovered

by Faraday,

field arising either from field, in the intensities of the currents or the configurations changes and positions of the circuits ; and, reasoning from these experi-

magnetic

the variation of the

forces,

mental data, we investigated the laws of such electromotive generally denominated inductive electromotive forces.

Maxwell was the

first

to consider the whole

subject from

another and more strictly dynamical point of view, and to shew how the same results appear to be deducible from the aforesaid

law of Oersted by merely mechanical considerations.

know that the production of any current field depends a supply of energy from some external source, as for upon instance, from chemical combination in the case of battery
excited currents.

We

When

there

is

freedom of motion in any of


is

the circuits a part of the energy thus derived

converted into

mechanical kinetic energy, and whether there be such visible motion or not, some portion of this derived energy is converted
into molecular kinetic energy or heat, the amount of this heat conversion, or dissipated energy, being dependent, by laws already

explained,

upon the

intensities of the currents

and the material

composition of the conductors.


But, in addition to all this, it is observed that if in a current whether the parts be at rest or in motion, the battery con-

field,

376.]

DYNAMICAL METHOD.

91

nexions are at any instant broken, the current manifestations do not immediately cease, the electromagnetic actions are not im-

mediately suspended, and heat continues for a sensible interval of time to be generated in the conducting circuits.
374.]

Now,
else

as

Maxwell

says, capacity for

nothing
fore

than energy in whatever

way

it arises,
is

performing work is and therea certain

we conclude

that in a current field there

amount

of energy in excess, and independent, of the energy which has been converted into heat in the circuits, and of any purely mechanical energy which may exist in the circuits themselves, if
these are in motion.
partly kinetic, in the current

We assume this energy to be electric energy, and partly potential W> so that the total energy
in addition to

field,
is

any material kinetic energy

of the circuits,

the

sum

of three distinct parts, being equal to

T +
e

W+

D,

know from Chapter XI, Vol. I, that 375.] depends in different parts of the upon the specific inductive capacity field and vanishes with K, also that depends upon the re-

We

sistance

in the circuits

and vanishes with R.

field

For the present we will assume that we are dealing with and R are infinitely small, throughout which both

and D evanescent, so that the total energy and therefore that would remain in the field if the battery connexions were at any instant severed would be Te or Te increased by any
,

material
exist
;

kinetic energy of visible motion, supposing such to this Te is assumed to be a function (f>(i,q) of the current
(i)

intensities

and the coordinates of configuration

(q)

where the

form of
376.]
to exist,

has to be determined.

Now,
(q),

if in any dynamical system a force F is observed q which tends to increase any generalised coordinate of

infer that the potential energy of that system and the kinetic energy greater in the (q + bq) configuration than in the (q) configuration by Fq b q. If, therefore, in any current field we observe such an electro-

position

we

would be

less

magnetic

force, we infer that if, after breaking the battery mnexions, the circuits were transferred from the q to the

92
q

DYNAMICAL METHOD.

[377.

+ bq configuration, and the same currents were then reestablished in the q + bq configuration, the total electrokinetic energy would be increased by q bq, in other words, that in a

field

of

two

circuits

the draw upon the


i

batteries requisite to

create the current intensities

in the (q

same

as

they were in the


that

(q) configuration,
d(f)

bq) configuration the must be increased by

.7^,

i.e.

dj

= F-

If the transference of the currents were effected by the un-

checked action of the force 7^, that is without breaking the connexions, the intensities remaining the same, an additional

Fqbq of material kinetic energy of the circuits would ensue, making the total draw upon the batteries in this case 2Fq bq. The energy of the whole field, in fact, being supposed to consist of the potential energy of uncombined chemical elements in the batteries, and the electrokinetic energy and mechanical kinetic
energy of the
field,

the rate of conversion of one into the other

in the actual passage from the q to the q-\- dq configuration is 2 q and this is equally divided between mechanical and electro-

kinetic energy. 377.] If the field consists of

two

closed circuits,

and

if

q be

one of the coordinates determining the relative position of these circuits, each supposed to be rigid, we know from the Oersted

law of equivalence of action between currents and magnetic


shells that

where ^ and

are the current intensities in the circuits,

and

M= II both

dsds', the double integration

being taken round

circuits in the direction of the currents.

Hence we

infer that in this case

dTe
or

dM

=
q' is
it

where
posing

a coordinate defining the shape of either circuit, supto be flexible.

379-]
378.]
surface

DYNAMICAL METHOD.
To determine
i
l

93

\j/,

we

observe that

i^M

is
i

either the

product of

bounded by

into the flux of magnetic induction of 2 across any i lt or the product of i2 into the flux of
i

magnetic induction of ^ across any surface bounded by

(the

positive direction of such fluxes being estimated by rules already given), or it is half the sum of such products, and therefore

that

e)

so far as it is a function of the coordinates


is

q,

of relative

position of the circuits,

half the

sum

of such products.

Hence we

infer,

the former case,

although not with the same certainty as in that so far as Te is a function of one of the q'

as

coordinates determining the shape of the ^ circuit, that is, so far Te depends upon the i circuit supposed to exist alone in the
field, its

value would be one half the product of

into the flux


i

of magnetic induction of ^ across and similarly for 2 or that


?'

any

surface

bounded by

where
/* /*

Ll

and
,

L2

are

respectively equal to
*^

ds2 ds 2

the integrals being taken round the separate

circuits,

and that the complete value of

T
.

is

Ln
or
\ { i l (Zj i,

negative of e 379.] This expression Art. 333 for the potential energy in a field of and it is, as was there proved, equal to

+ J/z + i (Z for T is the


2) 2

iz

+ Mi^) }

two curre

where p^ and
field

_p 2

are the fluxes of magnetic induction of the


i

over any surfaces bounded by the

and

circuits
?'

re^'

spectively.

These quantities are sometimes called the


field,

and
to

components of momentum of the

and are equal

dT

-^
l

dT and -~

respectively.
for

The expression

may, as was shown in the aforesaid

chapter, be also written as

94:

DYNAMICAL METHOD.

[380.

ds
or
e

ds

fff(

Fu + Gv + Hw ] dxdydz,

the notation being the same as therein explained. 380.] If the circuits, being- themselves flexible and free to

move, be in connexion with

batteries,

and

if

and

U2

be the

electromotive forces in the respective circuits, we know that the draws upon the respective batteries in time dt are E^dt and

i^dt respectively.

But

in this case there

is

generally an increase of electro-

kinetic energy in the


ical kinetic

same time equal to

dT

~dt, and

of

mechan-

dT
energy equal to
is

j^dt.

The former of these


and the

equal to

T (-i + Mi ^2
*
.

77"

7"

clt

+ -^ i2 2 ) 2

dt

latter is equal to

^F

-~

dt,

where

is

the electro-

magnetic force corresponding to a (q) coordinate of configuration, and 2 indicates summation extending to all such coordinates in the system. If q be a coordinate of relative position of the

two
,

circuits,

assuming each to be

rigid,

we know

that

Fq

is

^ i a -= do

and

if

be a coordinate of form of each circuit regarded as


alone in the
field,

flexible,

but

we know

that

is

>

j-

and therefore

Therefore the total increase of kinetic energy in the and mechanical is


1

field electric

d -

/i* dL,

dM

i<?

dL

(,V+2^s+X,,)*+(|

381.]

DYNAMICAL METHOD.
draw upon the

95

And

therefore the total

batteries per unit time is

Equating

this to the

known

total

draw per unit time,

or

=
Now E
l

*i

~ j (LA + MiJ +
i
2
t

(L,

i2

+ J/y

and E% must be such functions of i 19 i 2 and the coefficients defining the circuits, that on interchanging- these quantities in the expression for E19 the expression for K2 must
,

result

and conversely, whence it follows from the last written equation that the two following equations must be true, viz.

381.] In most of the ordinary cases of current fields which or the present themselves for investigation the quantity

potential electric energy existing in the field is inappreciable in comparison with the electro-kinetic energy, or in other e

It is words, no appreciable error results from neglecting K. the dissipation coefficient. otherwise, however, with quite

This

always of sensible magnitude, so that for all except ideal circuits the correct expressions for the electromotive purely forces in the two current field are
is

v
1

_ dP\ ~~
~dt

7?
l

,-

1?

when the potential energy From the Oersted law


uniform magnetic
shell,

or

is

neglected.

of the
its

and

equivalence of action of a equivalent current upon any

other shell or current, we infer that if a closed circuit with current i were situated in the field of a magnetic shell whose magnetisation is always uniform, though with either constant or

96

MAXWELL'S DYNAMICAL METHOD.

[382.
in the circuit

variable strength $, the electromotive force

required to

maintain

would be expressed by the equation

382.] If the circuit connexions with

the batteries were de-

stroyed, the above written equations would become

- (L& + Jf* + R^ =
a)

or

R^ = - - (L& + Mi,),

and

-(L^ + MiJ + E^ =

or

R^ = -- (Z
+ Mi2) and

a t,

+ Jf^);

whence from the analogy of the equation Ri


current, the quantities
~=r l dt (L

=E
dt

in a steady
(I/2
^'

M ^)

are said to be the electromotive forces in the circuits arising this use of the term electromotive force is from induction
;

analogous to the use of the term centrifugal force in ordinary mechanics.


If only one circuit

^
it

existed in the

field,

the equation for the

electromotive force in

would be

and

if there

were no battery connexion this would give

R
whence
it

il

=_

(Zjt'j);

follows that the coexistence of the second circuit

in-

creases the electromotive force in the circuit of


j

^ by --r- (^fr' 2 ), Civ

or in the case of a shell


/I

by
2)

=r

(M<$).
7

The

quantities

---(Mi.
clt

and

j-(M(f)) dt

are

therefore

re-

garded as the inductive electromotive force of the current or

shell

upon the current

i^.

383.] Maxwell has arrived at the same expression for the electromotive force of induction in the case of two closed circuits,

but from a

much more
first

He

gives in the

exhaustive and accurate investigation. place an account of Felici's investigations

384.]

MAXWELL'S DYNAMICAL METHOD.


it

97

on Faraday's Laws of Induction^ from which


closed circuits

and

induction of
sists

on

X X is

appears that two possess the reciprocal property that the on A. In this conequal to that of

the distinction between the case of two closed circuits and

that of a circuit in the field of a magnetic shell. Again, whereas it has been assumed by us that the electro-

magnetic force between circuits carrying currents is the same whether the circuits are in rest or motion, i. e. that, when the
intensities of the currents are given, the electromagnetic force
is

a function of the coordinates q only and not of their time variations, Maxwell justifies this assumption by the results of

experiments especially conducted for that purpose. He then assumes that the current intensity, called by us the time variation y of a coordinate of electric position y.

i t is

And

he regards his electromotive forces as forces producing

or tending to produce changes in


as impressed mechanical forces

y and y

in the same

way

tend to produce changes in q

and

q.

On
by

these hypotheses he investigates the field of two currents the application of the Lagrangean equations for ordinary
first case,

dynamics, assuming, as in our both and are zero.

an

ideal field in

which

The

total electrokinetic

energy

of such a field

is

a homo-

geneous quadratic function of the functions of the y'a and q's.

fs and qs with

coefficients

He He

shews,

as

will

electrical coordinates

readily be admitted, that the y's or cannot enter into the expression.
fact that the electro-

also shews,

from the experimental

magnetic forces are independent of the qs, that the expression for T must be of the form Te + Tm where Te is a homogeneous
,

quadratic function of the ^'s, and Tm is a homogeneous quadratic function of the qs. 384.] Suppose then that, the field being at rest, all mechanical or visible motion is prevented by the application of

the requisite generalised component of force (f' q ) corresponding to each generalised coordinate q, where is therefore equal and opposite to the electromagnetic force q

F F

VOL.

II.

98

MAXWELL'S DYNAMICAL METHOD.


of the kinetic energy

[385.

The only part

Tis

electrokinetic or

Therefore the Lagrangean equation

!/^N-^-0
dt\d^
becomes in this case

dg~

whence, by the reasoning above employed, r , equation

we

arrive at the

Therefore,

when

there

is

mechanical motion,

we have

where

a quadratic function of the <f s with coefficients functions of the q's, or in Maxwell's notation
is

Tm

If,

then, the system free to

move were
should have

acted on

by any

electro-

motive forces

and

we

l^L^-y "
didy
dy

15

fL^L^-y= dt
dy 2

dy

dT

or, since -7- is zero,

+ My,) = 7
i.

e.

in our notation

These results indicate, as previously shewn, the existence of


inductive forces in the two circuits equal to
-

-^

(Mi 2 ) and

(Mi^

respectively.

385.]
as

The total draw upon we know, E-^ i + $2 h

the batteries per unit of time

is,

386.]

MAXWELL'S DYNAMICAL METHOD.


is

99

That

to say, it

is

_(_^. +
,

Ltf

^
,,.

+ Z,tA + V2 __, _|)


.
,

dM

or

dTe

_<L+-^, dt dt
the mechanical work done by the electromagnetic

d Tm

where
force.

Tm

is

If the change in the system were such that the current intensities

remained constant, this would become

"''*^r
If

^r
and

we

introduce the resistances

Ex

R2

but continue to

neglect

Tm

our equations become as before

386.] Suppose therefore that we have two closed circuits C^ C.2 of resistances and 7?2 in any field. Let Ct be called l the primary and C2 the secondary circuit, and let there be no

and

impressed electromotive force in

C2

Our equations give


0,

.....
;

(1)

or

RI
2

I i dt 2

+Z
i

1'

+ Mi

= constant

.-.

sJ'i JO

dt

= (L i \+(Mi -(L^\-(Mi \,.


1
J ) <l

(2)

where the

sufiixes
t.

and

indicate values at the beginning

and

end of the time

From

the equation (1)

we

have, supposing

C2

to be rigid,

or
i

=e
commencement
of the time.

supposing

to be zero at the

2,

100

MAXWELL'S DYNAMICAL METHOD.

[387

If the variation
interval
t,

-j

(^h)

vanish after a short portion of the


t

so that at the

end of the time


(2)

the magnitude of

i.

becomes inappreciable, then

becomes

rt

The quantity
its

i 2

dt

is

called the integral induced current,

and

^o

magnitude depends upon the

difference of the initial

and

final

values of
If, for

Mi^
instance, the

two

circuits
i^

be in fixed position, and a

sensibly instantaneous current

be suddenly excited in

C: and

then maintained constant, we have

And

if

the current in L^ remaining constant the value of


/

vary, then

B.J J
circular wires such as

,* =(*.-.,)<,

If the circuits consisted of long straight parallel wires, or of would result from sections of the same
in

cylinder, it is easily seen that the induced current such as would resist the motion of C^
.

C2

is

This

is

a particular case of Lenz's law mentioned in Chapter

XIX.
387.]
fields,

By

we get

reasoning precisely as in the case of the two circuit for a field of any number of such circuits
ds

ds

ds
9

where the integration is extended round all the circuits, and F G, II are the components of vector potential of the whole field
at

any point of any In a field of two

circuit.

closed currents

\ and

it

has been proved

that the inductive electromotive force in the circuit of

is

equal to

-jj-

where p l

is

the

component of momentum of

the

field,

and

is

equal to

L^ + Mi^ or

dT
di-i

388.]

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE OF INDUCTION.

101

If there be any number of closed currents it may be shewn, by precisely the same reasoning as in the case of two currents, that

the inductive electromotive force in the circuit of any one of

them, as

i,

is

>

where p

= Li +
is

1,

Mi'

or -jr

a
,

that

is,

that the

d
inductive electromotive force
at
7-

dT
-=^
di
i
t

In the case of two closed currents,


/7

and

i2

it

was shewn that

71
or

-jr ClT-t

L^ + Mi^ was

equal to the flux of magnetic induction


S,

through any closed surface

bounded by the
/ /

circuit of il

that

is

to say, to the surface integral

[la

+ mb + nc}dS,

where

a, b, c

are the

components of magnetic induction of the whole any point of S, or to the line integral

field at

round the

circuit of

^ where
,

F, G,

H are

the components of

vector potential of the whole field at any point of that circuit. So by reasoning in all respects the same, it may be shewn that whatever be the number of closed currents in the field,

Li+lZMi'
in

or -~*

dT

is

equal to either of the above expressions,

which

0, b, c

or F, G,

H refer to the whole

field.

to the investigation of expressions for proceed 388.] the electromotive force in a closed circuit, either at rest or in

We

now

motion, in a varying magnetic field. First suppose the circuit to be at rest.

We have
circuit is

seen that the total electromotive force in any closed


-77,

where

and the integration is taken round the complete circuit. That is to say, if <r be the total resistance in the complete
circuit calculated

on the principles enunciated in Chap. XIII,

the current

in the circuit will be given

by the equation

102

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE OF INDUCTION.


dx

[389.

If at each, point of the circuit there were an electromotive with components P, Q, R, and if o-j were the resistance per unit length in the circuit at that point, we should have
force

being the same at each point of the circuit and equal to the value given by equation (A). The magnitude Oj_ varies generally from point to point of the
circuit,

hence we infer that

=-(f
From
this equation it follows that P', Q', .$' are derivatives of
\jf,

some function

dF

which dx

satisfies

the condition that

dt 'ds

dy + dG_ "ds + dt
-i

dHdz
~dt"ds

+ d$ ds

constant throughout the circuit, and therefore that the most general forms of the expressions for the components of the
is

electromotive force at any point of the circuit are given by the equations

but

389], In the next place, suppose that the circuit is not at rest, is varying in form, or position, or both, from time to time. Consider any element ds of this changing circuit. The electro-

motive force of induction in ds

may

be regarded as the sum of

two parts which may be separately calculated, viz. (i) that arising from the intrinsic variation of the surrounding field and which would exist if the element ds were at rest (a) that arising from the motion of ds. The first has for its components the magnitudes
;

~ dJF
dt'

~W

dG

dH
dt'

39 1- ]
or

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE OF INDUCTION.

103

more generally,
"
7

^_^i
dt

dx'
/7

" _^_^t dt
7T

__^_^i "
dt

dy'

dz'

f
r>

where

-r-

>

at

at

and -r- are the time variations of the F, G,


at

of the whole surrounding field (including the remainder of the circuit) at ds.

390.]

To

calculate the second,

same

as if ds
all

were

itself at rest,

other respects, the reversed motion of ds.

changed in
Hence,

observe that it must be the and the remaining field unmoved in a space animated with

we

of ds,

component translational velocities component rotational velocities, the time variations of F, 6r, and H, referred to axes fixed relatively to the element and instantaneously coinciding with those of reference, would be, for F,
if #, y>
,

z were the
3 its

and e^

o>

o>

dF

-j-x dx

dF
y dy

dF
*

dz

+ a>,0-o>

a Zr,

with similar expressions for


ponents of a vector.

G and

H, since F, G,

H are

com-

Therefore the components P, Q,

of the electromotive force

in ds arising both from the variation of the field of ds are given by the equations,

and the motion

-P = x dF dF -T-+2/-5dx
.
.

+z-T-+c>s -<> 2 #
.

dF
dz

dy

dF d^ + -j- + -dx dt
,

with similar equations for


Since

Q and
c

R.

dF dG --dy dx

and

dF --- dff =
dz

dx

b,

we

get

dF

dG
dG

dH
+Z-J dy

dF
az + cx + u l H-<

d\f

-Q = xdy

dF

+yy

dH --

F+

dG
dt

d\jf

dy

-f-

dy

-R = x- +y dz y dz
391.]

dF

dG

dH d^ dH +z--- bx + ay + ^F-^G+ -=- + -fdz dt dz


force

The electromotive

round the

circuit, or

104
becomes in this
that

ELECTEOMAGNETIC FORCE.

[392.

case, since the continuity of the circuit requires

dx
-

dz
0) 2
2

dy -- ^sT"'
3

dy
-J-

dx
6>a li 3

-- ^i dz -T
"

dz
>

T"^

60

'

dy !^

--

dx
*> 2

~T~

>

the part under the integral sign in the last term being a complete differential the term itself vanishes.

And

For closed
P, Q,

circuits, therefore,
is

mental evidence

derived, it is indifferent

from which alone our experiwhether we take for

R
p
_

the values obtained above, or those given by the simpler

equations,
.

cylz-^-- d^ -j^, dx dt

dF

= az
d

ex

da ~ -- -- d^
=

dt

dy

dff

and these simpler expressions are most usually adopted.


proceed now to determine the electromagnetic 392.] action on a closed circuit or any element of such a circuit in

We

any magnetic field. By Art. 326 we know

that, if a closed circuit

with current

of intensity i be situated in a magnetic field, the total increase of material kinetic energy corresponding to any variation in the form and position of the circuit is equal to the corresponding variation in the integral

ds

ds

ds

that
.

is

to say to

'

f
f

__ + + V^^" ^^"
dG dy

~~

dFdx

dH d

392.]

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE.
under the above integral sign

105

The

coefficient of 8 x

may

be

written

df^dx dx ds
or

dF^dy dy ds

dF^dz
dz ds
/

dy

,<fe\

^ ds

ds'

dF T- + ds

( ^

dy
as

/-

dz\ :r)' ds/

with similar modifications in the

coefficients of

dy and

dz.

Therefore the total variation of the integral becomes, since

dx
d

d
ds
da:,

dy
b-fds

ds

d = --by,
ds

dz
g

ds

--^
ds

And

this for the closed circuit is equivalent to

or the total increase of the material kinetic energy for any change in form and position of the circuit is the same as if

each

element ds were acted on by the force whose compo-

nents are
.

dy

dz \

i(c-^--b ds')ds, ^ ds
If

i(a-c--)ds, ^ ds ds^

dz

dx \

/_ dx dy\, -- a-^)ds. t(b^ ds / dy


.

we

include the term

remembering that from the continuity of the

circuit

=
ds

ds

-,
ds

where 60, 6$, b\j/ are angular displacements of the element ds round the axes, the total increase of the kinetic energy may be
written

106

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE.

[393.

.{fdF dy ,d\* M(T- + C -/-&:T ds/ ds (\ds


,d

fdO
\ds

dz
ds

T---ds
dH
-rds

dx^^
dx
dy\.
]

+ b-r ds

a-r)$zt ds/
)

that

is

to say

it is

on by the

last

the same as if each element ds were acted mentioned force together with another whose
dfl
dff

components are

dff

'** ''**
and
also a
,
-r

''**
T

moment whose components are ./^dy ^dz\ ,/^.dz r dx\ i(H-2--G--}ds, i(F-r H)ds, ^ ^ ds ds J ds ds '
Since
/.

i(O-r ^ ds

./^dx

r,dy\ , F-f-)d8. /
ds

i-=-

^
dx
ds,

r.d^, i-ds, ds

T^^^ t-ds
J
ds

component forces on the whole circuit are the same whichever view be adopted. Also, since the total moment round the axis of z on the second
separately vanish for a closed circuit, the

hypothesis
(

is

equal to

/.

M^-^+^-^ + K^-^)
/

dF

dG

^dy

^dx

dy

dz^

dz

,e.to
it

dz \

dz

dx

follows that this

is

equal to the total

moment round

the same

axis of the forces existing- on the first hypothesis, for the moments round x and y

and similarly

393.] It appears therefore that in dealing with a complete rigid circuit we may take indifferently for the action on each

element either the component forces obtained in the second


instance with the corresponding moments, or the forces given by the simpler expressions

component

394-]
./ dy i(c^V

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE.
,dz\s -6 )bs,
ds/
zero.

107

ds

i(a--- c ds' V ds
./

dz

ds

ds

with moments

So

long- as experiments are conducted

impossible to decide

between the two

results,

with rigid circuits it is but certain experi-

ments on flexible circuits have been interpreted as pointing to the conclusion that the electromagnetic action on each element is a single force perpendicular to the element, and therefore
that
it is

given by the component forces

last written.

394.] In these investigations we have supposed that we were dealing with circuits in linear conductors (like copper wires)

and have determined the electromotive and electromagnetic actions on each element from the condition that such forces and actions shall be consistent with certain known experimental results when the whole circuit is
either rigid or flexible,
forces

considered.

instead of a single linear circuit, or an aggregate of detached linear circuits, we had to deal with a continuous conIf,

ducting mass,

we

mass there
P, Q,

is

an electromotive

should infer that at each point of such a force whose components are the

fore that

determined by the preceding investigation, and thereelementary currents will be set up within the substance,
if u, v,

such that

were their components and

<r

the resistance

ferred to unit of area at


<ru

any

point,

= P,
du
dx
I

(TV

= Q,
l

<rw

fi.

If

u, v,

satisfy the condition

dv __ __

dw __
dz

dy

at each point,

we may

divide the whole mass into closed circuits

of appropriate transverse section a from point to point, and such that la is the same throughout each circuit, where

But la corresponds
considered,

to the

of the linear circuits hitherto

and
.

dx
ds

-d8 = I^-ad8 =
ds

dx

udxdydz, &c.

108

DISPLACEMENT CURRENTS.

[395.

Therefore each volume element dxdydz of the substance is subject to electromagnetic action either represented by forces

X, Y,

Z and moments
f
ff

I/,

M,
/J 7f

where
rl

X = \u ---t-v---\-w L
or

W
}-(cv

(HvGfw)dxdydz,
element and the magnetic in\
7
7 7

&c.,

by

forces perpendicular to the


.

duction, Viz.

with

^ A = (cvbw)dxdydz, similar values for Y and Z.


7

field

395.] These results have only been strictly established for a of closed currents. Maxwell, indeed, maintains that with

the extended meaning of current described, Art. 263, every current in nature is a closed current, and, whether this be

conceded or not,

ment

it seems clear that in any field the displacecurrent, if it exist, should be included with the conduc-

tion current in estimating the phenomena. In point of fact, most substances in nature are neither perfect conductors nor perfect insulators, the large majority combine

both properties, and therefore admit, as explained in the article above mentioned, both of conduction and of displacement in
different degrees.

at

and R are the components of electromotive force (J), any point of such a substance, there will be, supposing the substance to be isotropic like glass or resin, an electric displacement at that point, whose components f, g^ and k are
If P,

P,

Q, and

KR

respectively,

K being
;

a scalar quantity the substance


is

called the dielectric inductive capacity


seolotropic like a crystal, the relations

when

between displacement and

force are

more complicated. Hence the total components of current u, v, w will, in ordinary substances, be determined (as shewn in Chap. XIV) by the
equations
df

dq

dh

396.]

DISPLACEMENT CUREENTS.

109

where p, q, r are the components of the true conduction current, and are determined in accordance with Ohm's law by the equations

P
what
is
or

= CP,
*

= CQ,

= CE,
'

being-

called the

conductivity

of the substance, and

the reciprocal of
396.]
q,

The

quantities

the specific resistance per unit of area. g, and h are in fact connected with p,

and

by the equations

TT

The
stance,

ratio -^

will vary according to the nature of the sub-

from zero in perfect conductors to infinity in perfect


is

insulators.

This remark

not inconsistent with the statement that in

electrostatical questions

by

making K infinite.

we pass to the perfect conducting limit The apparent inconsistency is due to the
cases, as

different units

employed in the two

has been already

shown.

The recognition of the displacement components f, g, h with their time differentials/,^, h necessitates the introduction of the
electric potential

energy W, hitherto omitted

for the sake of sim-

plicity, in the investigation of the inductive forces of the field. If we regard, as above, /, g, h as possessing the properties of a ic current, it will follow that the component inductive electro-

motive forces of the

field are still

of the form

-for

>

-_-

dH
-j-r

when the

u, v,

and w in the expressions

G,

H are

composed of the conduction and displacement component currents, or

arej+/, q+g

+h

respectively.

The dissipation D or heat conversion depends only upon p, q, r, and the potential energy only upon /, g, h, the former being,

in fact,

rrr / r

JJJ
and the
latter

(]*&+?*

being

110
397.]

MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY.
The magnetic
force

[397.

tical at all

and magnetic induction are idenpoints where there is no magnetisable matter.

If there be such matter (the magnetisation being due only to induction) then, as we know from Chap. XVII, the components 0, #, c of magnetic induction are connected with the components
a, /3,

y of magnetic force by the equations a b c pa, p(3,

= \iy,

were

fx,

is

a scalar quantity called the magnetic permeability.

In

this case

we have
da dz

dc
-=

47r/xw, dz dy For in this case

--

db

--

dc

dx

= 47r/uv,

db -

-- da
dy

dx

where
the

a', /3',

field,

y arise from the magnetic action of the currents in and therefore satisfy the equations
do!
.

d/3' dy - -=4'7m, -^-- dz 7

dy

dz

-- dy =
-=

dx

477V,

dp do! --dx dy

as proved above.

And

a", /3",

y"

arise

from the induced magnetism, and there-

fore satisfy the equations

-^LY--dy
dz

dz

dx

^
dx
field

da"
dy
is

The

reciprocal

(-) in the current


field.

analogous to the

coefficient

K in the electrostatic
=
i

the general value of the electric potential in the latter expressed by the equation

As

is

so the general value of the


is

^-component of the vector potential


^udxdydz
r

expressed by the equation

F=
with similar values for
magnetic induction are
a

G and

ff,

and the components of

= dff
dz

dG
>

&c.,

dy

398.]

MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY.

Ill

those of magnetic force being


1

dH
ay

-( j x v

dG^ &c y-) dz '


1

398.] So long as we are dealing with an infinite field throughout which fM has the same value at every point, the equations as

above written are

sufficient,

but

if

the value of

ju

changes

dis-

continuously over any surface or surfaces, the values of F, G, will not be completely expressed by the equations

and the

like.

We
field,

will still suppose that there is


arises

no fixed magnetism in the

but only such as

from the induction in magnetisable

matter.

The magnetic force a, (3, y at any point may be regarded as composed of two forces, (1), (04, fi lt yj arising solely from the currents; and (2), (a2 2> y 2 ) arising from the induced mag,

netisation.

Similarly, the
b c (a lt lt t )

and

(a 2

is composed of magnetic induction (, c) b 2 c2 ), and the vector potential (F, G, H) is


,
,

composed of (Flt

G19 HJ
dc

and (F2

G2

ffz)

And

as above

--dz dy
Therefore, since
C-,

db

-= dc,
dy

db,

_i
dz

&c.,

&c.

dG l
::

dx

dF, 5 dy
(I),

D-i

_dF,
dz
^

~~*

dff,

dx

^-V ^=47r^ dx
2

where

J =
l

d -/l dx

^ + ^.
dy
dz

If over any surface

same

letters

/x changes suddenly from /x to f/, and the with and without the accents represent correspond-

ing quantities on the

/x

and

// sides of the surface,

But

a,

a/,

whence

= -7
f*

>

and similarly

for

#-,

and

112
/ and
satisfied
c/.

ENEEGY OF THE

FIELD.

[399.
(I)

These conditions together with equations

are

by the assumption

The

difference of the

in the direction of the

magnetic forces (a 2 normal on opposite

/3 2 y 2 ) and (a 2 ', /3 2', y 2 ') sides of the surface is


,

where

4irA

=
+

V-

and

nA'/*

a'

&c., &c.

Therefore

a/ a/ -r
Also
/*

= =

a2

+... &c.

=
f*

(II)

Hence

F, G,

H at
Z^

any point of the

field are to

be determined

from the equations

where

jPx

^j,

are determined as above,

and

F G
2
,

are

determined from the equations

together with
to (II).

the

three

superficial

equations

corresponding

in any field of electric currents in 399.] The total energy which there is no material motion consists of three parts
:

(1)

The

electrokinetic energy
\

which

is

equal, as

we have

shewn, to

+ Gv + Hw}dxdydz. IjJJ {Fu


(2)

rr r

The

dissipated energy or heat D,

which

is

equal to

fff\f*

399-]
(3)

ENERGY OF THE FIELD.


The
potential energy of electrical distribution field to be isotropic, is equal to

113
W> which,

supposing the

Now

since

F=

fff

"*****>
du

it

follows that

u U
and that
Therefore

=F
~"

''

dF

^,du

dTe
~dT

dH

Also

Since

o-p

= P,
4

a-q

= Q,

err

= R.

dW

-iff
Since

P,

Whence, by

addition,

we get

dy
is

where S

But

a surface bounding the whole field. the first of these terms is clearly zero, and the second
is

so also provided the

currents

be

all

closed,

in virtue of the

equation
VOL.

du Tdx

dv

Tdy

+ Tdz

dw

II.

114
Therefore
f

ENERGY OF THE FIELD.

[400.

dE
dt

= dT + dD + dW = 0. dt dt dt
e

400.] If there be material motion in the

field,

then we

know

that the time variation

dT
=-^
(Jit

must be increased by the quantity

tff{ P'u + Q'v + Kw] dxdydz, {


where
P',
Q,',

R' are the additions to be made to P, Q,


circuits,

arising from the motion of the element. Now if we are dealing with a field of closed

we know

is

equal to

r
l

dp dx
\~dt'd~s

J
where the
Also
.

d g dy dt'di

dH

Wfo)

dz^

'

line integral refers to

any one of the

closed circuits.

if q

.,

dF
dt

circuit, -j-

=
,

be a generalised coordinate of form or position of the . . dF da dG . dH

2 ---=

dq

dt

and similarly
is,

for -=-

and

-=

dt

dt

But
energy

in this case there

as above proved, material kinetic

Tm

such that

dTm ~~
where
,

__

C.(dF_

dx

+'+'
dG dy

dH

dz^

dF dG dH
-=
>

02

-7eft

>

-r

have the

,.last mentioned values.


dTm

Whence

it

follows that

///'
And we
get as before

dt

dE __dTe dD == ^r "^r + ^r +
*

dW
"5r

dTm + "sr __

fff \ P u + ^ + R w ] dxdV dz in a field of clos ed circuits =fff \(cy bz)u + (az ex} v + (bx ay }w
'

As shown

above, Art. 391,


'

dx dy dx.

Also, by Art. 392,

av}z} dxdydz,

whence the

result as in the text.

4oi.]
401.]

POYNTING'S THEOREM.

115

The expression

for

the electrokinetic energy, or

Ifffl
differs, as

&H + GV + Hw} dxdydz,


from the integral

shown above

(Art. 357),

therefore either

only by a surface integral over a surface infinitely distant, and volume integral may be taken to express the

electrokinetic ejiergy over the


If,

whole of space.

with Maxwell, we regard this electrokinetic energy as localised in regions of magnetic force (a, b, c) rather than those of currents (u, v w), then in dealing with a finite space we shall
y

take the electrokinetic energy to be

throughout this space, and the time variation of this integral will be the time variation of the electrokinetic energy within 6

the space.

The

dissipated energy or heat

we

regard as expressed locally

by the equation

D=
where the integral
is

taken as before over the given space.

Similarly, the potential energy or locally by the equation

W we

regard as expressed

w=
With

T
it

these assumptions

may be

proved that the total variation

per unit of time of E, or

T + D+W+Tm
e

within the space bounded by a closed surface


surface integral

is

equal to the

where P, Q,

are the

components of the electromotive

force at

116

ELECTEOMOTIVE FORCE IN MOVING CONDUCTOR.

[402.

each point of that point *.

S independent

of the motion of the element at

402.] In the case of a substance in a varying magnetic field where there is no material motion we have seen that P, Q, R, the

components of electromotive

force at

any

point, are determined

by the equations

___<W_d
~~dt~"dx'

o-^ ^=
dx

-^~dt

7?-_^_^i

dy*

dz'

mu e Therefore
since

dP

-f-^
dy

dQ

dR dz

=-V
-

\k

dF
dx
also

dG
dy

dH =
dz

0.

But we

know

that

whence

it

follows that

4*^ ^ dy ^ dh. dz) K \dx


dg_

Now

if p

be volume density of electric distribution in the

field

at the point considered,

we know
dg_
"*"

that

dx

#+
^
is

d_h_ ~
dz
2

'

dy

and therefore

Kp

= -V

^.

Whence
in the

it

follows that

the potential of the free electricity

field.

403.] Again, if there be material motion in the field proved, Art. 389, that

we have

.dF .dH -P = x- + y.da + z~-- cy + bz + * dx


dx
dz

a)

G-<*> 2

dF -=, H+- + d^ dx
dt
,

with similar expressions

for

Q and

R.
co

If the substance be of invariable form we know that w 1 have the same values throughout, and also that

o>

* This proposition was first demonstrated byProfessorPoynting, D.Sc., F.R.S., in a paper published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of London for 1884. It being proved, as above, that the time variation of the energy within a closed surface is expressible as a surface integral over that surface, Professor Poynting assumes that the flow of energy through each surface element is the argument of that surface integral. This theory, with many interesting consequences, has met

with general acceptance.

ELECTBOMOTIVE FORCE IN MOVING CONDUCTOR.

117

0)

= dy

dx
j

0>

= dx =
dz

dz
,

dy

dx

dy = dz = --p-

dy

dz

dx __ dii J == dz __ A _ dx dz dy
lerefore

thence, attending to the equations

4?rv

= --- -7-j
ax
dz

---dx dy

>

dP
re

get

dx

+ d$ +dR_ + dz "
dy

as before,

and

\j/

is

in this case also the potential of electrical

distribution.

If

we adopt

the shorter and more usual formulae

dF
&c.,

d^

we get
where
Since P,
quantities
Q,

dP_

dQ
dy
in the
if
,7
I

dR
dz

dx

V=Fx + Gy + Hz.
R
J

two expressions

differ

only by the

-/-> respectively, it is indifferent which dz dy forms are employed in the case of closed currents, only it is important to remember that in the one case the ^ is the potential of free electricity, and in the other case that it differs from
that potential

by the quantity

\}/'

or

Fx + Gy+Hz.
NOTE. The field equations arrived at in this Chapter are those principally in and which will be employed in subsequent pages. Many other relations might have been obtained see especially some very interesting papers on Electromagnetic
use,
;

Waves by Mr.

Oliver Heaviside in the Phil.

Mag. 1887-1889.

CHAPTEE

XXII.

THEORY OP INDUCED CUEEENTS ON CONDUCTING SUEFACES.


ARTICLE 404.] IN Chapter XIX we considered the case of induction of electric currents in linear closed conducting circuits. If an electric current be generated in one circuit by a battery,

we
is

find that simultaneously a current, called the induced current, generated in any other closed conducting circuit in the field.

Similar

phenomena of induction present themselves

if instead

of linear conductors

we have

in the field solid conductors or

hollow conducting shells of any shape. The problem sents itself, to determine the laws of this induction,
at

now

pre-

405.] In Maxwell's view, as already stated, the total current any point consists of (i) the true conduction current whose

components are denoted by jo, q, r, and (2) the displacement current whose components are /, g> k. And all currents as thus
conceived are closed currents, so that

T + ay + az = J- Tax
universally, if u

du

dv

dw

Again,

if

P,

= p +/, v = q+g, w = r + L Q, R be components of electromotive force, p = CP, q=CQ r = CK,


9

__^^P
'^rdt
if

-_^_^Q

~^W

K_d]i

-4irdt'
of the

C be

the conductivity,

K the specific inductive capacity,

K in

medium. In the present investigation we regard space as sharply divided into conducting and non-conducting space, C being infinitely Also the greater than K in the former, and zero in the latter.
dielectric space is inappreciable

compared with

in con-

ductors, being proportional to

where

is

the velocity of

light in the dielectric.

407.]

CURRENTS ON CONDUCTORS.
y

119

It follows that in forming

potential of the currents

F G, H, the components of vector by the equations


/ / /

F=
we may

fx

- dxdydz,

&c.,

neglect all the displacement currents /, g, h as containing the very small factor K, unless the time variations of the electromotive force are comparable in rapidity with the vibrations

which constitute

light.

be appreciable although

K be inappreciable.

If that be the case /, or

dP
,

may

then in calculating F, (?, H> on which magnetic phenomena depend, treat the conduction currents as the only currents, and as alone satisfying the equation of continuity

We may

du fa
with
its

dv

dj

+ ~fa-

dw

corresponding superficial equations. (See note at end.) distribution of electricity on the surface of a con406.] is on this theory to be regarded as the terminal polarisaductor

tion of the dielectric.

The displacement currents

will generally

cause the superficial distributions and their statical potential to Now the variation of the statical potential depends on vary.

unit area in unit time.

the number of electrostatic units of electricity which pass through It, and the forces derived from it, will

therefore generally be appreciable,

and have to be considered in

our investigations, although the magnetic effect of the same displacement currents, which depends on the number of electromagnetic units,
is

inappreciable.
:

and 407.] Induced currents are always decaying by resistance of there being no reany conclusions reached on the hypothesis
phenomena. But the currents are undergoing variation from two causes, (i) by induction, (2) by resistance, and for mathematical purposes we
sistance cannot of course correspond to actual

where necessary, assume resistance to be zero, in order to calculate the time variation of induced currents due to induction
shall,

alone.

120

CUEEENT FUNCTION.

[408.

Of
408.]

Current Sheets and Shells and Superficial Currents.

Any

surface in a field of electric currents to


is

which the

resultant current

be everywhere a current sheet. The space between two current sheets very near each other shall be called a current shell, and the perpendicular
tangential shall be defined to
distance between the

two sheets

its thickness.

If at any point on a current shell a line be drawn on the sheet at right angles to the current, and da be an element of
that line, h the thickness of the shell at P, then the ratio which the quantity of electricity crossing the area hda per unit of time bears in the limit to da is called the superficial current at P, or

the current per unit of length. will, where necessary for disu v t ws the components of the superficial tinction, denote by current, retaining M, v, w for the component currents per unit of
,

We

area.

Of

the Current Function.

409.] If we take for a current sheet the plane of xy> the condition of continuity becomes, as is easily seen,

du8 ,dv8 ~7 7 dx ay
1

*"

If that be satisfied at every point, there


d>,

must

exist a function

of

x and

y>

such that n8

= -^ dv

and

v,

doc

This

is

called the current function.

generally, if the condition' of continuity be satisfied for current shell, there exists a function, $, of x y> and #, called any the current function, such that at each point on the shell
9

More

u8
v8

d<b = n -~

dd>

dy

m-j-i dz

. l

d<j> -~--n 2Jj dz dx dcj)

w
which
satisfy

dd>

dx

Ll

dd)

_L, dy
8 8

both conditions, Iu8

+ mv + nw =

0,

and, as will be

seen, the condition of continuity.

410.]
For
if

CURRENT FUNCTION.

121

proportional to the perpendicular disdc tance between these surfaces, that is, directly proportional to -r-

surfaces, S = c and S = area must be inversely

the currents form a shell between two neighbouring c -f- do, the resultant current per unit of

Again,

if

a function,

the condition of continuity be satisfied there must exist <J>, such that

u= dd& _^^?, dz dz
dy
dy
"~

-^^?__^?^?
dx dz
dz dx

_(Md3> _dSd$>
dy dx
dx dy
so that the resultant current is along the intersection of surfaces <J> constant and S constant.

two

These values of

u, v,

satisfy the condition of continuity

du dx

dv

dy

+ ~dz~
de = m,

dw

'

Now

dS
ax
writing

dc = l-r

dS
,

dS dz

= n dc
h

dy

And

for $>dc

we have

for the

components of super>

currents

ut
vs

= hu =

dm n ~dy
.

m -^
dz
d<j>

d<b

= =

d$ v --n
dz
,

-f-, dx

d<b m~-^l

dd>

dx

dy

-^->

The function <, if given at every point on a surface, completely determines the currents at every point. Evidently, for a closed surface, $ + C determines the same currents as <, if C be any
arbitrary constant over the surface in question.

Of the

Vector Potential of a Current Shell.

410.] If r be the distance from the element dS of the shell to the point P, we have for the components of vector potential
at P,

122

CURRENT FUNCTION.

[411

If the surface

S be

closed,

we have by
t

Art. 271,
0,
<fec.

//(
And
therefore

d
dy

d
dz

\
]

(^>

JCY d/o

' r

so that

.F,

(r,

functions of the coordinates.

7? are linear function of the $'s with coefficient Evidently the same is true of the
-=>
>

derived functions

&c.

ax

dy
potential due to

COROLLARY.
rent sheet
is

The vector

any spherical

cur-

the sheet.

tangential to any spherical surface concentric with For, taking the centre for origin, let a?, y, z refer to a
a?',

point on the sheet,

y,

to a point

on the concentric surface

and

let

and therefore x'F+y'G + z'H

0,

which proves the statement.


Sheets.

The Energy of a System of Current


411.]

The energy of any system

of current sheets can be put

in the form

2^=
extended over
all

T
l(Fu
8

/ /

+ Gv + Hw }dxdydz
s B

the currents.

But

for every current

sheet,

u f> vs>

are subject to the condition Iu8

+ mv + nw
8

0.

The

412.]

ENERGY OF CURRENT SHEET.

123

expression contains therefore more variables than it has degrees of freedom, and it becomes desirable to transform it, by substi-

tuting <, the current function, as the independent variable. Given any system of current sheets, let us apply the theorem
of Art. 271, using the function

F$

for

of that article.

That

the

first

integral being round the


all

and the second over

bounding curve of each surface That is, the surfaces.

Treating

Gcf)

and

H(f> in the corresponding

way, we obtain

The

first

We

will

term of

member is equal to 2 T. now suppose all the surfaces closed. Then the second the right-hand member vanishes, and therefore for any

system of closed current sheets,

Also
dz

if

H
dy

be the magnetic potential and /*=

1,

d(^__dH_<m
dx
Therefore

d^__^__^
dx
dz

dy

^_^_15 dx dz
~~

dy

dv
412.] It
is

necessary now to show that

is

continuous through
to take the

current sheet.

For this purpose

it is sufficient

angent plane at any point

for the plane of #, y.

We

then have

dl
dv

d 12
dz

dF
dy

dG
dx

t.ny

124 COMPARISON OF SHEETS AND MAGNETIC SHELLS. [413.

F = /YT" dxdydz, G = f
that
is,

f/|

.F

densities

and G are the potentials of imaginary matter of u and v respectively. Therefore by the general theory
J
T7I

/~1

of potential functions,

-=

and

-=
,

corresponding to tangential

components of

force,

must be continuous, although


Therefore

IF
and
-=

dG
-jis

may

be discontinuous, at the surface.

con-

CvV

tinuous. It will be observed that T is expressible as a quadratic function of the $'s with coefficients functions of the space coor.

dinates.

For at every point ~j~ J

dH dG &c ~r
>
>

-j

are expressible as

linear functions of the fis,

and therefore
-y

is

so expressible.

Comparison with Magnetic

Shells.

<

413.] The vector potential due to a magnetic shell of strength over a closed surface $, being taken as positive when the
<

positive face

is

outward, has for components

iyff

which are the same as the components of vector potential of a current sheet with current function over the same surface.
</>

It follows that the components of magnetic force or magnetic induction due to the magnetic shell at any point not within the

due to the current sheet.

substance of the shell are the same as those at the same point And therefore the magnetic potential of

the magnetic shell differs from that of the current sheet by some constant at all points external to the shell and by some, but
;

not necessarily the same, constant at


space.

all

points in the enclosed

41

5.]

MAGNETIC SCREEN.
The magnetic
potential due to

125
any
shell of

414.]

uniform

strength

$ over

a closed surface

is

zero at all external points,

Such a shell corresponds to and no system of electric currents. The magnetic potential due to any system of currents on S is the work done in bringing a unit magnetic pole from an infinite distance to the point considered, and may (Art. 329) have any one of an infinite series of
47T0 at all internal points.
values differing by a constant according to the route chosen for It is not necessary for our purpose to define this the pole.

magnetic potential, as we are concerned only with its first differential coefficients, which are unambiguous. It would not,
however, be difficult so to define it as that the magnetic potential due to the currents shall be equal to that due to the corresponding

system of
to

shells at all points in external space.

closed surface, X2 the magnetic potential due magnetic system outside of S, there exists a deany arbitrary terminate distribution of magnetic shells on S, whose magnetic

415.] If

S be any

Ii at all points within S. equal to be the density of a distribution of matter over S whose potential has the value Q at all points on S. That

potential

is

For

let q

determines
1

q,

and the potential of the q distribution


#, y>
<

is

equal to

at all points within S.

Let
which
S,

be that function of
satisfies

and z of negative degree,


at all points external to

the condition

V2

and the condition -=^


clv
all

=q

(the normal being measured inis

wards) at

points on S.

This function

possible

and deter-

minate by Art. 275.

Then

of the required shell on positive face is outwards.

<, so determined, is the strength $, being taken as positive when the

For

let 12

5 whose strength is $. within S. Then at P

be the magnetic potential of the system of shells on Let r be the distance from any point

the normal

dv being measured inwards.

126
But

MAGNETIC SCREEN.

[416.

since

is

within S
2

V2

(-)

at all points in the

Also V $ at all points in the external space. Therefore by Green's theorem applied to S and external space,
external space.

And

therefore

n
I

/
I

J CKp
l

JJ

5 <*J>

--//!
416.] COROLLARY. There exists a determinate system of currents on any closed surface S, whose magnetic potential, together with that due to an arbitrary magnetic system outside of S, has some constant value at all points on or within S, namely, the system
of currents whose current function
is $,

where $

is

the function

found by the method of the

last article.

We

shall call this

system of currents the magnetic screen on 8 to the external

magnetic system.
It will be easily seen that we might reverse the problem, and system of currents on 8 whose potential together with that of an internal magnetic system should have the value zero
find a

throughout the
Example.
of 12

infinite external space.


a.

Let 8 be a sphere of radius

Then

the- value

may be expressed in spherical surface harmonics, including generally a constant term. Then at any point on or within 8

on 8

also

a=-l =-A

-2A n Yn

417.]
Therefore,

CONCENTRIC SPHERICAL SHEETS. by Art.


66,

127

^! dr
And
centre,

_A__ lira 22^14,7.. 4-na


1

therefore in external space, at

any point distant

from the

,
4irr
47T

w+ 1

and on S

The constant term


shell over S,

^ ~

corresponds to a constant magnetic

A at all points within S, which has potential and cannot be represented by any system of electric currents
on
S.

For every other term

/ /

Yn dS =

and therefore we may

take for the current function of the currents forming the . netic screen

mag-

from which the current at any point can be determined by expressing Yn in terms of the usual surface coordinates.
417.] Before entering on the consideration of the general problem of induction on surfaces, we will treat a simple case, that namely in which we have a conducting spherical shell S, and
electric currents are

generated wholly on an external spherical

surface

concentric with S.

Let
u, v,

WQ, VQ,

be the components of the given currents on S ff the com6r those of the induced currents on S,

ponents of vector potential of the given currents, F, G, of the induced currents. a be the radii of $ Let
,

H those
and S

respectively.

Then the

electrokinetic

energy of the whole

system

is

given by the equation

_
As

rrr(
I

-JJJ
extended over

+(H + H) (W + w)
Q

dxdyds,

the currents both original and induced. the effect of induction alone apart from resistance, the
all

induced currents would come into existence according to the law

128

CONCENTRIC SPHERICAL SHEETS.

[417.

dt

du

=
dt dv

V at all points on S,

dt

d dT --=0 dw

with the condition that induced currents can exist only in the shell.
If

we

take the
is

common
a

centre of the spheres for origin, this


*
j^.

condition

y m ^. z- <u
a

w^o
f\

at each point in the shell. It will be found in this case that if


7
7

we determine

u, v,

w by

using the equations -j- -jdt du

0, &c.,

without regard to the con-

dition, the values so found, in fact, satisfy the condition,

and

correspond to a system of closed superficial currents are therefore the solution of the problem.

on

S.

They

dT
Since
-=-

= F,
=-9

d
&c.,

dT

by making
0,
5

= 0,

&c., unconditionally,

we

obtain
rest,

dt

-=dt

&c. and therefore since the motion

is

from

at all points

on

S.
,

Then the

currents u Q) #

WQ

have a current function $, which

can be expressed in a series of spherical harmonics referred to the common centre of the spheres. It is sufficient to treat one be a solid harmonic term in this expression. Let therefore

harmonic of order

WQ

are the values

n. Then, taking the centre on S of the functions,

for origin,

u^ VQ

z dd)
~~
~a

~~

i/

dd)
'

dy
d(f)

a dz
~~

x
V ~~
11

z dfy
'

a dz
dd)

a dx

"~

x d(p
a dy

a dx

And

therefore u0) v

are spherical harmonics of order n.

4 1 8.]

GENERAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM.


UQ

129

Suppose on 8

= B Yn
n

then on

8,

FQ =

r
J

(-)

Bn Yn

by

Art. 66.
therefore

And

and therefore on

Similarly

Hence we
^O' vo

see that u, v,

wo5 and

since

U^V^WQ

are symmetrical with respect to constitute a system of closed

currents

closed currents

on the outer sphere, u, v, w constitute a system of on S. = 0, &c., In the general case, the equations -~ + 418.] dt dt
system of values
for ^, #,
0.

will determine a

on

$,

which do not

satisfy the condition lu

+ mv + nw

We must

therefore have

recourse to another

method of

solution *.

A
current function,
is

General Solution.
,

Let there be certain surfaces S19 S2

...

Sr on which
;

0, the

given as a function of the time at each a given varying magnetic field and certain point, constituting
* It may be suggested that pression for energy,

we should apply Lagrange's equation

to the ex-

having regard to the condition lu + mv + nw

=
d\
dt

0.

We should thus
~dJ

obtain

dF
-Tt

=l

d\
y

dG
-dT

==m

dS ==n d\
dt

>

~dt

when

d\

is

an indeterminate multiplier.
potential on

determinate values for v, w on S, satisfying But, as will be shown, they cannot satisfy the condition of continuity except in
,

Here \ is evidently the resultant vector show it to be normal to S at every point.

By

S and the equations method we should obtain the condition lu + mv + me 0.


;

this

the case where

A.

0.

VOL.

II.

130

GENERAL SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM.


Sr+lt
...Sn
,

[418.

other closed surfaces


shells,

on which closed currents are

to be regarded as conducting free to form themselves by

induction.

be the magnetic potential of the given currents, that of the induced currents.

Let

Then

-*<*"> //
in which the

which

<

is

integral relates to the surfaces S19 ... Sr on at every point, and the second relates to the given
first
,

For integrating by parts throughout the space within S, we have

rCC,
(

If F, of vector potential of the currents u, v, ^v on S, determined by the method now under consideration, and of the external system, the first term of the right-hand member is zero, because the vector potential is normal to S, the second because there are no currents within 8. If the condition of continuity be satisfied by u, v, w on S, the third term is also
zero,

JJJ G, H be the components


Ty

d ^d F te + G

rr d\,dF H ^> (S + dG + dH W

ay

and therefore the left-hand member is zero, and therefore at all points within S. Therefore there exists a function x of x, y, z, such that within 8

&c.,

_dx p _d X G ~ F -~te'
And

dy>

~ _X H_d dz'
is

Ms

since F, G,

H are components of the normal, x


v2 x

constant over 8.

= dF

dG dH -r-+v- + -r- = dz dx
dy

at all points within 8.

Therefore
0,

within 8.
all

Therefore

F=

G=

points on 8. unless 6r

The method

^=0,

0,

H=

at all points = at points within S, and A suggested can therefore never lead to a solution, lead to a solution. This cannot be generally the
0,

x has the same constant value

H=

0, at all

case.

41 8.]
1

GENEBAL SOLUTION OP THE PROBLEM.


Sr+l)
...Sny on which

131

remaining surfaces

is

to be determined

by

induction.

Now

there are no forces tending to increase

</>

on Sr+l

...

Sn

The potential of free electricity, except the forces of induction. if it exist, and the forces derived from it, can have no effect
on
it

Further, the system has as many degrees of freedom as contains variables, namely the $'s.
</>.

If therefore the external magnetic system be generated continuously, the corresponding system of induced currents on
e

determined by the equations

at each point on the surfaces

r .n, ...

Sn

ThatiS>

d_ ( dQ^ " f dt (dv

d&^_ ~ )
dv
,

That

is,

dfd&t.dQ^Q dt)' dv\ dt


at each point
also

on Sr+1 ,...Sn

V2

^T
at

= 0;
=
;

and
at
all

points
=-

within any of

those

surfaces

and therefore
of the

at

-\

has

uniform value over and within each


.

dt

surfaces

Sr+l ,...SH

But, as already proved, there is for each surface only one determinate system of closed currents which has this property. see then that the system of closed currents which will be

We

induced on the closed surfaces

Sr+l

...

Sn

is

the determinate

system which we found above, making the magnetic potential constant upon or within each of the surfaces Sr+l ,...Sn As closed currents come into existence outside of ^r+1 ... S n by any
.
,

the variation of the external system, their magnetic screen

is

formed on Sr+1

...

Sn

These induced currents decay by

resistance,

and cease to be

2,

132
a complete screen. their formation. 419.]

STATICAL POTENTIAL.

We

are here considering only the

law of

On

this hypothesis,

and neglecting

for the present the

resistance, the

any of the

surfaces

magnetic force will be zero at every point within $r+1 ,...$M it remains to consider the
;

electromotive forces.

Since the magnetic force is zero at every point, we have, writing F, G, If for the components of the complete vector potential, due as well to the original as to the induced systems,

d^dF __ d^dG
dy
dt

_dd#__[^
dx
dt

^.^_A^?
dz dt
.

dx

dt

dz dt

dy

dt

It follows that at all points within the surfaces Sr+1 ,...Sn there exists a function \j/ of #, ^, and z such that
t

^_^i __^I_^ dx
dt dt

dH _d^
dt

dy

dz

and
at every point within
AT JNJ

dF

dG
surfaces
^
1

any of the
>

Sr+1 ,...Sn

ow

dF -dt
rr

dG -dt
T~

A and

dH --r
dt

t being the components 01 an

electromotive force, produce, according to the theory of electrostatics, on the surface of the conductor 8 a distribution of
electricity

points within

and therefore causing at all having potential 8 an electromotive force equal and opposite to
*/>-,

the resultant of

--7- --=>

>

and

--rr
dt

at

dt

This distribution,

and

its potential
)

\/r,

will be invariable with the time as long as

--rr
at

&c., are invariable.

are thus led to expect that, in response to the variation of the magnetic field outside of a conductor, there will be in-

We

duced on the conductor (i) a system of

electric

currents re-

ducing to zero the magnetic force, and (2) a distribution of free electricity on the surface reducing to zero the electromotive force, at all points within the conductor.
420.] The potential function
v/r

at

which we arrived

in the last

article requires further investigation.

422.]

ASSOCIATED FUNCTION.
surface,

133

Let S be any closed

P, Q,

the components of a

vector which satisfy the condition

dP
dx
at all points within S.

dQ
dy

+ dz

dS

=()

Then x of #,
such that

It follows that there exists a function

y>

z,

2 at all points within 8. at all points on S, and V x will call this function the associated function to P, Q,

We

E for

the surface

S.

The

vectors
JT

d -- x
-

dx
have a resultant
421.] If P,
in the
,

dx n -- U/
-

dx -- -

dy

dz
S.

tangent plane at each point on


satisfy the further condition

and

dy

-- --= "_*?-<> dx

\J,

&c OcC.,

at all points within S, then shall

P-^*=0, <2-^=0, dx dy
at all
satisfied,

and

*--&=<>
dz

For these further conditions being points within S. there must exist a function x', such that at all points
,

within S

/
9

P *

= <*X -7dx

n- d* = -7"
(/

,
'

7? /I

= ^x -7-

And

dy
-

dz

therefore

Then

at

all

points on 5, and
therefore x'

V2

(x'-x)

=
and

at all points within S.

And

constant,

d\

-^

&c. at all points within S.

422.] If P, Q, and 72 be the components of an electromotive force, and if $ be a conducting shell, then, whether the conditions
-

= -j^
dx

&c.,

be satisfied or not, they will maintain on S the

dy

134
statical distribution

ASSOCIATED FUNCTION.
whose potential
l
,

[423.

is x-

For

letP=P + P
/

and Pj = -^

civ

>

then the forces

P Q E
1
,

are derived from the

potential x> and produce the effect stated. P', Q', E' form wholly closed curves within S, and do not affect the potential.

423.]

Let now

>

~>

-j^

be the components of the time

variation of vector potential of any magnetic system outside be their associated function for S. of S. Let \l/

Let

-=r

at

-TT at

at

rr be the components of the time variation of

vector potential of the system of currents on 8 which forms the magnetic screen to the external system. Let be their \//
associated function for

S then
9

for the

two systems together we

have a vector whose components are

with an associated function

magnetic screen

it

follows that

at

all
\^,

points within S, or replacing

F + F by F,
&c.

&c.,

and

\^

+^

by

we have

dF
-77

d^lr

<w

-7-

ax

=
,

0,

The

associated function to

-r.

dt

&c., is equal to the potential of

that distribution of free electricity on the surface the statical force due to which is equal and opposite to the force whose components

dF
are
-TT> &c.
(

at

425-]

KESISTAXCE CONSIDERED.
therefore since

135

And

__dF
~~dt'
are

~"5' "~di

_dG _dH

distribution formed on

components of an electromotive force, we have a statical S whose potential is //. There may of course be any free electricity in the field. But

we have to do with it only so far as it appears to be required by the conditions of our problem. And from that point of view \j/ is a single and determinate function of #, y, z, which is known when
,

dF
,

clt

fi &c., are given.

424.] According to this theory, superficial currents, and none but superficial currents, are continually being created on any solid conductor by direct induction. We may regard the solid as

made up

of an infinite

number

sively enclosing one another.

of thin conducting shells, succesThe same currents are generated


if it were a hollow and were there no re-

on the outer
shell,

shell

from instant to instant as


creation,

and these are on their

sistance

would continue to

be,

a complete

magnetic screen,

effectually preventing the interior strata from becoming affected. But in fact the currents in the outer shell decay by resistance,

and cease to be a complete screen. By this means the interior portions of the solid become gradually, but perhaps within a
time sensibly instantaneous, pervaded by currents.

The Effect of Resistance in Conducting

Shells.

425.] It comes the effect of variation of the external magnetic field. next in order to consider the effect of resistance alone without
variation of the external
field.

We have hitherto supposed resistance zero, and calculated

In any system of currents in a conducting


requires that the equations
(T

shell

Ohm's law

U=

a-

U.

h
a-

= =

dF
dt
1

d rdx

(rv= -v g
h
a-

dG
dt

d*
3

37~~T~ dy
dz

(A)

crw

= -rW =
h
8

dH d*
j

dt

136
in which
o-

EESISTANOE CONSIDERED.

[425.

denotes the specific resistance, be satisfied at every

f point by some value or other of

dF dG
-=>

dH
,

at

at

-33 and V. at
o-

constant.

Let us suppose the shell to be of uniform material and Then we have by differentiation
^dx

dz / dt ^dx dy dy If therefore the at all points within the substance of the shell. currents are derived from a current function, and if F, G, and
relate to

any varying magnetic system, including the currents in the shell themselves, it follows that V 2v at ajl points

within the substance of the

shell.

But
adding,

also multiplying equations (A) in order

by

I,

m, n, and

we have

dF
"

dG
dt

dH
~dt

d*_ ~
dv

dt

=
the
associated

and therefore

is

by
rr
>

definition
.

function to
\lr.

dF
-7T
>

dG
-rr '9

dH
dt

dt

dt

which we denote as heretofore by

Any

derived from

system of closed currents in a uniform conducting shell any arbitrarily assigned current function can be

caused by the electromotive forces due to some varying magnetic system, including the currents themselves, with the associated
function belonging to those forces. relate exclusively to If, however, it be prescribed that F, G, the system itself, that is, if it be a system decaying in its own

field in

satisfied unless

the absence of external forces, the equations (A) cannot be or, or the thickness of the shell, be suitably chosen

at every point.
j

For in

this case -7-

dt

-=7

>

and

dt

-rr dt

and there..

fore also
-j-

>

&c., are expressible as linear functions of

Assuming- them so expressed, and $ and


given, the

o- and h arbitrarily two independent conditions equations (A) express

which the single unknown quantity has to satisfy at each j~ This is not generally possible. But if /$, point on the surface.

427.]

SELF-INDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.

137
li

the thickness of the shell, or &, be also disposable, then a or

and -~ are determined by those equations. v


Cc

We may
satisfied,

conceive a system in which these conditions are and continue to be so during the whole process of

decay, in which therefore equations (A) hold true when differentiated according to t. might call such a mode of decay of

We

a system of currents a natural decay.

The complete
-=

solution of

any such problem involves the determination of

or

d/t

as a

function of the time, which can only be effected in special cases. will here consider the case in which the currents 426.]

We

are such

and the resistance


shell

is

so adjusted at each point of the

the currents decay pan passu, bearing at every instant during the process the same proportion to one another.

conducting

as

that

all

If this be the case,


8

we

shall

have

dv8

dw8

A
;herelaw me

is

Idu
dF
dt

must hold
A.r'j

a constant proportional to the resistance, for all linear functions of u s v 8) w 8


,

d<b
&c.,

^^

dt

A (p

and
dt
,

^^ -~

and since T

is

a quadratic function of us
-

v8

iv 8

dt

expressing the rate at which heat is generated in the decaying Also if 19 G 19 &c. denote the initial values of those system.
functions

when

F = 0, we shall have at time F = F^-", &c. and T= T, <-*".


t
t
5

The constant A

Any

called the modulus of the system. of currents in a shell which has this property of system
is

decaying proportionally in
self-inductive system.

its

own

field shall

be defined to be a

427.]

may

proceed to investigate the conditions that a system be self-inductive, and its properties when it is so.

We

138

SELF-INDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.

[428.

Let us denote by
to the vector

v/f

the associated function, as denned in Art. 420,

whose components are

dF dG --77 --77
?

>

and

AH -dt

dt

dt

Also

x be the associated function to If the system be self-inductive,


let

F,

G,

and

H.

^ = -A*,&o.,
dt

and

** = _A*X,4c.
dx

dx

The equations (A) become

in this case

and therefore

_ _ __
F+^ d_
u8

G+

H+ w
8

a d

__

dy_

vs

dz_ ~

<*_

>

h\

428.] Now if for any conducting shell we choose an arbitrary current function $, the quantities u s vs w s F, G, H, and x are The vector all determinate at every point as functions of 0.
>
,

whose components are

F+ ~ G + y^
,

>

jST+

-p

is

necessarily in

the tangent plane at every point, because


dv

by

definition,

but

it is

resultant current.

not generally in the same line with the But unless it be in the same line with the

resultant current the equations (B) cannot co-exist,


fore the system cannot be self-inductive-

and there-

The equations (B) then must satisfy, function


</>

express the condition which the current in order that the system of currents

be capable of being made self-inductive. They express only one condition, namely that two lines, both ascertained to be in a given plane, shall coincide.
derived from
it

in the given shell

may

It

may

be expressed by the single partial differential equation

43-]

SELF-INDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
This
is

139

at each point of the surface.

tion in

(f>

only, because F, G,

a partial differential equaand x. are determined if $ be

given.

429.]
values of
fulfilled,

As
<

there are as

many

disposable quantities,

namely the

at all points

on the

sheet, as there are conditions to be

namely, the above partial differential equation at every


for every surface

point,

we may assume that


<

there

is

at least

one function
that if

which

satisfies

the condition.

We

shall see later

S be
If
<

many.
F, G, ff,

a sphere, and in certain other special cases, there are be any function which fulfils this condition, then
x> derived,

and

from

it satisfy

equations (B),

dx

__

dy

^__ ~ h\
~~

suPP ose

'

at each point

on

S.

But Q generally

varies

from point to point

on the

surface.

In order to make the system with $ so chosen actually selfinductive^ we must so choose h as to satisfy equations (B) or

= XQ
If
<r

at every point.

be constant, this determines the relative thickness at every point which the shell S must have in order that it may be self-inductive with the current function <.

any system of currents on a surface the tangential component of vector potential coincides with the current at every point, the system can be made self-inductive by properly
If for

assigning the thickness of the


opposite to the normal
tion,
is

shell.

For

-^

is

made

equal and
defini&c.,

component of vector potential by

and therefore the vector whose components are

F+ ~,

the tangential component of vector potential.

Examples of Self-inductive Systems.


430.] (i) a sphere of radius a. Let $ be a spherical harmonic of

any one

order, as n.

Then

140

SELF-INDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.

[43-

u
and therefore
therefore,
u, v,

v dd> = z d(b -~, v = &c., a dz a -jay


are spherical harmonics of order n.

w
66,

And

by Art.

2n+l
4-rra

2n+l

u
v

and F: G u v w at all points on the surface. The vector potential then coincides with the current, and X = 0, \l/ = 0, and the shell, if of uniform material and uniform thickness, is self-inductive with $ = AYn and A constant. (2) S a solid of revolution about the axis of z, and $ any function
: :

of z only which makes

-=-

always of the same sign throughout

S.

For the currents are in circles in planes parallel to that of #, #, and so evidently are the lines of resultant vector potential, and
therefore the vector potential coincides with the current at every
point,

and

being of the same sign throughout S the currents


all

are in the

and so therefore In this case x = are the lines of vector potential. an ^ ^ (3) In any case if $ be a function of z only, and if x> being the
the
circles,
-

same direction round

associated function derived from


inductive.

it,

0,

the system

is self.

For both the resultant current and the resultant of

F+~, dx

&c., are in this case in the intersection of the tangent plane with

a plane parallel to that of xy.

Hence
and

An

example of this

is

given

later,

namely, an ellipsoid with

SELF-INDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
the axis of z for one of
its

141
it is

in this case the thickness of the shell at

portional to plane at the point.

shown that must be proany point the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent
axes of figure.

And

On

Self-inductive Systems generally.

431.] function of u, v and


y

We

have seen that in self-inductive systems every linear

w decays according to the same law. Now Therefore the magnetic potential, is such a linear function. 12, the variation of 12 due to resistance alone, there being no variation of the external
field, is

given by -j-

A 12.
field

But the

variation of

12,

due to variation of the external


is

in the absence of resistance,

given by
"

do,
~dt~

_
''

dQ
dt

9
'

12

being the magnetic potential of the external


Therefore for the whole time variation of
12,

field.

we have

da_ =
-

Ai

da,
=
J

dt

dt
t

from which

12

may
Let

be determined as a function of
field is

whenever

the law of variation of the external

given.

EXAMPLE
comes

I.

-^
ctt

be constant.

Then the equation be-

or

12

^(1-6-^).
finite, this

If

we make \t

infinitely small while Ct remains

represents the ideal case of so-called impulsive currents, that is, a system of finite currents supposed to be created in an infinitely

In this case the short time, and Ct represents the impulse. Ct and 12 is independent of the resistance. equation gives 12 If, on the other hand, we make A t very great compared with unity, as we always may do by sufficiently increasing the resist-

ance, or the time,

we

obtain 12

=Q
A

That

is,

12 varies inversely

142
as

SELF-INDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.
resistance.

[431.

The resistance in this case plays a part that of mass in the motion of a material system analogous to
the

under

finite forces

from

rest.

Suppose, for instance, there be several conducting- shells, and a magnetic system external to all of them, whose magnetic
potential
is

made

to vary so that

-~
Cvt

is

constant.

And

sup-

pose that the systems of currents generated in the shells are self-inductive then, according to the result last obtained, the
;

currents in the shells will, as the time increases, become


versely proportional, cateris paribus,
result agrees

in-

to the

resistances.

This

with the assumption with which we

started, that

be regarded as existing in conductors only, because, although no substance is a perfect conductor or a perfect insulator, the resistance in so-called insulators bears a very

induced currents

may

high

ratio to that in metals.


II.

EXAMPLE

Let the potential of the external magnetic


shell

field

on or within the where

S be given by

& = AcOSKt,
K is

constant, and

constant as regards time, but having

different values at different points.

Then

at

any

internal point

we

have, if the system of currents be self-inductive,

Let

= K cot a.

Then
and

^+
at

at
12

= A cos K
t

t.

To

solve this assume

H = (cos K + q sin K t)A'.


Then we have, neglecting constant
factors,
0.

A smKtA'smKt + qA'cosKt + A'cota(cosKt + qsmKt)


And
therefore

q =

cot a,

and
or

A + A' +
A'

A-

2 l+cot a

-s-

432.]

SELF-INDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.

143

Therefore at any internal point

11=
And
for the

.4

sin a (cos K
a).

cotasinxtf)

= A sina sin(K
{

whole magnetic potential at any point within S

= A cos K + sina sin (K = A cosacosKtf a.


The
field is

a)}

diminished in intensity in the proportion cos a

;md retarded in phase by

-2ir

of a complete period*.
/c,

432.] If A be very great compared with


zero,

a becomes nearly
field

and

sin a

=-

In this case the internal

has the

same intensity, because cos a


as the external field.

proximate as we

1 and nearly the same phase, the state of things to which we apdiminish indefinitely the thickness, or increase
,

This

is

indefinitely the specific resistance, of the conducting shell.

Now

we may

conceive a solid conductor to consist of a

number of

shells successively enclosing one another, and the formulae above obtained to each shell. Let the shells apply be of such thickness that each is self- inductive with the given

infinitely thin

currents.

Then the same phase


that
ratio
is

is

reached in an inner shell at a


shell

time K
it.

later

than in the

immediately outside of
shell,

The

which

h,

the thickness of the outer

bears to

this difference of time, is in the limit the velocity with which a

disturbance

of the

type

in
is

question penetrates
j:

the

solid.

This
This

velocity

is

then Xh, that

in the notation of Art, 429.

relation holds true so

long only as we can neglect the inductive

action of inner shells


It is

upon outer ones. assumed in the above investigation that the system
is

of currents induced in the shell at of the field


* This

self-inductive.
treated

This, if true at

any instant by the variation any instant, is true


Phil. Mag., 1884, for the

problem

is

by Professor Larmor,

special case of a spherical sheet.

144

EOTATING CONDUCTOR.

[433.

at every instant, because the values of at all points in or within the shell are multiplied by the same factor cos &t.

or more self-inductive systems of currents may and if they have the same on a conducting shell modulus, or value of A, they combine to form one self-inductive system with that same value of A. For let Fl &c. relate to one

433.]

Any two

co-exist

system, and

F2 &c.

to another.

Then

at

any point on the

surface

=A
and therefore

% 4- u.

2 is

self-inductive system with

the component of superficial current in a A for modulus. And so on for any

number of systems.
434.]
shell

We can now treat


is
co

whose surface

angular velocity

the following case. Let a conducting a solid of revolution, revolve with uniform about its axis of figure in a field of uniform

P, at right angles to that axis. Let the axis magnetic force, of rotation be that of y> and the direction of the force that Let us take any plane through the axis fixed in the of x.
conductor for the plane of reference, and let time be measured from an epoch at which the plane of reference coincides with Then if Q be any point on or within the conductor that of xy.
distant r from the axis,

and through

and such that a plane through the axis makes the angle with the plane of reference, Q

the potential at Q of the external field is Pr cos (<at + Q). By the change of position of the field relative to the shell

we

have induced on the

shell at

any instant a system of currents

symmetrical with respect to that particular plane the axis which coincides at that instant with the plane through of xy. Let us suppose that the system of currents induced at

which

is

any instant by the rotation


then a

is

a self-inductive system.

We

have

systems successively created, symmetrical with regard to successive planes through the axis fixed in the conductor.

series of self-inductive

-.

435-]

EOTATING CONDUCTOE.
have then, to find the potential at

145

We

of the induced

currents,

<m
Pr
cos (at

and

& =

+ 6) d& -~

Pwrsin (f +0)

whence we obtain

& + I2 = Prcosacos(co +
a having the value cot ~*

fl= Prsmasin(o +
-

a),

a),

may calculate in this case the mechanical work done 435.] unit of time in turning- the conducting shell. For this is per the same as would be done if the currents were at each instant
replaced by the corresponding system of magnetic shells over It is therefore the surface with strength $.

We

if

no

be the magnetic potential of the given

field,

and therefore
of the

-j-^-dS dv

the flux through the ele elementary area

dS

mag-

netic induction of the field.

Now

dv
where
/3 is

the angle which the normal to dS makes with the axis

offigure,and
Also

ddO. = _
dt

dv
<$>

^ ^ +9)
a),

= PAcos(a>t +
rr d

where

is

a constant depending on the form of the surface.

Hence
is

dl

// ***;**
proportional to
/*2rr
/

dOsm((Dt + 0)cos(a>t +

a),

Jo

that

It is proportional, as in the case of the single closed circuit treated of in Art. 355, to the sine of the retardation
is

to sin a.

of phase. VOL. II.

146

SOFT IEON CORE.

might in any of the preceding cases suppose a core 436.] of soft iron within the shell and separated from it by a thin The magnetic potential of lamina of non-conducting matter.
the
field in

We

which the core


a).

is

form

A cos acos(W
which
it is

The

placed is, as we have seen, of the core will be magnetised by in-

duction but with a retardation of phase as compared with the


field in

placed *.

If
ratio

we were

assume that the magnetisation bears a constant to the magnetic induction, we should have for the deterto
li

mination of

an equation of the form

=
dt

where

C is

constant,

which would lead to a solution of the same

form as

before.

As the
lished, it

relation

between the induced magnetisation and the

soft iron is not perhaps sufficiently estabnot be safe to draw any but the following general may conclusions, viz. (i) the magnetisation of the iron will be always

magnetic induction in

retarded in phase as compared with the field in which it is placed, and therefore as compared with the external field (2) if this retardation be not very great the magnetic field due to the
;

core will at all points on the shell be of the same sign as the external field, and the effect of the core will be to increase the

currents induced in the shell.

Further, as soft iron, although magnetisable, is a conductor, there would, were the surface of the soft iron continuous, be also induced currents on it which would create a magnetic field of the
opposite sign to that of the induced magnetisation, and so tend to diminish the induced currents in the shell. But this may be

obviated by making the core consist of insulated iron wires running in directions at right angles to the currents in the shell.

This is usually done in forming the core of the armature of a dynamo-machine. 437.] The treatment of special cases is reserved generally for the following chapter, but in order to elucidate a general prin*

We assume here and throughout the chapter that the oscillations of the field

are not too rapid.

-.

437-]
ciple of

SIMILAR CONCENTRIC SURFACES.


some importance, we
is

147

results there

Az^ where A is constant, be generated in an ellipsoidal shell of which one axis coincides with z the system will be self-inductive when the thickness of the

It proved. that if currents of the type

will again anticipate one of the shown, namely in that ch pter,

shell at

any point is proportional to the perpendicular, -or, from the centre on the tangent plane at the point. The component currents per unit of area are then

u= Ay

--y, w=0;

Ax

*-7+t+7'_
dS d<j>
dy dz

_ dS d<fr __ 2Ay ~
dz dy
b
2

If the equation to the given ellipsoid be

then
is

cc z - + - ?/ + --

soid

the equation to a similar, similarly situated, and concentric ellip', whose linear dimensions are to those of the given ellipsoid
1
.

a&r:

It can

And we shall suppose r < 1 and $' an inner ellipsoid. now be shown that if we form on the ellipsoid & a shell of
,

uniform material similar to the given shell S, then the generation of the given system of currents on the given shell S will cause

by induction a system of currents of the corresponding type, but For let F, (?, in the reverse direction, on the inner shell '.

be the components of vector potential of the given currents in And let I", G\ H' be the outer shell, x their associated function.
the corresponding functions for the inner shell.

induced currents on the

Then, since the given system of currents

is

self-inductive,

we have
all

points on S, A being the modulus.

Now

by the

definition

-('+$-*
L 2

t,t

148

SIMILAR CONCENTRIC SURFACES.

[438.

at all points within S. at all points within S.

Also, u being the function

-j^-,

V2 u =

Therefore

at all points within the ellipsoid S,

and therefore

at all points

on the

ellipsoid $'.
is,

That

dp
JTjl

at all points

on y, substituting

=-

for

\F

and

ty for

\\,

as in Art. 427.
is, the continuous increase of the given currents on 8 acts an electromotive force tending to produce the reverse currents w on S'. -u, v, and since this system of currents on S' is self-inductive, its But

That

as

own self-induction will not cause currents of any other type to appear in ST. This type of currents will therefore be induced with the opposite sign to those in the outer shell. have dealt with the case of an ellipsoid only. But 438.]

We

the same method

may

be extended thus.
a?,

geneous function of positive degree in a given surface.

Let S be any homoy, and z, and 8 = 1

Then we may divide the space within S into a series of similar concentric and similarly situated shells, each being between two
surfaces such as

and 8

= c + dc,

where

<

Let us suppose that in each of these shells, if a conducting a system of currents with $ for current function would be Let an inner conducting shell be so formed. self-inductive.
shell,

Let an outer S = c dc, and

shell
let

be formed on

S,

i.

e.

between S

and

Then

it

the given type of currents be generated in it, can be proved by the same method as we employed in

the case of the ellipsoid that a system of currents of the type < would be generated by induction in the inner shell, provided only that the functions u and v or
t

dS

d(j)

dS d(f>
dy dz
'

dz dy

439-]

SOLID CONDUCTORS.

149

be of positive degree, and points within S.

V 2u =

0,

and similarly

V 2v =

at all

The Effect of Resistance ; Solid Conductors.


439.]

As

the superficial currents decay by resistance, they no

longer act as a complete magnetic screen to the internal portions of the solid. These accordingly become subject to the influence of a varying external magnetic field, and currents are excited in

them

also, so
;

currents
process

that in time the whole solid becomes pervaded by and this time is perhaps generally so short that the

is

sensibly instantaneous.

The laws of

this process are

expressed by the equation,


dt

dx

*
dt

_=
=
0.

dy

(B)

d
dt

with the bounding condition


lu

+ mv + nw

In dealing with problems of this

class it is frequently

more

For instance, convenient to retain the variables F, G, and If. if S be a solid sphere of uniform material, and the external
concentric with S,

magnetic system be due to closed currents on spherical surfaces we shall have no statical potential \j/, and

the equations become


~~ ~~
~dt
~dt

Assuming, as in the second example of Art. 431,

The treatment of this class of the problem admits of solution *. cases is reserved for the next chapter.
* See the
fessor

memoir by Professor Larmor, above quoted.


S. Phil. Trans., 1881.

Also a memoir by Pro-

Niven, R.

150

[439-

NOTE to Art. 405. It may be objected to the reasoning in the text, that although the displacement currents in any finite space have inappreciably small magnetic effect, yet that of the displacement currents in all space may nevertheless be apprein space, and let the Let us then consider three points R, Q, and ciable.

vector potential

F be required at 0.
force
TT"
-I

Let an elementary current u be excited at Q,


-,

That causes an electromotive


,J2
i

at

R,

if

QR =

r',

and therefore an

^*

elementary current
contains the term

-r

-r^ a* R> an(l therefore the vector potential at


if

O
O

OR =

r.

The whole vector

potential at

4?r rr' dt*

derived by this process from the elementary current u at Q is found by intein space. It is therefore grating the last expression for all positions of

R
I

r"
I

"

V
where a
is

JLL B n d6 d<f)dr +
{

Jo Jo
finite

rr

Jo Jo Jo

-^s rr

any

radius measured from 0.

term, or external integral, is not inappreciable even when multiplied But if Q be within the sphere of radius a, the value of the external If the elementary integral is independent of the position of Q within that sphere. current at Q be part of a closed current wholly within the sphere a, there will for

The by K.

first

u. Hence it follows that if the every element u be a corresponding element sphere a includes all the closed currents excited in the field, the vector potential at O derived from them does not contain any terms derived from displacement currents induced in external space. And the effect of all the displacement

currents induced within the finite sphere a

is

made

inappreciable

by the

factor

47T*

CHAPTEK

XXIII.

PAETICULAK CASES OF INDUCTION.


ARTICLE 440.] THE general principles applicable to the induction of currents in solids and surfaces in a varying magnetic
field

have been investigated in the preceding chapter. The treatment of special cases may frequently be more readily

effected by the application of the equations of the magnetic field arrived at in Chap. XXI, and some of these cases will be now considered. Before doing this it will be advantageous to re-

capitulate the magnitudes of most frequent occurrence notation by which they are usually expressed.

and the

These magnitudes

are, firstly, vector

magnitudes as follows
at

The electromagnetic momentum

any
.

point of the field, otherwise called the vector potential with components

F, G,
a,
b>

H.
c.

The magnetic induction The magnetic force The total electric current
surface
.

a, /3,

y.

referred to unit
.

u v
t

w.
r.

The conduction current The electric displacement The displacement current The electromotive force
And, secondly,
scalar

J,
f,

q,
g<>

^. ^.

/, #,

P, Q, R.

magnitudes, namely

The electric potential The conductivity The dielectric inductive capacity The volume electric density The superficial electric density The magnetic potential The
resistance to conduction

... ...
:

\l/.

C.

K.
*
'

&
.

o-(
.

The magnetic permeability

/*

152
The

GEKEEAL FIELD EQUATIONS.


equations,
differential

[44 1-

or otherwise, already established

between these quantities


reference to them.

will

be

employed without

special

It is only in a few substances, such as soft iron, that the magnetic permeability (//,) has a value differing- sensibly from unity, and in the examples treated of by us we shall assume that

such substances are excluded, or that


the contrary
is

/x

is

always unity, unless

distinctly stated.

441.] The components of the total current referred to unit of area must satisfy the equation of continuity or, as it is sometimes called, of no convergence, viz.
:

du IT ax

at every point.

+ T-+ ay

dv

dw
-7-

=
p+f, q+g,
r

dz

If

n, v,

be replaced by their equivalents

/i

respectively, this equation of continuity

becomes

^4.^4.^*4.^
da
"*"

dy

dz

"*"

dt

^4.^4.^^-0 ~ \dx dz /
"*"

i.

e.

dp -~ dx

-~ dy

da

dr dz

dy de

-=-

= 0,
S,

dt

the interpretation and truth of which are obvious. If u, v, w vary discontinuously over a surface on opposite sides of that surface being u, #'; v,

the values
-,

v'

w, w' re-

spectively, the condition of continuity requires that


l(u

u) + m(v

v) + n(w
v,

w')

= 0.
we have
the

In

all

regions throughout which u,

are finite

equations

V
If
M,

F= -4-Tm,

<9

-47TV,

#= -4vw.
and the
corre-

w become

infinite over

any

surface S,

sponding current components referred to unit of length us) vs w s) the last-mentioned equations are replaced by dF dF' dG dG' - =4-77^, dff dH' -= 4irw8 3 3
,

be

dv

dv

dv

dv

dv

dv

where

F and F' are the values of and similarly for G and H*.
*

on opposite sides of S

The

suffix s is rarely adopted, it


i.

being

left to

be understood when the currents


also the equations

are superficial,

e.

referred to unit of length.

By some writers

44 2 -]
Since a

GENERAL FIELD EQUATIONS.

153

-=

dy

dz

it

follows that a

is

always continuous
similarly for b

except at surfaces of superficial currents, and

and

c.

At such surfaces this is not necessarily true, but as proved above (Art. 412) the resolved part of the magnetic induction along the normal, which is identical with the normal component
of magnetic force (

is

),

always continuous.

442.] If

o-,

the specific resistance, be continuous and isotropic,

Ohm's law gives us the equations

vp

= P,

o-q

Q,

crr

= R.

Also the relations between electromotive force and displace-

ment give us the corresponding equations


4 TT 4 77
XL

4 7T
XL

whence

it

follows that at every point

vi-^Lj)
where
i

is

the resultant displacement at the point. material motion we have


is

the resultant current (referred to unit surface) and If there be no

and in this

case, if over

any

surface the values of

cr

and

change discontinuously, there will generally be a corresponding


discontinuity in the space differential coefficients of ^, as well as
in the values of p, q,
r,

f, g, h

the time variations

-7-

>

-=-

>

and

dH -r

being always continuous.


'

The

superficial electric density

is

equal to

are written

dF -- dF =
r

dv

iiru,

dv'

and by some again

dF
dv
h

dF =
dv
>

4irw, the

dv F'

and dv' being normal elements in the directions of the regions wherein
are the respective values.

F and

154
and
is

GENEEAL FIELD EQUATIONS.


therefore determined

[443-

by the equation

subject to the equation of continuity

The elimination

is

somewhat complicated, and

for our subse-

quent purposes is only required for two cases, viz. (l), where on is zero, in which case we get both sides of the surface

dF
dt

+w

dG -+n dH\ +
dt
) dt '

,d^
/
o-

dtf -^-o--^ = dv dv

0,

and

0.

and

(2),

where on one

side

is

zero and on the other a

is

infinitely large, in

which case we get


47r

K
but since in this case
.

/
(T

d^__ dv
~dT~~
~dv

'

0-

or -^

is infinitely less

than -=

the equa-

tion reduces to

the same as in ordinary electrostatics. The first case corresponds to that of two adjacent conductors, and the second to that of a conductor in contact with a dielectric.

have proved in the preceding chapter that at any 443.] point in the field at which the electromotive force is finite,
the intensity of the displacement current in electromagnetic measurement is infinitely small, and at all points within a
conductor
current.
it

We

disappears in comparison with the true conduction

the cases therefore contemplated in the following investigations which have reference to good conducting substances
all

In

in dielectric and practically insulating media, we shall assume, as in the preceding chapter, that the only currents are conduction

The displacecurrents and limited entirely to the conductors. ment currents,/,^, k, will be treated as non-existent in estimating

444- J

GENERAL FIELD EQUATIONS.

155

the conditions of continuity within, or at the boundaries of, conductors, and in determining the electromotive or electro-

magnetic forces in the field. The electromotive forces, however, arising from the electrical distributions determined hyf,g, ^ and
their

space

variations

are

finite,

and are included in the

employed
444.]

as above.

We

have proved in the preceding chapter that the

equation of continuity

du dx
necessitates the equations

dv
~dy

dw
Jz

_
'

_ ~~
dz dy
~~

dy dz
dz dx

dx dz

w=
when the

dSdd> - = dy dx

dx ay

closed surfaces

currents are flowing in the shell or space between the S c + dc where $ is some arbitrary c and 8

function called the Current Function. If instead of referring the currents to unit of area we treat them as superficial currents that is, currents referred to unit of

length

on the surface S

c,

these conditions become, as exad)

plained above,

u
v

=n =
-

dm -~dy
eld)

m-^t dz
d(j)
)

-- n
,

dz

dx
dd)

w=
which
satisfy the condition

m~ dx
dd)

~i
dy
0.

lu+mv+nw =

So that a known cun-ent function on any given surface


completely defines the superficial currents, while to define the currents per unit of area we require to know another magnic,

tude,

namely the thickness of the shell between the surfaces and S = c + dc in which the currents flow.

156

FIELD OF SPHERICAL SHEET.


any current sheet 8

[445.

Also, as above shown, for

c,

d_

//*<
with corresponding values
for

dz

dy

J r

G and H, and

also

445.]

We

current,

magnetic and we now proceed to do the same for the field due to certain given systems of currents on certain closed surfaces.
This
is

field in

have already, in Chap. XVIII, investigated the the neighbourhood of an infinite rectilinear

completely determined

when

F, G, If are

known

at

every point, also since at all points not situated on the surface the investigathe magnetic force is derivable from a potential

tion will include the determination of 12 at

all

such points.

0,

then the values of

For example, suppose the sheet to be spherical with radius u, v, w are given by the equations
z d<b
.

=
-

a dy
</>

y d(b --- "T~


a
dz
is

=x
a

d(j)
'

z ---

dz

dd> -T->

ax

tp

--= y dd> x "T"' a


d(f>

-=

dx

dy

where

the current function.

Fj G, If must satisfy the potential conditions

everywhere except at the surface, must be everywhere finite and continuous, and satisfy the condition of no convergency

dF
dx
at all points.

dG
dy

dff_
dz

At

the surface,

if

F,

G H'
',
t

within the surface and


~3

F
dr

G, H without,

denote the values of F, G,

dF dF --dr

T dr

47TW,

dG dG' ---dr

=4-7717,

dH dtt' 5= ----r

4lTW.

dr
it

dr
follows that the

solution
solution

Since F, G, of the
is

are potential functions

problem

is

unique, and therefore that any

the general solution.

446.]

FIELD OF SPHEEICAL SHEET.


all

157

Now

the equations in F, G,
i

H may be
\j
i

satisfied if
j.

j.-

-=

-=

i j.

\d

ctij

az/

-=

\a

az

a ax'

-j

>vided
jro

at all

^a dx a dy/ be everywhere finite and continuous, and points not on the surface, and on the surface

V 2P

be

dP_
dr

dP*_
dr

where

P and P
all

are external

and internal values of P.


d*P
dx2

Also at

points not on the surface


1

d&_dG^dII__x
dx
dz

d?P
dxdy

f*2!\_?
dxdz*
^"
a
l

dy

a
1

^ dx

Id, dP
2

dP

dP\

V P=0;
dr
}

a dr

It follows, therefore, that the field is completely determined is known, and this by mere differentiation when the quantity

quantity from the conditions which it of matter of density over the spheres
<

satisfies is

the potential
for

surface.

We

might have treated the problem otherwise,

by what

has been already proved

we know
dz

that

leading to the same results as above

when

,.//*.
The conditions to be satisfied by P indicate that the most general form which can be assumed by it is a series of
446.]
spherical

harmonic functions of the type

158

FIELD OF SPHERICAL SHEET.

[446.

without the spherical sheet, and

within the sheet, where harmonic of the degree i*

is

some constant, and Y.

is

a surface

The

surface condition
f dP ---dP

dr
gives, corresponding to each

dr

= ~ 47T0
i,

term of the degree

for the current function

on the

sheet.
,

And

the equation

gives, if

and Of be the value of

12,

at points

without and

within the sheet respectively,

O^fr,,
If,

and

Or

(i

l)^)V,

as

is

sometimes more convenient, the system be determined

from the form of <, and we assume


4>

= AY

on the

sheet,

we have

12

4-n-i

r^(-) 2i+l vr/

/o\ <+1 v

r<,

n/ 12'=- t+1r

2^+1

If

be the zonal-surface harmonic with axis z of the


is

first

where order, and therefore $ be of the form A cos angular distance from the axis z, then outside of the sheet
4-7T

the

and inside of the sheet


r cos 3
^.

..

447-]

FIELD OF SPHERICAL SHEET.


external field
is

159
at the centre

Or the

that of a small

magnet

of the sheet with axis along that of z

and moment
3

Aa 2

And

the internal
-

field is

one of constant force parallel to z

and equal to
Since
is

3a
a function of 6
is it

follows that the resultant current

referred to unit length meridian and equal to

at every point perpendicular to the

_1 d$
whence the

or

^ gin
any meridian

total quantity crossing

=A

sinOdO

2 A.

If the current be in a wire of uniform transverse section coiled

round the sphere's surface, and n be the total number of the number of windings from the pole to latitude 6 is

coils,

= AY2 where Y2 is the superficial zonalharmonic of the second degree with axis z, and therefore spherical
447.] Again, let
<f>

equal to

-- 2

>

where

is

the angular distance from

z.

In this case we have outside the sheet

id

within the sheet

>r

within the sheet the potential


iction of the second degree.

is

that of a homogeneous
as in the last case,

Since

<

is

a function of

only

it follows, is

that the current referred to unit length and equal to

in parallels of latitude

160

FIELD OF INFINITE PLANE SHEET.

[448.

If produced

by

coiling a wire round the sphere,

we must
2,

re-

member
is

that the direction of the coils must be reversed on

crossing- the equator, because of the

change of sign in

that

in sin 20.

The density of the

coils in different latitudes is easily calculated

as in the last case (see Maxwell's Electricity, vol. II. Chap. VII. 448.] If the sheet were an infinite plane, we might treat it as

a particular case of the spherical sheet by supposing the radius to be infinitely increased, but it is more interesting to investigate
it

independently. Taking the plane of the sheet for that of

#, ^,

the several

equations become

= -y
0,

d<f)
3

v=

-~)
ax

d<l>

w=

0,

and therefore

H=

ay

F and

everywhere continuous and

finite, as also

their differ-

ential coefficients, except at the sheet or

when z =
dz

0, in

which

case

dF dF ---r

dz

dz

4:TTU,

da dG' --- -=
dz

and since by symmetry -7J J dz / ^. last equations become

dF

dF' = -dz

>

and -7dz

dG

dG' = -dz
7

' ,

these

dF
dz

~=27ru,
dF
dx

dG
dz

The condition of no convergence gives us

dG_
~~

dy

All these equations are satisfied by the assumption

w f =
provided

dp
-r- i

dp r = --r Or
dx

dy

where

everywhere except upon the sheet, and continuous as well as its differential except upon the sheet, and at the sheet
finite

V2P =

P be everycoefficients,

448. ]

FIELD OF INFINITE PLANE SHEET.

161

As in the case of the sphere, therefore we infer that potential of matter of surface density $ upon the sheet.
then, since

is

the

If 11 be the magnetic potential at any point not on the sheet

dQ.

dx

= dG__dH^
dz

dy
'

__

dx
and
12

dxdz

=
dz
for

The most general expression


terms of the form

in this case

is

a series of

p_

-^^ ^
and

on the positive side of the

sheet,

on the negative
side,

side of the sheet,


z,
i. e.

where

sf is

measured in the

opposite direction to

away from the

sheet on the negative

and

\j/

satisfies

the equation

where V, 2 stands

d2
for
-=-=

Or
Where

if

cj)

dy* be expressed in a series of terms of the form

dar

d2
-5-5
-

\l/(%,

will be a series of terms of the


i TT _ mz
e
,

form
i 7T _ j
e

-I

^(x,y)

and

the positive and negative sides respectively*.

Pon

* The possibility of expressing <f> as required in the text follows from the possibility of expressing any function of the position of a point on a spherical surface in a series of surface spherical harmonics.

**

For

if

u be one of the harmonic terms of such a function of order

(t),

we know

--

A,

d'

y may be

If (a) be the radius of the sphere and be very large, then in order that x and finite 6 must be very small, and therefore, unless i be very large, this

equation becomes

-^ =

0,

but

if i

be infinitely great we have

VOL.

II.

162

FIELD OF ELLIPSOIDAL SHEET.

[449.

449.] Finally, consider the case of a shell in the form of the


ellipsoid
#2
-a a2

^2

fr 2
6

#
c
2

T=

1.

Here

if

w be

the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent

plane at #, y,

z,

~tf*

'

Let
Then

be equal to

Az.
2

y = A'&fr,
6

X v=A^-, a
.

w=

(,

v, 20

being currents referred to unit of length), and therefore


quantities

The

and

G must

satisfy the equations

V*F =

0,

V 2 6r =
finite

everywhere except on the

sheet,

must be everywhere

and continuous, as well as their differential coefficients, except on the sheet, where these last satisfy the equations

dF
dv

dFf
=

SS=

y
4'jrA'ST^^s
o*

dG
dv

dGf
dv

dv

x
47T./1

t7-^
c?

Now we may prove, as in Chap. XVII, Art. 318, above, that the conditions determining F, F', G, G' may be satisfied by taking

and

A2

and

A2

-^-

for

G-'

and G,

where

**
o
2 2 V(a + A) (6 + A) (c + A)
.

whence,

if

sin0

r,

and

rcos<,

rsin.<j>',

and therefore
therefore

V^ti + -^w
2

(V + m ) u =
2
x

0,

where

the reciprocal of the infinitely large radius of the sphere divided the infinitely large order of the spherical harmonic.
is

by

449-]

FIELD OF ELLIPSOIDAL SHEET.

163

A being the positive root of the equation

For,

by reasoning-

as in the chapter referred to,

dv

^?_^-^ ~ dv
ab 5 c

_^L d<&'

^T_^L_
~

we have A * x J^L
9

dv

dv

a 5 bc

d<& n

whence, comparing with the above-written surface conditions, we


get

And

therefore
4?/,

6r'= 4irabc

Ax.

Also

rZfL
cfe

= ^!

^
cfy

^L. dx

= _ 4 7ra j c ^3_^
(

d& 2

.|_

da2

dy

dx

That

is

to say, within the ellipsoidal shell the field is one of

uniform force parallel to z and equal to

^nabcA
If the ellipsoid become a sphere of radius (a) the values of
u and v become
A , ft 7 ff

and
a

A O.JU
.

Q_

.Y

And

the uniform force within the sheet becomes

>

agreeing with the results already obtained *. Of course the method here employed might have been applied
to the sphere substituting -= for

da*
r

dtf
-

?5
da
2

d*o
db*

Also we might in the ellipsoidal case have obtained the values of and G directly from the general equations

The quantity

in this Art.

when a =

c corresponds to

in Art. 446.

164

FIELD OF ELLIPSOIDAL SHEET.


d

[450.

ddS

450.]
tandis,
2,
a?

should have obtained a similar result, mutatis muby taking* currents in planes parallel to those of y3 z and respectively, whence it follows by superposition that if we

We

had a system of currents such that at every point


Biz
dc2
z

CGT

y
db 2

da?

da 2

Cm
da2
nit

x
db 2

Am
do2

__

y
db 2

Biv

x da 2

dc2

d<?

i.

e. if

the current function be of the form

Ax
J j'K
""
7 *-<
"l

By
7 /T* 7 >**
"l"

Cz
7

JL
2

~~
rfc
2

db 2

c^c

Ja 2

c^a

^6 2

the interior of the sheet will be a


direction of the line

field of

constant force in the

~Z~"li'~(?'
Again, with the same ellipsoidal sheet
let

us take

---^ whence, as before, H


Then

Atxxz
,

0,

0.

Now

_/ V
a-

employing the same notation as before, d / d4>\ _ 2 f c?<I>x d<$>^

we have
d
f

(^<w)

-^) + ^(
d<&\
,

^) = 2-(^
2
;

-11

TT2/

Similarly

^(y,^)

d f d<b\ = 2-(,- )
d3>\

(^)-^(
and
it is easily

seen that the right-hand

member

is zero.

45I-]
Also

SUBSIDENCE OF SELF-INDUCTIVE SYSTEMS.

165

V
it

(2/*)

0,

Whence

follows that if for F*

and

F we assume

the forms

db 2
the conditions

dc*

V 2F = VF'=

everywhere, and

F= F

at the

surface will be satisfied.

It

may easily be
J

proved that at the surface


J
=

"ffl

Tjl/

dv

is

dv

of the form Cvrvz.

Hence the forms of


determined.

F
it

and

I",

and similarly of

G and

G' are
9

If jP'=
therefore
,,

b2

f-, then
'

is

easily seen that

G '=
f

=-, a?

and

*L M(
and

-"b

Ma
2

'

My

&'=

y j(

+ p) ^ ^

Or the potential of the field within the sheet is a homogeneous function of a?, y, z of the second degree. Compare Art. 447
above.

451.] Hitherto we have investigated the nature of the field arising from the existence of currents of assumed form on given

with certain assumed forms of <p (the current without any reference to the way in which such function), currents are excited or maintained, or the laws according to
surfaces, that is

which when once established they tend to decay under the influence of their mutual action and the dissipation into heat

by

resistance.

In the case of the indefinite rectilinear current we


this

know

that

law of decay

is

expressed by the equation

where L is the coefficient of self-induction as above explained. In the general case of currents on a conducting sheet, we

166

CUEEENTS ON SPHEEICAL SHEETS.

[45 1.

have seen in the


satisfies

last chapter that unless the current function a certain condition, this law of proportional decay will not hold true and the type of currents will not be maintained

throughout the decay. In other words, the direction of the electromotive force at
each point in the sheet will not be coincident with the direction of resultant current at that point, and in cases where this condition can be satisfied,
it

will in

most cases necessitate the

existence of

In

distribution of free electricity over the sheet. spherical sheets of uniform thickness the condition can be
a/

satisfied for currents of all

types without the aid of such a dis-

tribution.

Thus, in the case of the spherical sheet with the notation

employed above, we have

(ru=

dF dti -- ---^-

at

ax

and

dF dF' ---dr
dr

4iru

at the sheet, with corresponding equations in

G and H,

v and w,

a being the resistance per unit area on the sheet, whence


(Z (

d d d

?L\\

(^

-d \- ~~ ^
dx~'

fy~yfa)lTn\d^~~*~d7s~drl'~

therefore

x d^lf ---^ a dx

y -~ +-=-7-^ = a a
d\l/

z d^lf

d\l/

dy
\^

dz

dr

at the sheet,

and since
\fy

everywhere except upon the


if
-

sheet, it follows that

everywhere, and therefore

be denoted by

we have

W"^""^T
we should have
*

,dP

dP\

dP __
=

at the sheet, and therefore if the original value of

$ were

PA Y + ^* r 4. 27TT
Therefore

-,

A
<

V -

rf*

= Ae~

452.]

CURRENTS ON INFINITE PLANE SHEETS.

167
first

where

is

the value of

at

any time H,
12 all

from the

estab-

lishment of the currents.

Whence
law e~
Kt

it

follows that

G,

vary according to the

where \

=
a

R.

452.] For the infinite plane sheet, with the notation already employed, our equations become, at the sheet

dydt

2 TT

dydz

dx

d*P
dxdt

a_
27T

d*P _
dxdz

_<ty
dy

-- dz
Since
-j\f/

=
:

at the sheet,

and

V 2 -^ =
>

at all other points,

we have

whence, writing

E for
dt

we have

*?-?-o" dz
at the sheet.

If therefore the initial value of

be a series of terms of the

form
where
the value of
(

4.*(,y)
Vj
2

+m )
2
a?,

\/r

= 0,
time
t

P at

any point

y, z at the

will be a series

of terms of the form

and the value of


the form

at

any time

will be a series of

terms of

4..-.fc.
The values of
those of

G,

and

12 at

any point are obtained from

P
if

dP
by J
differentiation, being'
-5
?

dP
3 dx
,

dP
and
^ fa
,

as

above shown.

dy

Hence

any system of currents be established in an

infinite

plane sheet, and be then allowed to decay by resistance under their mutual actions, the magnetic field on the positive side of

the plane at any time

is

the same as

if

the currents remained

168

CURRENTS ON ELLIPSOIDAL SHEETS.

[453-

unchanged in magnitude and direction, and the plane moved parallel to itself with the velocity R towards the negative
direction.

Of course exactly similar results hold on the negative side of the sheet, the field of decay being obtained by moving the
sheet in the positive direction. 453.] Finally, consider the case of the ellipsoidal sheet

with the system of currents

= 0,
or the current function

Az.

Our equations become


d3>

dA
y
~di

d^f

Htf
cZ<f>

~lfa'
d\jf

dA
dt

da 2

dv

'

~
dz

Assume that a
for

varies inversely as

and we get^ writing -

>*A

'

cwr a< /

5"

*"""

"

"^

ay

(2)

=
Eliminating
\j/

(3)

between

(1)

and

(2),

we get

or
dt
47T

whence we have proportional decay of the type

~K
e
,

where

454-]

CURRENTS ON ELLIPSOIDAL SHEETS.

169
when

agreeing with the result already obtained for the sphere = b = c and i 1 because Rf aR.

From

the above equations also

we get
d\jf

x dty a 2 dx

y
W"

d\l/

z
c
2

d\l/

dy

dz

dv

indicating an electrical distribution of determinate density on the surface.

The density of superficial distribution may be readily found )m the values Mxy and , , , ,

Mxyda
\js

d<f>

internally

and externally,

see Art.
is

450 above.
arbitrary but

454.]

The assumption a

by no means

by the condition of proportional decay or the mainsnance of the current type in accordance with the results established in Chap. XXII. For if s be the specific resistance of the
iccessitated

substance and h the thickness of the shell at any point, the condition of proportional decay with the type of currents selected is

dx

dy

u
-

and

-~-

dz

0,

dx
riiere

some constant.

Now

\l/

satisfies

the equations

dv
and

= IF-}- mG
2

upon

S,

whence
dition

\l/

Cxy where

V ^= C is a
s

within S,
constant, and the further con-

^
dx

requires that h oc w,

170

INFLUENCE ON EXTERNAL FIELD.

[455.

455.] Hitherto

we have

confined our attention to cases in

which given systems of currents have been supposed to be established in conducting sheets of certain forms, and then allowed to
decay by the dissipation of their energy into heat under the influence of their mutual action.

have now to consider the more general case of such conductors placed in a given magnetic field, varying from time to time according to any assigned law, and to investigate the properties of the total resultant field arising from the given
magnetic field, or, as we shall generally call it, the external field and the field of the induced currents in the conductor, as these last decay by dissipation under the influence of their mutual inductive action and that of the external field.

We

As a simple example of the application of the field equations to such a problem, we will take the case of an infinite plane conducting sheet in a variable external field, and will assume
that a system of currents, with current function of any type, has been established in the sheet by induction.

Let

&, v,

instant, F, G,
12 their

be the component currents in the sheet at any the components of their vector potential, and
potential.
,

magnetic
Q
,

Also, let

F G Hy

12

be corresponding quantities arising

from the given external field, these last being given functions both as to space and time, while the former are quantities to be
found.

same above, with the substitution of F+F and


are therefore the

Our equations

as those of Art. 448

G+ G

for

F smd

G.

Therefore

we have
-

at the sheet

dF dF d^ VU= -- --- -2-

--?-,

dt

dt

dx

(TV

dG dG d^ = -- ---~ --~->
;

dt

dt

dy

dF
-r

=
JT

2TTU.

dG dz

=
dx

dz
= dP

2lTV,

Or

dP = --

dy

456.]
d^

INFINITE PLANE

AND MOVING

POLE.

171

(df^ __

dz^dy

d&\ __ ^_ dx* dt^dy


dz*

f^_ dx _ ^_(^o_^^o\ dx
'

dt^dy

'

R-

~27r'

or

^_^
dz
dt

dtdz~dtdz = ^o,
dt

y and y being the magnetic forces at the sheet normal to the plane arising from the induced and external field respectively.
Since
of space,

-- + -j~
it

at the sheet,

and

2
\

in other parts

follows that

^
(?
,

is

determined until

and

not generally zero, and it cannot be (assumed to be known) are

actually given in terms of #, y, z, and t. 456.] The solution of the problem, therefore, involves the determination of 12 as a function of #, y, , t satisfying the conditions 12 finite and V 2 12 at all points of space not upon the

sheet,

and the equation (A) at the sheet, or when z = 0, Ii being a given function of as, y> z, and t. For example, let the given external field be that of a unit pole
Let
b

moving normally
,

be the

to the sheet with the velocity (w). initial coordinates of the pole

and

a, b y c

its

coordinates at any time t, then a b b a

we have
c

SL =

= -,

suppose.

If equation (A) can be solved for all values of a?, y, z and t, the value of 12 thus found will of course satisfy (A) at the sheet, and if it also satisfies the remaining conditions it must be the
t

required solution. But the general solution of (A) gives

<m
i. e.

<m_<m
"~dT*
x, y, z^ t to
a?,

d* ~~dt

changing the variables from

y,

where

or

172

INFINITE PLANE

AND MOVING POLE.

[45^.

where f is to be replaced by z + lit after the integration of the second term on the right-hand side. Hence in this case

_12
or

= 1_ * r w+R -w 12 =
1
.

This value of

12 satisfies

upon
i. e.

the sheet, as well as the condition

equation (A) everewhere and therefore V 2 12 0, but on the

positive side of the sheet

at the pole,

it is

3 , <?, it becomes infinite at the point therefore inadmissible as the value of 12 on


,

the positive side of the sheet.


If,

however,

we write

for 12

or 12

'

instead of

where

i.

from the optical image of the moving pole in the sheet, we observe that equation (A) on the
e. if

/
i.

be the distance of

#, y, z

sheet,

e.

when

0, is satisfied

~dz

__ _o_ __ V ~
~dt

provided

dT~~~~~dt

whence, as before,

w-R /
And
this value of 12 is finite at every point

on the positive
0.

side

of the sheet and satisfies the condition

V 2 I2 =

Therefore the required value of 12

is

on the

positive side of the sheet.

Since 12

= --T

the general value of

P satisfies the condition


az
:

jK

dP dP --d --- =
z

C
/ 12, n

dz

dt

dt

whence, reasoning as before,

we

should have found

on the positive

side of the sheet.

458.]

INFINITE PLANE

AND MOVING POLE.

173

must take w negative 457.] For any practical application we or the pole approaching the sheet from an infinite distance, whence we get on the positive side

dP_ dz
-

_ ''~

w & = --JK r D-->


I

w+

-1/7 and ^
is

=
w

d&
dz

w z+c 5-= + w + R r7T' nET


3

Therefore at the pole there


equal to
-

a repulsive force from the disk

If the pole were not

moving normally

to the disk but with

component

velocities,

u,v,w, the equation in

P would become

r
Jo
or

V(x

log(/-

R
where

~ 4-

F2
12

whence

^P -r

reduces to

f 458.] Again, suppose the external magnetic field to be that of a unit pole describing a circle parallel to the sheet with uniform

angular velocity (to). If the origin be taken at the projection of the centre of this circle on the sheet it follows that 12 and therefore also O,
,

are functions of the time merely so far as they are functions of the angle (</> suppose) between the radius rector of the projection of the point to

the poles projection,

which they and that

refer

and the radius vector of

174

INFINITE ROTATING PLANE.

[459.

scribed

If therefore (a) be in this case the radius of the circle deby the pole, and we use the 12 ', function as above de-

scribed,

we have

=and

suppose,

_P

where f

-- $

is

written for z in the expression under the in-

tegral signs before integration


tion, (r)

and z

-\

(/>

for

f after integra-

being the distance of the projection of the point on

the disk from the origin.

Whence

12 or

at

any point can be found.

The

in-

tegration cannot be effected in finite terms. 459.] The question last treated may also be investigated by the application of the formulae of electromotive force in a

moving conductor.
let there be a plane conducting disk infinitely with uniform angular velocity u> about a normal large revolving

For example,

in a given magnetic field. If y and y a and a j3 and


,
,

J3 Q

be the components of magnetic

any point in the plane of the disk arising from the induced currents and the given magnetic field respectively, the
force at

components of the electromotive

force of the

motion are

where
It
is

^=

dt
\j/

dt

dt
if

usual to include the

with the potential,

any, of elec-

one symbol x/f, so that, if the origin be taken at the point where the axis meets the disk, in which case
trical distribution in

dy

dx

dz

460.]

INFINITE EOTATING PLANE.

175

the equations become

dF

dG
dz

Eliminating

\^

from the

first

two and writing

for

we get

R dy -'a dy = a> dy

T
x

Te

^'

an equation agreeing with that of Art. 455 above. be the current function and To determine ^ we have, if
<f>

therefore

= 9
a

^-j

<y=

"9
ax
,

,,

J and

cc

+
,

2/

= r-,

460.] It must be carefully remembered that \j/ in this case is not the potential of electrical distribution, but differs therefrom

by the quantity x//, as above explained. For suppose the disk at rest and the
the

field

revolving, and let

of the field be zero, then, as


,

we know, a quantity
and
a,

may

be found from which o


differentiation in the

/3

FQ
as

G may
/3,

same way

y,

be deduced by and G may be

deduced from the

know in this case that if ^ be the potential of electrical distribution, we have


field.

P of the induced current

Also we

whereas the aforesaid equation gives


dz

176

EQUIVALENT SHEETS.

[461.

dz
Similarly in this case

dr\dO

<L(^ * dpo\ '


dB

d_

dO
~dd

Similarly for

--

Proving that the


equations, tive force of the
is

\jf,

as determined
v//,

from the above written


electrical distribution.

in this case the

omitted from the electromo-

motion and not that of

See above, Art. 403.


461.] In Chap. XXII we proved that every magnetic system external to a given closed surface 8 may be replaced by a current
effects at all points within 8 are exactly equivalent to those of the given magnetic system, but that the electromotive forces arising from the 8 system and of the

system upon S whose magnetic

given external system are not necessarily equivalent throughout the interior of 8, but may differ from each other by forces derived

from a potential function. In cases of conductors, solid or

superficial, placed in

any given

magnetic

field,

we may

often simplify the investigation of the

inductive action by supposing the field replaced by this equivalent current system upon any properly chosen closed surface S surrounding the conductors.

This surface
sheet,

is

and the currents thereon

generally referred to briefly as the equivalent as the equivalent currents.

462.]
If,

EQUIVALENT SHEET.

177

starting from this equivalent sheet and current system as known, we arrive at any results concerning the induction pheno-

mena on

the given conductor surrounded by S, we conclude that the same results hold true for the state of the conductor in the field

of the actual magnetic system, provided only a suitable additional


electrostatic

charge be placed upon the conductor neutralising the above-mentioned difference of electromotive force which may

exist

between the original field and the equivalent system. That is to say if, in the case of the conductor under the

influence of the equivalent system, we find a certain current function </> and electric potential \j/, then in the case of the con-

ductor under the influence of the actual system

we

should have

the same current function <, but generally an electric potential function \j/ + \^ different from \js. If the conductor be a spherical surface, and the equivalent sheet a concentric spherical surface, the potential \jr is always zero, and the same is true for an infinite conducting plane under the
influence of

an

infinite parallel plane equivalent sheet.

462.]
infinite

We

will briefly reconsider the induction

phenomena

in

conducting planes influenced

by

given current systems

on

parallel plane sheets.

In this case the equations of Art. 445 above hold true with the additional condition 0.

H=
0,

Therefore

we

get

-~
(Hz

= =

and since

V2

\j/

at all points not

on the plane we have


Therefore

\^

everywhere.

j,d_(d]F

d^(d^
Also

+ ML\*L(*E. + ^L\ +

-~ + dx

~=
dy

d^)"di(d^
0,

d^)

dt

(^ + dG Vdb
=

dy)'
upon the
instant,

since the currents are closed

equivalent sheet, and therefore if

dF
-j

dG
H

-j~

at

any

we have

d_,dF
dt

dG^

\dx

dy)~
always.

and therefore
VOL. n.

dF
-=
f-

dG
dy

dx

178
But

TRAIL OF IMAGES.

[463.

know

if the equivalent current system be suddenly excited, we that in this case there is an impulsive excitation of currents

on the plane such that F+ Fn


,,

= 0, G + Gn = 0, and since -~ + -^ dx
dy

is

zero it follows that

,_

dF
-=
f-

dG.
dy t7

f -r- is so also, and therefore

dF
-=

dG
f-

-=

dy J throughout any subsequent variation of the equivalent systems. Hence, if u and v be the component induction currents on the
plane at any instant,

das

dx

du
~T~ H

dv
r

dx

== ^>

dy
is
</>

or the equation of continuity always find a current function

always satisfied, and we such that


d<#> v=--?-.

may

= <ty -^-,
dy

dx

In this case the condition to be


v

satisfied

by

P at the

sheet

is

d*

dt

d#

dt

d>
P

and by reasoning similar to that employed above, the value of

may

be proved to be that satisfying the equation


"

cfe~~
or
'

dT~
I

'

~dt

P = P + R CdP' dt, jjr-

where

is the value of arising from the image of the equivalent sheet behind the plane of (x, y\ the integration being performed with f constant and z + Rt being substituted for f

'

after the integration.

463.] This result is capable of an interesting interpretation. In the first place, the sudden excitation of the equivalent

current system gives rise to the impulsively excited currents in G at all points on the and G the plane such that Q

F= F
and

plane, and

since the F's

that

F=

FQ and G=

G's are potential functions it follows at all points on the negative side of

the plane, i.e. the side opposite to the equivalent system, and therefore that upon that side the induced system forms a perfect

magnetic screen to the given system

(i.

e.

the assumed equiva-

463.]

TBAIL OF IMAGES.

179

side of the plane is the

lent system), or the effect of the induced system on the negative same as if the currents on the equivalent

sheet, otherwise unaltered in

magnitude and

position,

were ex-

actly reversed in direction. By symmetry it follows that the effect on the positive side of the plane of the induced currents in the plane is the same as

these reversed currents of the original system each formed with the optical image of the original currents behind the plane, and
therefore on the positive side of the plane the magnetic effect of the induced currents is the same as the exact magnetic image of

the original system on the equivalent sheet optical image of this system in the plane.

situated

at

the

Suppose now that the given external system having been suddenly excited remained constant, we have seen (Art. 452) that the corresponding induced system would decay by resistthe plane and all points on the positive side of the plane would be the same as if the induced system retreated negatively from the plane, other-

ance in such a

way

that

its

magnetic

effect at

wise unchanged, with the uniform velocity R. If however the given system vary with the time, then when the current function is <, the value of arising from this sys-

tem

at a point x, y>

z,

reckoned from an origin in the plane,


r / = *Jx
sheet,

is

~'dS
# ,^
,

<f>

where

ZQ

being coordinates at a point in the equivalent


of that
sheet,

and

dS being an element
image of
this

and

therefore

from the

system in the

infinite plane

under induction the

corresponding value of

is

given by

=
'

/y<

JJ ~/

where

^=
. <

dS being an element of the image and therefore equal to dS If therefore at some instant r from the origin of time be
varied

by

-37

bt,

the corresponding increase of P, or bP,

is

given by

180

TEAIL OF IMAGES.
the time
r.

[464.

At
is

position at

t this image has retreated to R ( ?) from its and therefore the total value of P at the time t

given by

or performing the integration

with regard to

by

parts,

2
o

because

when r=0

or

t.

464.] In the particular case of a moving pole of intensity m^ suppose the motion to be parallel to the plane.

At any remote

suddenly region of the plane at which the inductive effect


vestigated.

start into existence at a

instant from the time considered let the pole very great distance from the
is

being in-

The immediate inductive


the plane equivalent at
all

effect

is

a system of currents on

points on the positive (or actual pole) side to an equal pole at the optical image of the given If now the given pole move parallel to the plane with pole.
in successive equal any given velocity u through spaces intervals of time 8 1, the effect is the same as successive creations

ut

of small magnets of moment mu b t in the line of motion of the pole, the direction of magnetisation being that of the pole's motion. The corresponding induction effects are equivalent to the creation of successive optical images of these magnets on

the opposite

images with velocity

The

result

and combining these with the recession of these E as representing the decay by resistance. of the process, supposed to have continued for an
side,
is

infinitely

long time before the instant considered,

at

that

instant the same as an infinitely long bar, terminating at the instantaneous optical image of the given pole, inclined to the

465.]

EQUIVALENT SPHERICAL SHEET.


TO

181

1 plane at the angle tan"

and magnetised

parallel to the plane

sheet.

When the motion of the given pole is inclined to the plane sheet the general result is the same, but the inclination of the magnetised bar is different. When the pole describes a circle
parallel to the sheet the
is

magnetic

eifect of

the induced currents

is

that of a helix on the right cylinder whose transverse section the described circle, magnetised in the direction of a tangent
T)

to this cylinder perpendicular to the axis inclined at the angle

tan" 1
u
cal

to the plane,
pole.

and terminating in the instantaneous opti-

image of the

The whole investigation

is

given with

much

instructive detail

by Messrs. Mascart and Joubert in their treatise already quoted, and the results arrived at are identical with those obtained by
the preceding analytical treatment. 465.] In the last chapter we investigated the case of the
spherical conducting sheet in

any

field.

be replaced by the equivalent system on a concentric spherical surface, the equations of Art. 451 hold with the substitution of + P for P.
If the
field

Hence, as in that Article, we have


Also

\j/

= 0.
)

R( ^

^ - ~] =
ar dr
/

at

I- (P + P

at the sheet.

any given instant must be expressible in a series of t must be of the spherical harmonics, and therefore at any time
at

PQ

form

2A

)
if

Yn
A

where

is

a given function of

t.

Whence,
constant,

be of the form

cos(*^

+ a)

we

get, as in the Article referred to,

where A Q is and P' being

external and internal values of

P respectively,
M+1
,

if

tan/3

cos/3

182
466.] .Fcos (kt

ROTATING SPHERICAL SHEET.


For the particular case of a uniform field of + a) parallel to z, we have $ of the form Cz.

[466.
force

In this case therefore, as shown above (Art. 446), the currents are in circles parallel to the plane of #, y, and by what was proved in the article referred to, the interior of the shell is a
field

of uniform force parallel to z and the external


y

field is

that

of a simple magnet at the centre of the sphere with axis in the axis of z and moment at any time t equal to

| Fa* cos /3 cos (k t + a


467.] The

/3)

where

tan/3

IT)

=-.
cite

case of a conducting- spherical sheet of radius

(a),

revolving with constant angular velocity (o>) about a diameter, coinciding with the axis of z in a uniform magnetic field leads
to exactly similar treatment. For let the sheet be at rest

and the field revolve round the same axis with the same angular velocity reversed, the. relative motion is the same. With the same notation as before, we get at the surface of the
sheet the equation

If

$ be the azimuthal angle between


field
,

a point fixed with referspace, we

ence to the revolving

and a point in

have

-=j

o>,

and therefore

If Q be expressed in a series of spherical harmonics, the most ih general form of that of the n order is, as we know, a series of terms of the form

If
b

we assume

for

Pa

similar expression, the term in

of the

order and type, k will be

and that of P'

will be

467.]

ROTATING SPHERICAL SHEET.

183

and the above written equation becomes

or writing

f for 1

And

therefore, as in the last case,

^ O cos/3c

where tan

/3=j0.

If the given field be one of uniform force F, parallel to the


axis of revolution,

7 assumes

the form

^ O cos0, and
and there

is is

independent

of

(f).

In

this case therefore

is zero,

no induction

of currents in the sheet.


If the uniform force
lution,

F be
.4

perpendicular to the axis of revo-

PQ

assumes the form


sin

and

cos ($

)>

becomes

cos /3 sin 6 cos ($

+a

/3).

Within the revolving sheet therefore the

field is

that of a

uniform force perpendicular to the axis of revolution, and inclined at the angle (3 to the original line and with intensity
diminished in the ratio of cos/3 to unity, where
tan/3

-= 3R
a oo

The induced

sphere were fixed in a


direction aforesaid.

currents on this sphere are the same as if the field with uniform force Fcosfi in the

By what has been already proved therefore the internal field of the induced currents is one of uniform force, and the external
field is

that of a small magnet at the centre of the sheet, with

axis parallel to the aforesaid direction

and moment equal to

i/a cos.
In the particular case of the spherical shell revolving round the axis of z with uniform angular velocity (o>) in a field of uniform
force a
,

/3

we may

also proceed as follows.

184

KOTATING SPHERICAL SHEET.

[468.

468.] We know, Art. 446, that the system of currents derived from the current function

i. e.

with components,

Bz-Cy,
force,

Cx-Az,
y are
.B,

Ay

Ex,
field

produces upon and within the spherical surface a

of uniform

whose components
.A,

a,

/3,

8-rra

and

8-na
.

C.

The equations of Ohm's law


of currents on the shell,

are therefore with such a system

........
-2.
-

(2)

(3)

Eliminating

between the
3o-

first

two equations, we get

Showing that y and


function
is

therefore

C is
o

zero,

and that the current

reduced to
Aoc + By
or

OTTtt
1

-- (aaJ-fj3y),
and
3,

The elimination

of

\fr

between

and

3,

gives

whence, writing^ for

--

we get

If

2.

= tan
=

e,

= tan
2

6,

and
tan ^

= tan

6,

A/a 2 + /3 2

VV + A>

cos g >

= tan

469.]

ROTATING SPHERICAL SHEET.

185

Or the system of induced currents on the moving sphere is the same as that which on the fixed sphere would produce a constant force in a line perpendicular to the axis of rotation
q
1 inclined at the constant angle tan"
~f>

to the direction of the

aco

force of the

and whose intensity


the
field

resolved perpendicular to the same axis, equal to the resolved part of the force of in the direction of that line.

given

field
is

469.] Next, suppose that the sphere in the last example


replaced by the spheroid

is

rotating round the axis of figure c, and let the thickness of the shell be proportional at each point to the perpendicular from the
centre on the tangent plane. If we assume a system of currents to exist
this shell,

upon

such that the current function

<

is

the components currents will be

_
And
force,

Bz
tZ7

__,

CT

Az __,
upon the sheet the uniform

these will produce within and whose components are

and zero respectively. Denote these force components by a and


*** a

/3,

so that
1TZ

and

w=

186

ROTATING SPHERICAL AND SPHEROIDAL SHEETS. [470.

If

now
y

for

a-

we

write

and

for

we

write p our

Ohm's law equations become

-sp

fiz

= <oy *- d\b -,

Therefore

P/3(

T+

-j)

= w(a + o

),

therefore

^ + o=
/; t

fta
1

/3

/3

where

Ps /
co
(

^a 2

+
,

1 \
2 )> c / -r-

whence we
the sphere.

arrive at similar conclusions to those in the case of

470.] In the case of the revolving sphere of Article 468 the quantity \l/ is identical with i// or Fx + Gy + Hz.

For we get from equations

1, 2,

3 of that Article

Also in this case

jc

coy,

2/

6oa?,

4;

= 0.

And

therefore, since

and

47 r -J
Fob

SOLID CONDUCTORS.
or
\//,

187

+ Gy + Hz,

reduces to

i.

e.

to

\f/,

whence we know that there

is

no distribution of

free

electricity in this case. In the case of the revolving spheroid of the present Article, Fib + Gy + Hz or \|/ will be found by similar treatment to differ

from

\jf

by a quantity of the form

Indicating an electrical distribution with potential of the form

Mzy Nzx upon the spheroid. And therefore with values Mzy

Nzx

within, and

_
db 2
dc*

__

da*

dc*

without the spheroid, and of superficial density of the form

M'zy-N'zx
upon the spheroid.
471.] Hitherto we have applied the general field equations to the investigation of the phenomena of induction in closed conducting sheets of special forms situated in a variable magnetic
field.

The same general

principles hold

good in whatever be the

forms of the sheets, but except in special cases their application


presents very great analytical difficulties. As any closed currents are generated in the external field, a system of closed currents

existence,

constituting the magnetic screen to the external field comes into by induction, in the sheet.

The
is

effect

of the finite resistance

of the

conducting sheet
dissipation of their

to cause these induced currents to decay

by

energy into heat. In this process of decay they vary, and thus exercise mutual inductive influences. In certain special systems,
at

which may with propriety be called self-inductive, their intensity from their first establishment diminishes accordany time
Ki

ing to the e~

law, where

A.

is

a coefficient depending

upon the

188

SOLID CONDUCTORS.

[472.

shape and resistance of the conductor, and these special systems alone are easily amenable to mathematical treatment.

As shewn above, Art. 431, in the very important class of cases in which the external system varies periodically, the field in the
interior of the sheet also varies periodically but

with retarded

phase and generally with diminished


472.]

intensity.

any becomes very complicated.

pass to the consideration of a solid conductor of form the same general principles hold, but their application

When we

Thus, the first effect of the excitation of the external system be regarded as the establishment of superficial currents, constituting a perfect screen as before, and if the resistance were

may

evanescent this screen would be always maintained and the


currents would always be on the surface. But the effect of the resistance is to impair this screening influence, so that if the external system remained unchanged the superficial currents

would vary by

resistance,

own

intensities

and thus by their variation modify their and induce currents in the interior mass, which
superficial

would again modify the


system
also varied the

currents.
still

If the external

problem would be
is

more complicated.

The problem of induction


difficulty

currents, therefore, in a solid con-

ductor in a varying magnetic field

even in
is

its

simplest cases,

one of great analytical as, for instance, where the

bounded by infinite parallel planes or concentric For these cases it has been treated with great spherical surfaces. generality in special papers to which the reader is referred *.
conductor
473.] By way of illustrating the general treatment, we proceed to investigate the question under very restricted and special conditions.

Consider a solid conductor of any form situated in a given

varying magnetic field. At all points within the conductor

* See, amongst others, a paper by Professor C. Niven in the Phil. Trans, of the Eoyal Society, 1881, part II; also a paper by Professor H. Lamb, Phil. Trans., R. S., 1883, part II; and a paper in the Philosophical Magazine, already quoted in the text, by Dr. Larmor, January, 1884.

474-] SOLID CONDUCTOR

BOUNDED BY INFINITE PLANE.

189

and at

all

G, H are everywhere

external points
finite

V 2 jP, V 2

V 2H

are severally zero, F,

and vanish at

F and

-F

G and

G^,

If and

infinity.

are continuous everywhere, as

well as their differental coefficients.

dF
dx

dG
dy

+ -jdx
dv

dH = 0,
dw
dz

everywhere.

The component currents du


dx
at all points,

satisfy the conditions

dy

and the additional condition


lu + mv

+ nw

at the surface of the condutor.

The equations of Ohm's

law,

hold always at
474.] Take

points in the conductor. the case of a solid conductor bounded


all

by an

infinite plane, that of #,

y
it.

towards the negative axis of

suppose, and extending indefinitely 2, and suppose there is a varying

magnetic

field

in front of

by the magnetically equivalent current system on a plane parallel to the boundary of the conductor as above explained.
Replace this field

At any point in the be found, such that

field

of the conductor a function

PQ may

dP

And
satisfied

then, as

we know,

all

the requisite conditions can be

by

F=^, dy
provided

G=~, dx

ff=0,

^=

0,

P be

so chosen as to satisfy the equation

within the conductor, to be everywhere

finite, to

vanish at an

190

SOLID CONDUCTOE BOUNDED BY INFINITE PLANE.


from the conductor, and to
be,

[475.
its

infinite distance

along with

differential coefficients, continuous at all points.

Suppose
the form

PQ

to be capable of expression in a series of terms of

A Q e me

<j)

(x,

y) cos

kt,

where

(since

V P=
2

within and in the neighbourhood of the

conductor)

we must have

Assume
pression

for the value

(P

of

P within
gi u fo)

the conductor the ex<f>


.

(^

(3) cos fo

+ x (3)

and

for the value

(P) of

P without

the conductor the expression

{A
since

cos (fa)

+ B sin (kt)} ^e~m\

P outside

vanishes at infinity and satisfies

V 2 P=0.

The equation
becomes therefore

(* + 2i*)co.*l+ (* + V^ \dz
2

c?^ /

2 OT

^C dz

whence by equating coefficients of smJct and cos&t we obtain two equations for the determination of \}f and >( 475.] The general solution is somewhat complicated*, but if,
as frequently happens,

4 -- be small, so that its square and higher


TT
K.

powers
the

may

be neglected, since
of ,

\jr

and x depend

at least

upon

first

power

we may

neglect

them when they appear

on the right-hand

side of the

above equation as multiplied by

- whence ^ (z)
,

and

or

* The approximation is equivalent to neglecting the action of the induced currents in the conductor in comparison with that of the given external field.

476.]

SOLID SPHERE.
last

191

The
become

term

is

inadmissible, because \( z ) emz would otherwise

infinitely great

when

z is infinitely large.

Hence within the conductor the value of

P is

2m
In the external

field it is

At

where

from the condition of continuity of

P and

-j-

~2^'

^o ~4^
P
f

2J

and the internal value of P or

is

2m
And

2m

the external value of

P is
2

4m

476.] If the conductor be a sphere of radius a, let the equivalent current sheet be the surface of a concentric sphere, then

we know

that a magnitude

may

be found such that

and therefore
taking

all

the required

equations

can be

satisfied

by

provided

P satisfies

the equation

192
and be
finite

SOLID SPHERE.

[477.

everywhere and continuous, as well as its differential coefficients, and in the external space satisfy the equation

VP=
2

0.

also satisfies the equation

VP=
2

0,

and therefore may be expressed in a series of spherical harmonics with coefficients functions of the time. Let any term in

be of the form

and

let

the corresponding terms in

P be

for the internal space,

and
a n+

/a

n+1

for the external space,

then the equation

within the sphere becomes


2
d\lr

r dr

r2

{\(r)cos Kt

477.] If

be small, and

its

squares and higher powers be

neglected, the equation

is satisfied

by neglecting the term

in the assumed expression for

P internally, and

determining

from the equation


dr*

r dr

477-]

SOLID SPHERE.

193

The

solution of

which

is

where

C and

Therefore

D are arbitrary. P=
always
finite,

Since

is

the term

+1

is

inadmissible,

and

we get

P in the

external space

must be of the form

wh ere

=
P at the
+2
a
surface,

from the continuity of

and

(2yi

"" _
wZ>)

from the continuity of

=-a,

And

the value of

P externally is

If n and # become infinite, and if


results agree

be equal to

It

these

with those obtained

for

the plane boundary in

Art. 455.
VOL.
II.

See page 161, Note.

194
478.]

SOLID SPHERE EEVOLVINU.

[478.

The

case of the

with uniform angular velocity


to the last case

sphere revolving- in a constant field <o about the axis of z is reducible

by a process similar to that employed in the case of the spherical sheet, the equation

being replaced by

and
type

for every
K,

term in P of the given and therefore of the form

field

of order n and

we get the approximate


47TKOD
,

expression, neglecting squares, &c., of

tor

r internally,
P=

and

for

P externally
field

For instance, in a

of uniform force

parallel to #,

P =
and
Jr internally

TTco/r = -- --- \ aA
2

r sin 9.

case of the revolving solid sphere may also be in vestigated by the direct application of the equations of electro motive force in moving conductors. These are

479.]

The

cru

ycocc

~dx
(1)

dz

' /

where

a, ft,

y are the total force components.

479-]

SOLID SPHERE REVOLVING.

195
,

If the given field of force be uniform with components, o

,8

neglect squares and higher powers of equations give us

and

if

we

these

dx*
dy
d\i/

dz

Whence

/du
cr(/3

^dz

dw\ dx/)

= coa

/dv
,

dw\
)

<r(-

^dz

a)/3

/ox (2)

dy/

a system of currents in the sphere, all in planes perpendicular to the axis of y, and such that at each point
if

Now

= 0,

u=Az,

= 0,

Ax
and
solid

satisfy all the conditions of continuity, superficial

and

likewise the equations (2), provided

A
Also with this system it must satisfy the equations
is

=
"27"
clear that

=0, and that -Fand

W=
</>(r)

_***.
<T

2 v ./r= Z o.
O"

!B

2 outside the sphere. within the sphere, and V 2 F 0, V G If we assume as the solutions of these equations

H=
we
get

= - + C,

* (r)

- + C"
2

and therefore within the sphere we get

and without the sphere

O 2

196
where A, B,

SOLID SPHEROID REVOLVING.


C, Cf are to be determined
6r,

[480.

from the condition of


coefficients.

continuity of F,

H and their differential

It is easily seen that the results agree with those already obtained.

480.] In the case of the spheroid

rotating round the axis of figure in a field of uniform force, the equations are all satisfied by the assumption of the component
currents at each point

Ai
.

= 0,

w=.

x
a2
j

-4

provided

Therefore

Assume that
or

47To)a f

We

have to determine

and
z,

\/r,

so that

(z(f))

and

(a?^)

= x.

If we divide the spheroid into an infinitely large number of similar spheroidal shells, the parameter in any case being X, the value of (x, y, z) may be assumed to be $ (A), i. e.

and that of

\^(#, y, z) to

be

Let

<j>

and

\^

be of the form

and

constants.

48 1.]

SOLID SPHEEE

AND SPHEROID.

197

Then we have

or

and

F=-

a2 + c 2 )(2c 2 +3a
2
rt

Outside the spheroid

we have

where

^f, -6, (7,

C" are to be determined

by the conditions of con-

tinuity of Fj G, 3

dv

and

-=

dv

at the surface.

481.]

also, to the

The external field for the solid revolving sphere may same approximation, be determined by the following
sphere

reasoning. Let the

be

divided

into

a number of concentric

spherical shells of uniform thickness adm, where dm is the same small fraction of unity that the thickness is of the radius a of

the whole sphere. The radius r of any shell will be ma. If the effect of the induced currents be neglected, each separate sheet may be regarded as a spherical sheet of radius r ( ma) and

resistance </

revolving in the given

field

of uniform force.

Externally therefore the magnetic effect of the induced currents in this shell under the external uniform force a
will be,

by

Art. 468, equivalent to a small equal to

magnet

at the centre

with moment

here

= ma

and

tan/3

q _/

198

SOLID SPHERE EEVO LYING.


is

[4$ 2.

to the required approximation tan/3 of cot ft are to be neglected,


4-Trro)
i.e.

very large, so that squares

cosp=
is

dm

=
So4
,

So-

ana the moment

2 TT a 4 a n tow
So-

dm
magnet
at

The

total external field is therefore that of a small

the centre with

moment
27TC&
4
Cf

equal to
/

CO /*!

m dm

27Ttt

CO
>

or

So-

15o-

and direction of magnetisation perpendicular to the axis of revolution and to the resolved part of the constant force of the field
perpendicular to that axis.

similar treatment
it

may

be extended to the case of the

spheroid by dividing concentric spheroidal shells.

into an infinitely great

number of

similar

The

shell is readily

external field of the induced currents in each revolving determined by the results of Art. 480 in terms of
to

the parameter

A. and cl\. Whence, by integrating from

1,

the total external

field

may

be found.

482.] In this and the preceding chapter we have considered cases in which an external magnetic field is made to vary, and
closed electric

with or without changes of statical In another class potential, are thereby induced on conductors.
currents,

of cases the given variations are those of electromotive force, the primary phenomena being the oscillations, forced or natural, of electric distributions on the conductor. To these cases great

importance has recently been given by the experiments of H. Hertz (Wiedemann's Annalen, 1887-1889) repeated and
extended by Dr. O. Lodge, Professor Fitzgerald, and others. Let us then suppose a conductor placed in a field of oscillating
and, as before, we will suppose the system to be self-inductive, that is, one in which the value of any function at time t is formed by multiplying its initial value by the
electromotive force
factor

483.]

OSCILLATING ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION.

199

of flow invariable in form.


tricity of the distribution

In any such case the whole system may be divided into tubes Let +q be the quantity of eleccut out by

any given tube on the


denotes the current in

surface of the conductor.

Then

?
at

that tube.

Let

the resistance in the tube in question,

be the electromotive force of induction, E V JB the potentials at A


f ^

its positive and negative ends respectively. the external force in the tube,

Then,

if feospt

be

all the currents throughout the system, the displacement currents in the surrounding dielectric, including continue to bear the same ratio to one another, may be put

But

since

by hypothesis

72

in

the form

^-TTJ-,

where A

is

a coefficient depending on the

geometrical relations of the system. For the same reason we may write

V A

V = -, B

where

c is

constant as regards time equation becomes

for the tube

in question.

So our

a solution of

which

is
2

da

(_i + Ac

Rep
i \

a difference of phase tan" 1 rent and the external force.

There

is

^
if

between the cur-

If \cp 2

1,

or
TT

V\c

that
is

is,

the periodic time of the

external force be

\/A <?, there

no difference of phase.

In this

case the conductor is said to be in unison with the external system. 483.] If the given distribution be formed on the conductor

under an external
equation becomes

force,

and that

force be suddenly removed, our

Ac? + *c-H = ......


0,

(B)

200

OSCILLATING ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION.


is

[483.

the solution of which

where

W
2

Re

Re 2Ac

2Ac
If

If ffic
jR c
2

>4\c,

this gives

subsidence without oscillation.

<4A<?, the solution assumes the form q where

= ^e'

2Ac

The time

of oscillation

is

and

if

is

negligible compared

with 4 Ac, this becomes TT\/AC.


Further,

we may write the equation (B)

in the

form

And

an equation of this form holds with the same p for every of flow, it follows that Ac and Re must be the same for tube
as

This is the condition that the assumed proportional variation may be possible. It appears thus that to every conductor with such a distrievery such tube.

bution of electricity as we have supposed, there corresponds, if R be small enough, a definite time of vibration, called by Hertz

fundamental tone. It is only in very special cases that the numerical value of this time can be calculated. Hertz (Wiedemann's Annalen, 1887, No. 7) considers the case of two metal spheres each of 15 cm. radius connected by a straight wire 150 cm.
its

c in length, and Jem. radius. For such a conductor Ac and must be the same for every tube of flow by symmetry. Hertz,

on certain assumptions,

finds

7r\/Ac

seconds.

483.]

OSCILLATING ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION.


\c shall be the same for
all

201
tubes

The conditions that EC and


metrical form
Professor J. J.
Society, 1884.
as,

can be secured in other cases by taking a conductor of symfor instance, the

Thomson

spherical shell treated by in the Proceedings of the Mathematical

CHAPTER XXIV.
AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.
ARTICLE 484.] IN the preceding chapters we have found that two closed circuits with currents i and i' possess energy of their
/ /

mutual action

ii'l

OOQ

- ds ds', taken round both circuits in the

direction of the currents,

and the energy of any

field

of closed

currents

is

The proof

of this rests ultimately

on experiments made with

closed conducting circuits, where no account is taken of the variation of the statical distributions of electricity or the statical
potential.

It is only for circuits of this character that we are strictly justified in using the above expression for the energy.

We may call

485.] Generally in

a system of such circuits a purely magnetic system. any field of currents we have what used to

be called unclosed currents, that is, statical distributions forming on the surfaces of conductors, and variations of the statical
potential.

According to Maxwell's theory the circuits are nevertheless


all

closed, if

we take

in the insulating or partially insulating space, of any field of currents is still represented by

into account the displacement currents and the energy

f[f(
u, v,

Fu + Gv

and

including the displacement as well as the conduction

currents.

ments.

Maxwell's theory, as thus extended, is consistent with experiIt is possible however to explain experiments with closed

circuits

on other hypotheses concerning the laws of force or of

energy between elementary currents. Ampere's law especially, as extended by Weber, has met with very general accept-

486.]
ance.

AMPERE'S AND OTHEE THEOEIES.

203

Helmholtz' treatment requires explanation with a the electromagnetic theory of light. We therefore propose to devote the present chapter to the conshall assume that sideration of some of these hypotheses.

And

view

to

We

every pair of current elements exert on each other a certain force, or possess energy of their separate action. When we speak of a force acting between two current ele-

ments, we must be understood as meaning a force acting between the elementary conductors in which the currents flow in virtue
of those currents
;

for

we cannot

conceive electric currents as in

any other sense the subject of mechanical action. But for brevity we shall follow the example of other writers on the subject by speaking of the action as between the currents.
486.]

We

shall

employ the following notation.

If

CP

or ds,

ds', infinitely short lines, represent the directions of two elementary electric currents, then in our notation

C'P'or

two

= = 6, LP'C'C =
CC'

r,

LPCC'

tf,

C
Fig. 47-

C'

and the angle between


notation
cos
,

CP
>

and C'P'=

e.

Evidently with this

dr
-jds

*<?=-%,, ds
cose

d
ds

(rcosfn v
i

dv dr
ds ds
--,

d?r
r 37-7?

dsds

and we

shall

denote by

the current in

ds, that

is

the quantity

of electricity which passes in unit of time through a section of ds. In the ordinary Similarly i' shall denote the current in ds'.

notation

u, v,

are

section, so that ids corresponds to

component currents per unit area udydzdx.

of the

204

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

[487.

If ds be an element of a closed circuit, ds' any elementary


straight line, then
cos 6 cos 9'
_

Tcos

J
For

/
f nna cos Tcos
ft (9

ds.

T r
nr\o fi cos 0'

r
f*f*ria Tcos T
(

& -

ds

, ,

r cos 0'

(r cos

/jrdfc

by integration by
closed circuit

parts, the integrated

term disappearing

for the

487.] The four quantities r, e, 0, 0' completely define the relative position of any two elements of electric currents. If therefore these elements possess energy of their mutual action, or exert a

on one another, this energy, or force, must be capable of expression as a function of r, e, 0, and 0', together with ids and i'd*'.
force

488.] It
I.

is assumed generally in these investigations That the effect of any element of a current on any other
:

element

is

directly as the product of the strengths of the currents

and the lengths of the elements.


idsi'ds'.

That

is, it

is

proportional to

II.

That every elementary current may be replaced by


if
i

its

components.

That

is,

CP,

CQ

from C, and

be two elementary currents, both starting if CE be the diagonal of the

/^^y /
.

parallelogram

RPCQ,

the two currents

iCP

iCQ

are

for all

purposes equivalent

to the

Fi

single current iCR.

This
It is found

we

shall call the law of composition.


effect of a sinuous current

by experiment that the

by diminishing the dimensions of the currents, be made to differ as little as we please from that of the straight current OR. Hence we infer the truth of the law.
can,

CPR

489.]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

205

If ds be the length of the elementary current at C, ds-^ and ds.2 its components, we shall denote by e, c l9 and e 2 the angles which they respectively make with ds'. And in like manner the
suffixes

or 2 applied to any function of r, e, 0, O',ds, and ds' shall x denote that ds l or ds.2 is concerned in its formation.

If/ (r, e, 0, 6') ds ds', or shortly/, be such a 489.] DEFINITION. function that for any whatever two components of ds, as ds l

/ is

said to

obey the law of composition.

We

can

now

prove the

following proposition. If/(r, e, 0, 6'), or shortly/, be any function which obeys the and 0', law of composition, and is symmetrical with regard to

f must be
where $

of the form

$ (r) cos e + ^ (r) cos


(r)

cos 0',
r.

and

\j/

(r)

are undetermined functions of

By

hypothesis

By projecting on
cos
or

d*',
l

= cos cos e = cos


e cfoj
f

dsl + cos
ds,

ds2 ds

1 -j-

ds

1 + cos

ds9
e
2

-~

.....

(2)

and 6 remaining constant. That is, conlet e vary, ceive ds' to be the radius vector of a cone of which C' is vertex,
and
r

Now

the axis.

Then
e l5 e 2

as ds' changes its position

changes, and
affected.

Then by

differentiation

^ = ^^^ + o%^^ df df df de d
l

change with it, but r, 0, from (1) and (2),


ds

on the cone, and & are un-

ds

sin

= sm

d~ -~

ds,
:

de ds

-H sin e a

df^ds,, -~ 3-=

de ds

and these equations being true for any three directions in any plane, and whatever the lengths of ds l and ds2 we must have
,

df

sine df

dfl=
c?e 1

df,
c?ez

sin6 1

sine2

206
or

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

[489.

---

sin e de

-j- is,

given r and

8',

independent of
only.

and of

0.

and

is

therefore a function of r

and

0'

That

is,

-4-^ = -<l>(r,0'), sine dc


where
4> is

(3)

an undetermined function.
r,

Again, by projecting on

we have
2

cos 6 ds = cos O^s^ + cos

ds.2)

or

cos 6

cos

0, 1

ds

cos

2 z

ds

(4)

and, as before,

/-.<

.......
and
2

(>

Let vary, e and 0' remaining constant. That is, let r be the radius vector of a cone whose vertex is 6", and whose axis is
parallel to ds'.

Then
7 -

as

varies, 6 1

vary with
,

it, e,

e2

and
(5)

0'

remaining constant.

And by
, 7
,.

differentiation of (4)
7/1
2

and

we have

^/ d0

_ ~ G%

4^ ^ ^ + d8 ^ d% dd dB dO
7
,,

7/1

'

ds

ds

dQ.ds.

de.ds,

And by

the same reasoning as before,


sin8

d8

sin 0j
0',

d^

sin

c?02

or

-;

sin

-jOdd

is,

given r and

independent of

and

6.

Hence

where

From

an undetermined function. (3) and (6) we have


is

And by

integration,

/=

<l>

(r,

P)

cos

+ * (r,

0') cos 0.

49I-]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.


(*"

207
#')

There can be no constant of integration, as x


such would not obey the law of composition. Now if be symmetrical with regard to cannot contain 0', and is a function of / only.

because

and

0',

4> (r, 6')

And V (r,
ditions,

6')

must be of the form

\f/

(r)

cos

tf,

Let it be <(?*) where \j/ (r) is a


the con-

function of r only.

We
<j>

find

then that f,

if it satisfy

can have no other form than


e (r) cos

\j/

(r)

cos

cos

6',

where

<

(r)

and

\^ (r)

are undetermined functions of

r.

490.]

We

will apply this

theorem as

follows.

Firstly, let

idsi'dsf be the force which the element ids exerts on the element ids'. shall assume that this force acts in the line r, so that

We

action

and reaction are equal and opposite.

The

force

must

and tf> and therefore must then be symmetrical with regard to the conditions ; and therefore we may write satisfy
f=(f)(r) cos

\js

(r) cos

cos

0'.

To determine the forms

of the functions

(r)

and

-fy

(r),

we

have recourse to another experimental law, namely, III. In similar systems traversed by equal currents the forces
are equal.
sions.

They are therefore independent From this we deduce that


<t>(

of the linear dimen-

r)

^>
all

and

^( r )

because ds and ds' and r


sions.

vary directly as the linear dimen-

Hence we get

/=
where a and
491 .]
ratio

COS
j

-y COS

COS 0'>

b are constants.

We now proceed to Ampere's method


'

between

'

and

'

b.'

To

this

of determining the end we have recourse to yet

another experimental law. It is proved, namely, or supposed to be proved, by experiment, that IV. The force exerted by any closed circuit on an element
of another circuit, resolved in the direction of that element, is
zero, or the resultant force is at right angles to the

element.

208

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.


will discuss hereafter the experimental evidence

[492.

We

supposed to establish this law.


truth, it can be proved that

which is In the meantime, assuming its


,

=2

which

is

Ampere's

result.

circuit of

For the resolved which ids

force in direction of d*'


is

due to the closed

an element
cos
r*
2

is

* I

T r

cos e cos O'ds

i I

cos 0'cfe

=i =i
I

-3

r cos 0'

(r cos tf)

ds + i

-$ cos

cos 2 tfds

(r cos 0')

ds + i

cos 9 cos2 Q'ds

=+
(since

3a

/Vcos'tf' dr
I

j-

ds -f 5e

C
/

-g cos

cos 2

ds,

on integrating by parts

the integrated term disappears for the closed circuit,)

= (5 _ Ijf)
and according to law IV
closed circuit.

TI cos

cos

0^,

this is to be zero for every possible


b

This requires

which

is

Ampere's law.

492.] The method of quaternions is admirably adapted to the will therefore, followdiscussion of questions of this kind. in the main Professor Tait in his work on Quaternions, give ing

We

another proof of the proposition that perimental law IV.

satisfies

the ex-

The

force

on

'the

element

ds' is the integral, that is the reis

sultant, of all the vectors


(
cos
6

whose type

- cos

cos 0'

ds ds,
d*,

each in direction between ds and an element,


circuit.

of the closed

492.]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

209

We

may

write this type vector


cos

+ -3- cos
r,

cos 0'>

i ds'i'ds',

denoting by r the vector

and the other quantities being


I

scalar.

Now

-^ cos

ds

=a

d (r

cos

and

for

the closed circuit s the integrated term


I

is zero,

so that

cos

ds

r cos &'d

rcos0'^/,,
because
-=-

dr

r cos 6 cos 6'ds

cos

0.

ds

Now
Let
it

dr

is

the element ds of the curve considered as a vector.


ds.

be denoted by
r
3

Then we have
C CrcosOcosO'ds
3

/r cosds
Adding a
\

ds C n ,ds arcosO'3a r

J we
obtain

-^

cose ^5 to both sides, and transposing,


3

Cr

cos 6 cos 6'ds

r cos

6 c?s

d/
r3

S.dsdf-dsS.rdJ

~^~
in the notation of quaternions. Now the type vector on the right-hand side is by a known theorem (Tait's Quaternions, 2nd edition, Art. 90) equal to

F.ds
It

is

therefore perpendicular to ds
is

and therefore
9

also the in-

tegral vector V. ds

perpendicular to ds'

as

was to be

proved. VOL. II.

210
The

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

[493.

493.]

resultant vector

depends only on the position


ds',

and shape of the closed


circuit,

circuit

and the position of


'.

and

is

in-

dependent of the direction of ds


in space.
It
is

It

is

a property of the closed

having given magnitude and direction at every point


called the directrix of electrodynamic action for

the circuit in question. It is remarkable that this vector, determined by Ampere's method, is identical in direction with another vector which we

have determined from totally different considerations, namely, the magnetic force due to the circuit.

For the

directrix, as
'

we have

seen, is the resultant of vectors


circuit.

whose type
type vector

is

one for each element of the


r
t

The

is

normal to the plane of

proportional to their product into the sine of the angle

and ds and of length between

them.
If
9

we take the element


dy
**
r

dsf for origin,

and ds be at the point


dx
nf*

$> z > the


/y

components of this type vector are


___ *i

dz
/y

dz
,

dx
ds

nt

dy
ds

ds

ds

ds

ds

p
and the ^-component

~7T~

T-

of the integral vector is

dy
ds
=

dz
ds
,

ds,

that

is,

~
dy
j clz
,

G,

H being

the components of vector

But this is the ^-component of potential of the closed circuit. magnetic force due to the circuit. Hence the directrix and the
magnetic
force are identical in direction.

XXI,

we have proved that, according to the theory of Chap. the mechanical action upon any closed circuit s of any other closed circuits may be represented by a force on each
Further,

element of

force of the field at the element.

perpendicular to the element and to the magnetic But this is the direction of

495-]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

211
cir-

the integral force exerted on the element ds' by the closed


cuit s according to

494.] If

we were

Ampere's theory. to assume that each pair of elements ids, ids'


ii'

had a potential of their mutual action

dsds', there

would

be a force of translation in the line joining them equal to


.

.,

cos

^^
r*

dsds

Now

the resultant of these forces for

all

the elements of the

closed circuit s

on the element ids'

is

not, generally, at right

angles to

ds'.

But the

integral expression
'cos e

dsdsf
r

does, as
ds'.

we have

seen, lead to a resultant force at right angles to

The explanation of the apparent inconsistency is as follows. Assuming a separate potential for separate pairs of elements and
a force derived from
it,

we

tacitly

assume that each element can

be displaced unconditionally in any direction without reference to any other elements, whereas in calculating the energy of

we tacitly assume that no displacement of any element can take place except conditionally on the circuit remaining closed. In the one case the displacement of the element
closed circuits

PQ
for

into the position P'Q'is the substitution of P'Q' foi'PQ, in the other it is the substitution of the broken line PP'Q'Q

PQ.

495.] It follows from these considerations that if both circuits are closed, Ampere's law of force, and the assumption of potential
dsds',

both lead to the same result in calculating the

force

with closed
law.

on any element of either circuit. Therefore no experiments circuits can conclusively establish or disprove Ampere's
It does

not appear that law IV, which is the basis of Ampere's theory, has been conclusively established by experiments.

The experiments made with closed


upon

usually relied
circuits
;

upon as establishing law

IV

are

instance, the experiment relied in Briot, 'Theorie mecanique de la Chaleur.' have


for

We

there a circular current, and another closed circuit in the form of

P 2

212

AMPERES AND OTHER THEORIES.

[496.

a parallelogram, one side of which coincides with the perpendicular to the plane of the circle through its centre. It is found
that a current sent through the second closed circuit does not tend to move the circular conductor round its axis. But by

symmetry
potential.

this

must be true, for any law of force which has a The experiment cannot therefore be relied upon as

establishing Ampere's law. Again, in the experiment described in Maxwell, 2nd edition, Vol. II, 687, we have 507, modified in

two cups of mercury on a plane, and a wire passes through them, and is bent between the cups in the form of a circular arc. The wire between the cups forms part of a voltaic circuit, the current entering through the mercury in one cup and leaving through the
mercury in the other cup. If any other closed circuit be brought into the neighbourhood, it is found not to move the wire round an axis through the centre of the circle of which it forms part. In this
case

any movement of the wire round the

axis

would not

alter

the position of the current, but would merely place a different It portion of the wire in position to carry the same current.
if

cannot therefore alter the potential of the electrodynamic forces they have one.
Concerning Weber s Hypothesis.

496.]

Weber

as follows.

He

gives a physical explanation of Ampere's results assumes that two quantities of electricity, or, as

we may
equal to

say, electrical masses, e


ee
r
,

and /, have, in addition to their


due to their relative motion
,
'

statical potential

also a potential

-"
is

dr

Wt)

where

a constant.
,

This gives a repulsive force in r equal to

C ,drJ

,C

d*r

or as

we may

write

it

'

~^
dt*

ee'

Let us now assume that an electric current consists of equal quantities of positive and negative electricity moving with equal

497]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

213
e in

velocities in opposite directions.

Then considering
,

ds and

e'

in

els',

and

r the distance

between them, we have

dr

dt
v and
v'

= v dr +v Ts

dr

d/'
e'

v' being the velocities of e and be constant, .

respectively,

and

if v

and

and therefore the

force

between
'

and

e' is,

omitting

(7,

*rYd?ee/ f

W^
/2/^r
2

"Sd?j
\

i(^

T\

'^r ^r>

The
in
It
is

force

between

in ds and

/ moving

r/,/ is

found from the above by changing the sign of

with velocity ef and

v'
if.

therefore

dsz

is

The force between e in ds and the system of e' and e' in d/ found by adding together the two expressions. It is therefore ee' d*r ee' ,dr dr , 2r2 dsds dsds

By symmetry,
with velocity
i

for ev

and /

e in the element ds the force upon moving And writing v is the same as the preceding. for /#', we find for the force between the two

current elements ids and i'ds'

4u' d2 r
r
2ii'

2ii'dr dr
r 2 ds ds'

dsds'
(
j

that

is,

r2
differs

9-

2r T~rr
dsds'

d*r

dr dr
ds

I J

T~3T(

which

497.]

We

have assumed v and

only by a constant factor from Ampere's force. v' to be constant. Let us

now

ef in the reverse suppose t/, the velocity of e' in ds' and of to vary with the time. Then, as before, direction,

dr

dr

dr

214
But

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.


d*r
-

[497.

=V

/dr

And

therefore the force exerted

by

-f e

on

e contains, in addition

to the expression above found for


ee'

it,

the term
,

dv' dr
dt ds'

2r
that
is,

Zr
e'

-y- cos O'ds

f
.

dt

But from

and
e

-=-

will be derived the

dt

same term;
e'

so

that the force on


e'

due to the change in the velocities of


ee'dv'

and

will be a repulsive force


cos 6 ds in direction r

&j

,.

r dt

and therefore

cos 6 cos 6' ds' in direction ds.

r dt
e

Similarly the force on change in velocity of e' and


ee

in direction ds reversed, due to the


/, will be
cos 6 cos 6 as
, ,
.

dv'
dt

But

these

two equal

forces,

on e in direction ds and on
the

e'

in the

reverse direction, constitute


9

Electromotive force in ds due

to the time variation of v' that is of the current in ds'.

The electromotive
ds'

force in ds

due to a closed circuit of which

forms part

is

di' Tcos
/

cos

that

is

ds
r

,
,

dtj
that
is,

as

shown above Art. 486,


di' A; os e , =- / ds T dt J
.

That

is

if

F denote the

resultant in direction ds of the

dt

vector potential

of the closed circuit.

This agrees with the

498.]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

215

laws of induction by variation of the primary circuit above


obtained, Chap. XIX. For further investigations of this kind the reader
sult

may

con-

among

others the works mentioned in the foot-note.*

498.] It will be sufficient for our purpose here to follow the more general method of Helmholtz, in order to investigate the effect of unclosed electric currents, if such exist in the field.

The energy of two elementary currents ids and i'd*' may be and & It must assumed to be symmetrical with regard to
'.

therefore be of the form


(f>

e 4(r) cos

^ (r) cos

cos

0'.

The experimental law III shows,


are of the form - and -

as before, that

(r)

and

\jf

(r)

respectively,

where a and b are constants.

If the currents be all in closed circuits, this can be reduced to

one term involving -

For, for
circuit,

any closed

circuit in relation to

an element ds of another
ds
,
.

Tcos
I

cos 0'

ds

=
a

as

Tcos
I

as, as

above shown, Art. 486.

And

therefore the assumed energy


b

when
.,

applied to closed

circuits is reduced to

/ycose i ds i / /
.

ds

,
.

The

cos

existence of the term involving

cos tf

- in the expres-

sion for the energy is matter of indifference so far as closed circuits are concerned.

stants a

In any case we require only to know the ratio of the conand b. We may therefore put the energy in the form

adopted by Helmholtz,

T= A

I
\

j"* 2
6

^^r
-

= A* \ - cos + r
(r
*

~
dsds
)

^2

> idsi'ds'

r
idsi'ds',

Stefan, SitzungslericMe, Vienna 1869. Carl Neumann, Ueber die den Krdften Electrodynamischen zuzuschreibenden Elementary esetze, Leipzig, 1873. Helniholz 'Crelle's Journal,' vol. 72.
<

Ursprungs

Clausius,

Phil. Mag.,' series 5, Vol. I, p. 69.

Vol.

X,

p. 255.

216
where A
is

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

[499-

a constant employed by Helmholtz to denote the ratio

of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic unit of electricity, and K is an uni and i' being expressed in electrostatic units
;

determined constant.

Also

and

*'

include as well polarisation

currents as true conduction currents.


499.]
for the
leads, as

The

first term

involving

is

the same as the expression

energy determined by the method of Chap. XVIII, and

we have

seen,

to\A 2

(Fu -f Gv + Hw] dxdydz


field.

as the

whole electrokinetic energy of the

The second term


holtz' principles, to

involving-

d2 r
=-.

asas

can be shown, on Helm-

depend on the existence of free electricity in and on variation of its potential with the time, and therefore on the existence of unclosed currents, if free electricity in motion have the properties of a current.
the
field,

We may write
./

dr

, ,

dr

dr

dr

And

if r denote the distance of the element of volume dx'dy' dz', in which the component currents are w' i/, w' from the point #, y> z at which the component currents are u, v, w^ then, in forming the expression for the energy of the whole field, the
9

second term becomes

d</dr
S can be

dr

'

dr

dx dy dz dx'dy'dz'.

We
it,

shall

now assume

that a surface

described en-

closing the
or (lu

field, so distant that the flow of electricity

through

+ mv + nw),
8, is

where

I,

m, n are direction cosines of the

normal to

Then
distance

zero at every point. taking our stand at the point


is

a?,

^,

#,

from which the

denoted by

r,

let

us form the integral

throughout the space within

8.

500.]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.


it

217

Integrating by parts,
(lu'

becomes

+ mrf + nw') dS

of which the
500.] If

first

term

is

zero

by the condition concerning


dvf __ =
dz

S.

all

the currents are closed,

Tx +
at all points,

du'

dvf

dy

therefore also the integral (B) vanishes,

and therefore the second term also vanishes, and and the second term in

the expression for the energy of the field vanishes. But if there be unclosed currents, and if an electric current is equivalent to a transfer of electricity, then in Helmholtz' theory

dp d^ + ~dtf*lM~ ~dt'

duf

di/

dw'

where p is the volume density of free electricity in the element dxdy'dz', and the integral becomes

that

is,

-L /YTr V

^
8 and the
en-

if

the potential of free electricity. Again, applying Green's theorem to the surface

V be

closed space,

with the functions r and


I,

j-

we have

in the nota-

tion of Chap.

which the two surface integrals vanish if S be distant enough, because whatever free electricity exist in the system, its algebraic
of

sum being

zero,

dS must

be zero
a?,

if

taken over any

suffi-

ciently distant sphere described about

y, z as centre.

218

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.


have then

We

since

2 -78

2 =r

the energy of the


potential.

showing the dependence of the second term in the expression field on free electricity and on variation of
501.] Let us assume

for
its

or
at

Then we proceed

as follows.

We

have

,dr ^ + ^' +w
{

dr

dxdydzdx'dy'dz'

Integrating the last expression by parts throughout the space within 8, and neglecting the surface integral, it becomes

that

is,

dxdV d*>
is,

p being the volume density of free electricity, that

that

is

i /T/V V^

5oi.]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.


^

219

enclosed space,

Again, by applying Green's theorem to the surface S and the we have

And

again, neglecting the surface integrals,

we have

And

therefore

we
d

have, finalty,

Yr

dr

dr

dr

dxdydz dx'dy'dz*

And

the expression for the energy of the

field

becomes

2T =

A*

fhFu+Gv + Hw) dxdydz

Again,
.

A^

rrr/dvj.
(

&]]]
/ = (u V

A.* +*-) dxdydz

ii'

dsds'

d2 r - -^dsdi

d dx

+
-

d
v

dy
-=

dr dr d\/ ,dr + w-r)(u ^-, + v T7+*f-r/ \ dz dx dz'


,

dy

-j

--

dx

dy

j-* dz
field

The expression

for the

energy of the

becomes then

+ (H +

-^^

And for the components of electromotive force, so far as they depend on the movement of electricity, we have, by Lagrange's
equation,

220

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

[502.

-K dd*
dt
*"*
.

2
"*

dtdx'
cfa

dG I

XL

I-K dd^ ~
2
2

eft

dy
(H*.
;

dH
to which

I-K ~~~ d

may

be added the statical forces

502.] According to Ohm's law, we have for the diminution of the current by resistance in every element of volume,

1-K d d* dV -* u =d^ + A dF + A -T~dt^> di


.

and

for the

heat generated in the element per unit of time,

where

is

the resistance at the point where the component cur-

rents are ^, t>, w. If we write


I

.,

x7vl/

ET/__

Jji

/>'

1
/"f
I

tf

/7\I/

flty
'

Z/'

IT"

~2~~^"'
we may

2M*y'

<Z*

obtain the equations of motion in the form given by Helmholtz, viz. in any body presenting electrical resistance,

__dV
'

dF'
dt
'

dx

and since

1_ = _y2^_ _y2^/^.^ K d^ !:y2:r_


2
c?as

V ^'s

(1

-K] dxdt
'

R
fty A *(^+J*T:L\. R dt

in'

V*&~(l^*\~
r9

I
(

TTI

dydt u~ v

\dy

'

Helmholtz' equation in a conductor.

47T

/dV

dH'\

v^-o-^Sr-yd-t^-a-)-

'

503.]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

221

503.] According to this theory if

we put
dv

dF dG dH

rrr\ f du

=then we have

(see Art.

504)

= - K dV
since

^T

V *=
2

dV
2 -=at

According to this theory further the components of magnetic


force are
^

^__dG\ =
(

,*H dG,

A
.

dF
dG

dH.
-3)' dx J

( ^ dz

dF\

d*V

and

dy dy da
c?^

d/3

dz

/ = A['Tru-\

vu~ Y
;

-I 3

dxdt'

dy dx
da
,

dydt'

d(3

-T aa;
It

dy

^-=AU^w+ -=;- / dzdt


/",
G',

d*V.

).

wiU be observed that

ZT

as well as

G,

H are

potential functions. If a moving particle

or mass

of electricity in motion be

equivalent to a current, then according to Helmholtz' formula, unless K 1, two such currents or moving masses should have a

222
,.
,
.

AMPERE'S AND OTHEB THEOEIES.


,
.
1

[504.

potential involving the

term

cos

--

cos 0'
.

^T We

are not aware

that this

is supported by any experimental evidence. Helmholtz further proves that, if K be negative, the 504.] expression for T may under certain circumstances be negative.

To

this

end we

first

prove the following theorem

For any system

rrr dFdG

JIJ
For

dFdG

= rrdG dS f J
IJ

the surface integrals being taken over the above-mentioned disBut these surface integrals are of the order tant surface S. 3, and therefore vanish if S be distant enough. Therefore

Simikrly,

rrrdFdG. rrrdFdG, dxdydz JJJ to ITy =JJJ^^ ****** rrrdFdff. crrdFdH. dxdyd* dxdydz, =JJJ JJJ -^ -^

dt

&c.

dF
Again,
-=

dx

h -j

= &c. dG dH =
h -5

dV
-rr

dy

dz

For

since

III

dx'dy'dz,
,

&c.,

and

-7-7

&c.,

=-

ff^-u'dy'dz'

T/^i Staid*

- /Ti w' dx' dy'

of which the surface integrals are over the surface S, and therefore vanish if that be distant enough.

504.]
Therefore

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

223

dF

do

if

p be the volume density of free electricity


~ _dV

dt'

Again,

u=--L.V*F, 47T
.-.

= --?-V*G,
47T

w= _-L 477

/7T (Fu

is

taken over the bounding surface #' and vanishes for a


Therefore

suffi

ciently distant surface.

Similarly

rrr

Jff
fffodxdyd,

^) + &c.
=

We

have then

224
Also, as

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

[505.

we have

seen,

by the theorem above proved.


Multiplying
obtain
v + Hw)
(2)

by

and then subtracting from

(1),

we

dxdydz

And

therefore
^l
2

2T =

fff(F*+Gv+Hw) dxdydz

^ ^v

A^ rrr^v^ T7 jjj ( A") """ r

~
.

505.]

To

recapitulate

the results

of

this

investigation.

We

have

(1)

dF

dF

505.]

AMPERE'S AND OTHER THEORIES.

225

According to Maxwell's theory this assumption is untrue if n, v, w include the displacement currents. (2) On Helmholtz' assumption concerning the energy of ele1

mentary
2

currents,

T = A*(F*++Hm) dxdydz

certain circumstances this expression for be negative, as in Weber's theory it is. negative
if K

Under

T may become
The contro-

versy whether this is or is not physically possible is discussed in Maxwell's Chapter XXIII. It is possible perhaps to imagine

a system of moving electrified masses which shall make T in the above expression negative if K be negative. In any case where the electrostatic distributions are due to induction, as in the
cases treated in Chapters

XXI

and XXII, the term

be inappreciable compared with the magnetic energy of conducting circuits, and therefore cannot affect the sign of the
will

total energy.

The

difference

between the above treatment and Maxwell's

consists in the assumption

du dx
where
n,
?;,

dv

made by Helmholtz and Lorenz, that dw _ dp


dz
dt

dy

are the

components of the

total current.

Ac-

cording to Maxwell,

du :Jdx

+ :F-+
dy

dv

dw
-j-

dz

is

always zero with this meaning of


ttnt

u, v,

w.

dp
dx

+ dq + dr_
Ty

d ,df

dg

'dz-"^dt^^"d^

+ dh^ _ Tz)"

~ dp
dt

j,

q,

r being

components of the conduction current only.


o

VOL. n.

CHAPTEE

XXV.

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


506.] IN Maxwell's theory the electric current at any point in given direction consists of two parts, viz., the current of con7 /

duction jt?, and the time variation of electric displacement

~
dt

In the investigation of the induction of electric currents in conductors we have treated of cases in which the displacement currents have no appreciable influence on the conduction currents.

We

now come

to treat of cases in which these conditions

are reversed, the conduction currents

may

be non-existent, the

Maxwell displacement currents having the field to themselves. shows that in a medium absolutely non-conducting, but capable
of dielectric polarisation, electric disturbances may exist, and are propagated through the medium with velocity varying as

where

K is

the specific inductive capacity of the medium,

and

fj.

its

oscillations of dielectric displacement in such a

magnetic permeability, and that light consists in the medium with the
J. J.

corresponding magnetic oscillations. The subject has been treated by H. A. Lorenz, Professor

Thomson, and others.*

We

proceed to show, following in the

main the method elaborated by Lorenz, how some of the phenomena of light may be explained on this hypothesis.
* H. A. Lorenz, Ueber die Theorie der Reflexion und Refraction des Lichtes Schlomilch Zeitschrift XXII, XXIII. J. J. Thomson on Maxwell's Theory of Light, Phil. Mag. series 5, vol. ix. p. 284. Rowland, Phil. Mag., April 1881, June 1884. Glazebrook, Report on Optical Theories, British Association 1885, and works there cited. Hertz Wiedemann's Annalen, 1887-1889.

507.]

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


as the treatment of a simple case
is
I
,

227

Inasmuch

tional importance

we

shall

assume that

JJL

that

here of excepis, that no

magnetisable matter exists in the medium, so that the magnetic induction is identical with the magnetic force. We will also
assume,
firstly,

that there

electric current at

is no conduction. any point are then f g^


9

The components
h^ f,
y

of

the components of dielectric displacement. as having all the magnetic properties of an electric current, so that

We

g and h being then treat them

/= J i-n\d
"

-f-r
dz

J_ (da
lir^dz
1

_dy^
da,

dx)'

(A)

d(B

where

a, /3, y are the components of magnetic Also the equation of continuity becomes

force.

-T+/+-T =0, dx dy dz
whence
also

df

da

dh
(B)

-- + -^ 4dx dy dz

we

It is understood that /, g, h, K, and all the other functions shall have to make use of, are expressed in the electrounits.

magnetic system of

Light in an Isotropic Medium.


507.] In an isotropic medium at rest relatively to the source of light we shall have at every point

4-rA dt

dx
d\fr

,dG

(C)

where

\jf

is

the potential of free electricity.

228
From

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


these

[508.

we
dx

derive the general equations

dz 2
u/

dxdy
U
1

dxdz

<

vu

\ff

Lr\
z

t* IJT

tr

dt

dy

dt

dzz

dx 2

dydz

dydx*

It

may

leads in the case

be observed that Helmholtz's system, Art. 498, etc., now under consideration to equations of the
,

same form with F'


508.]

',

H'

of Art. 501 for F, G, H.

As we only
\l/

require

a particular solution, we

may

assume

0,

(I)

= r p cos E )
q, r its

where p
cosines,

is

the amplitude of displacement, p,


2 7T
,

direction-

and

&

ITT

,_

~r~ ( vt

(lx

-\-

my

-f-

nz j J

= 27T/ ^r
^
(

lx-{^

my + mz\
l
'i?

>

being the periodic time, A the wave length, and v the wave

velocity, so that

Also we have

v F=

=-

(II)

H =.
same phase

Av

r/jsin^

All points in any plane whose normal is at the same time. Any such

/,

m, n are in the
is called

plane

the

plane of the wave. Since

dx

dy

dz

dx
dG-

we have

dy

dz

dF
dx

d_H_
dz

dy

509.]

THE. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


(I)

229

and by equations

pi + qm + rn
or the dielectric displacement
is

= 0,

in the plane of the wave.

And

since

/= ppcoaE, &c.,
a

we have
qn)

=
K.

(rw

-pcosE, v
.

(3=~(pn-rl)-poosE, K v

(Ill)

y=~(ql-pm)And
that
therefore also
la
is

+ mfi + ny =

and

pa + q(3 + ry

= 0,

to say the magnetic force is in the plane of the wave,

and

also at right angles to the electromotive force, because the

electromotive force in an isotropic


dielectric displacement.

medium

coincides with the

The

electrostatic

energy per unit of volume

is

The

electrokinetic energy per unit of

volume

is

^(a* + /3< + /),


which, since pl +

qm + rn

0, is also

equal to

Hence the energy


509.] It
is

is

half electrostatic and half electrokinetic.

thus shewn

how

magnetic disturbance
isotropic

may be

a system of waves of electropropagated through a homogeneous

medium, with velocity

VK

Now, comparing

dif-

ferent

measure,

media, K, or more accurately Kp, in electromagnetic is found to be inversely proportional to the square of

the velocity of light, or


of light in a

with p

represents the velocity


is

medium whose

specific

inductive capacity

K.

230
Hence

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


it is

inferred that light consists of an electromagnetic

disturbance.

510.] It comes next in order to explain on this hypothesis the phenomena of reflexion and refraction, when light passes

from one isotropic medium into another, separated by a plane


from the former.
denote the amplitude of the vibration for the reflected, and refracted waves respectively tne incident, and in like manner any other function shall be distinguished
,

Let p

p lt p

by the
belongs.

suffix

or

accent according to the wave to

which

it

Let us take the plane of incidence for the plane of xz, and the plane of separation for that of yz. In that case,
Z

Then
or if the

= cos0, m = 0, E ~ ^~~~ C S
~Y

= sin0.

^~~~~ sin ^'

constant

origin be not arbitrary, and write

we must add an

arbitrary

and

for the refracted

wave

of the refracted light

In order that on the plane of separation x = the phase may not differ from that of the incident

we must nave

sin 6
v

sin 0'

sin0

the well-known law of refraction.

This is in no way dependent on the theory as to the nature of light vibrations. The problem then is, given the direction, 0, of the incident wave, p Q q Q r the direction of its dielectric displacement, and
,

/o

the amplitude, to determine the two unknown quantities p1 and p', the amplitudes of vibration in the reflected and refracted

waves respectively. For this we require two

relations.

One we can

obtain inde-

511.]

THE ELECTEOMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

231

that

pendently of the direction of displacement in the incident wave, r the other depends upon their values. is, of p Q <?
,

The energy per unit of volume

is

proportional to the square

of the amplitude of displacement and to -^.

The energy that


time towards

crosses unit area of the plane of separation in unit

the refracting

medium

is,

since

-=?

2
t?
,

for the incident

wave

2( 3

y cos0,

for the reflected for the refracted

wave wave

p^v^coaO,
/2
/D

u/8 cos0

/
.

We may

on the whole

assume that the energy flowing towards the plane is That is, there being equality of phase for the zero.

three waves on the plane of separation,


(p*
or,

p*)v*coa0

= p'V

cos0',

having regard to the law of refraction,


(p,*_

8m*0cof0ssf^8inWeoB0'

.....

(1)

This

is

one relation.

This also expresses the fact that the energy of a wave of the incident light is equal to the sum of the energies of the corresponding waves of the reflected and refracted light.

on the 511.] The form of the second relation will depend direction of dielectric displacement in the incident light.

We

will treat separately the two cases, Case I in which the dielectric displacement is perpendicular to the plane of incidence, or

and by symmetry

/ =
x

0,

f=
is

0,

&c.

and Case II in which


;

the dielectric displacement

in the plane of incidence

that

is,

/
Any
solutions.

= -p

sin0

cos.E',

gQ

= 0,

\=p

cos0 cosfi.

actual case

may

then be dealt with by combining the two

Case I. The electrical theory requires that the electromotive force in either direction parallel to the plane of separation, shall
be the same on either side of that plane. Now the electromotive force at right angles to the plane of incidence on the side of

232

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

[5

1 I.

the incident and reflected waves,


/

is
-A-

(ff

-\-ffi),

and on the

side

of the refracted

wave ~- whence we obtain An


__ ~

or

<7o

<7i

That

is,

neglecting

common
(p

factors,
2

+ Pl )sin
we

= p'sin

0'

.......

(2)

Combining
and from

this

with
(p

(1),

obtain

Pi)sinOco80

= /o'sinfl'cosfl', .....

(3)

(2)

and

(3)

^~ Po 8111(0'- 0) sin
,

sin

These results agree with those usually given


polarised in the plane of incidence.

for light optically

COROLLARY

+a

= (Po + Pi} = p'


.

Yy

sin e cos

>

a'

K.

7, sin0 v
i

cos-^.

And

therefore
o

+a

=a

'-

Similarly

it

can be shown that

and

/3

+ /3

= =

/3'.

is, the magnetic force does not change discontinuously at the plane of separation.

That

This

result,

treats as

which we have deduced from (1) and (2), Lorenz an independent relation, and uses it instead of (l).
be observed that the energy passing in unit time

It will

at

any point through unit area of any plane is proportional to the product of the magnetic and electromotive forces at the See Art. 401, point and to the sine of the angle between them.
note.

512.]

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

233

512.] Next, let the dielectric displacement be in the plane In that case of incidence.

gQ

= 0, / =

p sinOcosE,

=p

cos0 cosE,
as before,

with corresponding values for g^ &c.

Then we have,

For the second condition we take

/+/,=/',
theory the dielectric displacement perpendicular to the plane of separation is the same on either side This gives of that plane.
that
is,

by the

electrical

(Po

+ ft) sin0 = p/ sin0/


we
obtain

(2)

Combining

(l)

and

(2),

Whence
Pl

~~ PQ

sm0cos0-sin0/ cos0 / _ " sm0cos0 + sin0/ cos0/

Po

8in20-sin20/ _ "
sin 2

tan(0'Po

0)

+ sin 2 0'

These

results agree

with those usually given for light optically

From this polarised perpendicularly to the plane of incidence. and the results above obtained it is inferred that dielectric
displacement in the plane of incidence corresponds to optical polarisation perpendicular to that plane, and vice versa.

As

in the former case,

we can deduce from

(2)

and

(3) the

Or, following Lorenz's method, continuity of a, /3, and y. the continuity of these functions, we may deduce (1) assuming as a consequence.
If 7T
co

be the angle

made by the

direction of displacement

section of the plane of the wave and the plane of incidence, and if o) l5 &/ have corresponding values for

with the

common

the other two waves,

we

find,

combining the two


cos

cases,

tan a)!

= tanco

+
1

0'

COS0-07

tan a/

= tan

o)

cos

0-6'

234
513.]

THE ELEOTEOMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


The path of every
sin

[513.
is

incident and refracted ray

rever-

sible in direction, so

long as the relation


/~K'

gives real values for cos 6 and cos 0', so that if light is incident at angle 0' on the right-hand side of the plane of separation, it will be refracted at angle 6 on the left-hand side. If, in
this case, the amplitude of the polarisation in the incident ray

be m^, and that of the reflected and refracted rays respectively, we shall have
(1)

and m'

For

dielectric displacement perpendicular to the plane of


sin (0-0')
-

incidence,
ra,

=m

(2)

For

dielectric displacement in the plane of incidence,

sin

20'

sin 20

sin20'+sm20'

sin 0'

Comparing these values with those obtained


/

for the direct ray,

sin(0
2

-0)

sin

sin20
'

sin20

sin0

we

see that in both cases


wii

=P

p'

>'

(p<?

- w*i

2
)-

/
If
sin

>1

Q'

becomes imaginary, though sin 0'

v'

sin

remains

we have total reflexion. For these values of real. For application of the theory to the resulting phenomena see Lorenz's treatise above referred to.

515.]
514.J

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

235

We

have assumed the medium to be at


it

rest.

We may
VK
-=>

however conceive
with velocity
V,

to be

moving relatively to the source of light

very small compared with the velocity

the direction of wave motion.

medium

in the plane of the

Let the direction

The effect of a motion of the wave will not be considered. of wave motion be that of y, the direction of
#,

displacement that of

we

shall

then have by the

field

equations

Chap XXI,

dy

TT

dy

dt

dy

TT

dy

dt

Also in this case -rdz

0,

and nd

dy
whence
d*f -^ =
dy*
r K

df

fd^f

(-^ \dt*

d V- ddt'
rr

dydt

Assume /= a
'

cos

and

E *

where

t' is

a constant.

This gives

and
in

which the

-1-

sign must be taken, and


1

being very small

compared with

VK

>

vK

=. H

V -2

>

or the velocity of the


relative

light is increased to the source.*

by half the velocity of the medium

On

the Passage of a

Wave through a Partially Conducting Medium.

515.] If the conductivity be finite instead of zero as hitherto supposed, Maxwell's theory gives us
* See a paper

by Professor J. J. Thomson,

Phil.

Mag.' 1880.

236

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

[515

CP,

f=

-P,u

= p+f,

etc.
-,

'--"-

'=///>*<.

andtherefore

dx
dv

dy

dz

Also

du dx

dy

+ 3- = dz

dw

0,

and therefore

dF
dx

dQ
dy

-=- -f 3

dH =
-5-

0.

dz

From

these equations

we get

and

therefore

V / = 4* tf
2

eft

+^+ ^
2
2

c^cc

( \dx

+
dy

+>
dz'

(1)

Differentiating equation (l) with regard to #, responding equations in g and h with regard to
spectively,

and the

cor-

y and

z re-

and adding, we obtain

d /df da dh\ d /df da dh\ + dz / 47rC-(/- + /- + dz / + ^--(-^ + --) )== dt \dx d? \dx
dy

/ dy

0.

For a wave normal to


zero.

a?,

all

the functions
for the

-^<fy

>

-^ dz

-f-

etc. are

dy

And

therefore

we have

normal displacement /, in

such a wave

and therefore from


Therefore either

(1)

4 IT

C -jf+K
dt

dt

/=

0.

throughout, or else /varies as e~H the conducting medium be bounded by the plane of yz, light flowing from that plane, and if on that plane the functions be periodic, they must be periodic at all points within the

f=

Now

if

conducting medium.

In any such case then

must be zero

6.]

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


or,

237

throughout,

given Maxwell's formulae, there can be no normal

displacement. For the transversal displacements

we have

We may
where

assume as solution

'T is

the periodic time; whence

K
'

~~

*~

in which the positive sign

must be taken.

And

C2
if

=- be very

small,
1

C*l

at any given point all the functions of the time, but affected by the functions are periodic factor f-**vcx a stationary wave. see that if the wave be
9

We may

call a

wave in which

We

stationary, it can,

on Maxwell's theory, have no normal


consider the case of a

dis-

placement.
516.] Let us

now

wave of light passing

from an isotropic non-conducting medium into a partially conducting medium, separated from the former by the plane of Let the plane of incidence be that of xz and let us take yz.
9

the case of optical polarisation in the plane of incidence, or the dielectric displacement in direction y.
If the dielectric

be

/ocos-Z?,

two
is

parts,

displacement in the conducting medium magnetic force in that medium consists of one derived from the displacement current, and the

the

other from the conduction current.

The value

of its

^-component

then (using the same notation as before)

= (p ' ^

cos

E + ~p" sin E\ cos


&

tf.

238
517.]

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

We

shall

now

find, as

the consequence of our theory,

magnetic and electromotive forces be continuous, as we found them to be between two insulating media, there must be a difference of phase between the reflected, the refracted, and
that, if the

the incident wave at any point on the plane of separation. For let us assume
for the incident wave,

for the reflected wave, g


for the refracted wave,

= acosjE'; = a cosU + b smE g = a cosE-}-b sin


l

.27.

Then we
(1)

shall

have
7

by the continuity of electromotive force in ^, = (a.2 cosE + b z sin^ ) sin 2 0' ((a + a^cos^ + ^sin^sin^
force in (2) by the continuity of magnetic
z,

(aa cosEb
1

smE)sinOcos0 = (a

cosE + b 2 smE)8m6 f co86 /

+ (a
Equating
coefficients of cos

sin

2
b z cos E)

TG
r
sin 6' cos 6'.

J\.

E and

sin E,

we have

four equations

to determine the four

unknown

quantities c^ b l9 a 2 # 2 .

The
of (2),
bl

existence of the second term in the right-hand member which is introduced by the conduction, forbids us to make

which would reduce the three waves to the same phase on the plane of separation. We have in fact a difference
b2
0,

of phase between the incident

and

reflected

wave tan" 1

- and

between the incident and refracted wave tan" 1


518.]
as

a2

We have

preferred thus far to use real quantities as far

But the treatment of problems of this class is frequently much facilitated by the employment of the exAs for instance in the ponential instead of the circular function.
practicable.

case of
Reflexion from a metallic surface.

As

the

medium

conductor,

let us replace

treated of in the last article becomes a pure the circular function cos by the corre-

sponding exponential form. Let us then suppose light passing through a dielectric or perfectly insulating medium and incident

on a metallic

surface.

Let the surface of separation be the plane

8.]

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

239

of xz, and the plane of incidence that of yz. optically polarised in the plane of incidence.

Let the light be

Then

for the incident light

we have

a displacement

and

^=*
reflected light

For the

and

Within the metal we


a conduction current u,

shall

have in

lieu of the

displacement

where u

= p'

~E v~l
'

and

V = *(t- f, cos 0'sin 6'

sin

tf-f)-,

or

assuming the law

sin

^-

to hold in this case

,._..,,.

in

which

P and

6',

and therefore

/o'

and p13 are wholly or in part

imaginary. If now the conditions assumed in Arts. 510, 511 remain formally true with these symbolical values of the variables, we

have by the continuity of the electromotive force in a on the plane of separation y 0,


shall

47TO-

being resistance, and by the continuity of the magnetic force

in z

(PQPI)
whence

sin

cos

=
t 6

^
=

cot &'>

.....
.

3 a)

^l co
Pi

cot ^,
.

sin

^-^

usual to determine the intensity, p v of the vibration in the reflected light by taking the real part of this expression.
It
is

240

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

[519.

is

of the problem in the form now presented not peculiar to the electromagnetic theory of the nature of We therefore follow it no further. light.

The treatment

519.] Helmholtz supposes the dielectric to be capable of molecular polarisation, and investigates the laws of propagation of this polarisation, arriving at results analogous to those of

Maxwell.

In his view each molecule of the

dielectric in a field of elec-

tromotive force becomes polarised, or charged with equal and opposite amounts of electricity proportional to the electromotive
force,

these polarisations being of the

same nature

as

those

of small conductors, so that representing the amount per unit area on a plane at any point normal to the resultant force by a-, of opposite sign to Maxwell's displacement. If/, g, k be the components of polarisation at any point, the electrical density of polarisation is
this
<r

is

(df_

dg_

,^\.
dz
/

\dx

dy

Helmholtz supposes the variations of these polarisations to possess the electromagnetic properties of ordinary currents, as

we

currents.

have supposed with regard to Maxwell's In this theory therefore if the only

displacement
electricity

in

the dielectric be that arising

from polarisation, and there be

no conduction, we have

where
force,

is

the constant ratio of polarisation to electromotive

and where

as given in Chap.

XXIV.

In

this theory

however J, or

dF
ax

dG dH +-=-+ -7-, is
.

ay

dz

not zero, but, as above

shown,

is

equal to

k-^-

52O.]

THE ELECTEOMAGNETIC THEOEY OF LIGHT.

241

Hence we get

or representing -^-

df

+
~~

da
-f

dh

by j ,

dJ_
di~

Again,

whence there would appear to be a wave of normal disturbance


with velocity

*V
If however the

/I + 47T6

"4^"'

and a wave of transversal disturbance with velocity


1

A \/47re medium be absolutely non-conducting we


\j/

must necessarily have


whence
It
is

independent

ofor-y- + y^ + -3-=0;
is

it

would appear that the normal disturbance


therefore
to

constant.

difficult

interpret

Helmholtz's

theory of

propagation of electric polarisation through the dielectric unless we assume a passage of electricity independent of conduction, that
is

to say a convective passage not

obeying Ohm's law.

In
is

be independent of the time, J becomes zero, and it \lf hard to distinguish between Helmholtz's theory and that
fact if

of Maxwell.
Anisotropic Media.

520.]

We now

any such medium we have generally three R VOL. II.

In proceed to the case of anisotropic media. different values of K,

242

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

\_$2O.

corresponding to three mutually perpendicular directions in space, assume the medium to be homofixed in the medium.

We

geneous, and these directions, with the corresponding values of K, the same at all points.

Taking these directions for axes of #, y, and z, we and z the corresponding values of K. by x y

will denote

K K
,

We

shall

1. assume, as before, that /u Our equations (C) then become

"

dF
lit

<^

_
dt

dy
dz

K
As
tinuity requires that

dt

in the case of an isotropic

medium, the condition of con-

df

d9

dh

=Q

and therefore
dx

(B)

dy

dz

From

the equations (C') combined with


.

==

dy_<W
dv
dz
,

tc

and

-= dH dG
dy
dz

etc.,

we

obtain the general equations


"v.

-,

.o

~Z~.

"

dxdy
v v dt*

dxdz

dt

dy

dxdy d ff
J

(D'j

dydz

We may

assume as a solution

^=

0,

(la)

= rpcosE;

>

521.]
where
i

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

243

_2'jr E (vt
/

/T

(lx

+ my + nz))
2X 2A

xx

/ = 27r (t v
JL

l>x -\'

fny -\- nz\


=

-V
'

F= -

(Ila)

H=
As
before,
A.

rpsinE.

denotes the wave length, and v here denotes the


in direction
I,

velocity of a

wave

m,

n.

As we

shall see, v is

generally different for different directions.


521.]

The

conditions (A) involve, as in the case of an isotropic


pl

medium,

+ Qm + rn =

or the dielectric displacement is in the plane of the wave. And substituting in (D') the values assumed above for F, G,

H,

we have
v 2p

f--fc^-i &
ft-*.

^v
r

"K

;...(!)

thatis

remembering that

and multiplying these equations in order by pl + qm + rn = 0,

jt?,

and

r,

and

we have

p*
x

q*

r1

Ky

(E)
g

And
is

therefore v, the velocity of

wave motion

in direction

I,

m, n,
q,

inversely proportional to the radius vector p in direction J9,

to the ellipsoid

R 2

244
The
tude of

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEOEY OF LIGHT.


ellipsoid is
its axes,

[522.

then determinate in the direction and magniall

and the same at

points in the

medium.

We
we

homogeneous

shall call this ellipsoid the dielectric ellipsoid.

522.] If

seek from equations (2) to determine the ratios


to eliminate v 2

p:q:r,we have
As the
result

and

(~ + ^ + K ' ^) ^K x K
y
z

we obtain the determinantal equation


JL
p,
I,

3q,

_L
r

m,

from which, combined with


pi + qm + rn

= 0,

the ratios
T

and
r

can be determined.

Again, the section made by the plane Ix + my + nz = 0,

with the

dielectric

ellipsoid is

an

ellipse,

which we
or

will call

the ellipse of its axes,

LMN:

and

if

we seek

to determine the direction

we make aP-+y z + z 2 maximum


a2
i

minimum

con-

sistently with
2

'lr~

~^

Ay.

Ay

i/ y.

~^

A.J
-j-

W
= 0.

2
i
'

and

Ix

+ my

nz

This gives the same determinant as before. Hence we see that for given direction I, m, n of the wave motion, the direction of dielectric displacement p, q, r must be one or other axis of the
ellipse

LMN>

and

v,

to that axis.

A wave
is

the wave velocity, is inversely proportional may move in the given direction /, m, n

velocities according as the direction of that of one or the other axis of the ellipse LMN. displacement If, however, all points in the plane perpendicular to /, M, n be given in the same phase of displacement at the same instant,

with either of two

and that displacement in any other direction in the plane than either of the two axes of the ellipse LMN, the displacement We must resolve it cannot be propagated as a single wave.
.

524.]
into

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEOEY OF LIGHT.

245

two components parallel to the two axes of the ellipse Each component of displacement is then propagated as a separate wave with velocity inversely proportional to the axis of the ellipse to which it is parallel.

LMN.

LMN

Of
523.]

the Magnetic Force.

The components of the magnetic

force are

dH a= u,i
dy

dQ
u-cr

dz

^TT -i/ = 4?r p cos & V m


/

K)

nq

\
) 3

(Ilia)

And

therefore

la+

m(3

+ ny =

0,

or the magnetic force is perpendicular to the wave direction, and, as will be seen in the next Article, it is also perpendicular to the

displacement and the electromotive force.

Of
524.]

the 'Electromotive Force.

The

direction-cosines
>

of the

electromotive

force

are

-proportional to
So

-~
,

also are the direction-cosines of the perpendicular


dielectric ellipsoid
r.

from

on the tangent plane to the

through the

extremity of the radius vector p, q, displacement be in the radius vector


the electromotive force
is

If therefore the dielectric


dielectric ellipsoid,

OP of the

in the perpendicular from

on the

tangent plane at P.

The vanishing of the determinant Art.


three
vectors
-^-

522, shows that the


are

whose
-^>

direction

cosines

proportional
is,

to

Jr Kx

>

and

&y

&z

jo,

q and

r, I,

m and n

that

the electro-

motive

force,

the dielectric displacement, and the direction of


are in one plane.

wave motion,
are
/?p,

The components

of displacement
,

qp, rp.

Those of electromotive force are p j^ p -^-, p

246

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OP LIGHT.

[525.

Hence the component of electromotive


of the displacement
is

force in the direction

2 And since OP, OQ, and the direction of wave is pv motion are coplanar, that is the resolved part of the electromotive force in the plane of the wave. But the electromotive

that

force has a
2 pv tan

POQ,

component normal to the plane of the wave namely that is pv 2 tan e, suppose.
the plane of the displacement, the electromotive

525.]
force

Now let

and the wave motion be that of the figure. Let OP be the dielectric displacement, and therefore an axis of the ellipse

LMN

which is perpendicular to the figure. Let OQ be the perpendicular on the


tangent plane through
ellipsoid.

to the dielectric
I,

Let

OS

be the normal

m, n

If we make OS= to the ellipse we find from (E) that the locus of 8 is

LMN.

OP,

thatis -

where
526.] Let us
version.

now

Let

invert the system with unit radius of inthen become P', and Q, Q'. Then OF=v.

And
At

let

us take a point v in the same time let

OS

such that

Ov= OP'= v.

Then

(1),

the equation to the locus of

v, is

y* _!L

z*
2

0.

We

will call this the ^-surface.


it

It is such that the radius

vector to

at

any point

is

the wave velocity in the direction

of that radius vector.

527.]
(2)

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


The equation
to the locus of

247

Q'

is

the

new

ellipsoid

(3)

The

locus of

P'

is

the locus of the foot

of the

per-

pendicular from the centre on the tangent plane to this


ellipsoid.

new

(4) If a plane perpendicular to that of the figure

be drawn
is

through
ellipse

OQ, its intersection with the new of which OQ' is an axis.

ellipsoid

an

(5) Therefore if in

and make

the plane of the figure we draw OF=OQ', the equation to the locus of

07 A.
V

OQ',
is,

as

above shown,
,

V 2 -C2

"

We
is

will call this the F-surface.

(6) Since a plane

through P'Q' perpendicular to the figure

a tangent plane to the

new

ellipsoid or locus of Q', a plane

through Vv
the

perpendicular to the figure is a tangent plane to V- surface or locus of V. The v- surface is therefore the

locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent plane to the F-surface. The reader may verify analytically that the surface whose equation is

with

v2

is the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent plane to the surface whose equation is

V 2 -A 2
with
527.]

The ^surface above determined

is

known

in physical

and from the preceding reasoning it follows that the well-known application of its properties and those of the ^-surface to the determination of wave and ray
optics as the wave surface,
velocity,

and the magnitude and direction of ethereal vibration


dielectric.

holds, mutatis mutandis, in the case of the propagation of dis-

placements in the

248

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

[528.

OF, the radius vector to the which a disturbance originating V. Let all points in a plane at right angles to Ov be in the same phase at through the same instant, that is, assume the wave front to be perpendicular to Ov. Then the plane Vv is also a wave front,
It follows, for instance, that
F-surface, is the velocity with is propagated in direction at

and the line OF is the line of quickest passage of the disturbance from one wave front to another.
528.]

We can

find

by a known construction the direction of the refracted wave when light passes from an isotropic into an anisotropic medium separated by a plane from the
former or rather the path of each of the two refracted waves since the

two

surfaces

which we have

called

the fHBnr&ce and the F-surface respectively can be formed from either axis of the ellipse and each

LMN,

has therefore two sheets.

Let

PA

AB be the plane of separation, the direction of the incident light

in the isotropic

medium. Let the plane of incidence be that

of the figure.

Then
Fig. 50.

the

angle

of

incidence,

PAB
the position of
in direction

-, being
shall

known, we know
be the
first

in

AB such
is

that

point

same phase with A. About A as centre describe the F-surface. Through B suppose a line drawn perpendicular to the plane of the figure, and through
which
in the

AB

this line a

tangent plane to the F-surface touching it in V. on this tangent plane. Let Ov be the perpendicular from
is

Then Ov

V the
is

direction in which the disturbance

the direction of wave motion of the refracted ray, is propagated, that

the direction of the ray.


so.

Ov

is

in the plane of the figure,

not generally

530.]

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


the 7^-surface has

249

As
light.

two

sheets, there

are

directions of

Ov and

OF for

given direction

PA

generally two of the incident

then that, given the angle of incidence 0, there are two determinate directions of wave motion in the crystalline
see

We

medium, and therefore two determinate angles of 0\ and 0'2 one for each of the two refracted waves.
,

refraction,

And

each

obeys the law of refraction -7

>

thus preserving contin-

uity of phase. 529.] The direction of wave motion for either refracted ray being now determined, the direction of its dielectric displacement is also

determined by Art. 522, and

is

independent of the polarisa-

tion of the incident light. But although the direction of displacement in either refracted ray is independent of the polarisation of the incident light, the
is not. And, as we shall see, it is possible by suitably choosing the plane of polarisation of the incident light to reduce to zero the amplitude for either refracted ray, so that only one of the two refracted rays will exist. Suppose <o to be the

amplitude

angle made by the plane of polarisation of the incident light with the normal to the plane of incidence. Then for a certain value of w, suppose o> a one of the two refracted waves disappears,
,

and and

the other disappears. Then any given displacement in the incident light may be resolved in directions denoted by o> a
for
<o b
<o

one, that in

Let

coj

o> a gives rise exclusively to exclusively to the other, refracted ray. be the angle made by the dielectric displacement of the oo

and the component in


b

reflected light

same

with the normal to the plane of incidence, a/ the wave, o> being so chosen that there shall be only one. Also let p p 15 // denote the amplitudes of displacement for the three waves respectively. Then p 0, 15
for the single refracted
,

6'

and

The

are given. And we have to find oo, G> I} p 19 and //. value of o> so found is the value <o a which causes the other
&>'
,

refracted ray to disappear.

530.]
tions.

To determine these four One is the equation of the

quantities we require four equaflow of energy analogous to that

250

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.


The flow
is,

[530.

of Art. 510.

of

energy towards the plane of separation


2

on the incident side


#/2 p' 2

as in that article, (p

~Pi

^ 3 cos &

The energy per unit of volume in the anisotropic medium is by Art. 521, where //is the amplitude of dielectric disThe direction and velocity with which it flows placement. are represented by OF, and the projection of OF on the normal
,

to the plane of separation


vf cos &'

is

+v

sin 0' sin a/ tan e,

since e
side

= POV
/
2

VOv.
(v' cos0'
3

Therefore the flow of energy on this


is

normal to the plane of separation

+ </

sin0'sina/tane)

and therefore

for

the case in which only one refracted ray exists

our equation becomes 2 2 3 s in 0cos0 (p 1 )

r) /

_ p'2| gin30/ cos 0/ + Sm

0'sina/tane}.

(1)

The electromagnetic theory provides us with


equations, namely:

three

more

the continuity of electromotive force perpendicular to the of incidence plane

By

(Pocoscoo

+ ftcosaj^sm2 ^

= /cos a/ sin

0'.

...
3

(2)

the continuity of electromotive force in the section of the planes of incidence and separation,

By

common

(p sin co

ft sin o^) sin

cos

= p' sin a/ sin

0' cos 6'

+ / sin

6' tan. e

(3)

the continuity of dielectric displacement perpendicular to the plane of separation,

By

(Posincoo

+ ftsinco^sintf = /sine/ sin 0'.


obtain
cos
3

...
4
/

(4)

From
2
(/o

(3)

and
2

(4)
co
x)

we
sin

sin

co

p* sin

=/
and subtracting
2

sin a/sin 0'cos0

+/
/

sin

smo/tane

this
2

from

(1),
3

(p

cos

co

pt
(2),

cos 2 cousin

cos

/2
/)

cos

o)

sin

cos0 /3 ;

and dividing by
(p coso)

ft cos

cousin

cos

= /cos a/ sin 6' cos

0'.

(5)

And we have now


which to determine

four linear equations (2), (3), (4),


o>

and

(5)

from

and o^

p^

and p.

531.]

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEOEY OF LIGHT.


(5),

251

531.] Eliminating- p 1 cosa> 1 from (2) and


2 p Q cos
co

we

obtain
sin
7

sin

cos

= p' cos = p' cos

co

+ sin co' sin 0' sin (0' + 0).


(sin 0' cos
(4),

cos 6K),

Eliminating p 1 sinco 1 from (3) and

we

obtain

2p

sinco sin

0cos0
2

= p' sin a/ (sin


and therefore
tan
co

cos 0'

sin 0' sin

cos 0)

+ / sin
7

0' tan e

= tan

sin

cos 0'
r

co

+ sin -&; sm(0 +


75
/

cos
1

sin

2
7

tan

) 2
7

cosco sin0

, 7

sin

tan

c
7

tanco cos0

cos o/ sin

This reduces to the formula of Art. 512


because in this case
e

if

the

medium be we

isotropic,

0.

Again, eliminating p cosco from


2 PJ cos
co x

(2)

and
7

(5),

obtain
sin

sin

cos

= p' cos = p' cos

co
7

sin 0' (sin 6' cos sin


7

cos

7
),

co

sin (0
(4),

- 0).

And

eliminating psinco from (3) and


coj

2 PJ sin

sin

cos
7

=p
and therefore

sin

co

sin 6' {sin

cos

sin

cos

p sin

tan

sin

cos

sin

cos

sin

tan

- tan 0/^(0 + 60+ cos


'

'

co

sin (0

which agrees with Art. 512 if e = Finally, we obtain from (2) and

0. (5),

sin (0

- 0)

these are the amplitudes of displacement perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and we see that they are connected

Now

by the same

relation, as

when both media

are isotropic.
is

It will be observed that the flow of energy


to the magnetic

at right angles

and to the electromotive

force as in Professor

Poynting's theory, Art. 401.

252

THE ELECTEOMAGNETIC THEOEY OF LIGHT.

[532.

532.] It appears therefore that certain phenomena of light can The theory explained on the electromagnetic hypothesis. however in the form hitherto given fails to explain certain other

be

phenomena, e. g. the rotation of the plane of polarisation, under the influence of magnetic force. This investigation shews that on the usual hypothesis concerning the
force

nature of dielectric displacement the magnetic normal to the plane of the wave due to any system of
is zero.

periodic electromagnetic disturbances

the system gives rise to no magnetic force in the normal to the wave, we should expect that any magnetic force in that direction due to external causes would have no influence on the

As

system.
found, on the contrary, that in certain media a magnetic the direction of wave motion causes the plane of polarisation to rotate from left to right, as seen by an observer
It
is

force

in

looking in the direction of wave motion. plane of polarisation to vary continuously,

If

we suppose the
still

we

get on our

hypothesis no magnetic force normal to the wave, and therefore cannot conclude that the normal force would cause the plane to
rotate.

Maxwell gives an explanation of this phenomenon (Magnetic Action on Light, Chap. XXI) by resorting to a more general conception of dielectric displacement ; instead of linear displace-

ment he assumes two circular motions in opposite directions. 533.] Professor Kowland has also given an explanation of the
phenomenon (Phil. Mag., April 1881) which is intimately connected with the electromagnetic theory of light. It was first observed by E. H. Hall of Baltimore * that an electric current in

the plane, if of magnetic force. Professor Kowland assumes that the displacement currents in dielectric space have the same property. And
this he interprets as

a plane conductor under a magnetic force normal to free to choose its course, is deflected across the lines

an

electromotive force

whose components are

where

is

a constant expressing the intensity of the force.


* Phil.

Mag. April

1880.

533-]

E ELECTROMAGNETIC THEOEY OP LIGHT.

253

Suppose then a wave of plane polarised light advancing- in direction y, with a constant magnetic force /3 in that direction due
to
\lr

external

causes.

Then g

0, as

in preceding cases,

and G = 0. And making we have for the total electromotive


0,

force the

components

Also

/=
\d*F d?

whence we obtain

d
dt

that

is,

Kp ^ -^- + :pl

"L^L I __

n_
d *H

o,

d d*F)

=Q

A solution

of these equations

is

F = r cos
27

A A

(vt

y) cos mt,

= r cos 27T m
r-=z

?/)

sin

TW^,

where

m=
1

/xA
/4

2 /3 2

and giving a rotation of the plane of polarisation equal to


of distance traversed

per unit

by the wave. The reasoning seems open to objection


is

thus.

The new

electro-

motive force

assumed to be proportional to the current.


electricity e to
it

If

we

assume positive
velocity
v,

the force on
if

be moving in the current with will be proportional to ev. By the

same reasoning,

negative electricity be moving in the opposite

254

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY OF LIGHT.

[534-

direction with the

same absolute velocity, the force on it will be is ev. The new force Xwill thus act in the ( ( e) v), same way on positive and on negative electricity, and it there-

that

77-

fore cannot be true that

f=

4?r

J7

X. any more than

f=

X.

4?r

According then to the usual conception of an electric current, as consisting of equal quantities of positive and negative electricity

moving with

equal velocities in opposite directions, there

can be no true electromotive force of the kind assumed by Rowland, though there may be deflexion of the current across
the lines of magnetic force. But if we suppose positive and negative electricity to be involved in the current asymmetrically,
there

may

and

his explanation of the

be a true electromotive force such as Rowland assumes, phenomena may be the true one.

H. Hertz mentioned in Arts. 482, 483 the physical

534.] Until the recently published experimental researches of basis of the

electromagnetic theory of light developed in this Chapter was limited to the observed approximate agreement between the

determined values of the velocity of light and the magnitude


in electromagnetic measurement.

These researches of H. Hertz, confirmed and developed by Dr. Oliver Lodge, Professor Fitzgerald and other investigators, must be regarded as supplying weighty and independent evidence of the truth of the theory.

INDEX.
The references are
Ampere's
theory
of
to articles except

where Chapters are mentioned.

electrodynamic

action, 490-495.

Anisotropic medium, 520-531.


Capacity, electrostatic, 61. Cavendish experiment, theory of the, 97, 98. Centrobaric bodies, 60, 122.
Clausius' theory of electrolysis, 239.

current sheet, 449, 453, 469. Ellipsoidal mass, magnetic induction in, 318. Energy of electrostatic system, Chap. X. of electromagnetic field, 399Ellipsoidal

403, 411,412. Energy, transfer of (Poynting's theory), 399-403.

Conductors, electric, 71. Conductors, systems of, 176-180, 212,


215, 251. Conjugate functions, Chap. VIII. Contact, electromotive force of, 219221, 226. Crystalline medium, 520-531. Current, electric, 201-210. Current function, sheets, and shells, 409. Current, thermoelectric, 242-250. Current, Voltaic, 226-241.
Daniell's cell, 232.

Faraday's laws of induction, 340-341. Felici's experiment, 383. Fluids, theory of two, 80.
Force, lines, tubes, and flux
of,

99.
I,

Green's and allied theorems, Chap.

and

art. 275.

Heat generated by
218.

electric

current,

Heat, specific of electricity, 243. Helmholtz' theory of dielectric, 498-

55>

5!9-

Diamagnetism and paramagnetism, 315,


note.

Helmholtz and Thomson on laws of


induction, 340-348.

Chaps. XI, XIV. Dimensions, Chap. XX. Directrix of electrodynamic action,


Dielectric, 71.

493132.

Disc circular, electrification


Displacement, Displacement
electric,

Images, electric, 110-117Induction of electric currents, 342348, Chaps. XXII and XXIII. Infinite conducting plane, induction
in, 448, 455. Inverse square, law
of,

of,

131,

Chap. XIV.
neg-

97, 279.
of,

currents, to be lected, when, 405 and note.

Inversion, theory Chap. VII, 525.

and application

Electrification,

description

of

pheno-

mena, Chap. IV.


Electrolysis, Chap. XIII. Electromagnetic action, Chap.

Laplace's equation, 47. Lenz's law, 346, 386. Light, electromagnetic theory

of,

XXV.

Chap.

XVIII,
Magnetic action on light, 532, 533. Magnetic circuit and resistance, 339. Magnetic induction, Chap. XVII. Magnetic screen, 416. Magnetism, general theory, Chap. XVT.
Poisson's theory of induced.

39'. 393-

Electromotive force, 204.


of induction, 340, 388-

39 1

Electrostatic
cases,

equilibrium,

particular

Chap. VI. Ellipsoid, the dielectric, 521.

Chap. XVII.

256

INDEX.
Rotation of plane of polarisation, 532.
Self-induction, co-efficient of, 353, 378. Self-inductive systems of currents, 426,

Magnetism, other theories of, 321. Maxwell's dynamical method, 383387-

Measurement, systems

of,

Chap.

XX.

Ohm, law

of,

204.

Orsted, law of, 323-324. Oscillating statical distribution, theory of, 482, 483.
Peltier's observations, 224, 226. Permeability, magnetic, 315, 3 1 6, 35736o, 397. 398. Poisson's equation, 47. theory of induced magnetism,

433Solid angle, a definition of, 270. Solid conductors, induced currents in,

472-477.
Specific inductive capacity, Chap. XT. Spherical current sheets, Chap. XXIII. Spherical harmonics, Chap. II.

Stokes' theorem, 271-274. Stress in dielectrics, 254.

Thermodynamic

cycle, 349.

Chap. XVII.
Polarisation
of dielectric, 176, 182,

Chap. XIV.
Polarisation of light, 511. Positive and negative, conventions concerning, Chap. XV. Potential, Chap. III. Potential, magnetic, 285-288, 315, 316,

Thermoelectric currents, 242-251. Two dimensions, electric systems in, Chap. VIII.

Units of measurement, Chap.

XX.

357-360. Potential of magnetisation, 303. Poynting's theorem, 401.


Reflection and refraction of light, 510513, 528, 5. SO. Resistance, 204. particular cases of, 208, 209. Rotation of conductor in magnetic field, 355, 434, 435, and cases in Chap.

Vector potential of currents, 335-337. of magnetic induction, ,, 311-314. Velocity of light, 506-509, 405.
Velocity of propagation in dielectric,
509, 514, 515. Voltaic currents, Chap. XIII. Volta's contact theory, 219-221, 226.

Wave

surface, the, 527.

Weber's hypothesis, 496, 497. Wheatstone's bridge, 214.

XXIII.

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