You are on page 1of 36

@

SSABSA
BOARD AU5TRAL A SENIOR SECONDARYr'"5SESSMENT OF SOUTN PUBUC EXAM NATION 200,1

ouEsTtoN
ATTACH SACEREGISTBATION NUMBER LABEL TO THISBOX BOOKLET

I
16pages. question I

Tuesday2 Novenber: 9 a.m. Time: 3 hours

QuestionBooklet I
BookleiI (16 pages) Examinaiion material: Question Bookiet2 (8 pages) Question Booklet3 (21 pages) Q@stion label SACf reginraron number ApprowA dictionaies akd calcltlators na, be used. Instructions Candidates to i. during the You mustnotwrite in yourquestion booklets usea calculator or You wili havel0 minutes read paper. to paper provided. dme but you may makenoteson the scribbling this .eading

Booklet2, and Section is in Quesiion A Booklet l, Section is in Quest;on B 2. This papris in threesections. Section is in Quesrion C Booklet 3. BookletI Question l) sctionA (Question questionin the spaces providedin this booklet. Answer trll pa'Lr of thjs short-answer to to You may write on page16 ifyou needmorespace finishyour answers SectionA. QueqlionBooklei2 2 Section (Quesrions and3) B questions. Answer er Queslion 2 3 This section consists essay of Question on the "rt "/ pages provided Question Booklet 2. in Booklet3 Question 4 Sgction (Questions to 8) C questions. Answer a/l questionsin this section. This sectionconsistsof extendd prov;ded Question ;n Booklet3. Write your answers the spaces in to to You may write on pag ifyou needmorespace finishyour answers Sectionc. 2l 3- The allocalion of marksand the suggested allotnent of time arc: 50 minutes Section B 30 marks 30 ninutes 100narks 100ninutes Section C 200 marks 180minutes TOTAL liom this booklet. 4. The equation sheer on pages and4, whichyou may remove is 3 by in 5. Vectorqrantities this papr represented s)rnbols bold type. in are in of or 6. Marksmay be deducted you do not clearlyshowalts:teps the solulion prcblems if you do nor define if in synbols.You should diagrams use whereappropriate your answenadditional for 7. Us only black or blue pensfor all work otherthangraphsanddiagrams. which you may usea sharpdark pencil. 8- Attach your SACE registrationnumberlabel to the box at rhe top of rhis page.Copy the informationfrom your Booklet 3. on of Booklet andQuest;on 2 SACEregistraiion number labelinto the boxes th ftont covers Question placeQuestion Booklet andQueslion 2 Booklel3 inside backcoverof Question the 9. At theendof theexamination, Bookletl-

yolr may renoye thk page fon the booklet by tearing alons the perforatio% so that lou h,ill hne the infotnation in Jront of you jb ea.'y rclbene. EQUATION SHEET usedin th quations. Tte following tablesshowthe slmbols ofcommon qMntities andphysicalconstants Vectorsare shownin bold q?e. Ifonly th magnitude ofa vector Oiher slmbols usedare shownnextto the equations. quantityis used,the symbolis not shownin bold t}?e.

Symbols CommonQusntities of accelemtion time displacement velocity period fiequency wavelens$ force charge mass potentialdiffercnce ) F q /r/

t s T f

electricfield kinetic energy magnetic fild

p E K B I

Physicrl CoNtatrts ofuniversal gmvitation G:6.67 x l0 " N rn?kg:'? Constant oflight in a vacuun Sped
I

Massofthe electron Massofthe protor

x n " = 9 - 1 1 1 0r ' k g x me:1.613 l0a1kg n,: |.675x l0 '1ke ,'r"= 6.&5 x 10 '?? kg

m .= 3.00x 103 s '


^^^ .

s Coutomb lawconsLanr Plarck's constant Charge ofthe electron

;:--c0o

l0"\m?c

Massofthe neutron Massofthe d particle

, = 6-63 x l0 raJ s e=1.60x l0 r'C

l: Section Motiotr itr Two Dimensions v = 1'o+ at r'?= t'f,+2as


/ = distancebetween masses andmz mr

r' = velociry timr at to=velocityatt=0

rara = iF

".=u,ot+l"t'
Av=vl vt v/: final velocity v,= initial velocity accelemtion a= averag

.._ IGM '1/

'

M= massofobject orbitedby satellite r = mdius oforbit

o =i

-ap
"=+ i'= mdiusofcirclc

r =1nv-

2Lr

PLEASETURN OVER

t
!
: . Scliotr f lectricity.trd Mrgnetfu 2: d
^ | q,q,

r = distance btweencharges andq, 41

F = I^lB si[ 0 ,= anglebetweetr field; and curent element1/, F=qvBsire d= anglebtweenfield, and velocity t

E=t= ^lq

qB l/ = work dorc otr the charge ^ znm qB

W= q[l/

-^v
d AE

plaies d= distanca between


-o 28 2 1 2

2m
Section3: Light and Matter c = sped oflight

E: hf K:hf-tl tr= workfimction ofthe metal /r/ = tubepotential ditrercrce


h I

d sin0=n)"
),L . aj = -'-

d= distanc btwenslits (0,1,2,. . .) n= ifreger /l = distance between adjacent , = slit-to-sclendistance

Section Atomsrnd Nucli 4: E -E =W A=Z+N ,4= mass nunbe.ofnucleus Z= alomic oumber ofnucleus lr'= number ofneutrons
Eb= AnC E, = binding energ/ /n=massdefct

SECTION A (Question l) (70 marks) AnswerALL parts of this qaestionin the spaces provided.

l.

(a) A stone is thrown fiom a position near the surfaceof the Earth with an initial horizontal velocity of 25 m s.l, as shown in the diagrarnbelow. The vertical compoDent the of velocity of the slone at point X is 36ms t. Assumeair resista ce is negligible.

ground (i) Draw and label a vector diagramto show the addition of the horizontal and vertical cooponeds of the velocity of th stoneat the instant it reachespoint X. (The diagramdoes not need to be dmwn to scale.)

(2 marks) {ii) Calculatethe magnitudeatd direction of the velocity of the stone at poiot X.

(3 marks)

PLEASETIJRN OVER

(b) Desoibe and explain the effect tLat increasingthe launch height ofa shot-puthas on the maximum range.lr,rrm? air resistatce is hegligible.

(3 marks)

(c) A car travelling with uniform circular motion round a bankedcuwe on a road is showr in the diagrambelow:

baDlcd roadsurface

(i) On the diagam above,dlaw and label vectors to representthe normal fo.rle and the (2 marks) gmvitational force acting on the car. (ii) Using the diagram above,explain the cdl,le of the cenhiptal accelerationthat enablesthe car to travel round the bankedcurve without moving up or down the sloDeof the road surface-

(3 marks)

(d) A massof 8.0 kg that is initially at rest xplodesinto three fiagments,A, B, and C. After the explosion: . fragment has a massn - 1.5kg and a speed = 4.0ms-l; A v,4 4 . fiagme B hasa massn, =4.0kg and a speed = 2.0ms l. yB FragmentA and fragmentB move at 90o to each other, as shown in the diapu:am below. A,ss1m1e systemis isolated. the
= 4.0ms t

"1:
= l.5 kg
vn= 2.0ms t +{_______.-.

B nu= 4.0kg

(i) Using vecror additiorL determinethe magnitudeof the rtlm of the momentaof ftagDent A and fragmentB after the explosion.

(4 marks) Statethe magdtude of the momentumof liagment C. ( I mark)

(e) Statewhy it is importantto increasethe numberof measuements made il1 an expenment.

mark)

PLEASETIJRN OVER

(0 A studentconductsan experimentto investigatethe relationship betweenthe magnetic force and the curent flowing in a wire when it is suspended a magneticfield. in The studentmeasures and recordsvalues of the masnetic force as the curent in the wire is varied. Stateone factor that the studentwould nedto hold constantdu ng the experiment.
(l mark)

(g) Two point charges,41 md qr, are separated a distance3d in a vacuum,as shown in by the diagrambelow. Point P is situatedon a line between4t and 42, at a distanced from ql.
<------ d ------->

aa qt

q2

- - - -3 d - - - - - ' - . ' (i) Write an expressionin terms of 4l and d for the electric field at point P due to point ql. charye (l mark) (ii) The strengthof the electric field at point P is zero. qt Cafcufate t?Llio : q2 of the point charges. the

(3 narks)

(h) The diagrambelow shows an unchargedmetal spherebetweena section of two equally and oppositely charyed^nd infinitely long parallel conductingplates in a vacuum. On the diagrambelow, sketchthe resultant electric field.

(3 marks)

(i) On the diagrambelow, sketchthe magneticfield of a cunent-carrying solenoidthat consistsof many tightly wound coils of wire. The direction of the curent is indicated on the diaqlam.

crureft mropage

ooaaaaaaaaaaoooaoaaaaaao

ooo@oo@ooooooooooooooo
curent out ofpage

(3 marks.)

PLEASETIJRN O\TR

A squareloop of wire, ABCD, with sidesof length 0.12 m, is shown in the diagram below. A cunent 1 of 4.00 A flows in a cloclsir'isedirection thrcugh the loop of wire. to in The wire is suspended a uniform magneticfield , : 0 200 T dtuectd the right

B = 0.2007

Calculatethe magnitudeand stale the direction of the magneticforce acting on side AB of the looD of wire.

(3 marks)

chamber.The initial velocity v of (k) A proton entersa uniform magneticfield in an evacuated _field, as shown in the diagrarnbelow: the proton is perpeldicular to the magnetic

B
a
proton

(i) Explain why the kinetic enerry of the proton remainsconst^nt.(Ignore grdvity.l

(4 marks)
10

(ii) Describeand explain the path of a treutronthat entersthe mapletic field at the samc position and velocity as the proton.

4 marks)

(l) Explain why a cyclotron must be evacuated.

(3 marks)

(m) A bearnof lectronsis directed onto the surfaceof a nickel crystal. A photographicplate is usedto detect the scattercdelechons,as shown in the diagam below:

ofa nickel crystal

(D The speedof an electron in the beamis 8.5 x

106 s-1. m

Show that the wavelengthof the electmn ls approximately8.6 x l0-1r m.

(2 marks) i
ll

PLEASETIJRN OVER

i
I :-

(ii) The frst-order beamof the difftacted lectronsis measurd an angl of 15" to the at page I 1. ircident beao" as shown in the diagramon Calculatethe hteratomic spacingof the nickel crystal.

(2 marks)

(n) The poteftial difference acrossan X-ray tube is incleased. Explain th ffect this will have on the hardness the x-rays producedby the of X-ray tube.

(2 marks)

(o) A transmissiondiffraction grating has 4300 lines per centimehe. Calculatethe maximum possibleorder that could be obse ed if the incident light had a wavelength : 5.1 x l0-7 m. ,tr.

(3 narks)

t2

(p) Explain why transmissions fiom somecountry teleyision channlsare polarisedat right anglesto those of city charmels.

(2 marks)

(q) The diagrambelow represents frequencydistribution ofthe intensity ofthe light the producedby a heatedfilament wire at low temperatue:

rntensityoflight

frequency On the diagarn above,draw the fiequency distribution of tight that would be producedif the temperatureof the filarnent rvire were increased. (2 marks)

(r) A 16.0g sampleof carbon is obtainedfiom the thigh bone of a human skeleton. Investigatorsbelieve the skeletonis 17 193 years old. A 1.00 g sampleof carbon from the thigh bone of a living hurnanbeing has a carbon-l4 decay mte of 15 decaysper millute. Carbon-l4 has a halflife of 5730 years. Calculatethe activib/ that you would expectof the sampleobtainedfiom the skeleton.

(3 ma.ks)

13

PLEASETIIRN OVER

(s) The fusion of two isotopesof hydrogenis shown in the equationbelow:

lu+lu-ltte
The -rmasses of the particles in the equationaboveare:

n lu = t.stzzsz xg " to
'?? x ;He = 5.007946 l0 kg.

la = 3.34lot+" to:1 t<g


Calculate,in MeV, the amountof enerCythat would be releasedin the reaction.

(4 marks)

()

lime is shownin the graphbelou: sarnple against The activityofa radioactive


l0

activity (Bq)

6 4 2 U

3456 tilne (min) (i) Using the graph above,statethe activity of the sampleat 3 minutes. (1 mark) (iD (1) On the graph abov,show how you would determinethe halflife ofthe sample. ( I mark) (2) Statethe value of the halfiife. (l mark)

t4

Describehow the conditions in the interior of thg Sutr allow nuolarfitsion to.take plare.

ma*s)

15

PLEASE TURNOVER

SSABSA
SENIOR SECONDARYA5SESSMEN] OF SOUII]AUsTRA!A BOARD PIJBUC EIAM]NATLON 200.1

SACE REGISTFATON NUMBEB

SEQ

ti ll '

BIN

OUESTION BOOKLET

2
questions 8 pages,2

PHYSICS

QuestionBooklet 2
Tuesday2 November:9 a.m.

Wite yaur dneel

to Secnon B in thh questioh boolJet.

2. Write an essay which you discuss experiment in an that involves useofa transmission the diffraction grating of known slit separationto calculatethe wavlengthof a monochromatic light source. Your essay shouldinclude: . a description of the experimentalarrangement, including a labelled diagram of the apparatus; . a descriptionof th pattem observed; . a descriptionof the experimentalprccedureused, including a statement all of measurements required; . an explanationof how you would aeduce effect of errors in your measuements; the . an explanationof how you would calculatethe wavelengthof the monochromatic light source. (30 marks)

3. Write an essayin which you discussthe nature and propertiesof the particle emissionsfiom radioactivenuclei, mrd the effects of these emissionson living matter. Your essay shouldinclude: . a comparisonof the penetrationthrough matter of alph4 beta, and gamma mdiations,and an explanationof why alpha is the least pentratingradiation; . aD explanationof why emitted alpha particleshave a small numberof discrete energies,and why they are often accompanied the emissionof gammarays; by . a justifrcation for the emissionof an antineutrinoin beta minus decay; . a descriptionof how ionising radiation can damageliving matter, with two exarnples of how mdiation dosages ftom a mdioactive sourcecan be minimised. (30 marks)

SSABSA
PUBUC EXAMINAT 2OO4 ON

SENIOR SECONOARY ASSESSMENJ BOARD SOUTN OF AUSTRA! A

SACEREGSTRATION NU]\'B

r-l L]
PHYSICS

OUESTION BOOKLET

?
21 pages, queslions 5

Question Booklet 3
Tuesday2 November:9 a.m.

Write yow dneels

to Sectian C in this questiot boaHet.

SECTION C (Questions4 to 8) (100 marks) AnswermL questio s in this section- Wite your onswersin the spaces provided. 4. Two satellites,A and B, orbit the Earth, as shown in the diagrarnbelow. Both satellites arc in oircular orbits. The radius of satellite B is gl.eaterthan the radius of satellite A.

['Ihis diagran is not bar)n to scale.l (a) On the diagramabove,dmw and label vecto$ to representthe accelemtiotrof satellite A and satellite B. (2 marks)

(b) Satellite o$its at a radiusof 2.112x 10? Satellite orbitsat a ndius of A m. B x I07m ^nd at a speed 3072m s-1. 4.224 of (i) Show that th speedr of a satellite of masszr", moving in an orbit of mdius / rounda planetof mass is givenb, ,= M, universal gmvitation. e.where c is the constant of

(2 ma*s)

i
I

(ii) Hence show that lhe massof the Earth is approxihately 5.98 x lG4kg.

I I

I l I I

(2 marks)
(iit Calculatelhe orbital speedof satellite A.

I
(iv) Calculatelhe orbital pgriod of satellite B.

(2 marks)

(2 ma*s)

(c) Geostationary satellites movin an equatorial orbit in the samedirectionas the Earth,s rotation. Explain whygeostationary salellites orbits relatively have of large radius.

(2 marks)
\

PLEASE TIJRN OVER

(d) Two satellitesof equal massorbit the Earth. One satellite has a radius of r, and the other has a radiusofrr. Radius/t is twice the valueof radius12. Calculatethe ratio 4 : F2 of the gavitational forces acting on the satellites.

(3 ma*s)

(e) An object is placed at differenf radii /, masued fiom the centre of the Earth. The force a acting on the object is measurcd each position. at The graph of the force versusthe inverse radius squared(l/r2) is shown below: 1200 1000

a
I

8oo
rnn 400 200 0 0 -t't-0.s

_.t'

1.0 1.5 2.0 2_s inveneradius (x squared 10'la m-'?)

3.0

(i) Using the graph above, determinethe distance/ betweenthe Earth and rhe object whenthe force is 600N.

(2 ma*s)

Show without calculatiotrthat the gradientof the line of best fit o1rthe graph opposi& should be equalto GMnt, where G is the constantof universalgmvitati,on, M is the massof the Earth, and 4 is the rnassof the obiect.

(3 marks)

PLEASE TURN OVER

5. Electrons in a vacuurn tube are accleratedfrom rest by a potential difference of 8000V. (Ignore the gravitational force acti g on the electrons.) (a) Showthat the speedv of ar electronin this vacuumtube after accelemtionis approximately 5.30'l07ms-r.

(3 marks)

(b) The elechonsthen passbetweentwo equally and oppositely chargedmetal plales of length ,l tftat are separated a distanced. The potential differerc betweenthe plats by is /I/. (Assumethe elecbic field is unifotm behaeen plates.) the

*"T*
etectrons ,llThis diasan is not dravn to scale.l

t I
I
I

On the axes below, sketch a gmph of the force F acting on an elechon againstthe distancotravelled pamllel to the plates. (Calculatiottsatle not req ircd.)
force (N)

(c) Show that the magnitudeof the accelerationof an electron in the uniform etectric field is sivetr bv

slv
nd

(2 marks)

(d) The plates are sepamted a distanced = 8.0 x 10 3m. The Dotentialdifference /Z by betweenthe plates is 240 V. Th electron,moving at an initial speedy = 5.30 x 107m s-1, ente$ midway betweenthe plates.The motion of the electron is in the plane of the page and perpendicular the to electdc field. as shown in the diaeram below:

electron

1 ,--t-d

I
ITL'I diasam is notdtawnto scale.l (i) Statethe magnitudeofthe componentof the velocity ofthe electror that is perpe dicular to the electric field at point Q. ( I nark) (ii) Calculatethe magnitudeof the velocity of the electron at point Q on the diagram 9.0 x 10 10safter it enters electricfield. the

space Jor optional yector diagan

(5 marks) PLEASE TI'RN OVER

(e) The diagrambelow shows a sctionof two equally aad oppositely charyedand infnitely long conductingplates and a point P outsidethe plates:

IThis diagan is not dravrn to scale.T

Explain why there would be no electric field at point P.

(a rrlarko

(f) Describehow ions can be accelerated high energiesin a cyclotron. to

(3 marks)

i
I

Light is incident on a metal plat M, which is enclosedin an evacuated glassenvelope, shown as in the diagrambelow. The current flow as a result of electronsejectedby the light is shown otr the ammeter The curent flow is .educedto zero by the use of a variable voltage supply.The L stoppingvoltage is measued otr the voltmeter ,/.

(a) In the experimentshown above,the frequencyof the incident light is 6.0 x l0ra IIz. (i) Calculate, eV, the ener$/ of the incidenr in photoosusedin rhis xperimmt.

(3 mdrks)
(ii) Calculate work functionZ of the metal plate if the stoppingvoltage is rccorded the

as L49V.

(4 marks)

PLEASE TURN OVER

(b) The vadable voltage is adjustedto a value lower than that ofthe stoppingvoltage so that a measurable current is shown on ammeterL The intensiry of the light is then increased, but its frequencyremainsthe same. (i) Stateand explain the effect this changewould hale on the curcnt.

(2 marks) (ii) The stopping voltageis measured usingthis higherintensitylight. State whether the change in intensity of light would affect the previously measurd stopping voltage. ( I mark)

(c) A similarexperiment conducted is usinga second metalplateP. The ma-ximum kinetic energy of the lectronsK.o* is determinedfor a numberof diffrent incident frequencies, as surnmarised the table below: in Incident liequency(' 10ra Hz)
11.8 9.90 8.20 6.90 .K.* (' t0 D J)

2.60
t.8l

t .t 0 o.57

(i) On the gdd below, plot theseresults on a graph of lKmdversusincident freouencvand draw the line of best fit. 3.0 2.0
1.0 (x l0 leD 0

-t.0 :2.O -3.0

(3 marks)
l0

(ii) Using the linq of best fit that you have dmwn on the graph in part (cxi): (1) statethe value of the threshold fiequencyJf,of the metal plate P.

(l mark) (2) clearly mark the position of4 on the graph. (3) statethe value of the work function Z of the metal plate. ( I mark)

(l mark) (4) clearly mark the position of l/ on the graph. (l mark)

(d) Monocbromaticincoherentlight producedby sourceS illuminatesa ndrrow slit C. The ligh! after passingthrough C, then illuminates the two narrow slits A and B. An interference pattem is observedon the scrcen.The two-slit arangementis shown in the diagrambelow:

s*

(i) Considerpoint X on the sffeen.

Explain what is meant by the statemenl 'The waves mdiated by slits A and B anrve out of phaseat point X.'

t4l
lThis diasran is not drawnto scale.l
ll

(2 narks) (ii) Statethe purposeof using the single slit C for observabieinterferencein this arTangemenl, (l mark)
PLEASETURN OVER

?. Someofthe enerry levels for a hydrogenatom are shom in the diagram below:

n=5 n=3 n=2

-0.54eV -0.85eV -1.51eV -3.40 eV

groundstate+'?

=I llhis diagan is not dra\)n to scalel

-13.60 eV

(a) (i) On the diagam above,draw a line representing transition fiom the r?= 3 level to the the n : 2 level. (l mark) (ii) Calculatethe wavelengthof the photon emitted when an electron undergoes a transition from the /l = 3 level to ther, = 2 level.

(4 marks)

(b) Explain what is meant by the ionisation enerry of an a1om.

(2 marks)

l2

l"
(c) A studentuseda spectroscope view the emissionspectrumof atomic hydrogen. to The studentobse ed thre distinct lines, A! B, and C, as shown in the dins."; beto*. The wavelength, and the eners/ of the photon conespondingto the waveiengthcan be estimatedfrom the scalessho}ln.
energyofphotons (e\) 2.4 2.2 2.O

2 (x l0-7 In)

(i) Estimatethe wavelengthof the line markedB on the diagram. (l mark) (ii) Statewhich one of linesA, B, and C represenrs tmnsitionfrom the , = 3 lver the tother=2level. (l mark) (iii) An emission line with a wavelength 4.10 x l0 ?m can also be produced of bv atomichydrogeD was Dorobsefted. bur Using the diagam, estimatethe energy of the photonsthat producethis line.

(1 nark)

,E

(d) Explain what is meant by the prccessof fluorescence.

I i
E t

(3 marks)

E
I F
l3 PLEASE TURN OVER

r{Xe an<t'.{ Sr as fissron (e) When '?;:U interacts with a neutronIn, it may produce decayfragments, well as a number(t) of neuirons, sho\ivn the equation as as in below:

'zllu ----------+ + llsr + rln. '!! xe i" +


Calculatethe value of ,t.

(l mark)

(f) A simplified diagram of a wateFmoderated fission power station is showr below. (Safety rods have been omifted fiom the diagram.)

(i) Briefly explainthe firnctionof the controlrcds

(2 marks)

(ii) Briefli gxplain the functioD of the water modrato..

(2 marks) (iii) Explainwhy Mturally occuningiranium mustbe enriched use in filel rods. for

v
I

!" I

I
tt I

i:
l' E
i

(2 marks)

i, t.
,E il:

i..
E

e
E

E
E E

E E

r
F

l5

PLEASE TT'RN OVBR

8. A studentundertakesan experimentto investigatethe relationship betwenpressureP and the total volume / of a gas.The studentchanges volume of the gas happd in the slringe in the diagrambelow' The volume of gas is by exerting a force on the handle, as shown in determineJby using the scalemarkedon the syinge. The pressue is measured units of N m 2, using the pressuregauge. After changingthe volume of gas happed in the syringe,the studentrecordsthe pressureat a constanttemDeBture.

(' ltr Nnj)

(a) Completethe following table by calculaling the values for 1//.


I, (m3)

ltv

P (N m') 2.57 \ 105

1.0 1 0 5
1.5 " l0-5 2.0 ' l0-5 2.5xlo5 3.0 x l0'5

1.90 105
1.55x l0'

1.34 l d
1.20

ltr
(2 marks)

-j

-r

I
16

I I

11

PLEASETURN OVER

(b) (i) Statethe indepndent vadable in this experiment. ( 1 mark) (ii) Statelhe reason your arswerto parr(b)(i). lor (1 mark)

(c) On page 17, plot a graph ofP on the vertical a\is against 1//on the horizontal axis, and draw a line of best fit. (6 marks)

(d) (i) Therelationshipbetween and /can be represented p= bT , where, is a constant P by and I is the constant tempemture.

Explain why your graphsuggests there is a systematic that error in the data.

(3 marks) (ii) Calculatethe gradient of your line of best fit. lnclude the units of fte gadient.

(3 marks)
(iii) Using information from your graph, wfite the equationof your line of best fit in te.ms of P and l/Z

(2 marks)

l9

PLEASE TURN OVER

of in (iv) The corNtanttemperatureZ is measure'd units of kelvh (synbol K)' The value r' t b i s k n o l t n o b e 6 . 7 1' l O r J K of the Using the gmdientyou oaloulotedin part (d)(iD, deter;ine the value tedperalure of the gas.

(2 marks)

.20