# Applied Mechatronics – MTS 371

Week 3 – Electric Drives

2

M. Usman Rafique

Air University, Spring 2012

Course Outline
Week 1 2 3 4 5, 6 7, 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Topic Introduction Introduction to Engineering Design Electric Drives Actuators Motors and Motor Control Sensing and Sensors Mid-Term Exam Signal Conditioning and Op-Amps [Students’ Week] Signal Conditioning and Op-Amps ADC and DAC Control of Mechatronic Systems Introduction to Mobile Robots Localization and Navigation Case Study

3

M. Usman Rafique

Air University, Spring 2012

Usman Rafique Air University.Organization  Introduction  Electric Motor Drives and their components Power Converters Drive circuits for DC Motors     Phase Controlled Chopper Controlled 4 M. Spring 2012 .

Spring 2012 .Introduction  Can a motor be driven like this? Computer / Embedded System Motor 5 M. Usman Rafique Air University.

Usman Rafique Air University. Why? Computer / Embedded System Motor 6 M. Spring 2012 .Introduction  Can a motor be driven like this? No.

Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 . Because (most of) motors require more power than the maximum power that can be provided by the computer.Introduction  Can a motor be driven like this? No. Even voltage levels may be different Computer / Embedded System Motor 7 M.

Spring 2012 . How to solve this problem? Requirement: We want the motor to be controlled by the computer Computer / Embedded System Motor 8 M.Introduction  Can a motor be driven like this? No. Usman Rafique Air University.

Introduction  How to control a motor by a computer? Drive Circuit or Motor Driver or Power Converter Supply (High Power) Computer / Embedded System 9 Drive Circuit Motor M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Introduction  Drive Circuit / Electric Motor Driver  Intermediate module which   Provides the power required by motor Is controlled by the computer 10 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Controller Drive circuit or Power Converter Electric Machine Load 11 M. Usman Rafique Air University. 4. Spring 2012 .Electric Motor Drives  A typical Electric Motor drive consists of 1. 2. 3.

Usman Rafique Air University. R. Spring 2012 .Electric Motor Drives Ref: Electric Motor Drives. Krishnan [2] 12 M.

Usman Rafique Air University. Krishnan [2] 13 M. Spring 2012 .Controller Ref: Electric Motor Drives. R.

Usman Rafique Air University. Speed and Torque Control systems are designed with three types of feedback loops     Position Velocity Current Ref: Motor Drive. Ali Keyhani [1] 14 M.Control of Electric Machines  Control Systems are used for fast response and precise control of Acceleration. Spring 2012 .

Control of Electric Machines Ref: Motor Drive. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University. Ali Keyhani [1] 15 M.

4. 2. Spring 2012 . Inverters Cycloconverters Phase Controlled Drive Chopper Controlled Drive 16 M. Usman Rafique Air University. 3.Power Converters  Types of Power Converters 1.

Usman Rafique Air University.Power Converters 1. Spring 2012 . Inverters 17 M.

Inverters Input power is provided by a DC supply Output is single phase or 3 phase variable voltage.Power Converters 1. Ali Keyhani [1] 18 M. Usman Rafique Air University. variable frequency Ref: Motor Drive. Spring 2012 .

Cycloconverters 19 M.Power Converters 2. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Cycloconverters Input is fixed frequency AC Output is single phase or 3 phase variable voltage and variable frequency Ref: Motor Drive. Usman Rafique Air University. Ali Keyhani [1] 20 M.Power Converters 2. Spring 2012 .

Power Converters 3. Phase Controlled Drive 21 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Output is controlled DC Ref: Motor Drive.Power Converters 3. Usman Rafique Air University. Ali Keyhani [1] 22 M. Spring 2012 . Phase Controlled Drive Input is AC (single or three phase).

Power Converters 4. Chopper Controlled Drive 23 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Spring 2012 . Output is controlled DC. Chopper DC Supply Motor 24 M. Chopper Controlled Drive Input is DC supply.Power Converters 4. Usman Rafique Air University.

Spring 2012 .Drive Circuits for DC Motor  Which drive is suitable if we have:   DC Motor Controlled by a computer 25 M. Usman Rafique Air University.

Spring 2012 26 . Usman Rafique Air University.Drive Circuits for DC Motor  Which drive is suitable if we have:   DC Motor Controlled by a computer   Phase Controlled Drive Chopper Controlled Drive    That is what we will focus on in this week Concept explained in lecture Electronic design parameters will be explained in lab of this week M.

Control of DC Motor Direction of operation of a DC Motor  DC Motors operate in both directions   Clockwise Counter Clockwise  Direction can be changed by reversing the voltage polarity across motor terminals 27 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.Control of DC Motor Speed and Torque of a DC Motor  Speed of a DC motor depends on voltage applied across its terminals  Current of a DC motor depends on the torque provided by the motor (load) 28 M.

Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .Control of DC Motor  Four Quadrant Operation of DC Motor 29 M.

Control of DC Motor  Four Quadrant Operation of DC Motor Torque (I) + – + Speed (V) – 30 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Usman Rafique Air University.Control of DC Motor  Four Quadrant Operation of DC Motor Torque (I) + Reverse Regeneration – Forward Motoring + Speed (V) Reverse Motoring – 31 Forward Regeneration M. Spring 2012 .

Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive Input is AC (single phase or three phase) Output is controlled DC Ref: Motor Drive. Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 . Ali Keyhani [1] 32 M.

Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive How can we design a Phase controlled DC Motor drive?  Prize for completely correct answer 33 M.

Usman Rafique Air University.Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive How can we design a Phase controlled DC Motor drive?  Lets begin from basic conversion of AC to DC The rectifier circuit  34 M. Spring 2012 .

Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive How can we design a Phase controlled DC Motor drive?  The rectifier circuit 35 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Usman Rafique Air University.Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive How can we design a Phase controlled DC Motor drive?  The rectifier circuit Problem: How to CONTROL the output? 36 M. Spring 2012 .

Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive How can we design a Phase controlled DC Motor drive?  The Controlled Rectifier circuit Problem: How to CONTROL the output? Solution: Replace diodes by Thyristors 37 .

Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 38 .Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive Thyristor  Also called Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Four element device (PNPN) Three terminals      Anode (A) Cathode (K) Gate (G) M.

Spring 2012 .Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive Operation of Thyristor  Conduction starts when:   Anode (A) is at higher potential than Cathode (K) .Forward Bias (AND) There is a current signal at Gate (G)  Conduction stops when it gets in reverse bias  Cathode (K) is at higher potential than Anode (A) 39 M. Usman Rafique Air University.

Phase Controlled DC Motor Drive  The Controlled Rectifier circuit Control achieved by control signals on Gates of Thyristors 40 .

Usman Rafique Air University.Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Input is fixed DC supply Output is controlled DC How can we design a Chopper controlled DC Motor drive? Chopper DC Supply Motor 41 M. Spring 2012 .

Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive What are the options for Choppers (or switches) ? 42 M.

Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive What are the options for Choppers (or switches) ? Electric Switches:  Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)  Field Effect Transistors (FET)  Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)  Thyristor or Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)  Gate Turn-Off Thyristor (GTO) 43 M.

Spring 2012 . GTOs and SCRs are used  44 M. Usman Rafique Air University. IGBTs.Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive  MOSFETs and BJTs are used up to 50 kW Beyond that.

Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Simplest Chopper: A drive circuit which can control a DC motor in one direction only How can such a circuit be designed? 45 M.

Spring 2012 .Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Simplest Chopper: A drive circuit which can control a DC motor in one direction only How can such a circuit be designed? 46 M. Usman Rafique Air University.

Usman Rafique Air University.Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Simplest Chopper: A drive circuit which can control a DC motor in one direction only 47 M. Spring 2012 .

Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions 48 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions 49 M.

Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions How can we achieve forward motoring (1st Quadrant)? 50 M. Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .

Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions How can we achieve forward motoring (1st Quadrant)? + – T1 and T2 are ON 51 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions T1 and T2 are ON What if T1 and T2 are turned OFF? + – 52 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Usman Rafique Air University.Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions T1 and T2 are ON What if T1 and T2 are turned OFF? Problem: Motor is inductive load Inductor: no sudden current change 53 M. Spring 2012 + – .

Spring 2012 + – .Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions Problem: Motor is inductive load Inductor: no sudden current change We have to provide an alternative path to current 54 M. Usman Rafique Air University.

Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions 55 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Spring 2012 .Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions What happens when we turn OFF T1 and T2 now? 56 M. Usman Rafique Air University.

Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions What happens when we turn OFF T1 and T2 now? Diodes D3 and D4 conduct 57 M. Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .

Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions What happens when we turn OFF T1 and T2 now? Diodes D3 and D4 conduct Which quadrant is it now? 58 M.

Usman Rafique Air University.Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions What happens when we turn OFF T1 and T2 now? Diodes D3 and D4 conduct Which quadrant is it now? Fourth Quadrant Forward Regeneration 59 M. Spring 2012 .

Chopper Controlled DC Motor Drive Chopper that can drive in both directions These diodes are called catch diodes. Usman Rafique Air University. freewheeling diode or flyback diode MOSFETs: These are built-in generally BJTs: These are not built-in generally 60 M. Spring 2012 .

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives  How can we control speed of a DC Motor? 61 M. Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives  How can we control speed of a DC Motor? What will happen if we provide this control signal to motor? 62 M. Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives  How can we control speed of a DC Motor? What will happen if we provide this control signal to motor? No Motion Motor Moves No Motion 63 M. Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives  How can we control speed of a DC Motor? What will happen if we provide this control signal to motor? 64 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .Switching Chopper Controlled Drives  How can we control speed of a DC Motor? What will happen if we provide this control signal to motor? Motors moves slow 65 M.

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives  How can we control speed of a DC Motor? Pulse Width Modulation 66 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives  How can we control speed of a DC Motor? Pulse Width Modulation Speed controlled by Duty Cycle   Greater ON time – Faster Motor Percentage On Time Higher the duty cycle. faster the motor will move (and vice versa)  Greater OFF time – Slower Motor 67 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives Pulse Width Modulation How to set frequency of PWM?  Motor   A DC motor is an inductive load Motors perform better at higher frequency  Switch   Switches perform better at lower frequencies Switching losses increase and switch life decreases at higher frequencies 68 M. Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .

Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.Switching Chopper Controlled Drives Pulse Width Modulation How to set frequency of PWM?  Audible Range   Humans can hear 20 Hz to 20 kHz Sometimes it is preferred to keep frequency higher than 20 kHz  Controller  Frequency that can be provided by the controller 69 M.

Spring 2012 .Switching Chopper Controlled Drives Speed Control How can we control speed in forward direction? 70 M. Usman Rafique Air University.

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives Speed Control How can we control speed in forward direction?  PWM on T1 and T2 T1 and T2 ON and then T1 and T2 OFF 71 M. Spring 2012 . Usman Rafique Air University.

the motor current has to find alternative path More losses 72 M. Usman Rafique Air University.Switching Chopper Controlled Drives Speed Control How can we control speed in forward direction?  PWM on T1 and T2 T1 and T2 ON and then T1 and T2 OFF When both T1 and T2 are off. Spring 2012 .

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives
Speed Control How can we control speed in forward direction?

T1 ON and PWM on T2 T1 is always ON. T2 is ON for some time and then OFF

Less losses Better solution More commonly used
73 M. Usman Rafique Air University, Spring 2012

Switching Chopper Controlled Drives
Speed Control How can we control speed in forward direction?

74

Ref: Low-Cost Bidirectional Brushed DC Motor control Using PIC16F864, DS00893 [3]

More Considerations

What if any 3 switches are On at a time?

75

M. Usman Rafique

Air University, Spring 2012

Spring 2012 .Discussion on Design of Chopper Controlled Drive 76 M. Usman Rafique Air University.

Usman Rafique Air University. Spring 2012 .Further Reading  References [1] and [2]  Any book on Power Electronics 77 M.

  Electric Motor Drives (Modeling.  Motor Drive. lecture notes  By: Prof. Spring 2012 .References 1. USA 3. USA 2. Ali Keyhani Ohio State University. Analysis and Control) By: R. Usman Rafique Air University. Microchip Technology DS00893 M. Krishnan Virginia Tech University. Rylee.   78 Low-Cost Bidirectional Brushed DC Motor control Using PIC16F864 By: M.