Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University, December 15-16, 2011

Development of an Egg Based Sausage
M.K.D.K. Attanayake, D.K.D.D. Jayasena Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka and A.N. Lalantha Keells Food Products PLC, Ja-Ela , Sri Lanka Introduction The present trend of demand is for ready to serve or ready to cook food items. Sausages have been developed as a convenient product but mostly composed of meat. Present meat and meat based food products may contain various chemicals and preservatives, which is a cause for cancer (Pearson and Gillett, 1996). Therefore, many people nowadays are reluctant to buy these products. On the other hand, absence of strong preservatives in egg-based sausages cuts down health hazards and gives safe access as foodstuffs. Investigations carried out for development of an egg based sausage by replacing the meat component of sausages with eggs has not being attempted yet. Thus, the present study was aimed at producing an egg based sausage for the people who wish to consume egg based products. Egg-based sausage can reach the optimum acceptability and nutritional requirements if developed properly and will provide a balanced diet for the consumer. Eggs are considered as one of the highly nutritious natural products. Eggs naturally possess functional properties like good emulsifying, binding, coagulating and stabilizing abilities, which are essential characteristics in food manufacturing processes (Stadelman and Cotterill, 1996). Therefore, additives with those properties are not required to be added artificially to the manufacturing process of egg based sausages, thus the production cost can be reduced. This study was designed to develop egg based sausages using whole egg powder, egg white powder and locally available high nutritious vegetables such as carrot (Daucus carota), leeks (Allium porrum L.), and mushrooms (Pleurotus species), spices and additives. Fresh eggs are not suitable in sausage production due to several problems. Fresh eggs are difficult to transport since they are bulky, fragile and highly perishable. Moreover, they cause difficulties in stuffing of the sausage mixture into the casing during processing, due to high juiciness and break when fried. Salmonella incidences are also high in raw eggs. Eggs in powder form however, provide a near complete solution to these problems. Dried egg powder could be stored and transported at room temperatures and is quite stable and has a longer shelf life. Egg yolk powder is not suitable to be used in sausages because yolk has higher fat content and low solubility. It also incurs higher import cost and has poor functional properties such as water activity, which is higher in egg yolk powders than in whole egg powders (Joel et al., 2010). Therefore, only whole egg powder and egg white powder could be used in production of egg-based sausages. The main objective of this study was to develop an egg based sausage as an alternative product for traditional meat sausages containing preferable characteristics such as texture, color and taste.

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Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University, December 15-16, 2011

Methodology The experiment was carried out at the Keells Food Products (PLC), Ja-Ela. The preliminary trials were conducted at first to find out the best combination of egg powder by changing the egg powder ratios. Secondly, the best combination of vegetable oil and water corresponding to the best egg powder combination was chosen. These two experiments were done in order to develop the sausage texture. Then experiments were carried out to determine the best salt level, additive combination and spice combination to adjust the flavor of the sausage. Subsequently, experiments were conducted to find out the chopping level and chamber operations suitable in development of egg-based sausage. Once the satisfactory product was developed, the sensory evaluation, microbiological analysis and chemical analysis were carried out for the samples made using the finalized formula. In order to find out the best recipe which gives better sensory qualities to the sausage, another three samples (T1, T2 and T3) were prepared by changing only the egg powder combination in small quantities in the finalized recipe (i.e. whole egg powder; 15%±1.5 and egg white powder; 5%±1.5), while keeping the other ingredients constant. Then, in order to select the best percentage combination of whole egg powder and egg white powder, sensory evaluation was carried out with 30 untrained panelists of Keells Food Products (PLC). The sensory evaluation analysis was done using the Friedman nonparametric statistical test. Objective measurements (AOAC, 1995) and proximate analysis (AOAC, 1995) were conducted for all three treatments. Proximate analysis for the data measurement is a combination of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, moisture, total solid and ash. Objective measurement was done by analyzing shrinkage percentage, acid value, pH and water holding capacity. For this, samples were taken at regular intervals weekly for two month storage period. Finally data were analyzed using MINITAB and SAS statistical packages. Results and discussion Based on the results of preliminary studies; the best percentage combination was 20% of egg powder, 22% of water, 20% of vegetable oil and 1.4% of salt level. The technical operations of egg-based sausage manufacturing process differed from traditional meatbased sausage. Preferred level of chopping was 6 rounds and the suggested cooking time was 35 minutes appropriate to the core temperature of 76 °C of the sausage. No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed among samples for color, appearance, odor, saltiness, and spiciness but texture, taste, juiciness, overall taste and overall acceptability of the samples varied significantly (P<0.05) among samples and also among treatments T1, T2 and T3. According to the Pair wise comparison, texture, juiciness, taste, overall taste and overall acceptability were significantly different (difference between sum of ranks >18.51) between treatments 1-2 or 2-1, and treatments 2-3 or 3-2. And there were no significant difference (difference between sum of ranks among treatments < 18.51) between treatments 1-3, or 3-1. For color, appearances, odour, spiciness and saltiness, there were no significant difference (difference between sum of ranks among treatments < 18.51) between Treatment 1, Treatment 2 and Treatment 3. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the egg-based sausage sample prepared in treatment T3 (whole egg powder with 16.5% and egg white powder 3.5%) had the highest sensory attributes for overall acceptability and overall taste.

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Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University, December 15-16, 2011

Analysis of variance procedure showed by Duncan group was used for measuring samples which were significantly different (P<0.05) among treatments T1, T2 and T3 with relevant to protein, fat and moisture percentage. Treatment T1 had the highest mean value for protein and lowest mean value for crude fat. Analysis of variance procedure followed by Duncan group showed that treatments from T1, T2 and T3 were not significantly different (P>0.05) in relation to pH, water holding capacity and acid value, but each of these three factors showed a significant increase (P<0.05) with storage duration. The shrinkage percentage was significantly different (P<0.05) among treatments T1, T2 and T3. Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not detected during the storage duration. Staphylococcus aureus counts and TPC did not exceed the specifications in Sri Lankan Standards for the sausage during 60 days. In this period of shelf life, the product was stored at -18˚C to -30˚C of temperature. Conclusions According to this research findings, egg based sausages with acceptable characteristics can be developed successfully by; a) Maintaining whole egg powder: egg white powder percentage combination at 20% level. b) Adding 1.4% of salt level into the mixture. c) Using a combination of 22% of water and 20% of fat. d) Chopping only six rounds in bawl chopper. e) Maintaining only cooking operation in the cooking chamber and, f) Maintaining 76 °C/35 minutes as the cooking chamber condition. With a lower cost, incorporation of vegetables could be easily done not only to enhance the sensory attributes and nutritional value but also to increase the profit margin of the developed egg-based sausage. Best treatment in this research was T3 (i.e. 16.5% whole egg powder and 3.5% egg white powder) due to its low cost; SL Rs.15.06 per sausage and high sensory attributes. This product was developed without any age discrimination, as it is more health conscious, highly nutritious and more convenient food product. And also it expects a rapid market growth and market stability due to the presence of considerable number of niche markets in Sri Lanka. Without adding any chemical or preservative, shelf life of the egg-based sausage was 60 days at -18 °C - (-30 °C) with respect to microbiological and physicochemical analysis. References A.O.A.C. 1995. Official method of analysis, 16th ed. Arlington, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington. Joel, N., Udobi., E. Chinweizu, and A. Nuria 2010. Effect of oven drying on the functional and nutritional properties of whole egg and its components. African Journal of Food Science 4(5):254- 257. Pearson, A.M. and T.A. Gillett 1996. Processed Meats, 3rd ed 329- 411. Stadelman, W.J. and O.J. Cotterill 1996. Egg Science and Technology. 4th ed. The Haworth press, Binghamton, New Yolk.

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Ins 621.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. combination of vinegar and yoghurt. which can be stored at frozen conditions and conveniently cooked by the housewives within a short time. Sri Lanka A. crude fat. crude protein. mustard cream(1 g). shelf life determination (pH. baked at 65 oC for 35 min and best marinating period was tested using 12 hr. ash. cooked at 85 oC for 20 min. since chicken consumption has no religious barriers. marinated chicken parts. tomato sauce (2 g). this study was conducted with an aim of developing a high quality. the samples were tested for moisture. Colombo. lime. safe to eat. chilli powder (10 g). combination of yoghurt and lime and combination of vinegar and lime were used as the variables respectively keeping the other ingredients constant. Chicken parts (thighs. Acidic ingredients soften the food. The busy lifestyle of modern day housewives do not allow them adequate time for preparation of food at home. black pepper (2 g). garlic powder (2 g).D. Ins 250preservative (1 g) and water were used to prepare the new product.D. Complete Randomized Block Design was used for the experiment. 24 hr and 36 hr periods. In the preliminary trials. amounts of vinegar. Microbiological analysis. Meat items include both ready to eat and ready to cook products. Thereafter. Liyanage Institute of Ceylon Agro Industries Ltd. 2010). Laghini. wings and drumsticks weighing 2 kg). allowing it to absorb the flavours of the sauce and also increase shelf life. Jayasena Uva Wellassa University. 2011 Development of Ready to Eat Marinated Chicken Parts M. respectively through a trained panel. yoghurt. in Seeduwa through experiments with sensory evaluation and some laboratory analysis which were conducted at the Uva Wellassa University. Materials and methods Marinated Chicken Parts were produced at Ceylon Agro Industries Ltd. Three experiments were conducted for this purpose and sensory evaluations were carried out using trained panelists of Ceylon Agro Industries Ltd. Then six samples from each recipe were selected and sensory evaluations were conducted to find out the best recipe for marinade.flavour enhancer (10 g). Final sample was compared with a competitive product available in the market through an untrained panel to test the market demand. These qualities were used in preparing a ready to eat marinade chicken. soy sauce (8 g). lime. Preliminary trials and 06 experiments were conducted to select the best levels of ingredients in the recipe of the final product. crude fiber. Badulla. yoghurt. WHC) and 82 . vinegar. Kumara and K. Poultry meat is highly suitable as a raw material for product development due to its light colour and delicate flavour which can be transformed into a wide range of value added foods. sugar (15 g). Sri Lanka Introduction The demand for chicken meat and their products in Sri Lanka is growing rapidly. Seeduwa.. Therefore.K. Then experiments were conducted to select best cooking method using three treatments. salt (8 g). December 15-16. D. A marinade usually tenderizes the meat which is stringy and tough and improves the flavour. cooked at 85 oC for 20 min and baked at 65 oC for 10 min. Chicken consumption in Sri Lanka is expected to increase to 8 kg per person from the current 5 kg next five years (Cheng Chih Kwong.

Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. taste and overall acceptability. fat 3.64 0.2%. Under anaerobic condition. In the fourth experiment the baked and cooked (baked at 65 oC for 30 min and cooked at 85 oC for 10 min) method was selected as the best cooking method. According to the results.5%. Results of the experiments were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. December 15-16.2%.64 pH and WHC values in the marinade were better than in the control samples (Table 1). texture.14.64 0. marinated solution containing 18 g of vinegar 8 g of yoghurt and other constant ingredients are best for marinating 2 kg of chicken parts obtaining highest scores for texture.291. WHC value was also maintained at a constant level until 4th week and thereafter showed slightly increased values. Table 1: Storage period with pH and WHC Storage period Control 1st day 1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week 5th week 6 5.85 0.9 5. protein 23. aroma.00 Wings Rs.85 Control 0.855 WHC Final Sample 0. And it reveals that the cost for the new product is less than for what is available in the market. The cooking method has scored higher for colour. saltiness.00 Cost determination for chicken parts is given in Table 2. 248.00 Rs.168.9 5. taste. protein degrades to variety of sulphur containing and non-protein nitrogen’s components which emit gasses and result in decrease in pH and WHC.64 0. 323.6% and fiber 5. vinegar incorporated with yoghurt was selected as the best ingredients for marinating chicken parts. Table 2: Cost determination for chicken parts Marinated chicken parts Final product Drumstick Rs. 83 .00 Cost per 500 g Control sample Rs.855 0.85 0.9 5. The fifth experiment showed that 36 hours marinating period was the best which has given better tenderness.64 0.9 5.82 0. 2011 cost determination of the final product were also carried out. All samples were subjected to sensory evaluation and data were analyzed using Friedman analysis in Minitab ver. pungency and colour. pungency.00 Thigh Rs. Results and discussion According to the results of first 3 experiments. ash 3. Value of pH was maintained at the same value until 4th week and thereafter it has decreased slightly.285.95 5.4%.00 Rs.9 5. Crude protein and crude fiber contents of marinated chicken parts were higher than that of the fresh chicken meat since the ingredients in the marinade have added specific nutrient values to the marinated product. 323.9 5. tenderness and overall taste. Proximate analysis of the final product contained moisture 64.64 0.8 pH Final Sample 5.9 5.

Conclusions Use of vinegar incorporated with yoghurt marinated solution is recommended for making good quality marinated chicken with high acceptability. Primus (cited 2011 march 31st). Potassium acetate and Potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets.lankajournal. Keeping quality was better in marinated chicken parts than that of raw product under vacuum packaging conditions. Sovann Kin. and Wes Schilling 2011. Journal of Food Science.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. The products are safe for human consumption for more than 6 months under frozen storage -18 oC. Sri Lankans to eat more chicken Available from <www. December 15-16. 2011 Very slight development of total plate count values could be observed with storage time since product has used effective cooking methods.. 84 . 4:242-245.com>. References Cheng Chih Kwong. M.

Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 2005). flour. D.K. Materials and methods Experimental work was conducted at the Keells Food Products PLC. Fish balls can be produced using any fish but the tuna varieties are preferred because meat color and flavor stands up well in finished products. dry matter. and ventral side of the tuna. And the laboratory analysis was carried out at the Uva Wellassa University. Badulla. whole sale prices and consumer prices.A.D. However every recovery percentage can be contrasted depending on the quality of the raw material and nature of the product. Then the pieces of fish were minced using a mincer and chopped with a bowl chopper for 2-3 rounds. Even small quantity of fish can play a vital role in improving the predominantly cereal based diets of the developing countries. Initially.P. Chopped fish. Fish bulk was cut in to 3 cm pieces using a vertical band saw. 1965). Today even more people turn to fish as healthy alternative to red meat (Bender. curry leaves and fresh garlic mixture was 85 . Sri Lanka and S.D. The profit margin of food processing companies can be increased while converting these off cuts into value added products. Minuwangoda Road. Lalantha Institute of Keells Food Products PLC. 200 per kg. A recent study has shown that average recovery percentage of expensive cuts of yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares) from a medium scale processing factory is approximately 50%. 2011 Development of a Low Cost Fish Ball Incorporating Yellow Fin Tuna off Cuts and Deskinned Sword Fish D. Tuna trimmings can be purchased at Rs. Off cuts consists with whole dark muscles. and Sword fish (Xiphias gladius) are the main species employed. a survey was carried out at the main fish market in Ja-Ela area to identify varieties of fish.C. Yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Sri Lanka Introduction The contribution that fisheries resources make to human nutritional needs is significant and may represent the only readily available protein source for people in developing countries. cereal binder. spices and Monosodium Glutamate were then mixed for 4 minutes. Sri Lanka N. Frozen fish packages were thawed for 30 minutes to bring the fish meat accessible for cutting. crude protein content and crude fat content were analyzed via AOAC methods (AOAC. December 15-16. green chilies. Dasanayaka . ash content. trimmings of the white muscle. The remaining inexpensive off cuts has low market value. Yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares) trimmings (histamine content below 25 ppm) and deskinned Sword fish (Xiphias gladius) cuts were obtained from the frozen storage of the Keells Food Products PLC. Badulla. Fish has traditionally been a popular part of the diet in some countries. 2000). Fried onions. Jayamanne Uva Wellassa University. tail cuts. usable off cuts. Jayasena Uva Wellassa University. Fish products are comparable to meat and dairy products in nutritional quality. Ja-Ela.B. Subsequent to the preliminary survey selected off-cuts and deskinned sword fish were analyzed for its nutritional quality. Ja Ela. pre emulsion. Ekala. More than two species of fish are usually blended because tuna flesh alone does not give sufficient resilience to the product (Amona.

all measurements were carried out for the experimental design of Complete Randomized Block Design using three replications. The mixture was mixed further for 2 minutes followed by addition of water and fat. in the final trial. Mixture of fish mass was formed into balls using meat ball forming machine. spiciness. Escherichia coli and TPC were recorded thrice a week for twelve consecutive weeks. 86 . crude fat. texture. (1975). Table 1: Percentages of Tuna Trimmings to Sword Fish Treatment Number T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Tuna Trimmings:Sword Fish 10% : 90% 30% : 70% 50% : 50% 70% : 30% 90% : 10% A panel of 20 untrained members of Keells Food Products PLC has participated in the sensory evaluation. 1992) and cooking loss following Murphy et al.05). Fish balls were then cooked in a cooking chamber for 40 minutes until the core temperature come to 72 oC (Yu. juiciness. 2000). TBA value (Tarladgis. Proportions of ingredients were then assessed according to the sensory and textural characteristics. 1989). A 7 point hedonic scale method with a value of 1 corresponded to lowest and a value of 7 to the highest intensity were used to evaluate appearance. 2011 added to the mixture along with bread crumbs and rusks. colour. The results were reported as the mean standard deviation and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS V. fish balls were formulated with 56% of fish by increasing the amount of tuna trimmings while maintaining the other ingredients constant. The proportions of the ingredients of the fish balls were determined through the preliminary trials by a taste panel comprising seven panelists. 1994). December 15-16. odour. odour. The samples were coded with three digit random numbers and the order of presentation was made using random permutation. All statements of significance are based on the probability level of 0. after taste and overall acceptability. All necessary precautions were taken to ensure that each panelist made an independent judgment. Physical analysis was done through folding test and biting test (Lanier. Differences between the means of fish ball qualities containing different treatments were determined using Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). flavour. fish taste.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. crude fiber and ash content were determined in accordance with Standard AOAC methods (AOAC.05 (p<0. 1960) and Microbial analysis of Staphylococcus aureus. Water holding capacity (Anjaneyulu. juiciness. Objective quality parameters of pH. Moisture. spiciness. Statistical Analysis. Then the fish balls were chilled in order to separate them and vacuum packed in Linear Low Density Polyethylene bags and kept in frozen conditions at -18 oC. The sensory evaluation was carried out at the Research and Development laboratory of Keells Food Products PLC. The cost of each item used for the preparation of fish balls was recorded. crude protein.9. texture and likelihood of breakage during frying and cutting. Based on the preliminary findings.1 statistical software. Five combinations of tuna trimmings and sword fish were prepared as given in Table 1 and were tested for color.

The all treatments of developed fish balls were vacuum sealed and kept under frozen condition. 2004). But the TBA value in all five treatments increased after sixth week which indicates rancidity of fish balls. TBA value. 0. when the pH increased. the rate of fat deterioration was very gradual (Figure 4.. pH. It has been reported that haemoglobin (Hb) can show strong pro-oxidant activity for some fish species between pH 6 and pH 7 and it can retard oxidation at pH values above 7 (Richards and Hultin. This is a good sign indicates that there is no freeze denaturation with time There was no signicant difference between the first six weeks for WHC in all five treatments but there was a significant difference between first six weeks and ninth week possibly related with increased pH value. Therefore oxidation cannot proceed. Cooking yield was 93. This may explain why the TBA value decreased when pH increased and vice versa. The TBA value is widely used as an indicator of the degree of lipid oxidation. However. Odour. 2011 Results and discussion The highest estimated median value as well as highest ranks were obtained for the treatment which was having 50% of tuna trimmings and 50% of deskinned sword fish cuts for. However. Since the juiciness of above combination is comparatively low.5). Fish oil has been found to be more liable to spoilage than other oils due to their greater number of unsaturated fatty acids. There was no significant difference between the treatments for water holding capacity.22 %. The greater the degree of unsaturation.98% of crude fat. 15.28% of ash and 7.20% of carbohydrates. It is illustrated that. Fish Taste. it’s highest score for juiciness was comparatively low for the seven point hedonic scale. Texture.46% of moisture. Scores of folding test was fair and also it gave a fair bite for biting test. 87 .5% of phosphates were added to enhance the juiciness of the selected treatment.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. newly developed fish balls showed higher scores for spiciness. December 15-16. Tokur et al. the TBA values in all five treatments decreased at the ninth week and the TBA values increased while pH decreased at the twelfth week.al. 2002. Reduction in lipid content could be attributed to oxidation of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contained in the fish tissue to produce peroxides. There were no significant differences between the initial values of the storage period for pH in the all five treatments. After Taste and Overall Acceptability. 12. WHC is reduced in the first six weeks and again increased possibly due to increase of pH which causes more opening to entrap water within myofibrilla proteins. With comparison to the market available fish balls. odour and fish taste for its sensory attributes. There might be risks of rancidity during prolonged storage conditions due to the inherent fatty nature of both tuna and sword fish. 3. Appearance. 2004). 61. Colour. a reduction of pH was observed after initial week possibly due to the presence of lactic acid which is resulted from anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrates in the product by the psychrophylic bacteria. The proximate composition of the selected sample which was having 50% of tuna trimmings and 50% of deskinned sword fish was. Water Holding Capacity is basically related with the myofibrilla protein of the fish. the greater would be the tendency for fat oxidation (rancidity) (Akkus et. However.02% of crude protein. aldehydes ketones and the free fatty acids.

A. 38:21-30. Anim. 2000. J. N. Serdaroglu. 1989. Fish and meat processing technology. Food Chem. December 15-16. Official Methods of Analysis 17th Ed. Anjaneyulu. Int. Vet.J. Quality of low fat meatballs. Food Res. Food Quality and Nutrition. The effect of heat on protein-rich foods.. M. 73:246-252. Tarladgis. DC.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 2002. 2005.C. Vol. Varlık. Determination of some quality parameters of fish balls prepared from raw and boiled fish. 1965. and L. T. Fish as food.. 3 Academic press.J. L. Amona. 70:99-108. Sci.. Richards. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 1960. O. 87:523 -529... Erkan. Food Engineer. Y. Chemical and sensory quality changes of fish fingers. AOAC. New York. R. L.E Par 1975 . Murphy. Turk. 2011 References Akkus. Meat Sci. 44:79-85. 1992. 88 . and H.D. G. Measurements of surimi composition and functional proteins. C. Mol 2004. Bender. Hultin. K. 32:145149. Washington. Lanier. IBP Press 120-130.

V. One of the major challenges faced by Kotmale Products (Pvt) Ltd is the poor microbiological quality of the milk received at the factory. Two milk samples (one sample received at the factory under chilling condition & other one received under room temperature) were received. Other factors were not significantly affecting final contamination of milk by E.C. Microbial content in milking bucket and lid (r = 0. coli counts it is observed that. Farmers were selected using a simple random sampling method. This research was carried out to find out the contribution of contamination sources for milk contamination in Bogahawatta area. Bogahawatta factory. hands of farmer and milking bucket & lid. Sri Lanka Introduction: Bogahawatta area is one of the major milk supplying area to Kotmale Dairy Products (Pvt) Ltd. Abeysinghe Uva Wellassa University. D. coli and Coliforms present in the samples. It shows positive low correlation to microbial count in final contaminated milk. Jayasinghe Kotmale Dairy Products (Pvt).G. According to r values (relationship) of samples.M. The time period for receiving milk from farm to the factory and temperature differences occurred during transportation period were recorded. Temperature differences occurred during transportation period showed no relationship to presence of E. The Total Plate Count (TPC) method was used to enumerate the total aerobic micro organisms present in the samples.K. coli in final contaminated milk. Mudannayake.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.593) for E. time duration for receiving milk and hands of farmers show negligible relationship to aerobic micro organisms present in final milk. coli.N. Six samples (two milk samples and four swab samples) were collected from each farmer.261) are identified as the second related factor for contamination of final milk while skin of cow. A.322) for the total aerobic micro organisms present in milk.305). According to the r values (relationship) of E. 89 . Results The TPC counts revealed that all the factors are not significantly affecting for final milk contamination. Methodology Thirty small holder cattle farmers participated in this study.M. It shows moderate positive relationship to E. Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar method and Violet Red Bile (VRB) agar method was used for enumeration of E. 2011 Microbiological Quality Assessment of Raw Milk to Identify Sources of Contamination H. Badulla.C. Swab samples were collected from udders of cow. respectively. skin of cow is the highest related factor (r = 0. Sri Lanka and C.L. The second factor was identified as the famer’s hands (r = 0. udders of cow is identified as the most related factor (r = 0. December 15-16. skin of cow. Karl Pearson Correlation Coefficient method and paired t-test was used to identify the relationship between the contamination sources and contamination of milk. Patana. coli count in final contaminated milk. Uduwerella. coli in final contaminated milk.

2011 Figure 1: Relationships of contamination sources to Final contaminated milk The Coliform counts showed that all the factors considered had no significant effect on the contamination of final milk.177) while the microbial content in hands of farmer showed no relationship to Coliform presence in final contaminated milk. The Coliform counts numerically showed that milking bucket and lid is the 90 . Temperature difference occurred during transportation period was the second related factor (r = 0. Microbial content in milking bucket & lid (83497 cfu/mL) are identified as the second significant factor contributing for contamination of final milk. coli counts it is seen that. The second factor was identified as the udders of cow (2690 cfu/mL). the time duration for receiving milk (r = 0. Figure 2: Mean values of microbial counts for contamination sources According to the numerical values of total aerobic micro organisms present in samples. December 15-16. coli in final contaminated milk. skin of cow is the highest contributor (5543 cfu/mL) for E. According to the r values (relationship) of Coliform counts. According to the numerical values of E.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. It shows positive low correlation to microbial count in final contaminated milk.238) was identified as the factor most related for Coliform development in final milk. skin of cow is identified as the highest contributing source (109650 cfu/mL) for the total aerobic micro organisms present in milk.

R. 2011 highest contributor (3357 cfu/mL) for E. A. All other factors are not significantly affecting for the micro organisms development in milk. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. Jay. Micro organisms in cow udder can easily contaminate the milk during the milking time.298600 cfu/ml. Gaithersburg. factors are listed as time duration for receiving milk. The second factor was identified as the hands of farmer (2580 cfu/mL). K. It happened due to farmers’ practices at milking time. London. According to the numerical values of total aerobic micro organisms and E. time duration for receiving milk. 1:163-208. H. For E. References Bramley. microbial content in milking bucket and lid abd microbial content in skin of cow. microbial content in udders of cow. temperature differences occurred during transportation period. coli count in final milk. Modern Food Microbiology. coli growth (29400 cfu/mL) it shows at 3. December 15-16. The temperature difference during transportation period also highly affect for coliform development. For Coliform growth. Coliform development shows the highest growth (20400 cfu/mL) at 5. Maryland. Conclusions According to the results factors affecting for total plate count in final milk can be orderly listed as microbial content in udders of cow. highest total aerobic micro organisms (298600 cfu/mL) development is shown as 3. Inc. So the fecal matter can be contaminated to milk.6 C0 temperature differences. highest micro organisms’ development shown as 30 minutes taken for delivering milk to the factory (total aerobic micro organisms .Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. coli developed during transportation. J. Dairy Microbiology. coli. This can be due to the poor transportation facilities. M. Before milking they only clean the cow udders not the full body of cow. microbial content in milking bucket and lid.9 C0 temperature differences occurred at the delivery.29400 cfu/mL). E. J. coli in final contaminated milk. The numbers of coliforms in milk have increased with the time for receiving milk to the factory. 1927. microbial content in milking bucket & lid and temperature differences incurred during transportation period. coli growth factors can be listed as microbial content in skin of cow. coli in cow skin significantly affect for E. According to the numerical values of each micro organisms present. Aspen poblishers. improper cleaning of udders of cow causes the development of total anaerobic micro organisms present in milk. McKinnon 1990. Ed. microbial content in hands of famer. Coliform development shows the highest growth (20400 cfu/ml) in 10 minutes delivery time. The microbiology of raw milk. and C. According to the numerical values of total aerobic micro organisms developed during transportation. Robinson. it shows that presence of E. 35-53 91 . coli is indicator for fecal contamination. microbial content in udders of cow. E. Discussion According to the results.7 C0 temperature differences. For the highest E.

and M. R. Uva Wellassa University. 28:427. who gave great supervision for us to conduct my research successfully. Our thanks are also due to all the workers in Kotmale Dairy Products (Pvt). December 15-16. Total count and microflora of freshly drawn milk. Milchwissenschaft. Acknowledgment Our respectful acknowledgment goes to all the academic staff members in Department of Animal Science.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Patana. 2011 Kurweil. Busse 1973. who helped me to achieve research target successfully. 92 . Faculty of Animal Science and Export Agriculture.

physical or combination of the three. Jayarathne Milco (Pvt) Ltd. Control is taken out of the laboratory and in to the processing environment. D. Narahenpita which practices adequate prerequisite programs to ensure a safe product. Colombo 05. can be defined against a wide range of criteria. combined with other programs (prerequisite programs) such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs). Methodology In preliminary studies. almost neutral pH value (pH 6 to 7) and long storage duration (Kanbakan et al. physical. preparing an inspection checklist for prerequisite programmes. prevent or reduce the possibility of hazard occurring. microbiological and nutritional characteristics. Karunarathne . Each and every step of the process was 93 . stage. the chemical.I. Narahenpita. Standard Operation Practices (SOPs) and Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs). Mudannayake Uva Wellassa University. Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs). depth observations of the factory premises and working practices. a milk-based product. The existing pre-requisite programs were assessed by. Sri Lanka and K. manufacture. discussing with management staff and observing the available facilities and production equipment. is a good media for microbial growth due to high nutrient value. Badulla. A Critical Control Point (CCP) is a raw material. Food or dairy manufacturers aim is to ensure the safety and quality of their products which will satisfy the expectations of the consumers. Then ice cream manufacturing process was thoroughly observed and understood by observing the steps of ice cream manufacturing in the factory and then the flow diagram was prepared. chemical.. P. 2011 Development of HACCP Plan for Ice Cream Manufacturing Process at MILCO (Pvt) Ltd. Considering all above factors. and instead emphasizes on raw materials and process control. Ice cream. all the existing pre requisite programs were assessed and improvements needed were identified. which may be biological (microbiological). including for example.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. The quality of ice cream or any food product. practice or operation within the process where a hazard has been recognized and steps are in place to eliminate. The application of the HACCP system cover seven principles including identification of potential hazards associated with food production at all stages for processing. HACCP provide a structured and systemic approach to the control of identified hazards.C. The effectiveness of HACCP depends on the correct application of its principles. December 15-16. Sri Lanka Introduction The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach for food safety moves away from testing of final product. and distribution until the point of consumption and preventive measures for their control (SLS 1173: 1998).A.D. studying the past and present records. 2004). it is critically important to develop a HACCP plan for the ice cream manufacturing process line in MILCO (pvt) Ltd.

Finally verification was carried out to develop the HACCP system. Then corrective actions were established for deviations that observed during monitoring. aging and filling. Identification of critical control points (CCP) was done using a decision tree and critical limits were established for each critical control point. Maximum storage period of 72 hours Corrective actions Hold the affected silos and. Existing pre requisite programs 94 . Inform the quality control executive and to decide on disposition Inform quality control executive and re-pasteurize whole batch Maintain the temperature to ˚ 5 C by adjusting the circulation of cold water Pasteurization Biological Vegetative pathogens Ageing Biological vegetative pathogens and spores outgrowth Temperature not less than 90 ˚C and holding time less than 15 seconds Temperature Maintain blow ° 5 C and minimum holding time not less than 6 hours Microbial count in the filling environment should be zero Filling Biological Microbial Cross contamination Microbial count (yeast & mould) not be exceed 180. The details of the identified CCPs are given in Table 1. chemical and physical hazards. December 15-16. Potential hazard. Those were chilled milk storage in silos. pasteurization. Inform the quality control executive Conclusions Implementation of HACCP system is a best option for further reducing the risk that is associated with ice cream manufacturing process. established critical limits and corrective actions were established for deviation that observed during monitoring CCPs Chilled milk storage Hazard Type Biological Potential Hazard Heat resistant enzymes (lipase & protease) and toxins produced by bacteria Critical Limits Storage temperature below 5 ˚C. 2011 analysed for potential microbiological. Results and discussion Four critical control points were identified for the of ice cream manufacturing process at MILCO (Pvt) Ltd.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Table 1: Identified Critical Control Points (CCP).

Maryland). Sri Lanka Slandered Institution. INC). December 15-16. and P. Ice Cream. Sri Lanka. We owe our thanks to management staff of Milco (Pvt) Ltd. Guidelines for the Application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP). W. monitoring procedures. 95 . Microbiology and HACCP. Forsythe.J. References Arbuckle. aging and filling.R. Hays 1998. Sri Lanka Standard. and SSOP) which are already implemented in the factory is not sufficient and improvement should be done accordingly. AVI publishing company. 3 rd Edition (An aspen publication. pasteurization. According to the study.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 7142. and then the HACCP plan was completed. 236. four critical control points were identified. Gathersburg. S. corrective actions and verification procedures were developed for each identified critical control point. SOP. 1173: 1998. Food Hygiene. 1996.. Narahenpita for providing the necessary facilities to complete this study. (Connecticut.300. Acknowledgment We offer our profuse thanks to academic staff members of Animal Science degree program and Faculty of Animal Science and Export Agriculture for giving me great help to conduct this research. 2011 (GMP. Critical limits. Those are chilled milk storage in silos.S.

If whey is unused. Samarasekara Kotmale Dairy Product Private Limited. 0. whey is causing a huge problem for the cheese industry. its organic nutrients make it a costly pollutant in the country’s sewage and waterways.4%.R. Whey is leading cause for water pollution if whey is discharged to the water source and ultimately this ends up as a major hazard. Furthermore.0.W. 0. At present. In this research. During the cheese manufacturing yellowish liquid that contains all of the nutrition of milk except fat and casein is produced as byproduct or waste material.C.0. Malt Extract . Biological oxygen demand (BOD) values for cheese whey range from 30.8% Malt Extract. Mudannayake Uva Wellassa University. Malt Extract) Sensory evaluations were carried out using 15 semi trained penalties and data from sensory evaluation was 96 . This liquid is called as whey.6% Cocoa powder .8% Cocoa powder .000 milligrams per liter (mg/l) (Milk and whey powder. The whey contains 6-7% solids about half those in milk (Milk and whey powder. The aim of this study was to develop chocolate–malted whey beverage as a solution for the whey disposing problem. Though the production of whey beverage is cost effective method of utilization of whey.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Approximately ten pounds of milk are used to produce a pound of cheese and from six to nine pounds of whey is resulted.0. Sri Lanka and C.I. This ultimately results with the undesired taste in final product. Utilization of whey for beverage production requires few energy resources.000 to 45. The entire whey is utilized no removal of water is necessary. December 15-16. 2011 Development of Chocolate. whey can be utilized by small cheese plants for beverage production. Cocoa powder. Sri Lanka Introduction Cheese is one of the most popular milk products which produced by coagulating milk using rennet enzyme and microorganisms. sugar. Sensory evaluation I was carried out to select best sugar percentage (T1-9%. relatively high content of minerals in whey are responsible for undesired salty-sour flavor of whey. since no elaborate or expensive equipment is required. Mulleriyawa New Town. D. T3.6%. Weerasena. Badulla. since those compounds import not only desirable flavor but also help to increase the nutritive value of final product. full cream milk powder and malt extract was added to the preheated whey and stirred until all the compounds dissolved completely. Effective and economical methods of utilizing whey are essential if cheese plants are to remain competitive with other segments of the food processing industry.0. This can be overcome using chocolate powder and malt extract. T2-8% and T3-7% sugar) while Sensory evaluation II was carried out to select best combination of cocoa powder and malt extracts (T1.4% Cocoa powder .Malted Whey Beverage Using Liquid Cheese Whey M. 1980). Methodology Cheese whey was weighted and heated up to 60 ○C by using hot water bath. best sugar percentage and suitable percentage of malt extract and cocoa powder were determined separately. 1980). T2. The sample was pasteurized using hot water bath for 90 ○C for five minutes.

6% Cocoa powder was selected as the best treatment under 5% significant level. Sedimentation of cocoa powder was observed with the poor mouth feel in final product and this can be overcome by using food grade stabilizers. Fourth edition. As pH of the final product and total plate count of the final product begin to reduce steadily at the 7th day. and Newlander. pH changes and microbiological qualities were used as quality parameters for determination of shelf life of final product. it has nearly equal nutritional value to the milk based beverage as shown in Table 1. Friedman statistical method was used to analyze data at the significance level of 0.05.63 3. 97 . Under the microbiological quality total plate count and Coli form count were taken into consideration. Table 1: Nutritional Value of final product Nutrient Fat Crude Protein Ash Carbohydrate Total Solid Amount g in 100g 1. Since it is effective and economical solution for whey disposing problem stabilizers were not used for this experiment. 2011 analyzed using MINITAB software ver. H. The samples were checked for pH changes and microbiological quality changes at 1 day interval for 10 days during cold storage (4 ○C). J. 2000 Chemistry and Testing of Dairy products.57 Conclusions As a pasteurized product final product has higher shelf life than the commercially available milk based pasteurized beverages. Shelf life of the final product is 7 days and can be extended up to 9 days by applying ideal conditions When the nutritional value of final product is considered.A. As a result of that shelf life of product were determined as 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Reference Atherton. CBS publishers and distributors New Delhi. T3 having 0. December 15-16. 395 .4 14.V. Results Beverage sample that prepared using 8% of sugar was selected as the best sample from sensory evaluation I. 14.09 19. Nutritional value of the final product is given in Table 1.45 0. In sensory evaluation II.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.

M. An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. some of which are associated with human illnesses and diseases (Oliver et al.H. Nawala road. and post–heat treatment contamination. Keenavinna. However. 2007). In this study. Uva Wellassa University. taste. If cream has an increase of microbial count it can’t produce butter. In addition.L. science based data to substantiate these claims are limited.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. A. No. When cream incorporates high intense heat fat separation occurs. 2011 Identification of Best Pasteurization Temperature – Time Combination for Retarding Microorganism Counts in Raw Cream as Ingredient of Butter: Approach to mprove Microbial Quality of Butter K. Undesirable microbes that can cause spoilage of dairy products include Gram – negative psychrotrophs. Jayarathne Milco (pvt) Ltd. Enhanced nutritional qualities. can be a cause of spoilage (as well as failure in the 98 .A. pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus may also be found in milk and dairy products (University of West Hungary. It is not good for the production of quality butter. such as B. lactic acid bacteria. 2009). Food spoilage is an enormous economic problem worldwide. Milk is a highly nutritious food that serves as an excellent growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms.N. Mudannayake. and some types. various bacteria of public health concern such as Salmonella spp. Listeria monocytogenes. yeasts. December 15-16. Introduction This paper provides an overview of Best Pasteurization Temperature–Time Combination (BPTTC) for retarding microorganisms in raw cream as an ingredient of butter. In order to determine the qualitymicrobial count is very important. D. So when pasteurization temperature – time combinations needs to be critically monitored and identified its temperature – time combination them unhealthy pasteurization temperature – time range can be avoided. Yersinia enterocolitica. different pasteurization temperature – time combinations were used to retard microorganisms count. cereus.C. This test uses microbial analysis of raw cream by using Total Colony Count (TCC) method and Yeast and Moulds count methods. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens.S. and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. the processing conditions. The microbiological quality of milk and dairy products is influenced by the initial flora of raw milk. Abesinghe. because although most vegetative cells are easily killed by heat treatment. Best pasteurization temperature–time combination is gaining the idea about good quality raw cream. coliforms. The hygienic production of milk is of the greatest importance for cream.. Narahenpita. Campylobacter jejuni.45. and molds.. spores are not. Sri Lanka and K. The quality of raw cream is the most important factor in production of butter.Badulla. BPTTC is an indicator of good quality raw cream as an ingredient of butter.

these are more easily removed than single cell (Robinson. carbon dioxide. although psychrotrophs can grow very slowly at below 5 oC. Hence the assessment of overall efficiency of handling and processing of the products is a criterion in the evaluation of the quality delivered to the consumer. And some enterococci can also survive pasteurization. but do not usually ferment lactose to lactic acid. December 15-16. it may be worthwhile reducing this by high speed centrifugal methods. swabs and rinse of dairy utensils in the microbiology laboratory. hydrogen and carbon dioxide (Early. butyricum and C. Spore-forming thermoduric bacteria survive pasteurization and various aerobic and facultatively aerobic Bacillus spp. Good quality raw milk was tested by using Resazurin test. is the main anaerobic apore-forming organism found in pasteurized milk and cream. subtilis are proteolytic. Clostridium spp. In the absence of competition from lactic acid bacteria Bacillus spp. These are generally biochemically active against fat and protein. and although the organisms are nearly all killed by pasteurization. when pasteurization temperature was increased and TCC level and Yeast and mould counts level were reduced. coagulans are also found. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactococcus lactis are important. Many of the clostridial organisms are proteolytic and/or saccharolytic and those that grow in milk also form gas. However. Results and discussion In this study. the former mostly producing lactic acid and the latter often producing butyric acid. If the spore count of the milk is high (over 100 ml-1). milk products. they produce enzymes which can survive pasteurization and continue to produce changes in the pasteurized product 99 . Also one temperature has two time changes. As aerobic spore – formers tend to form chains. whereas B.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 1998). This is achieved by testing the samples of milk. cereus and B. Also when time period were increased and also results were obtaining in lowest counts of microorganisms level. can be found in pasteurized milk and cream B. coliforms (the result of post-pasteurization contamination) may produce hydrogen. provided the storage conditions are favourable. When storage temperatures are unfavourable for lactic bacteria. sporogenes are common. of which C. will causes spoilage. water. B licheniformis and B. ethanol. i. with an increase in the level of psychrotrophs. Each pasteurization temperature – time combination were used to five samples (cream) and the micro biological analysis was done. polymixa is gas forming. Total Colony Counts (TCC) and Yeast and moulds microbiological analysis were done to the find out the best pasteurized cream sample. Most vegetative bacteria cells. Some Micrococcus spp. milk and milk products move through several hands from production to consumer. Bulk collection of milk is common practice to be stored in creameries at 5 oC for up to 48 hours and even sometimes longer. Methodology In this project. yeast and moulds in milk and cream should be killed by pasteurization. thermoduric bacteria will survive pasteurization and lactic organisms such as Streptococcus thermophillus. The change from churn to bulk milk collection has resulted in a change in the microflora of raw milk. the temperature is high enough. acetic acid and some lactic acid.e. and Closridium spp. formic acid. Frazier and Westhoff (1988) recorded that heat resistant lactic acid bacteria may spoil pasteurized products through the production of lactic acid. 1990). Thus cold – stored milk does not sour but can develop taints. 2011 methylene blue (MB) test). There is normally no problem with milk quality for milk so held.

such as cream.R. S. M. When free fatty acids of the cream are increased more than 0.C. Also high temperature pasteurization fat separation occurs and that problem mainly caused to the final product quality. corynebacteria. high intended heat wants to avoid because of the fat separation. Food microbiology. K. The Microbiology of Milk Products. 104 – 112. Mlik and Dairy Product Technology. micrococci. New York. E. New Age International (Pvt) Ltd. MARCEL DEKKER INC. The raw cream is usually held at about the separation temperature (e. Murphy and S. IDFA.803. References Adams. Because of heat generating fuel is diesel and high heat wants to get much fuel burning.O. Blackie academic & professional. or during the milking process. This best pasteurization combination there have no any fat separation and also economic viable temperature – time combinations. Boca Raton. If price is high product also fails in the market and the customer penetration is reduced. 1990). High temperature pasteurization combinations produce low free fatty acids cream and it is good for production of butter. and all the temperature – time combinations were significant with 75 oC – 30 minutes pasteurization temperature . Furthermore. It is major threat for production of customer based product..P. the cream may be contaminated by inadequately disinfected process plant or the skim – milk may not be of good quality (Robinson. Oliver.g.time combination. 2009. Spreer.g. Milk pasteurization.K.J. R. 1953. Food borne pathogen and disease. 1998. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk. 80 oC) fat separation occurs and it can affect the final product quality. M. ANON. 100 .. and aerobic and anaerobic spore – forming bacteria.37 % then it can’t produce butter. 2nd ed. All milk and products made from it. ANON. Also high intended heat has economic losses. R. Conclusions P < 0. 793 . Early. New York. become contaminated by micro – organisms from the udder. Geneva. So. June 2009. 2nd ed.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Murinda 2009. 1990). 1990. The technology of dairy products. If that pasteurized cream is converted to butter. 40 oC) during the standardization. 1953. So. So it converts in to ghee. Moss 1996. 2011 (Robinson. Robinson. World health organization. Boor S. or from the cow. The ‘original’ flora in this sense consists mainly of lactic and other streptococci.. December 15-16.05. 1998. When temperature increases with more than 75 oC temperature (e... Low temperature has more free fatty acids level so it pasteurization temperature – time combination can’t produce butter.E. its shelf life is reduced and also off flavor is developed. London. the best pasteurization combination is 75 oC – 30 minutes. Pasteurization definition and methods.

1999).C. Alternate plots starting from the lagoon shore were selected for detailed studies totaling three sampling plots of 10 m x 10 m per one belt transect. The present study was carried out with an aim of finding the diversity and the export potential of the mangrove crabs in the Batticaloa District. 2008). 1999. December 15-16. Saththurukkondan and Kokkaddicholai. Priyadarshani. They have been shown to be ecologically very significant animals which keep much of the energy within the forest by burying and consuming leaf litter. Each sampling plot had three systematic sampling units of 1x1 m2 size and all the crabs in such plots were collected. The crabs were collected by digging the soil up to the water table until the crabs are caught and were picked by hand. The selected mangrove forests are situated in the Grama Sewaka divisions of Mankerny. Extensive mangrove forests are found in association with lagoons and estuaries of Sri Lanka but the studies on their fauna is limited (Priyadarshani. Crabs with ornamental value can be bred in captivity and can take up to the ornamental aquaculture markets. Sri Lanka Introduction Mangrove crabs live in association with mangrove forests and belong to many different species. Krithika and S. Three belt transects with a width of 10 m and a length of 50 m were laid perpendicular to the lagoon shore at each site and were subdivided in to 10x10 m2 plots. Sri Lanka. et al. Episesarma sp. 2011 A Study on the Mangrove Crabs in Batticaloa District for Potential Export Market A. Grapsid crab.. 101 . 81°42′0″E) district of Sri Lanka were randomly selected as study sites. The samples for further laboratory references were stored under 4 oC to prevent changes in the physical parameters attributable to the microbial degradation. Most of the edible crabs belong to the family Portunidae and are swimming crabs but there are some grapsid crabs which are true dwellers of the mangrove forests that are edible. is such a delicacy consumed by the Thai people and by Chinese people in their cuisines (Ng and Sivasothi. 1834). The crabs were handled with caution to avoid autotomy which causes difficulties in identification. The edible mangrove crab Scylla serrata is a well known commercial commodity considered to be among the tastiest of crab species and have a huge demand in South Asian countries.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. The crabs dwelling in these mangrove environments are anticipated to have much potential to be utilized in various industries if they could be bred in captivity. 2008). Badulla. The crabs were identified to the species level using the available keys and diagnostic characters described by the former taxonomists (Ng and Sivasothy.aquaticcommunity. Sesarma bidens is another mangrove crab which is bred in aquariums as an ornamental animal (www.. Some Uca species and sesarmid crabs such as Perisesarma species which has deep red pincers and iridescent blue or green band across the face are considered as ornamental animals due to their beautiful colourations (Nyawira and Methiga. Methodology Three mangrove areas in the Batticaloa (7°43′0″N. Soon after the collection the crabs suitable for taxonomic studies were stored in a freezer. et al. identified and counted. Jayamanne Uva Wellassa University.com).

Furthermore. and nine belonging to family Grapsidae were identified from the three mangrove forests in the Batticaloa district. Episesarma versicolor showed a positive correlation with the water and air temperature (P<0. Uca annulipes. Uca chlorophthalmus. Cleistosoma and Metapograpsus thukuhar have shown a significant negative correlation (P<0. Conclusions It is evident that crabs of Batticaloa area specially in Mankerni have a good export market potential with nine out of twelve species have either a food value or ornamental value.05) with the water and air temperature. accessing of export market has to be done only after the successful breeding programmes for the crabs have been established. Perisesarma eumolpe. to avoid extinction of these valuable resources. Highest abundance of crabs was observed from Mankerny where average abundance was 59/m2 followed by 24/m2 in Batticaloa and 18/m2 in Kokkaddicholai. Metapograpsus oceanicus. None of the crabs show a significant relationship with the salinity while three Ocypodid crabs.way ANOVA. Species diversity in Mankerny was very high (H’ = 2. Uca chlorophthalmus. Episesarma mederi and Varuna litterata are accepted as edible species according to FAO and Uca annulipes.14) compared to those of Batticaloa (H’=0.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. The findings of this research will pave way to emerge various new industries related to mangrove crab fisheries. 2011 The environmental variables were analyzed quantitatively to find out the distribution of crabs in relation to environmental parameters. Results and discussion Twelve species of brachyuran crabs of which three species belonging to family Ocypodidae. The crabs species collected from the study sites were recorded as edible crabs considering their food value. The physico-chemical parameters. breeding and processing. The experiment was designed as a complete randomized block design and the data were analyzed using two.05) with the pH. However. culture.05) while Perisesarma eumolpe showed a negative correlation (P<0. The species Episesarma versicolor. Parasesarma plicatum. The crabs. conductivity.52). large size and their acceptance by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) as harmless to human consumption and as ornamental crabs considering their eye catching attributes and minor sizes. Highest species richness was recorded from Mankerny (10 species) followed by Batticaloa (03 species) and Kokkaddicholai (02). December 15-16. air and soil and water temperature. salinity and pH were measured in each plot to find out their habitat preference. 102 . Metapograpsus oceanicus preferred highest mean salinity level (31 ppt) while Episesarma versicolor preferred low salinity (8 ppt). such investigation will help many further scholarly progressions regarding taxonomy and diversity. Metopograpsus thukuhar and parasesarma sp. Episesarma mederi and Varuna litterata showed a positive correlation with the conductivity while Metasesarma obesum showed a negative correlation. Metasesarma obesum are identified as ornamental crabs.72) and Kokaddicholai (H’=0. It is also crucial to establish government regulations regarding use of mangrove crabs for such purposes. were identified as not belonging to above two categories. Cleistostoma merguiense.

C. and N.R. Negombo eatuary. December 15-16.H. Aquatic Bulletin 3: 61-65. A. 2011 References Ng.Jayamanne and Y.I. Sivasothi 1999. S. A Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore II (Animal Diversity).F.K. Sci. Ng of the National University of Singapore for the support given in confirming all species and identifying some species.L.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Hirimuthugoda 2008) Diversity of mangrove crabs in Kadolkele. Nyawira. L. J.M.Muthiga 1834 Edible crabs of Kenya. Singapore Science Centre. 13:109 – 121.N. and K. 103 .R. Priyadarshini. S. Aquat. P.. 168. Acknowledgement The authors wish to extend their sincere gratitude to Prof. Peter K.

moisture% and ash content. Data obtained from sensory evaluations were analysed by Friedman test. However. With each evaluation. moisture. total solids and 104 . protein content.N. A. Proximate analysis was carried out by measuring the fat%. There were 9 ginger flavoured milk samples by changing the volume of ginger extract as 8 mL. which has antioxidant. 7. antimicrobial and anti-tumour effect with many other medicinal values. protein.L.P.M. Methodology Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes were washed with water and soaked for 12 hours. overall flavour and overall acceptability were tested using 9 point Hedonic scale (from 1-extremely dislike to 9-extreamly like). Milk fat. sweet taste. many products especially such as pasteurized milk were added. appearance/colour.M. For the preparation of each flavoured milk sample. This mixture was heat treated for 5 minutes at 100 oC and filtered to obtain the ginger extract.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Since centuries. An evaluation panel comprising 5 trained panellists and 10 untrained panellists was used for first three sensory evaluations. Sensory attributes. Upananda. there was no ginger flavoured milk type among the flavoured pasteurized milk. Results and discussion From the first three sensory evaluations. The selected milk sample was packed in LDPE bags and stored below 4 oC for further analysis. relevant ginger extract volume and sugar % were added in to 100 mL of milk separately and they were pasteurized at 72 oC for 15 seconds. Abesinghe and D. three best combinations were selected. Badulla. this research has focused to add value to flavoured milk by incorporating ginger extract. pungent/ginger flavour. ginger flavoured milk sample with 8 mL ginger extract volume and 7. Selected three samples were produced again using the same procedure and the best combination was selected by a sensory panel comprising 39 untrained members. Then. they were sliced (2 – 3 mm) and grinded. Sri Lanka.K.5% and 10%. flavoured milk remained highly demanded.5 % sugar was selected as the best sample. aroma/smell. 2011 Development of Ginger Flavoured Pasteurized Milk with Incorporation of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract and Sugar N.05) throughout the tested period (11 days). Results from microbiological analysis indicated that SPC of ginger flavoured milk sample did not change (p>0. 8 mL ginger extract volume was selected for all three sugar %. Therefore. The shelf life was determined by analysing titratable acidity (TA) and microbiological evaluations (Total Plate Count and E. From the final sensory evaluation. Plain pasteurized milk samples were used as the control. coli). Within this milk types. milk is used for direct consumption as well as for making various products. 10 mL and 12 mL and sugar percentages as 5%. samples of ginger flavoured milk were prepared by incorporating ginger extract and sugar in to cow milk. The TA of selected ginger flavoured milk sample behaves similarly. With the advent of new processing techniques. Introduction The Sri Lankan dairy industry is important and has tremendous potential in developing the economy in the country. December 15-16. These sensory evaluations were conducted by changing the ginger extract volume while keeping the sugar % constant. Mudannayake Uva Wellassa University. Then.C.

there were no difference (p>0. 10 % and 0.6%. 89.and 10-gingerols and 6shogaol. According to the results obtained from final sensory evaluation (Figure 1).5% with respect to aroma/smell than other milk samples.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. According to the findings of Purseglove et al. 291. These constituents are well dissolved in non polar solvents such as milk fat.6 mg. All three ginger incorporated milk samples were preferred by the panelists than the control. Variation in the sensory attributes of milk samples Panelists prefer milk samples with sugar percentages as 5%. This may be due to the addition of ginger extract and sugar in law quantities which may not contribute to significant colour variation. 2011 ash content for selected milk were 3. December 15-16. 8. Appe aranc e/col our 8 Over all acce ptabi lity 6 4 2 0 Over all Flav our Swee t taste Pung ent/G inger flavo ur Aro ma/S mell 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 4 6 8 11 Storage period (days) Ginger incoporated milk Control 5% sugar 10% sugar 7. 105 SPC 103 mL -1 Figure 4. He explains that the main pungent ginger constituents are oleoresins such as 6-.5% sugar and 8 mL of ginger extract incorporated milk sample. (1983) sesquiterpene hydrocarbon zingiberene is predominates in ginger and accounts for 20–30% of the volatile oil obtained from dry ginger.9%.05) in appearance/ colour among four samples. The most preferred milk sample with respect to pungent/ginger flavour is 7. 7.02 g respectively.5% sugar Control Figure 3. This may be due to the pleasant aroma of ginger which caused by more than 70 constituents present in steam volatile oil. All three ginger incorporated milk samples were preferred by the panelists than the control. These results are in accordance with the findings of Puengphian and Sirichote (2006). variation of SPC in ginger flavored milk and control .

Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. L.. Puengphian. 106 . Obochi. 3 (2):15402681. and R.. Zhang 2010. Conclusions Ginger flavoured pasteurized milk can be produced by incorporation of ginger extract.O. W. G.. Robbins 1981. which mainly causes diarrhoea and nausea). Global Journal of pure and applied sciences. G. Azu et al. Gao. The product might be having some medicinal advantages. SPC of the control exceeded the SLS specifications for pasteurized milk (30000 cfu/mL) at 7th day of refrigerated storage. Therefore. 2008. According to the above results. R. 15 (3): 65-368 . responsible for most of the diarrhoea. Brown. Purseglove. 2011 Milk fat was evenly distributed all over the milk serum after the homogenization. (2007) also described that. these oleoresins were uniformly distributed in the milk. December 15-16. E.N. 1983. C. C. zingiberene.141. and A. The product shelf life was expanded rather than market pasteurized milk types. J. Ginger has the capacity to eliminate harmful bacteria. (2008) found that the antibacterial activity and inhibition activity of ginger extracts could be due to the constituents such as sesquiterpenoids. 29-36. Onyeagba 2007. Specification for raw and proceed milk (SLS 181:1983). D. Antimicrobial Properties Of Extracts Of Allium cepa (Onions) And Zingiber officinale (Ginger) On Escherichia coli. 637.. and B. Spices 2: 389421. C. S. Salmonella typhi And Bacillus subtilis. farnesene and trace monoterpenoid fraction. Asian Journal of Food and Agro industry. A. Sirichote.5% of sugar content for 100 mL of milk. Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine. these components have antibacterial and gastrointestinal tract motility effects. such as E. Results from microbiological analysis indicate that SPC (Figure 2) of the selected ginger flavoured milk sample did not change (P>0. Malu. [6]-gingerol content and bioactive properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extracts from supercritical CO2 extraction. Most preferable combination is 8 mL of ginger extract and 7. βsesquiphellandrene. The TA of selected ginger flavoured milk sample behaves similarly..P. N. cineol and citral). Malu et al. and S. incorporation of ginger extract enhanced the shelf life of pasteurized milk. Antibacterial activity and medicinal properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale). coli. and Y. E. Ginger eases both diarrhoea and constipation. References Azu. especially in children. which is derived from ginger. Tawo. bisabolene. Pharmacognosy Journal 2 (15): 41-44. Nyona 2008. Comparative antibacterial activities of extracts of dried ginger and processed ginger. Bureau of Ceylon standards. This may be due to the antibacterial effect of ginger.E. Green. However. (βsesquiphellandrene. Sri Lanka Standard. hence it should have impact on the growth of Bacillus cereus. J.05) throughout the tested period (11 days).

Waste minimization is being considered as an important strategy towards attaining a green supply chain. publications of Central Environmental Authority and Sri Lanka Standard Code of hygienic practice for dairy industrie. Department of Census and Statistics. traditional supply chain is upgraded to highly effective value system that creates more value to all the partners in the supply chain.N. Sri Lanka customs. A. there will be a significant reduction in the wastages of milk and milk products which in turn will benefit both the farmers as well as the consumers by means of increased returns and decrease in prices respectively. Central bank. Uva Wellassa University. By practicing improved supply chain management practices.U. Greening the supply chain is one such innovative idea that is fast gaining attention in the industry. Alwis Industrial Development Board. Moratuwa. Wastage occurs due to presence of multiple points of handling. and using less energy and material resources. 2007). Katubedda. D. Mahinda Chinthana. there were no doubts about the huge potential for the expansion of the dairy industry in Nuwara Eliya district in the 107 . Shortage of cold storage facilities and refrigerated transport equipments lead to inefficiencies in handling milk and milk products. Milk supply chain is more concerned with controlling the milk quality and supply fluctuations which are unique to this sector.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.S. According to the secondary data obtained. This concept is simply to produce more quality (environment friendly) output from less input.M. Thus there is a compelling requirement for appropriate infrastructure facilities for temperature controlled warehouses.V.A. Secondary data were obtained from Ministry of Livestock Development.C. Mudannayake. firstly secondary data were collected to get an idea about the dairy industry in Sri Lanka. wholesale and retail shops. GSCM is an emerging field that out of the traditional supply chain perspective. etc. Badulla. Contamination occurs at different levels: at farm level. Abesinghe. are the best for supply chain because they cut the operational cost. Samaranayake. Reducing waste and pollution. Today green supply chain is at the heart of the concept of sustainable development. The Sri Lankan supply chain for milk and milk products is affected by wastage and poor handling. 2011 Application of Green Supply Chain Management Approach for a Community Based Dairy Factory S. where storage and transportation activities are taking place. Eco-efficiency and remanufacturing processes are now important assets to achieve best practice (Srivastava. are obviously good for the environment and evidently. Sri Lanka and W. This concept highly concerns about the environment.G. Here.L. etc. and at processing centers. during collection and storage. Methodology In this project. National cleaner production center (NCPC). December 15-16. bowsers. Contamination of milk can lead to huge economical losses. Department of Animal Production and Health Livestock statistics. Sri Lanka Introduction This paper provides an overview of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) approaches for a community based dairy factory.

staff training. Results and discussion In manufacturing process. 2. green pastures and the demand for milk from the other districts. Arrangements have been made to ensure hygienic conditions in milk processing by considering each and every aspect of milk processing starting from establishment designing. those may occur as liquid waste. labour. manufacturing process. After that they are delivered to the retail shops where the products are displayed for consumers on a refrigerator shelf or in a cold room for selling. 3. Secondary data were obtained from the publications of Central Environmental Authority. sanitizers and milk wastes). Agro- 108 . wholesaler or retailer and consumer. there are possibilities to increase the capacity of the dairy unit as it has been planned to locate in an area where there are plenty of small scale dairy farmers who sell their milk through intermediary salesmen. P) may cause eutrophication of the receiving water bodies. 2011 view of its favoured climate. air pollution are major environmental impacts in the supply chain.The discharge of biodegradable organic compounds (BOC’s) may cause a strong reduction of the amount of dissolved oxygen. Water pollution. which in turn may lead to reduced levels of activity or even death of aquatic life. This would contribute to the organic load of the effluent stream (milk solids. National cleaner production center (NCPC) and research publications were used to identify the types of effluents discharged by the dairies and to find out the ways of maximizing overall environmental performance of a community based dairy industry. control of operations. this community based dairy industry has been planned to be established based on the “Kotagala farm” which is located closer to the IDB Industrial Estate in Kotagala. The dairy farm produces the milk and it is collected by a collecting point thereafter bowser which delivers it to the dairy factory. Raw materials and energy wastage. Designed community based dairy factory is planned to carry out the processing operations based on GMPs. Overall cost effectiveness was determined by using a feasibility study. Some practices include reducing energy consumption. Discharge of waste water to surface waters affects the water quality in three ways: 1. transportation. Each of these activities in the milk chain causes environmental impact. waste management up to packaging and labeling. underutilization of resources. This is where the reuse and recycling have to be concerned. detergents. using biodegradable and non-toxic materials. environmental impacts and public health risks associated with each step in dairy supply chain was identified using primary and secondary data. If this waste is not managed properly. In here. cleaning and sanitation. It includes raw material extraction. A dairy item purchased by a consumer is transported to the household and stored in the refrigerator before the final consumption. greening the dairy supply chain.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. The major environmental impact associated with dairy supply chain is the pollution of surface and ground water. transportation. Primary data collection was carried out using Observational method. volatile compounds or gasses that are discharged into the air. solid material. Therefore. personal hygiene. Staff interviews and the Check lists were used to identify pollutes and impact of each pollute. pest control. Macro-nutrients (N. equipment purchasing and maintenance. recycling and reuse. minimizing harmful emissions and minimizing or eliminating waste. soil pollution. the processing factories can apply green concepts by several methods to reduce energy and resource consumption. December 15-16. When consider the dairy chain waste products. starting from farm level to distribution of finished products was studied. At the dairy factory the milk is processed into a variety of dairy products and packaged for the consumer. Further. it will directly affect the environment.

G.P. un-ionized ammonia). 2008. this would help to ensure the quality and safety of the final products. Deshmukh. 109 . homogenizer. Towards a green supply chain.. pasteurizer. Essentials of Supply Chain Management. 274-280.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. There is a good market potential for the dairy products in Sri Lanka.g. spillage. S. R. leakage. and also during processing and cleaning. The majority of milk wastage occurs due to residual milk in storage tanks. and improper handling /usage of milk & other raw materials in dairy factory leads to resource waste. Refrigerant loss in milk cooling was identified as the major way of energy loss in dairy supply chain. This opportunity can be utilized to set up a profitable community based dairy factory in Kotagala area. Conclusions Application of green supply chain management approaches in dairy industry helps to achieve environmental friendly operations through resource conservation and waste management whilst achieving economic benefits. At the same time.. Milk losses occur as a result of overflowing.14%. December 15-16. Poor personal hygiene in the factory level is responsible for the food poisoning outbreaks which is the major public health significance in dairy supply chain. foaming. 2011 industrial effluents may contain compounds that are directly toxic to aquatic life (e. pipelines etc. References Mohanty. This Community based dairy factory will create employment directly to 21 persons and indirect employment to around 15 -20 farmers. Financial evaluation of this project indicates a return on investment (ROI) of 57.

sugar and eggs and cake with icing which are sandwiched and/or coated either with dairy or non dairy cream. sugar and eggs without filling or any coating. normal yoghurt.L. Uyangoda. jelly.J. Yoghurt can be broadly categorized in to two types based on method of production. cow or buffalo milk. Then. The term yoghurt can be defined as “A fermented milk product obtained from coagulation of milk specified as. Karunarathna. standardized milk. D. marshmellow. butter. Stirred yoghurt can be found as plain.fat yoghurt and non-fat yoghurt. 1995). fruits (dry or preserved) and other ingredients. wheat flour and baking powder were mixed in a bowl until well combined.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. sponge cakes that contain wheat flour. Karagoda. skim milk or partially skimmed milk and reconstituted milk and concentrated milk by the agency of organisms of types Streptococcus thermophillus. low.M. 25% (w/w) and 30% (w/w).B. They were described as flour-based sweet foods as opposed to the description of breads. sugar and butter were measured and added in to the mixture at the room temperate and mixture was beaten well for 5 minutes using an electric beater to prepare cake batter. Kamburupitiya. Sri Lanka and D. set yoghurt and stirred yoghurt. cakes.C. eggs. 2011 Development of Egg Less Cake Incorporating Yoghurt T. Wheat flour percentage Selected from above was used to develop yoghurt incorporated cake. Danasekara Lucky Lanka Milk Processing Company. 20% (w/w) and 25% (w/w). Mudannayake Uva Wellassa University. fruit or flavoured yoghurts (Tamime and Robinson. This study was carried out to develop an eggless cake for vegetarians by replacing eggs with yoghurt which is rejected just before the expiry date and thereby add value to yoghurts and cakes through product diversification. 2007). 110 . fruit cakes that contain wheat flour. sugar. sugar. There are three types of set yoghurt in the local market. Lactobacillus acidophilus may be present” (Sri Lankan Standards.M. shortening. eggs and other ingredients of requisite mass. Baked cake was wrapped with polythene and stored under room temperature. jam. The most primitive people in the world began making cakes shortly after they discovered wheat flour. Abesinghe. sugar and eggs or wheat flour. sugar. A. Batter was transferred to the greased trays and baked for 45 minutes at 180 oC. First. butter cakes which contains wheat flour. shortening. Bread and cake were somewhat interchangeable words with the term "cake" being used for smaller breads.N. which were just flour-based foods without sweetening. Three cake samples were prepared by changing wheat flour percentage as 15% (w/w). There were three yoghurt incorporated cake samples by changing yoghurt percentage as 20% (w/w). Lactobacillus bulgaricus. caramel. dried fruits or any other suitable mixture. Optimum wheat flour percentage was selected by a sensory evaluation using 30 untrained panelists at day 01. Methodology Cake was prepared using wheat flour. Sri Lanaka Introduction Cake is a product obtained from a batter containing wheat flour. 1989). butter and baking powder. Badulla.N. put into trays and baked in an oven at suitable temperature for a suitable time (Sri Lankan Standards. Cakes are five types according to the Sri Lankan Standard specifications. December 15-16.

Fat content of this eggless cake is lower than the fat content of cakes with eggs and therefore it is more suitable for the people having high cholesterol levels. coli. more suitable for people who conscious on dietary fat contents. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC International. Maryland. Cambridge. Soxhelt method and oven dry method respectively as described in AOAC (2002). Protein content.Dislike very much) and sensory attributes such as appearance. it gives best sensory characters to the cake. cake sample with 20% wheat flour and 30% yoghurt has highest preference with respect to overall acceptability. December 15-16. It can be stored for 60 days without any quality deterioration.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. K. Considering the nutritional quality of the product. Colombo. the fat content of this cake was lower than the cakes produced with eggs and therefore. total plate count. England. 20% wheat flour and 30% yoghurt were selected as the best percentages to develop eggless cake. there is no growth of coliform. Sensory evaluations were carried out using a 7-point hedonic scale (7–like extremely. Finally. Batter was transferred to the greased trays and baked for 45 minutes at 180 o C. References AOAC. yeast and moulds observed. Preservatives were added in maximum level to the batter to increase the shelf life.28% and it fulfills the requirements of the Sri Lankan Standards for cakes with respect to moisture content. 2002. yeast and mould count. Shelf life determination for selected cake sample was done by analyzing pH. USA. coliform and Escherichia coli at one week interval for 60 days of storage. wheat flour and baking powder were mixed in a bowl until combined well. E. Similar to that. Specification for cakes. Furthermore.13% protein and 7. Similarly. smell. Tamime and Robinson’s Yoghurt Science and Technology. 111 . Y.5% of SNF and vanilla were added to the batter and mixed well. They can be stored for 60 days under room temperature without any quality deterioration. colour. and R. Therefore. A. 20th ed: Association of Official Analytical Chemists. fat content and moisture content were analyzed by Kjeldhal method. Tamime. with the 20% (w/w) wheat flour. The moisture content of the product was 26. 2011 First. Sri Lanka Standards Institution. yoghurt (4% of fat and 8. Optimum yoghurt percentage was selected by a sensory evaluation using 30 untrained panelists at day 01. Conclusions Eggless cake can be developed using 20% wheat flour and 30% yoghurt with good sensory attributes. sugar and butter were measured and added in to the mixture at the room temperate and mixture was beaten well for 5 minutes using an electric beater to prepare cake batter. 20% (w/w) wheat flour incorporated cake had highest overall acceptability among three samples. Then. Results and discussion According to the sensory evaluation results of the cake sample with different wheat flour percentages. Sri Lanka Standards 1074 1989. Therefore. Data obtained from sensory evaluation were analyzed by Friedman rank test in MINITAB 14 software package. it has 6. Robinson 2007. 1 . Selected cake sample was wrapped with polythene and stored under room temperature for further analysis. Woodhead Publishing Limited. taste and overall acceptability were assessed.94% fat.

A. Sri Lanka and M.C. L.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.N. bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium species. Padmaraja . Perera Fonterra Brands Lanka (Pvt) Ltd. variations in taste and high dietetic value as well as stable quality have contributed to this growth. A few studies have been conducted on evaluating the potential of using different culture types for yoghurt production. D. This study was carried out in one of the dairy factory in Sri Lanka where probiotic yoghurts are produced using two imported yoghurt starter culture types as base culture and probiotic culture. Base culture includes S. Uva Wellassa University. The starter culture is a critical factor in the production of set yoghurts it influences the organoleptic properties of the set yoghurt. Animal Science Degree Programme.N.L. Biyagama. Bulgaricus whereas C included Streptococcus thermophilus. good digestibility. Bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium species. 2011 Evaluation of Different Culture Types and Development of a Set Yoghurt With Cost Optimized Culture Option S. From these three species.P. thermophilus . incubation of yoghurt cups and transferring to the refrigerator. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. culture solution and skim milk solution preparation. Wijesinghe (1997) tested production of yoghurts using different ratios of Streptococcus thermophilllus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and found that the best ratio of Streptococcus thermophilllus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus is 1:1. inoculation of activated cultures. Probiotic culture includes Bifidobacterium lactis. Badulla. Abesinghe . Mild acidic tastes. Sri Lanka Introduction Over the last decade yoghurt and its preparations have developed into one of the most well-accepted and consumed acidified products. Selection of suitable base culture was done through trial and error method. The yoghurts prepared with non-probiotic base cultures were compared with the existing product for its organoleptic characteristics.M. Methodology Set yoghurts were prepared according to the standard procedure. Both A and B included Streptococcus thermophilus. The production process of set yoghurt includes yoghurt mix preparation. first two are considered as authentic yoghurt starter bacteria whereas the other is a probiotic bacterium. Trials were conducted to compare new products with current product formulation. the main objective of this study was to select a suitable nonprobiotic base culture for the existing set yoghurt without changing its organoleptic properties and thereby optimize the cost of set yoghurt production by selecting suitable non-probiotic base culture. it was found that the probiotic bacteria in base culture do not contribute much to maintain the viable probiotic bacterial population in set yoghurt. Culture type C was the existing probiotic base culture. A.V.. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) comprising three 112 . activation of cultures. Therefore. Two different multiple species non-probiotic cultures were used (A and B). December 15-16. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. The viable bacteria count in probiotic yoghurts at the end of shelf life is 106 cfu mL-1 However. Mudannayake . Kumari (2001) reported about the selection of a starter culture to improve the texture of plain set yoghurt at reduced total solid levels.

Treatment 3 was selected after three repeated trials and three sensory evaluations because there were no difference (p>0.parametric test using Minitab 14 statistical software package. Similarly.1.05 level using Minitab 14 statistical software package. Treatments were. flavour. The survival of Coliform bacteria is very low in lactic acid medium. In this analysis. Treatment 1 was rejected because of ropiness of texture compared to the control. yeasts and moulds. pH. Parametric data analysis was done using ANOVA for significance under α=0. treatment 1 – base culture A + probiotic culture. Oraganoleptic characteristics and incubation time of selected set yoghurt were similar to the control. strictly maintained hygienic practices and addition of preservatives to the set yoghurts. Probiotic count was measured during 14. Therefore. texture and overall acceptability. texture and overall acceptability of non-probiotic set yoghurt and the control set yoghurt. non-probiotic base culture has not contributed to the post acidification of yoghurt compared to the control. it revealed that.05) between sensory attributes of appearance. Treatment 3 (existing set yoghurt) was used as the control. Cost analysis for starter cultures was done and compared with existing set yoghurt production.25% lactic acid (w/w) and it complies to the Sri Lanka Standard specifications. Incubation time was measured in final product. Results revealed that total coliform. Non parametric data analysis was done by Friedman non . flavour.05) between sensory attributes of appearance. Three sensory evaluations were carried out to determine significant differences between sensory attributes of selected set yoghurt and existing set yoghurt. There were no significant difference (p>0. According to the preliminary studies of culture types.8 . There was no significant difference (p>0.05) of pH in set yoghurts during incubation period and the refrigerated storage period. coliforms at five days intervals for 35 days compared with existing set yoghurt (control sample). treatment 3 (combination of culture type A and B with probiotic culture) was selected as the best non-probiotic culture for further analysis. Results and discussion Treatment 1. The probiotic count during the refrigerated storage is higher than 106 cfu mL-1 in both yoghurts. texture and overall acceptability of non-probiotic set yoghurt and the control set yoghurt.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. This may be due to minimum level of contaminations. 21. The titratable acidity of selected set yoghurt was within the range of 0. Coliform count was zero in both yoghurts during 35 days of shelf life period. the pasteurization of yoghurt mix helped to inhibit the growth of these microorganisms. treatment 2 – base culture C + probiotic culture (existing set yoghurt) and treatment 3 – base culture type A + B + probiotic culture. base culture type A and probiotic culture added set yoghurt was rejected after five repeated trials. flavour. The sensory evaluation was carried out with 20 semi trained panelists using nine point hedonic scale to assess sensory attributes of appearance. December 15-16. The viable probiotic counts of the probiotic yoghurt were within the standards (106 cfu mL-1) and it 113 . 28 and 34 days under refrigerated storage. pH and titratable acidity were in conformity to the Sri Lanka Standards limits. yeast and mould counts. because addition of preservatives to the yoghurt mix inhibited their growth. 95% confidence interval was considered. The cost optimized by 5 cents per set yoghurt using selected culture and it can be stored at 4 °C up to 35 days without reducing the viable probiotic counts than standards. 2011 treatments in ten replicates was used as the experimental design. There were zero counts of yeast and mould. Shelf life determination was done by analyzing titratable acidity.

A. Dissertation. A. Sri Lanka.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 3. December 15-16. Conclusions It can be concluded that the combination of non. 1997.T. Selection of a starter culture to improve plain set yoghurt texture at reduced total solid levels. The cost optimized by 5 cents per set yoghurt due to the usage of non-probiotic base culture and it reduced the cost of production of set yoghurt by Rs.000. S. Producing yoghurt using different ratios of Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.00 per month.probiotic base culture A and B with probiotic culture was selected as the cost optimized culture option for the set yoghurt production. References Kumari.Sc. 114 . 2011 indicates that the elimination of probiotic bacteria from the base culture did not affect the viable probiotic count during its shelf life. Wijesinghe. B. B. University of Peradeniya.Sc.A.T. University of Peradeniya. Dissertation. Sri Lanka. 2001.

. Single Stranded confirmation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis is one such powerful genetic screening method to identify the sequence variation in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplified products. Lokugalappatti and H. P. with a final extension at 72°C for 30 min. Badulla.B. Therefore.I. 2011 Investigation of Genetic Variation in Bmp4 Gene in Local Indigenous and Jamnapari Crossbred Goats in Damana Veterinary Service Division Sri Lanka H. In the present study. 115 . 72°C for 1 min. Genomic DNA was extracted using QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit and target region was amplified using previously published (Fang et al. Application of molecular genetics approaches for the genetic progress of quantitative economic traits such as growth and reproduction in goats is an effective way of increasing their production as these methods could lead to finding of genetic markers useful for improved selection. The DNA banding patterns were observed. SSCP method was used to investigate different conformation pattern in the BMP4 gene with single stranded fragment movements. we investigated the PCR-SSCP genetic variation in the intron 2 of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) gene.5 l PCR products were mixed with equal volume of loading solution (95% formamide deionized. 0.S. Aliquots of 3.1% silver nitrate. 49°C annealing for 45 sec.G. 2003). University of Peradeniya Introduction Small ruminants. Materials and methods Venous jugular blood samples were collected from total of 72. 40 cycles of 94°C for 45 sec. 2009) forward (5’CTGGGGAAATGTTTGGTA 3’) and reverse (5’-GCTAAGAGTTG GGTGATGAG 3’) primers. Sri Lanka L.025% xylene-cyanole and 0. and these strategies are yet to be established in Sri Lanka since they require high knowledge and capital investments.B. constitute an important livestock resource in most countries and are essential for the livelihood of many farmers (Baker et al. Molecular genetics approaches have been used in the world for goat production in the recent past. which plays a major role in growth and reproduction. Amplified fragments were separated initially at 300V for 5 min followed by 130V. Frequencies of each conformational pattern were calculated for both LT and JC animals separately. December 15-16. 5W and 6mA current for 18 hours. The PCR cycling protocol was 3 min at 94°C.A. LT (18) and JC (54) goats in 10 farms from the Damana VS division of the Ampara district. such as goats (Capra hircus). heated for 4 min at 100°C and chilled in ice immediately.025% bromophenol blue). 25 mM EDTA. At the end of the electrophoresis gels were stained with 0. Bulumulla Uva Wellassa University. Denatured DNA was subjected to 12% PAGE (polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) in 1X TBE buffer at a constant temperature of 4°C. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. recorded and photographed with GeneSys gel documentation system (Syngene).K. Ariyarathne Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences. this study was conducted as a preliminary step for the application of molecular genetics approaches in selection of goats for improved production in Sri Lanka.S.R. The study was focused on Local types (LT) and Jamnapari crossbred (JC) goats in Damana Veterinary Service (VS) division in the Ampara district of Sri Lanka. Wijesena .

Table 1: Frequency distribution of each conformational pattern resulted in PCR-SSCP of intron 2 of goat BMP4 gene Breed Frequency of Conformational Patterns Pattern A Pattern B Pattern C 66. A A B B C C Figure 1: The electrophoresis patterns of PCR-SSCP for intron 2 of goat BMP4 gene.22%) in all the ten farms. The area demarcated by line represents the schematic view of each conformational pattern.22% 70. Pattern A was predominantly found in both local indeginous (66. Altogether three different conformation patterns were observed and the three patterns were designated as A.83% 27. B and C) were found in both Local Indigenous and Jamnapari crossbred animals.33% Locals Jamnapari Cross Total frequency of each pattern 116 . whereas pattern C was found to be at lowest frequency in both breeds (Table 1).78% 18.833% 5.26% 8. English letter corresponds to the conformational pattern. B and C (figure 1). 2011 Results Polymorphisms were detected in intron 2 region of BMP4 gene in both LT and JC goats in Damana VS division. All the three conformational patterns (A.67% 72.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. pattern B has the highest frequency. First lane indicates the 1kbp size standard.56% 9. December 15-16.52% 20.67%) and Jamnapari crosses (72. Next to pattern A.

2009 and Chu et al. Thorpe 2003. Dorper and Red Maasai × Dorper crossbred lambs in the sub-humid tropics. M. R. J. 2008).Nagda. Polymorphism of bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene and its relationship with litter size of Jining Grey goats. Report. December 15-16. we need to sequence the three patterns. B. alleles or allelic groups.Wang. we can predict that this pattern may be inheriting from Jamnapari goats rather than locals. and further investigations will be essential for detecting the polymorphism of this gene in all part of the country.... these results and conclusions should be considered as preliminary ones. except one local goat in farm 4. may be a Jamnapari cross where Jamnapari characteristics are not well expressed. Resistance and resilience to gastro-intestinal nematode parasites and relationships with productivity of Red Maasai. X. E. Audho. Southey. Chunlei Zhang. S. it can be concluded that goats in the study area are polymorphic for the intron 2 of BMP4 gene and possess at least three genotypes. 76:119-136. Feng. References Baker. Fang. Chu. Y. But to obtain accurate results and to prove these predictions. Conclusions Based on results obtained.O.O. Aduda and W. But pattern C was not identified in farm 10 where only local goats are being reared. Xingtang Fang. mice and bovine worldwide (Fang et al.L. 2010).R. 117 . According to data obtain from the study. Hong Chen. G.H. Same time we can predict that the local goat that showed pattern C in farm 4. L. Mol. 2011 Discussion This study was carried out as a part of a detailed study aiming at genetic characterization of indigenous goats in Sri Lanka for economically important traits. Ma and K. Cao. P. But pattern C was mainly shown by Jamnapari crosses. Rodriguez-Zas. Haixia Xu. and such previous studies conducted in China (Fang et al.Q. S. Similarly gene sequencing of the three observed conformational patterns to identify the genotypes and the alleles present is being pursued in order to determine whether any of the three conformation patterns observed in the study are corresponding to the previously reported polymorphism.. Since pattern C cannot be seen in animals from farm 10 and as it was mainly seen in Jamnapari crosses. mainly growth and reproduction using molecular markers. L. British Society of Animal Science. However these conclusions were preliminary and sequence variation based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of these populations is yet to be analyzed. R. has described three conformational patterns (genotypes) with two alleles for the same gene fragment in three goat breeds for growth and reproduction traits.L. Biol.L. T. Polymorphism in BMP4 gene and its association with growth.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Di. Molecular Biology and Reprodcution 36:1339–1344. Li 2010.. Chuanwen Gu and Wangping Yue 2009. Lu. Xueyuan Gao. Xiucai Hu. Several studies have been conducted on BMP4 gene in different species including human. However. patterns A and B were shown by both local and Jamnapari crossbred goats.

December 15-16. Two samples and two replicates were prepared by conducting Artificial Insemination for one group and conducting Natural Breeding for one group. After 18th day the candling data were collected and after 21st day hatching data were collected. N. Incubator parameters were monitored daily.1976).M. Methodology The study was conducted between 6th of March 2011 to 6th of August 2011.N. For Artificial Insemination program 6 male birds were used for semen collection and 40 female birds used for receiving semen. Finally. Karandagolla N. 1964). Gannoruwa. The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the Artificial Insemination on hatchability in indigenous chicken and to supply increased number of indigenous chicks to farmers by improving hatchability through AI which is the best method for breeding while increasing hatchability.62) (P<0.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Nambapana Uva Wellassa Univesity Badulla. Paired t test was performed for comparisons of the data considering the difference between the groups at 5% level of significance. Results and discussion The mean fertility in the Artificial Insemination Program was significantly lower (25. data were analyzed using SPSS 18 version statistical package. After eggs were collected those were incubated in the same conditions. Sri Lanka and G.They can get high quality and quantity of day old chicks and eggs for daily consumption by rearing indigenous chicken. 2011 Evaluation of the Effect Of Artificial Insemination (Ai) on Hatchability in Indigenous Chicken at Central Poultry Research Station. upgrading and development of several suitable indigenous chickens for back yard poultry farming in Sri Lanka (De Silva.A. Gunawardana Institute of Veterinary Research. 118 . egg breakout analysis were done after every candling and hatching. This experiment was carried out at the Central Poultry Research Station. Andaraweera . All the other management factors feeding. Gannoruwa. (Buvanendran.(Kushanthi et al. . 2003) Introduction of Artificial Insemination (AI) program for indigenous chicken can be used for selection. Karandagolla.at the Central Poultry Research Station. For natural breeding program 4 male birds and 40 female birds were used for better mating performance. Karandagolla under the supervision of staff of Veterinary Research Institute.Sri Lanka Introduction The poultry farming is considered as one of the main livestock sector in Sri Lanka where indigenous chicken farming provides a promising house hold income for people in rural areas of Sri Lanka.D.26) than the mean fertility in Natural breeding program (34. water was given constantly for both groups.05).Peradeniya. Kundasale located in the mid country intermediate zone in Sri Lanka under the administration of Veterinary Research Institute..

There was no significant difference P>0. Flock performance hatchability (23. while the mean of the sellable hatchability in Natural breeding program is 81. December 15-16. The mean of the sellable hatchability in the Artificial Insemination Program is 93.60) in Natural breeding program is higher than the mean. 2011 Fertility 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 weeks 4 5 Fertility % Natural breeding AI program The mean Flock performance hatchability (27. 119 .84. There was a significant difference (P<0.44) in Artificial Insemination program.74.05) between sellable hatchability in Natural Breeding with the sellable hatchability in Artificial Insemination in indigenous chicken.05 between Flock performance hatchability in Natural Breeding with the flock performance hatchability in Artificial Insemination in indigenous chicken. Flock performance hatchability 40 35 Hatchability % 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 weeks 4 5 Natural Breeding .Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.

K.de S. since Artificial Insemination improves hygienic condition and also can be used for breeding indigenous chicken in Sri Lanka.L. P. De Silva. The Ceylon Veterinary Journal. Karandagolla and Staff members of Animal Husbandry school.V.G. C.M.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. References Buvanendran.S. University of Peradeniya. Evaluation of semen characteristics and fertility in a ecotypes of indigenous chicken . 120 . Studies on hatchability of duck eggs. Effect of female genotype on fertility and hatchability in chickens. 2011 Selleble Hatchability 120 100 Hatchability % Natural Breeding Aritificial Inseminati on 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 weeks 4 5 The study revealed that the Natural breeding Program is better than artificial insemination program for breeding of indigenous chicken. Faculty of Agriculture. 1964. The Ceylon veterinary journal. V.. 1976. 11th Annual student research session. Gamage 2003. Dematawewa and D.C. Kushanthi S. Karandagolla. Acknowledgment We express our heartfelt gratitude to all the staff members in Central Poultry Research Station.B. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. 12 (1 and 2). Department of Animal science. December 15-16. 15(01):26-32.

Sri Lanka Introduction Modern intensive poultry production has achieved phenomenal gains in the efficient and economical production of high quality and safe chicken meat. It is only recently that we have come to recognize and understand their importance in achieving high production and efficiency. Ginger as a natural material is good as additive because it has no residual that threat the body organ and safe for the consumer’s health.O. 2011 Study on Effect of Ginger Incorporated Broiler Feed on Body Weight Gain. Ekala. Ginger is also as bacteria static that reduce pathogenic microorganisms in the digestive tracts. Many additives have been a normal part of diets for animals and humans. P. (Peter et al. 1999) Methodology Broiler starter and finisher feed were supplied by CIC feed (Pvt) Ltd. Sri Lanka G. (Achyad et al. Feed Conversion Ratio and Feed Intake of Broiler Chicken R. Ganegoda CIC Feed (Pvt)Ltd. the industry had to maximize the health and well-being of the birds and minimize the impact of the industry on the environment. The gingerol also protect the liver on it activity. One of the natural feed additives is ginger.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 2000) Studies show that the ginger spice has two types of digestive enzymes.S. Rathnayake Uva Wellassa Univesity..P. The ginger works as vaccination by stimulate an organ of bursafebrisius to make an antibody of viral attack such as ND.Sri Lanka and N. Raw 121 . Ginger also contains vitamins and minerals as the peculiar plant. one is protease enzyme that is used to break apart the protein and lipase enzyme that is used to break apart the fat.2004) Probiotic and medicinal plants as natural feed additives are recently used in poultry diet to enhance the performance and the immune response of birds. At the same time as making gains in production and efficiency. December 15-16. Badulla. the feed additives have negative impacts on the consumers due to their residues which mostly remain in the broiler products. eggs and poultry bioproducts (George. Ginger extracts could immune the gastric and improve poultry appetite. The use of feed additives has been an important part of achieving this success. Thus..252.D.No.A. 1996).(Scott. especially on hold the toxic of carbon tetrachloride. maintaining health and wellbeing. Ginger contains bioactive substance such as oleoresin and ginger which give effect to optimize the body organ.. Badulla.Kurunduwatte Road.Box 2 . M. 2008) However. it is important to explore the potential of natural feed additives to replace the chemical ones. Both enzymes improve nutrients digestion and absorption by animals. The major component of ginger is Zingiberen and Zingerol that can stimulate the digestive systems by controlling the digestive pH and the activity of digestive enzyme and the microbial activity. Ginger extracts function as the anti inflammation and anti bacterial. Nambapana Uva Wellassa Univesity.N.M. Ginger was taken as feed supplement with basal diet. improving product quality. and these feeds were taken as basal diets. Ginger is one of natural plants which can be used as phytobiotic to improve broiler’s performance.(Windisch et al.

crude fat 6.79% and crude fiber 6. 36th. 29th. and 2.0% ginger. Each cage was equipped with separate feeder and drinker. The ginger sample was subjected to sieve analysis and proximate analysis (crude protein.9%. crude protein 16. Dry ginger was then ground to get ginger flour.. Artificial light was provided until third day during the day time and night. ash 4. During the brooding period (day 1 to 7). and total ash). Each variable was analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). moisture. Broiler starter ration was given up to 28th day and the finisher ration was started from the 26th day. Ginger supplemented diets were provided separately within treatment groups. Birds were provided ad libitum clean drinking water throughout the study except in vaccination protocol. 2011 ginger was brought in the same place to avoid composition variation. Ginger flour was prepared by washing the ginger under water and then it was slashed and sun-dried for 12 days. crude fiber.27%. On the day seven. Weekly body weight gain. Thereafter. Following replication. Results and discussion Proximate analysis indicated that the feed contained moisture 15. Data were analyzed according to the General Linear Model (GLM) of ANOVA incorporated in Minitab 14. December 15-16. Three ginger samples were taken from three lots of ginger powder to prepare composite sample for the analysis.87%. and 43rd day. body weights and feed intakes were recorded on replicate basis. daily group feed intakes were recorded and weekly live body weights were measured on day eight.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 14th day and Gumboro (Infectious Bursal Disease –IBD) vaccine on 14th. the lights were switched off by considering the behavior pattern of the chicks and environmental conditions to avoid over heating during the day time. Each cage provided 13500 cm2 of floor space and the height of the cage was 90 cm. The feed were G-0 (control feed without ginger). The birds were vaccinated with ND vaccine on 3rd. respectively.0. The feed amount was changed according to the mortality. 122 . and each group was provided with around 6360 cm2 floor spaces. 22nd.83%. Ninety nine day-old female Hubbard flex broiler chicks were used for feed trial they were divided into three treatment groups. Mortality and reasons for deaths were recorded throughout the period of study. The ginger flour was stored in a plastic container to avoid chemical and microbiological damages.0 which were control feed with 1. G-1. 21st. Each compartment consisted forty watts (40 W) bulbs to provide heat. Average body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated using above measurements. each treatment was replicated. feed intake and FCR of the treatments are given in Table 1. Each treatment consisted of three replicates. and G-2. In each replicate. consisting 33 birds in each. The experimental poultry house for growing birds (for day 7 to 42) consisted of nine cages. crude fat.The chicks were reared until day seven in electrical brooder which has been divided into three separate compartments. The initial body weights of the birds were almost similar in all three treatments and average weight was 0.0484 kg. The chicken in each group were given different feed as treatments.0. daily feed intakes were recorded and weekly body weights were recorded on 15th. and each replicate consisted of eleven birds. 28th day. Multi vitamin mixture (Vita light) was given with drinking water in first five days of the study and after vaccination. The replicates were arranged randomly within the nine cages.

91 372. December 15-16.57 0.28 796.52 368.15 1.47 0. Table 2: Results of ANOVA analysis for weight gain Source Treatment DF 2 Seq SS 117082 Adj SS 117082 Adj MS 58541 F 14.73 363.56 1.24 2021.49 1.57 1276.55 58.44 3744.51 402.92 P 0.17 923.39 951.00 1. According to the ANOVA analysis (Table 2).88 3586.19 1251.67 Body Weight Gain (g) Feed Intake (g) FCR The particle size of ginger used in the experiment varied between 16 µm and 30 µm.00 1. According to the ANOVA analysis (Table 2).Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.29 1.92 1643.52 1666.26 1.06 114.05) with 2% ginger supplement. and FCR of Broiler birds Parameter Period (days) 1-7 8-14 15-21 22-28 29-35 36-42 1-7 8-14 15-21 22-28 29-35 36-42 1-7 8-14 15-21 22-28 29-35 36-42 Basal dietBD (Control) 152.00 97. the weight gain also showed a significant difference (p<0.20 2558.15 121.49 790.005 Table 1 shows that the control group had higher feed intake than the groups which were supplemented with ginger throughout the study.26 1.88 0.88 1249.99 BD + 1% Ginger 149.30 400.59 917.04 3584.94 1679.27 2550.13 1.60 1.75 1828.54 1705. 123 .73 BD + 2% Ginger 152.48 1.14 753.10 1.11 2660. According to the Table 1 the body weight gain of the chicks fed with ginger supplement diet has started to enhance at 5th week and in the 6th week it has become significantly different from the control.15 1633.87 2099. 2011 Table 1: Weekly body weight gain.05) with 2% ginger supplement. feed intake.18 1660.18 412.95 1. the feed intake indicated a significant difference (p<0.62 114.

Peter.. Plintzner and A. J. Retrived from http://www. December 15-16. October 11.0% gave a good effect on feed intake.176156 Adj SS 0. 2011 Table 3: Results of ANOVA analysis for total feed intake Source Treatment DF 2 Seq SS 50412 Adj SS 50412 Adj MS 25206 F 43. Based on the research. K.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. There is a potential to add value to nationally available ginger through the broiler feed industry.A.001 124 . Table 4: Result of ANOVA analysis for feed conversion ratio Source Treatment Conclusions Dietary supplementation of ginger powder into broiler feed improves the Body Weight Gain. total feed intake and FCR. So. There was different between 1% and 2% ginger supplementation for the effect body weight gain. further studies are needed to investigate new phytogenic feed additives with more available herbs and medicinal plants in Sri Lanka. C.Cyber extention:Defining a feed additive. D.38 P 0. Scott. However.1996. T. Use of phytogenic product as feed additives for swine and Poultry. 2009.05) with 2% ginger supplement (Table 3).org/index. K.. and decreases Feed Intake and Feed Conversion Ratio in an effective manner. K. J.2011)<http://www. References George.Anim.Tropical Horticulture. 1.E and R.1999. drip loss.V. Ginger.66 P 0. Kroismayr 2008. The FCR of the chicks t fedwith diet supplemented with ginger has enhanced at the 6th week and showed a significant difference (p<0. and to investigate the effect of ginger on the meat quality parameters such as color. cholesterol level.(Accessed on 25. pH. microbiological analysis and strength of meat.php/feed_additives> Achyad. using 2% ginger supplement as phytobiotic additives in broiler diets will give higher body weight gain by consuming lower feed within 42 days. W. Rasyidah 2000.05. Poultry Prooduction Technology.West concert 34-49. Schedle. it can be concluded that adding ginger as the supplement in the ration of broiler up to 2.sci.com/jamu/isi/Jahezingiberoffinale. 2004. DF 2 Seq SS 0. htm.000 According to the Table 1 FCR was higher in control group than ginger supplemented group.088078 F 23.M. Windisch.poultryhub. 86:140-148. and Kandiannan. Jahe (Ginger).Asiamaya. total body weight gain and feed conversion.176156 Adj MS 0.The Avian Publication Company.

Cages were numbered as given in Table 1.S. 41 ºC (106 ºF). Total of four hundred and ninety five Hubbard F15 broiler breeder hens were used from three weeks of age to eighteen weeks of age in this study. Kumara and N.The term "stress" is commonly used to describe the detrimental effects of a variety of situations on the health and performance of poultry. At this point the evaporation of water from the respiratory tract becomes the major heat loss mechanism of the birds (Brake. the genetic potential does not appear in the environment. Badulla. Maintaining a uniform flock during the growing period of the broiler breeders may facilitate higher egg production during breeding period. by conduction to cooler objects with which the bird is in contact (Doug Grieve. the birds were subjected to above conditions from the beginning of third week up to the end of eighteenth week. So the broiler breeder farmers have to pay their attention to maintain over 80% uniform flock with increasing uniformity during both growing and breeding period for maximum production. birds become fatigued and weak.0 ft2 and 1 bird/ 2. December 15-16. The present study. Chicken. better feed conversion. 29 – 31 °C and 31 – 33 °C with stocking densities of 1 bird/ 1. aims to find better combination of whole house temperature and stocking density of broiler breeders to maintain over 80% uniform flock with increasing uniformity during growing period. Caged birds are more susceptible to heat stress because they are unable to seek a cooler place and there is less conductive heat loss in cages. Forty five birds were divided in to nine replicates of five birds each as the control and remaining four hundred and fifty birds were divided in to nine group under temperatures of 27 – 29 °C.M. 1994). After extended or repeated periods of stress. The chicken removes excess body heat by radiation from the skin surface through the air to another object. 29 – 31 °C and 31 – 33 °C) were maintained by using three grower cages at the grower farm of NEL Farm & hatchery. temperature and stocking density are the critical factors for stress of the birds in the poultry houses (Rosales. if there is no optimum environment conditions for growth. Since the past. Sri Lanka Introduction: Although the birds have high genetic potential for faster growth rate.8 ft2. 125 . Among the factor for the better performances and health of the poultry birds. and increased meat yield in their progeny.M. Nambapana Uva Wellassa University. 1987).2 ft2. 2011 Reduction of Stress of Female Broiler Breeders During Growing Period to Maintain the Uniformity Level by Changing Temperature and Stocking density H.L.N. 1994). Each cage was partitioned in to three pens according to the above stocking densities. problems in broiler breeders are caused by combinations of whole house temperature and stocking density. unlike most other animals.W. After two weeks of successful brooding period. Methodology This study was carried out at the NEL Farm & Hatchery that has been established under Noorani Estate Limited Naththandiya. The above temperature conditions (27 – 29 °C. 1 bird/ 2. do not possess sweat glands to aid in heat loss.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 1990). the efficiency of these heat loss mechanisms diminish. so they often succumb to starvation and infectious diseases (Rosales.G. As the environmental temperature approaches the body temperature of the bird.

December 15-16. After sixteenth weeks of age.8ft² 29-31 °C and 2ft² 29-31 °C and 2.000 0. Broiler starter was given as ad libitum and then chick starter and grower feed were given from second week to eighteen weeks of age as restricted feeding. averages from weekly uniformity levels. Body weights of the birds were recorded weekly in each cage during experimental period and uniformity of the each pen was calculated with the help of above weights.8ft² 27-29 °C and 2ft² 27-29 °C and 2.2ft² 29-31 °C and 1. Collected data was analyzed by using two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to analyze the differences between treatment groups using SPSS General Linear Model’s procedures. standard deviation and coefficient of variance for each pen were calculated. After fourth week of age feed restriction was practiced and birds were fed six days for a week (6/1 feeding programme).2ft² 31-33 °C and 1.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Results and discussion Two hypotheses were built relevant to the above study as given below.2ft² 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Broiler starter was given during first two weeks and chick starter was given from third week to end of fourth week. Then grower feed was given from sixth week to eighteen week. 2011 Table 1: Conditions of the cages Cage number Temperature and Stocking density conditions/Treatments 27-29 °C and 1. H0 – There is no significant difference between uniformity with temperature and stocking density combination H1 – There is a significant difference between uniformity with temperature and stocking density combination Component Var (VAR00003) Var (Error) Estimate 0.035 VAR00001 – Dependent variable/Uniformity VAR00002 (Error) – Stocking Density VAR00003 – Temperature 126 . BAT 1 Poultry Scale was used to weigh and calculate the collected data.8ft² 31-33 °C and 2ft² 31-33 °C and 2.

fluctuation of the uniformity is very low.42 0. Under 2.34 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Treatments Figure 1. References Brake. 2011 Results of the study revealed that there is a significant difference between uniformity with temperature (P<0. Technical Bulletin. F. 1994.6offman-La Roche and Co.45 0..0 ft2 stocking density.24 0. D.05) and stocking density (P<0.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.T. 5 has given highest uniformity level than the other eight treatments. 4002 Basle.. fluctuation of uniformity is lowest than the other conditions. Applied Pouluy Science. Ltd.24 0.M. Stress and modem poultry management. Animal Production Highlights. A. Rosales. Uniformit y 1 0 1 0. 1990. Switzerland.310.G. Therefore. A publication of Hy. December 15-16. it has shown somewhat increasing uniformity level comparatively other cages.93 0. the best combination to keep these breeder birds is 29 – 31 0C temperature with 2. In this graph (Cage under 29-31 0C). Doug Grieve. J.Variation of uniformity in different treatments According to the Figure 1 treatment no.0 ft2 stocking density. Managing Stress in Broiler Breeders. Therefore the combination of temperature and stocking density affected for highest uniformity level can be selected as the best combination.43 0. 1987..51 0.Line International. uniformity is over 80% with the 29 – 31 0C temperature.05) combination. According to the graph. Therefore it is the better combination of temperature and stocking density for the broiler breeders to gain better performance. 127 .V.

N. European Union. 2009 and 2010 years (Department of Animal Production and Health. feed digestibility. 2007). Performance of the animal can be increased by increasing the feed conversion by improving the internal environment modification. stimulate blood circulation and reduce level of pathogenic bacteria (Buchaan et al. chicken meat (broiler meat) has the highest demand and broiler meat has been included in the gazette as an essential food item in Sri Lanka since 2007.H. 2007). The production of poultry meat and other poultry products have been drastically increased in Sri Lanka within last few years. The production of feed in 2009 for poultry in Sri Lanka was 454.W.Kurunduwatte Road.. China. 2009). Feed Intake and Feed Conversion Ratio of Broiler chicken W. December 15-16. available feed stuffs and without affecting the performance of birds and the quality of the meat.252.000 Mt. Some of other feed ingredients are used to restrict or avoid the usage of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs).A. Essential oils. Proper nutrition and the better intensive management practices are essentials in poultry industry. Hence feed cost is major cost component in poultry industry and it is accounted up to 60%-70% of the total cost of production. 2010). feed supplementation is done by the farmers/producers. prebiotics. However the feed price has increased after 2008 and the profit margin of the industry has gone down (Department of Animal Product and Health. Sri Lanka and G. This can be achieved by inclusion of antibiotics into feed. Natural herbal materials increase colour lipid oxidation and reduce gut microbial content (Cross et al. The usage of natural plant based materials improves the feed intake.O.M. 2008) 128 . When considering the production of 79. When considering the consumption pattern of the meat in Sri Lanka. The supplementation is done using low cost. Ekala.P Ganegoda CIC Feed (Pvt)Ltd. there is an increase in 2008. 2008)..A. organic acids and phytogenic compounds enhance production of gastric secretions. Antibiotics are the chemicals those which antagonistic towards or destructive of life (The penguin encyclopedia of nutrition. 1985). synbiotics. The world broiler meat production in 2010 was 73 million metric tons (USDA-FAS. 2009). feed conversion efficiency. Sri Lanka Introduction The broiler industry has developed all over the world during past few decades. 2011 Study on Effect of Curry Leaves Supplementation with Broiler Feed on Growth Performance. Mexico are the main Broiler producers in the world (USDA-FAS. phytogenic additives and herbal extracts (Pauline. Brazil. acidifiers. Badulla.No. Some of those are probiotics. the quality of the meat and reduce mortality (Hathurusinghe.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. enzymes. P. Nambapana Uva Wellassa Univesity.Box 2. Poultry meat and other poultry products such as eggs.9 million broiler chicks in Sri Lanka in 2007. N. To overcome this limitation in the industry. antioxidants. have a higher demand in Sri Lanka. The requirement of nutrients for broilers is higher than the other livestock animals. Sampath . 2010).

and 42nd day. 22nd. Following replication. Methodology For the experiment. Data were analyzed according to the General Linear Model (GLM) of ANOVA (Minitab 14). crude fat 1. 28th day. crude fiber. crude protein 6. performance and reduce the cost of production of broilers. body weights and feed intakes were recorded on replicate basis. Final body weight gain of the birds fed basal diet was lower (P<0. December 15-16.05) between 1% and 2% curry leaves supplemented diets for weight gain. blended curry leaves supplementation was used. The curry leaves samples were subjected to sieve analysis and proximate analysis (crude protein. These findings of the study agree with the observations of Hathurusinghe (2008) that states dietary herbal compounds improve the body weight gain and final body weight of broilers The feed intake of chicks and FCR in curry leaves supplemented diets were lower (P<0. daily feed intakes were recorded and weekly body weights were recorded on 8th. FCR and Results of sieve analysis are given in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively. 36th. 99 day old male Hubbard flex chicks were divided into three treatment groups having 33 birds per each group. Birds were provided ad libitum clean drinking water throughout the study except in vaccination protocol.According to the sieve analysis 08 µm and 16 µm were the dominating particle size of curry leaf used in the experiment. the dried. moisture. Multi vitamin mixture (Vita light) was given with drinking water in first five days of the study and after vaccination. 21st. For the study.00% and crude fiber 3.10%. According to results of experiment the body weight gain of chicks fed with curry leaves supplemented diets were higher (P<0.05) than that of other two supplementary groups. Initial body weights. ash 9. 129 . There was no significant difference (P>0. crude fat. Mortality and reasons for deaths were recorded throughout the period of study. During the brooding period (day 1 to 7).98%.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. The birds were vaccinated with ND vaccine on 3rd. 14th day and Gumboro (Infectious Bursal Disease –IBD) vaccine on 14th. 29th.05) than the basal diet.15th. In each replicate.70%. Then each treatment group was divided into three replicates randomly in day 8th to 42nd of age. Results and discussion Proximate analysis of the curry leave supplemented diet consisted moisture 21.92%. 1% and 2% curry leaf supplementation respectively with basal diet. There were three treatments as control group who were fed with basal diet. feed intake or FCR. Results of weekly body weight gain. daily group feed intakes were recorded and weekly live body weights were measured on day eight. Average body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated using above measurements. The study hypothesized that dietary supplementation of curry leaves has an ability to improve the health. and total ash).05) than that of basal diet but weight gains were high in curry leaves supplemented diets. 2011 This study was done to investigate the effect of curry leaves incorporated broiler feed on growth performance and feed conversion ratio of broiler chicken under field condition in Sri Lanka. Three curry leaves samples were taken from three lots of curry leaf powder to prepare composite sample for the analysis. weekly body weight and daily feed intake were measured during the experimental period. Each variable was analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). feed intake. Brooding was practiced in first seven days by dividing only as treatment groups.

27 1.31 116.00 1788.66 1726. December 15-16.00 2247.25 03.88 402.40 116.58 0.11 2672. The current study revealed that the curry leaves can replace dietary antibiotics and since there was no significant difference between 1% and 2% Curry leaves Powder (g) 02 10 05 02 07 02 01 03 Percentage 06.25 15.24 1. feed intake. and FCR of broiler birds Parameter Body Weight Gain (g) Period (days) 1-7 8-14 15-21 22-28 29-35 36-42 1-7 8-14 15-21 22-28 29-35 36-42 1-7 8-14 15-21 22-28 29-35 36-42 Basal diet-BD (Control) 144.80 BD + 1% Curry leaves 159.72 404.44 1.74 3583.26 414. 2011 Table 1: Weekly body weight gain.66 772.57 BD + 2% Curry leaves 150.89 2558.57 2235.24 3589.16 1.56 1659.00 1.38 3747.71 125.33 769.55 0.65 1644.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.12 1.58 372.48 955.25 31.41 0.12 09.68 2028.64 1.51 1292.22 1.61 381.42 1.20 2567.87 06.10 1.62 06.80 1828.33 1293.95 1.32 0.29 921.25 21.22 788.14 1711.87 361.37 130 .31 927.94 0.93 1.56 Feed Intake (g) FCR Table 2: Results of sieve analysis Mesh Number (µm) 07 08 10 12 16 30 35 Bottom plate Conclusions Dietary supplement of curry leaves into broiler feed significantly improves the Body Weight Gain (BWG) and decreases Feed Intake (FI) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) in an effective manner.39 1.66 1288.

Peradeniya. England. Rack and A.N.M. However. Buchaan .Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.com/?Antibiotics-And-The-Mode Of-action and id =1193644> Hathurusinghe. Asmer 2008. 131 . 2009. USDA-FAS attach reports. 2010. 2008. K. J. Sri Lanka. United States Department of Agriculture. Devin. Acamovic 2007. Department of Animal Production and Health.K. Harmondsworth.L. 2010. December 15-16. Brit. further studies are needed to investigate new phytogenic feed additives with more available herbals and medicinal plants in Sri Lanka. Annual Report. S.(Accessed on 20. Appl. Cross.Hillman and T. Cultip. 48:496-506.D.D. References Department of Animal Production and Health. Poult. The penguin encyclopedia of nutrition 1985. Sri Lanka.C. Department of animal science. 1% curry leaf supplementation is adequate to be used in broiler industry.2011)Available at <http://ezinearticles.Cyber extention:Antibiotics and the mode of action.dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age. Pauline. FI and FCR. R. Kandy.P. Middlesex. Hott.. Sci.M. Annual Report. Potential use of selected herbs and spices as alternatives to antibiotics in broilers. USA. Official statistics and results of Office Research. Official statistics and results of Office Research. A. J. Kandy. Final year research project. 2011 curry leaves supplementation on the BWG. Faculty of Agriculture. University of Peradeniya. Peradeniya. USA.06. The study showed that there is a potential to add value to nationally available curry leaf plant through the broiler feed industry.. 2007.E. 2009.17:202-210. Poult. United States Department of Agriculture. G. The effect of herbes and their associated oils on performance .The effect of a natural antibiotic alternative and a natural growth promoter feed additive on broiler performance and carcass quality. H. USDA-FAS attach reports. Penguin books Ltd.E.

132 . Breeding Indigenous cockerels with Black shaver commercial layer hens is the breeding program practiced presently (2011) at CPRS to upgrade the Indigenous chicken. Performance evaluations of resulting chicks obtained through a selective breeding of Black Shaver hens with Indigenous cockerels is the first step of the project.01) in Indigenous group than treatment group eggs. Weerasinghe . weekly body weights.0 analytical software. Nambapana Uva Wellassa University. a. cleaned and fumigated eggs were set into brooder once per week.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.M. Veterinary Research Institute.01) and indigenous groups (p<0. There were significantly higher number of good chicks in black shaver group than treatment (p<0. A replicate was maintained for each mating group. Chicks were taken out on 21st day. b. Results and discussion According to the eggs data analysis results at the 5% level of significance. there were a significantly lower number of fertile eggs (p<0. Obtained Through a Selective Breeding Programme to Introduce into Backyard Poultry Farming S. Black Shaver hens with indigenous cockerels. The Department of Animal Production and Health (DAPH) – Government of Sri Lanka during the past decade through the Central Poultry Research Station (CPRS). One way Analysis of Variance tests were conducted for the collected data. Data of eggs. Dispersion.M. Methodology Hundred thirty eight breeder birds at age of twelve months were randomly selected for the study. Separately collected. Program was carried out at CPRS. Three treatment mating groups. The latter two treatments were regarded as Control 1 and Control 2.C.N. Gunawardene Department of Animal Breeding. Data were analyzed using Microsoft office excel and SPSS 16. Karandagolla. Central tendency. Indigenous hens with indigenous cockerels were maintained in constant conditions. Sri Lanka Introduction Poultry production has increased rapidly and tremendously in the last two decades in Sri Lanka (Gamage et al. Badulla. average feed intake per day and mortality were recorded in treatments and two control groups including replicates. December 15-16. birth weights. 1993). Eggs were candled on 18th day and transferred into Hatcher machine. Karandagolla. Sri Lanka and G. numbered. 2011 Performance Evaluation of Chicks.01).. Gannoruwa. Kundasale has been distributing upgraded indigenous chicken among Backyard farmers. N. Black shaver hens with Black shaver Cockerels and c. Wing band was given to each bird for identification. Twenty hens and three cockerels were included in each mating group. Peradeniya.

There were significantly higher mortality (p<0.Annual report 1993.G.Sri Lanka Veterinary research Institute. Overall performance of treatment chicks’ were in between the black shaver chicks and indigenous chicks.S.05) in treatment chicks’ than black shaver chicks.G. 2011 Feed intake of treatment chicks is significantly lower (p<0.01) of treatment chicks’ than black shaver chicks and significantly lower (p<0. Treatment / Resulting chicks of selectively bred group had the better performance than indigenous chicks when considering most of the evaluated factors. Feed intakes of treatment chicks’ were lower than black shaver chicks. Podimenike 1993.V.. December 15-16. the birth weights and weekly body weights of treatment chicks’ were almost similar to that of black shaver and indigenous chickens. G.01) mortality of treatment chicks’ than indigenous chicks. 133 . References Gamage D. Black shaver chicks had the best performance out of all three groups.Peradeniya.Gannoruwa.S. Jeyaruban. Wijekoon and G.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Development of local commercial egg laying strains at Central Poultry Research Station (CPRS) at Karandagolla. M. Conclusions Considering all the results of study.

The cream filled Duran bottles were held in four temperatures as 72 °C (T1). Perera Fonterra Brands Lanka (pvt) ltd. appearance) of cream samples were measured by getting three cups from each sample. Sri Lanka and M. As the control sample other 1 kg of cream sample was used.N. The treatments which are given and the conditions under which cream is held will have a direct effect on its keeping quality. chemical (pH. 4 kg of cream sample was divided in to 1 kg of four samples separately. Frautech.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. A thermometer inserted (OAKION. England) cream filled Duran bottle was kept along with samples in each trial to check the accuracy of the pasteurization temperature. Pasteurization of raw cream after separation can be done to improve the keeping quality. titratable acidity) and physical parameters (colour. Biyagama. D. 78 °C (T3) and 81 °C (T4) for 15 seconds in the water bath (model:Wb29. serial number. Therefore a method that could be used to extend the keeping quality of raw cream beyond four days would be a helpful and economical to the industry. After heat treatment samples were cooled by immediate immersion in running cold water at about 12 °C for 10 minutes and then the samples were transferred aseptically in to cups. This investigation was undertaken to determine the effective pasteurization temperature/time combinations to improve the keeping quality of cream. As there are no regulations governing heat treatment of cream in Sri Lanka. Each temp trial was replicated. Germany). Cream is a good substrate for microbial growth due to its high nutritional value. 75 °C (T2). odour. Initially microbiological (Aerobic plate count. Mudannayake Uva Wellassa University. Shelf life of raw cream currently produced as an ingredient for curd production at Fonterra Brands Lanka (Pvt) Ltd is estimated to be approximately four days at 4 °C. Generally. 2347890754.P. Gunawardana. Yeast and Moulds.P. Each 1 kg of cream sample was transferred in to Duran bottles aseptically and three bottles were used for each of the temperature. Memmert. the time/temperature combinations used vary widely in practice. Methodology Raw cream (60% fat) sample was obtained from the cream separator (Serial no: 95078. Italy) in the factory. in dairy processing factories separated cream is held on a period of time prior to incorporation in to the dairy products. December 15-16.C. The spoilage of cream from separation till the production of dairy products has been a critical problem to producers. Badulla. 2011 Effect of Different Pasteurization Temperature-Time Combinations on Shelf Life of Raw Cream in Relation to its Microbiological. Sri Lanka Introduction Cream is a vital ingredient in manufacturing of many dairy products. A complete randomized design was used to ensure that each temperature and time held a same position in processing in each three replicate. Chemical and Physical Properties C. Coliform). All above 134 . All the cups were kept in the cold room which has a temperature of 4 ± 1 ºC. Initially the fat content of the sample was measured according to the Gerber method described in IDF 152 A: 1997. texture.N.

2006) after the 3rd day of refrigerated storage (4 oC). Results As there are no regulations governing heat treatment of cream in Sri Lanka. On the 9th day APC of T1 (6. 12th. Coliforms < 100 CFUg-1 (Raw Cream) and < 10 CFUg-1 (Pasteurized cream). Throughout the study coliforms were not detected in any of the cream samples. This is an agreement with Robinson (1999) who stated that a higher temperatures than 80 ˚C may impair cream quality. 15th.71) compared that of pasteurized samples. Yeasts < 1000 CFUg-1 and Moulds < 10 CFUg-1 (Raw cream). 6. December 15-16. T3 and T4 were increased markedly after 9th.84 × 104 CFUg-1). Control sample had the lowest initial pH value (6. Yeast and Moulds. Discussion Adherence to relevant regulatory requirements.74. Yeasts and Moulds were not detected in any treatment sample during the whole period of storage at 4 oC. 9th days respectively. APC of control sample exceeds its microbiological limit (The Bureau of Indian standards. 12th. 15th and 9th days. and T4) 6. 5. pH of the treatments T1. Titratable acidity of control sample was rapidly increased after the 3rd day.79. APC. In the refrigerated storage.0.8×102 CFUg-1 and 2. At the end of the storage (30 days) Yeast and Mould counts detected in the control sample were 2. possibly through activation of bacterial spores. The pH and titratable acidity data were analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and Duncan New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) from the statistical software package SAS 9. coliforms were tested in cream processing area and handling equipments as well. 12th. T3 and T4 exceed the microbiological limit (The Bureau of Indian standards. Mould growth on the surface was observed only in the control sample at 5th day of refrigerated storage. Similarly titratable acidity of the treatments T1. T3 and T4 decreased markedly after 9th.91×102 CFUg-1 respectively.62. 2006) after the 9th. But APC of treatments T1.73. 6. In the T4 (81 oC) APC was increased significantly after 9th day compared to other treatments. Initial pH of the treatments (T1. 5. After the 3rd day Yeasts and Moulds were increased markedly in control sample. T1 and T4 exceed microbiological limit at the same day (9th day) at refrigerated storage. T2.97 × 104 CFUg-1) was greater than T4 (6.72 were declined with time up to 5. T2. the microbiological limits set out by the Bureau of Indian standards (2006) were used in this study.75 and 6. Colour of the T4 sample was impaired (turned to yellow colour) after pasteurization compared to other treatments. 135 . 2011 parameters were checked in 3 days interval for 30 days at temperature 4 oC. Yeasts < 100 CFUg-1 and Moulds < 1 CFUg-1 (Pasteurized cream). T2.13.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.83 and 5. all the cream samples were thickened and the gelation was occurred and also slight putrefactive odour was occurred. APC < 107 CFUg-1 (Raw Cream) and < 6 × 104 CFUg-1 (Pasteurized Cream). T3. T2. 15th and 9th day respectively. not allowing microbial counts to exceed regulatory limits is important in determining the shelf life of cream.

The yellow colour development in T4 was due to the high pasteurization temperature. pH and titratable acidity of the treatment samples were significantly differ (P<0. 2006. T4 and control sample had shelf life of 9.L. According to DNMRT the higher mean value for pH was in the T3. T3-0. 1948. Crossley. This could be due to the fact that pasteurization destroys many of the lactic acid producing microorganisms.157. New Delhi Codex standards for cream for direct consumption.179. it is possible to extend the shelf life of the raw cream by pasteurization process beyond four days. 1948 acid production by S. Throughout the study coliforms were not detected in any of the cream samples. According to physical parameters minimum changes during the refrigerated storage was observed in sample pasteurized to 78 ˚C for 15 s. Bureau of Indian standards.05) in lactic acid development during refrigerated storage of control and pasteurized cream samples.169. E.05) difference in pH of pasteurized and the control samples that is mainly due to pasteurization. 2003. Journal of Dairy Research. neither in containers used to store cream nor in the cream separator.K. while mold growth was started after 5th day of control sample. 2011 Yeast and Mould colonies were not observed in treatment samples. T2. There was a significant difference (P<0. Codex Alimentarius Commission. Coliforms were not detected in the floor of the cream separation area. Bacteriological flora and keeping quality of pasteurized liquid cream. The results indicated that a high level of hygiene is maintained throughout the cream separation and storage in the factory. The increment of titratable acidity is a reflection of souring activity due to lactic acid produced by microorganisms. T3. lactis is dominated in raw cream stored in 4 ˚C.218). According to the findings of Robinson (1999) the thickening was accompanied by a slight putrefactive odour. 1999. These results are due to destruction of Yeasts and Moulds in cream by the pasteurization. The highest shelf life was detected in the sample pasteurized to 78 ˚C for 15 s. Modern dairy technology.297) than the treatments (T1-0. T4-0. Conclusions Pasteurization of raw cream shows a higher shelf life than the raw cream in refrigerated storage (4 ˚C). The overall conclusion is that. The increase of titratable acidity of control samples during the refrigerated storage can be explained with this statement. Psychotroph-derived proteases may also cause spoilage involving thickening and gelation. 12. After the 30 days of storage at 4 ˚C titratable acidity was very high in the control sample (0. 15:261-276 Robinson. References Bureau of Indian standards specifications. According to the Robinson (1999) lipolytic enzymes produced by psychotropic bacteria can result from long refrigerated storage of pasteurized cream. Maryland. December 15-16. T2-0. There was a significant (P< 0. The best temperature time combination is 78 ˚C for 15 s. 15. 9 and 3 days respectively according to microbiological data (The Bureau of Indian standards. 1:61-101. These observations can be explained by the results of microbiological evaluation of the cream separation environment and the cream handling equipments in the factory.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Aspen publishers. T1. 2006). R. From mean values in DNMRT the highest pH and the lowest titratable acidity were in the sample that was pasteurized to 78 ˚C for 15 s. According to Hammer. 136 .05) compared to control sample.

Urea-molasses mineral block (UMMB) licks can improve the utilization of low quality roughages by satisfying the requirement of the rumen microorganisms. Urea. However.D Jayasena Uva Wellassa University. as UMMB promotes an optimal ammonia level for efficient microbial activity in the rumen (Kunju. In general. Several methods have been reported in Sri Lanka to improve the nutritive value of low quality roughages. 1983. 1995) but very few studies have been conducted on the use of UMMB with good quality forage-based diets. This improvement was attributed to “supplementary” and “catalytic” effects of UMMB. 2011 Effects of Supplementation of Nitrogen through Urea Molasses Multinutrient Block (UMMB) on the Performance of Dairy Cows Fed with Good Quality Forage Based Diets While Using Rice Straw as Night Feeding D. the objective of this study was to 137 .C. D. 2007). which is responsible for the lower production. and SNF and UMMB supplemented animals had a significantly higher body weight than those fed with control diets. Thus. Molasses is a source of readily fermentable energy (Wongnen. (2010) to evaluate the effects of supplementation of nitrogen through UMMB on the performance of dairy cows fed with good quality forage based diets. creating a better environment for the fermentation of fibrous material and increasing production of microbial protein and volatile fatty acids (Wongnen. Sri Lanka Introduction In Sri Lanka. December 15-16. Several researchers have previously reported on the use of UMMB licks for supplementing the crop residue-based diet of large and small ruminants (Leng. Sri Lanka and W.D. the dairy industry is not well developed but has huge potential for the development. highlighted that UMMB supplementation significantly increased milk yield and yields of milk fat. provides a nitrogen source for the rumen microflora for their microbial protein synthesis. Gannoruwa. Results of one such study by Weerasinghe et al.R.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. 1986). after hydrolyzing into ammonia in the rumen. animal’s genetic potential for the milk production has not been achieved in many cases. animals are fed with poor quality roughages and concentrate feeding is very limiting thus. Jayawickrama . 2001). It has been shown that animal performance has improved tremendously after the introduction of UMMB under field conditions (Kunju. no information available on the use of straw as night feeding to replace the amount of grass supplied in the day time. 1986). protein. Among the constraints faced by the dairy industry. which assists the growth of rumen microorganisms.B Weerasinghe Veterinary Research Institute. Peradeniya. Mudannayake. Poor quality roughages contain very little energy and protein. 2007). Sansoucy. Hard solid blocks of UMMB provide readily available sources of energy and protein in the form of molasses and urea together with fiber and minerals (Saddul and Boodoo.P. Among those.K.M. poor nutrition status of the animals has been identified as a major obstacle for the development of dairy industry in Sri Lanka. Badulla. it suggests that the improvement of production and performance could be due to improved digestibility of the basal diet. UMMB feeding is one of the easier methods. D.

Milk yield was recorded and milk samples were collected once a week throughout the experimental period (5 weeks) for laboratory analysis. Throughout the experiment.05) by UMMB supplementation.. In addition. Feed samples (mineral block and rice straw) were analysed according to the methods described in A. The data were analyzed as a randomized block design using “Genstat” (Discovery Edition). protein. lactose and solid non fat. hybrid Napier) ad-libitum and dairy cow concentrate feed 1 kg/day during the day time and rice straw (5 kg dry matter) was supplied as night feeding. Methodology Ten multifarous crossbred dairy cows in their early lactation were randomly allocated to two groups (Supplemented and control) based on their milk yield. Similarly. CO3) ad-libitumly during the day time.e.05) on contents and yields of milk fat. and solid non fat were measured using an Ultrasonic Portable Milk analyzer (LACTOSCAN. December 15-16. the effect diminished. the supplementation with UMMB had not affected straw intake. The contents of milk fat. Results and discussion Supplementation of urea-molasses multinutrient block had no effect (P>0. But average milk yield (mean value) had increased numerically in the treatment group compared with the control diet fed animals.05) on straw intake. (2004). Conclusions It can be concluded that nitrogen (in the form of urea) supplied through UMMB provided with good quality fodder grasses and dairy cow concentrates with provision of rice straw as night feeding has no effect on production performance of dairy cows. Cows were milked twice daily at 0700 and 1600 h using a mobile milking machine. 2011 evaluate the effects of supplementation of UMMB to dairy cows fed with good quality forage based diets while supplying rice straw as night feeding. SA type). UMMB supplementation had no effect (P>0. the cows were penned individually and had free access to water.O. straw intake and weight gain were measured. thus the cows were not in the need of extra dry matter intake. Both groups were fed with chopped CO3 (Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum americanum.05) on milk yield. lactose. body weight. (2000). good quality fodder grass (i. But all those values were numerically high in UMMB supplemented animals compared to the control group. As basal diet consisted of good quality roughage source and sufficient amount of 138 . milk urea nitrogen content and weight gain was not affected (P>0. Supplementation of urea-molasses multinutrient block had no effect (P>0. In addition. milk fat and protein contents measured in previous three days before feeding the experimental diets. the treatment group was supplemented with 300 g/day of crushed urea-molasses multinutrient block at three equal meals (100 g at a time) during the day. The composition of UMMB was similar to that described previously by Weerasinghe et al. Therefore it can be suggested that those feed might have been adequate in providing optimum nutrition to the animals. protein. rice straw). 1989) and when the quality of the diet improved with the inclusion of concentrate. parity. breed.C..Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.A. even though night feeding is totally based on poor quality roughage (i. In addition. It can be observed that an increase in dry matter intake (DMI) is significant generally in studies where the basal diet consists mainly of poor quality roughages either hay or straw (Badurdeen et al. In this study. This could be due to feeding of concentrate and.e.

A.M.M. 111-124. Rome. R.W.L. 2007.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. U. Faizal. The potential of solidified molasses based blocks for the correction of multinutritional deficiencies in buffaloes and other ruminants fed low quality agro industrial by-products. Feed supplementation of dairy cattle with UMMB in the northeastern region of Thailand. Kandy. 2011 concentrate feed. Vienna. Urea molasses block lick: a feed supplement for ruminants. FAO. Schiere (eds). 24–28 March 1986.P.M. Weerasinghe. Ibrahim & J. S. Urea-molasses multinutrient blocks: simple and effective feed supplement technology for ruminant agriculture. Response to urea molasses multinutrient blocks as a supplement in the diet of goats. Proceedings of an International Workshop.N. Boodoo 2001. Palliyeguru and N. Rice straw and related feeds in ruminant rations. New developments in the manufacture and utilization of multinutrient blocks.th/~nuclear/symposium44/Narong. a numerical increment of milk production and quality with UMMB supplementation suggested that creating low nutrient contents in the diet through reducing concentrate feed and good quality roughage could be fulfilled through provision of UMMB and night feeding of rice straw.chula. Mangalika and R.C. D.htm Acknowledgements We would like to express our warmer thanks to all the staff members and laboratory assistants of the chemistry laboratory of the Veterinary Research Institute. Sri Lanka Veterinary Journal 51:(1)28. 135-150. 419. Agricultural Research and Extension.J. Wongnen. R. Chandima 2010. M.C. References Kunju. 1995.. In: Feed supplementation blocks. W. valuable information and necessary facilities to carry-out the research..M.P. in: M.G.D.pdf Sansoucy.P.. December 15-16. Abstracts of the 5th International Nitrogen Conference.vet..P.S.B.B. nutrients provided through UMMB would not be required by the animals for their milk production.A. for providing us with expertise guidance. IAEA. Even though not significant. Silva. N. Silva.T. www. FAO Animal Production and Health paper No. India. Formulation of cement free urea molasses multinutrient block for ruminants. 78-83 Weerasinghe. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper (FAO).ac. 261– 274.gov. www. P. Priyankarage. 1983. and A. 139 .82. S. In: The Use Nuclear Techniques to Improve Domestic Buffalo Production in Asia.B. Priyankarage 2004. New Delhi. N. Effects of supplementation of nitrogen through urea molasses multinutrient block (UMMB) on the perfiormance of dairy cows fed with good quality forage based diets. Leng.mu/portal/sites/ncb/moa/farc/amas2001/pdf/p1. 1986.A.P. 3-7 December 2010. Peradeniya. Gannoruwa.S. Saddul. W.A. Sri Lanka.

K. Salmonella Isolation Protocol Each swab sample was pre-enriched at 37 °C in 5 ml of buffered peptone water (BPW) and placed in incubator overnight (ISO 6579). Badulla. after the products leave the processing plant or after the animal is slaughtered at retail shop itself. Veterinary Research Institute. type of meat display. 2010). Mudannayake.H. Therefore. Furthermore this study focused on making recommendations to improve quality assurance to mitigate the risk to consumers by identifying the risk factors associated with Salmonella cross contamination in retail chicken meat outlets. Sri Lanka and J. D. sales scale. additional processing and re-packaging of raw poultry meat products often occur. source of hygienic condition and etc by using pre prepared questionnaires. The risk in different countries varies according to the control measures and the practices implemented along the food chain from primary production to final preparation of the meat for consumption (FAO/WHO.S. D. storage conditions of meat. Each of these steps may provide a new opportunity for bacterial contamination or growth. storage. nature of sales. All swab samples were processed immediately after reaching the laboratory. Alwis . commercial chicken meat has been identified as one of the most important food vehicle for Salmonella (Abd El-Malek et al.C. Swabs were placed in labeled containers and returned to the laboratory in an iced (at 4 ºC) Styrofoam box. 2011). Transportation. utensils to recover the microbes.D. Ubeyarathna Central Veterinary Investigation Centre. 2011 Evaluation of Salmonella Cross Contamination at Retail Chicken Meat Outlets in Kandy Area U. While numerous potential vehicles of transmission exist.K. the current study aimed at evaluating the Salmonella cross contamination at retail chicken meat outlets in Kandy area. Swabbing process Sterilized swabs were lightly moistened in saline water swabbed along the area of contact surfaces. Sri Lanka Introduction Salmonellosis is among the most frequently reported food borne disease worldwide. handling. 0. The prevalence of Salmonella contamination in poultry meat obtained at retail grocery stores is a better indicator of the public health risk.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Gannoruwa. type of products. inadequate power supply and low level of hygiene in retail outlets. The RV media were then 140 . December 15-16. Salmonella in retail chicken meat outlets could be attributed to lack of proper cold chains.D. Methodology Samples were collected during the month of April 2011. way of handling meat. Data collection Fifteen (15) retail shops were selected to collect data based on their type of sales.1ml of each sample of this stock was transferred to 10 ml of Rappaport Vassiliadis (RV) medium. Jayasena Uva Wellassa University.

Presumptively positive pink colonies were bio-chemically confirmed with Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) agar.33. December 15-16. Therefore the overall prevalence of Salmonella in retail chicken meat outlets was 21% (95% C.I 11. had a significantly higher risk of Salmonella prevalence than the other type of retail chicken meat outlets with cooling facilities during displaying meat (p <0.The retail outlets which had no cooling facilities for raw chicken meat during display. Retail outlets without slaughtering facilities represented 60% of the sample and retail outlets with slaughtering facilities represented 40% of the sample. 12 swab samples of Salmonella suspected isolates from selective media were bio-chemically identified as Salmonella.46 53. Meat stored at room temperature during display was 13 times more likely to be contaminated with Salmonella than meat stored at cooling temperature during display (C.05).05) No of outlets 7 8 9 6 5 10 % 46. Retail chicken outlets with slaughtering facilities had a significantly higher prevalence of Salmonella positive samples than retail chicken outlets without slaughtering facilities (p <0.37. Weighing scale (33%).3 66.63).3 60 40 33. Urease and SIM medium. 0. Prevalence of Salmonella cross contamination at retail chicken meat outlets with slaughtering facilities versus without slaughtering facilities Two types of retail chicken meat outlets were observed during the study. showed the highest percentage of Salmonella prevalence. Presumptively positive black colonies were subcultured on Brilliant Green (BG) agar plates and incubated at 37 ºC for another 24 hours. Table 1: Multivariate regression analysis of frequency of cleaning. use of detergents and use of disinfectant as risk factors for Salmonella contamination at retail chicken meat outlets Predictor Frequency of cleaning Use of detergents Categories Two times per day Less than two times Yes No Use of disinfectant Yes No Statistically significant at (α =0.6 0.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. One loopful of RV media from each sample was streaked onto Xylose Lysine Deoxycolate (XLD) agar plates and the plates were incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours.88-207. Results Prevalence of Salmonella cross contamination at retail chicken meat outlets in Kandy area Out of 57 swab samples collected.I.88). 2011 incubated at 42°C for 24 hours.05).7 0. Meat containing trays/buckets (27%) and Cutting board (25%). Knife (14%) and showcase (9%) showed relatively low percentage of Salmonella prevalence.062 P 141 . Simmons Citrate agar.

rules and regulations and the knowledge gap are the hurdles for hygienic production of chicken meat at retail outlets in the country. it is recommended that hygiene measures should be aimed at minimizing cross contamination between raw chicken and hands.71% for raw chicken breast and 71. contact surfaces and utensils. The conditions during slaughtering.05) with the Salmonella cross contamination. packing. The requirements for meat handling at retail. 2011 Risk analysis for Salmonella cross contamination at retail chicken meat outlets Factors that were included in the risk analysis were not significantly associated (p > 0. When high moisture niches are present Salmonella may be a significant hazard. selective enrichment. Sri Lanka needs its own unique model of development to assure the quality and safety of poultry products at retail outlets. 2004). India 65. The differences in the media used for enrichment. This level of contamination is lower than with the recent literature from countries like Vietnam 53. type and size of sample analyzed. December 15-16. Discussion The present study demonstrated an overall Salmonella cross contamination of 21% for the retail chicken meat outlets in Kandy area. transportation. The survival and the growth of microbes in a food processing environment may lead to contamination of the finished product. Conclusions This higher rate of Salmonella cross contamination at retail chicken meat outlets could be attributed to lack of proper cold chains. 2004). advanced processing practices (including the use of dry chilling of carcasses). 2006). The different rate of contamination in different countries can also be related to climate and temperature of storage of raw meat at retail meat outlets.. but similar to Maryand 23% for raw chicken meat (Myint.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. and more effective use of refrigeration in meat transport in developed countries could also help to reduce cross contamination of meat (Van et al. unstable policy. The absence of centralized slaughter facility and the small volume of retail business. The true incidence of salmonellosis is difficult to evaluate because of lack of an epidemiological surveillance system in the country.3% (Van et al. 2007). and isolation can also affect estimates of prevalence (Myint. 2006). 2007). and opportunities for cross-contamination at retail outlets can result large changes in the risk of salmonellosis to the consuming public. handling. 142 . The findings of this study are vital to the public health risk of the country. Better equipment in slaughterhouses. Cleaning and disinfecting procedures for processing. 2011)... processing. and holding equipment may be critical control points for prevention of post processing recontamination. and minimal facilities and poor level of hygiene in retail outlets. A greater potential risk is that slaughtering animals at same place where all evisceration and cleaning take place. Canada 30% for raw chicken legs (Bohaychuk et al. The differences in the prevalence of Salmonella in raw poultry may be due to country of origin. is used for handling. Therefore. and methodology (Bohaychuk et al. holding at retail outlet. and even further portioning of the final product at the retail grocery store outlet prior to sale to the consumer.43 for raw chicken thigh (Wilfred and Nadeem.

Report of joint FAO/WHO Food standards programme.. Vol. 2011 References Bohaychuk. Epidemiology of Salmonella contamination of poultry meat products: knowledge gaps in the farm to store products..Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Wu 2006. A. Gensler. S. M. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. S. Abd El-Malek Mohamed and K. E. 29 November – 3 December 2010.. Occurrence of Pathogens in Raw and Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products Collected from the Retail Marketplace in Edmonton. Detection and identification of Salmonella species in minced beef and chicken meats by using Multiplex PCR in Assiut city. Detection of Salmonella spp. M.D. Moutafis and T. Hassan Ali 2. O. Fairoze 2011. FAO/WHO. and N. M. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 42 Session.Sorensen. K.J. T. Dissertation: University of Maryland. I. Elsayh 2011. Mcmullen. T. K. Effect of processing condition on microbiological quality of market poultry meats in Banglore. A. 2004. 2010.I.4 (1):5-11. Uganda. Hassanein. Ruban. USA. Journal of Food Protection. Alberta. Vol. 73:6885–6890. Van 2007.King. 86-98. 143 . Kampala. India. R. W. Myint M. L. Manninen. Proposed draft guidelines for control of Campylobacter and Salmonella spp in chicken meat. V. in Retail Raw Food Samples from Vietnam and Characterization of Their Antibiotic Resistance. December 15-16. T. Stiles and J. M. P. Canada. Coloe. 69(9):2176–2182. G. G. S. 10(2):188-191. Codex committee on food hygiene. M. Veterinary World. Maryland.Istivan. H. Ph. F. R.. E.

regression model was designed to identify the factors affecting the fish quality. Methodology As secondary data. Trincomalee and Kalpitiya harbours were selected by stratified sampling method. The raw material flow and the material balance of the fish canning factory also were identified to get an idea about the type and the amount of waste and the environmental impact of those wastes. Sri Lanka Deepa Gamage Industrial Development Board. Then possible solutions were to minimize those effects under the green supply chain management approaches was established. 2011 Establishment of Community Based Fish Factory Through Green Supply Chain Management Approaches A. Fish quality was considered as the dependent variable because if the fish quality is high there may be fewer post harvest losses. supply chain of the fish. Dondra. Ceylon Fisheries and Harbour Cooperation (CFHC) and customs reports. average experience in fishing. import quantity of the fishery products were collected from the data base of Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (MoFAR).Jayamanne Uva Wellassa University. type and quantity of fish production in each district. Therefore. as primary data and to get detail information on fishing methods and post harvest losses. This may be due to lack of facilities and lack of knowledge of the fishermen. having highest number of multi-day boats. December 15-16. temperature after unloading. Under the greening concept the main idea is to increase the resource utilization by maximizing the output and reduce the environment impact. storing condition on boat.D. Those harbours were visited to collect fifty samples (ten samples from each harbour). time period of fishing and total fish catch were collected by using structural interview method. All other calculations were done according to this 144 . According to Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources there is a 30% of post harvest loss in Sri Lankan marine fish industry. Then a proper site was selected and type of the fish was selected and assumed that the production will be 1500 cans per day. time period of fishing and total fish catch were considered as independent variables. Fishing gear. As primary data. Negombo. Badulla. by applying the greening concept the post harvest losses can be reduced and the environment effect could be minimized and maximum gain could be obtained from the existing resources.Wijenayake Uva Wellassa University. Storing condition on boat. temperature after unloading. average experience in fishing.C. Establishment of a community based fish processing factory through green supply chain management approaches is tested here as an option to minimize the post harvest losses in Sri Lankan fish industry. Beruwala.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. After identification of supply chain. Sri Lanka Introduction Post harvest loss is one of the main problems in Sri Lankan fish industry. Galle Road. Badulla. Katubedda and S.

The best quantity of fish is estimated as 2700 kg.011 1. 2011 assumption and the feasibility study was carried out finally to find out whether the project is feasible to be implemented.087 -. Time period of fishing and average fishing experience” and find out the highest frequency of “Fishing gear and storing method in the boat” and when considering temperature after unloading.049 .946 Total fish -.203 -.05). When considering fish storing method it is better to have racks so that there will not be excess fish and there may be fewer damages to early caught fish.032 .078 P Fishing gear -3.003 -2. 145 . identified what will the best under greening concept. So there will not be excess fish and there may be fewer damages to fish caught early.002 -.530 Time Period -.003 .029 -4.670 -1.706 . time period of fishing.135 Standardized Coefficients Beta t 12. Then fish processors were evaluated by identifying and quantifying raw material flow to gain the knowledge on the amount of inputs and outputs from each step.004 Dependent Variable: fish quality According to the result fishing gear. According to collected data identified that average fishing experience is about seven years. temperature after unloading.000 . Results and discussion The first two stakeholders (fishermen and commission agent) were analyzed by developing a regression model. identified that 13 days are the best time period of fishing.211 -2. storing condition in the boat. are the factors which are significantly affect the fish quality (P<0.248 . When experience is high they know how to catch the fish by avoiding damages and also how to store the fish with minimum damages. Correlation Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 (Constant) Storing B 100.483 -2. average experience in fishing.798 3.113 -.386 . it is obviously to have less than 40C. Pole and line method found to be the best fishing method. December 15-16. From collected data found out the average of the “Total fish catch. Environment impacts from each step were found out and possible solutions were suggested.489 .131 -4.128 Temperature -3.389 Experience 1.804 . When consider about the time period of fishing. if not histamine formation will be high.531 Std. According to the collected data. Error 8. If the fish quality is higher than 75% considered that those fish are very good and can be use in processing.000 .349 -.202 .Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.415 1.000 .

However. it is not possible to achieve 100% performance at the start.gov. So the feasibility of the project is in first year is 50. So the factors.. Fishing gear.fisheriesdept.42%. 80% in the second year and finally 100% performance in the third year. Canning industry was selected as the processing method by looking at the quantity of fish products imported. Temperature after unloading. 2008. 274280.gov.42%. Mohanty. Fish quality is taken as the main factor which is affecting to the greening of supply chain. It indicates that the project is highly feasible to be implemented. The figures indicate that the project is highly feasible. Traditional and modern post-harvest technologies for increased food and supply from inland fisheries in Africa. Ames. Finally feasibility of the project was studied under the greening concept. According to the profitability statement the return on investment was 83.lk/ (accessed on 08.2011) Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) [Online] Available at: http://www. R. December 15-16. Therefore.lk/ Geoffrey. That means if the quality of the fish is high there will be less waste generation and less environment impact and also can use the existing resources efficiently.05% and the second year is 66. it is proposed to achieve 60% performance in the first year. Conclusions Establishment of a community based fish canning factory under green supply chain management approaches is a highly feasible project.fisheriescorporation. UK.73% and in the third year 83.05. 2002.42% . The Return On Investment (ROI) of the project is 83. Proper factory layout was designed to minimize the waste and all necessary steps were taken to minimize the environment effect and finally to have safe and quality products to consumers. R. References Ceylon Fisheries Corporation (CFC) [Online] Available at: http://www. Deshmukh. S.. 146 .G.. 2011 According to the collected data Matara was selected as the best location for the factory having the highest fish production in Sri Lanka. Time period of fishing and Total fish catch were identified to be affecting the fish quality. Natural Resources Institute Chatham.indicating that the project is highly feasible.P. Storing condition in the boat.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. Average experience in fishing. Essentials of Supply Chain Management. Skip jack tuna (Balaya) was selected as the best species for processing.

Two hundred and fifty numbers of day-old fry were stocked in each tank and were fed six times a day according to the feeding schedule given in Table 1.C. The demand for the fresh water fish is quite does not meet the demand because there are so many constraints related with the fresh water ornamental fish farming. The major constraint is the cost of feed especially during the stage of the post larva and fry. Fifteen aquarium tanks of same size were used for the experiment and three tanks each were used for control and four treatments. Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii is the most common live food used in commercial larviculture of fresh water ornamental fish (Dahlgren and Phang.. S.30 MW MW .00 PF 4. microworms) for Fresh Water Fish Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).30 MW 4. Artemia.00 PF 1.00 M 11.00 BS 3. Ltd.00 PF 11.30 PF 4.H. Introduction Ornamental fish farming is an expanding industry and its global export trade has grown steadily and today it is a multimillion dollar industry in many countries (Andrews.00 PF 11.Moina Treatment 4 Time Feed 8.00 M 4.N.00 M 9. 1990).4000. December 15-16.00 MW 1. Three types of live food cultures namely. Wagawatte.W. Hewavitharana Tropical Fish International( Pvt). Sri Lanka contributes approximately 1% of the world's demand for ornamental fish. 2011 Cost Reduction of Brine Shrimp by Replacing of Low Cost Live Cultures (Moina.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.00 MW 1.Powder Feed BS .00 M 9.30 MW M. The present study aimed to find a suitable low cost live food which can replace high cost Artemia in aquariums giving more profits to the ornamental fish traders. 1985.30 MW PF .P. Moina and Microworms were maintained for 21 days during feeding trials. Brine shrimp. Mass culture of Moina and micro worms were carried out prior to conducting feeding trials. Three types of live feed. Microworm and Moina and powder feed were used for feeding and the fry were fed ad libitum at each time. Kim et al.00 MW 1.00 PF 3.00 PF 9. Horana.00 PF 11. Methodology The experiment was carried out at the Tropical Fish International Private Limited.00.Brine Shrimp 147 Treatment 3 Time Feed 8.00 BS 4. Two live food species.00 M 3.00 M 3.Microworms .00 M 3. Jayamanne Uva Wellassa University of Badulla. Moina and Micro worms. Table 1 Feeding schedule of the fish for control and 4 treatment tanks Control Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Time Feed Time Feed Time Feed 8.00 M 9.00 PF 8. which can be reared easily with very low cost are selected for the study and their suitability in rearing post larval stage and fry stage of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) was tested under aquarium conditions.00 MW 9. Sri Lanka and M.00 BS 11. 1996) and the cost of 400 g of cysts is nearly Rs. De Silva.00 PF 1. G.00 M 8.

time of initial weight in days Survival rate (SR %) = Number of fry that survived ∗ 100 Number of fry stocked in the tank Cost of feed for 21 day rearing period was calculated based on the cost of production for Moina and microworm and based on the market price of Artemia (Brine shrimp).m.Weight of bowl +water. survival rate and water quality parameters ( water appearance. condition factor. W1.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. The parameters were calculated according to the equations given below. NH4+. T2. Results and discussion The growth performance of the guppy in control tank and four treatment tanks is shown in Table 2. F – Number of fry Mean Weight = (W2 – W1) W1 Mean weight gain = W2 -Final mean weight. mean weight gain. W1-Initial mean weight Mean length = L1 + ⋯ … … … … … + Lx F L – Length of individual fish.time of final weight in days. December 15-16. He appearance of the water in the tanks was observed visually and the quality of water was ranked. pH.0001 and a Vernier caliper respectively in 100 fry randomly selected from each tank at weekly intervals. before feeding the fish.30 a. length. mean length. The differences in weight gain. T1. The amounts used for daily feeding was recorded and the cost for each treatment was calculated. W2 − W1 F W2 . Comparison of means was done by using the Turkey test to find out the significance between the means. 148 .log to base e. pH. Mortality was checked daily and recorded promptly. Nitrate (NO3-) was measured using test kits.Weight of 100 fries+ water bowl. 2011 Water quality was checked daily at 7. Unionized ammonia. specific growth rate. Ammonia. Lengths (mm) and weights (mg) were measured using a top loading balance (Sartorius) with a precision of 0. Nitrate) were tested using one way ANOVA. F – Number of fish fry Speci ic growth rate (SGR %) =( 2– 1 100)/( 2 − 1) Loge .

5 15 14. All treatments except treatment 2 showed a better growth and specific growth rate than control which is the currently practiced feeding strategy of the aquarium.4 25 20 15 10 5 0 control trt.63 + 0.3 trt.00 13.5 13 12.23 250 250 185.5 14 13.51 83.33+ 1.57 10.23 74.33+ 1.60 T1 19. length gain and survival rate (Figures 1 and 2 and Table 2) compared to other treatments. 17.66 + 1.8 Treatment Tanks T2 T3 16.93 + 0. specific growth rate.4 T4 18. 2 or 4 but there was a significant difference between control 149 .3 Trt.of fish stocked No.1 Trt.70 + 0.50 66.15 0.577+ 15. 2011 Table 2: The performance of guppy in control and treatment tanks (The values given are means of three replicates mean of three replicates Parameter Mean wt gain (mg) Final length (mm) Specific growth rate No.00+ 2.06 15.66+ 1.15 13.2 Trt.202+ 0.23 250 166.00+ 3.00 94. Brine shrimp is selected as the best feed among the tested feed for guppy fry.0 236.1 trt.51 88.2 trt.47 250 222.40+ 15.53+ 1.26 13.202+ 0.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.33 + 22.25 13. of harvested Survival rate (%) Mean weight gain (mg) Cont.4 Specific growth rate Treatment tanks Figure 3: Specific growth rate of guppy fish fry in relation to treatments Treatment 3 showed the best mean weight gain.32 0. microworm.23 14. Mean comparisons showed that there is no significant differenc between control and Treatment 1.5 Control Trt.25 + 0.67+ 10. December 15-16.33+ 3.67+ 7.67+ 5.29 250 209.15 12.15 0. Therefore the combination of Moina.4 Mean weight gain Treatment tanks Figure 2: Mean weight gain (mg) of guppy fish fry in relation to treatments Specific growth rate% 15.

C. December 15-16.00. Rs. Phang.V. R. G. Reduction of feed cost was highest in Treatment 1 (95. 37: 53-59. 144:217-226.P. Aquaculture. T1. However. The cost reduction was 98% by using live feed as in Treatment 1 and 48% using feed as in Treatment 3 (all four types of feed). T3 were Rs. 1990.36% in Treatment 3. Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae). 59:684-701. Different combinations of Moina and microworms could be used in this regard and the aquarium traders can select the suitable combination considering the cost.18 respectively. 1985. Conclusions The present study showed clearly that the cost incurred by aquarium traders using Artemia as live food for fry can be reduced using other low cost live food. Treatment 2 showed the worst results while other treatments fared well in comparison to Control. 820. Zool. Masses. Adult Artemia as food for first feeding coho salmon (Oncorhynchus Kisutch). Lowest cost was observed in Treatment 1 where only Moina and microworms were used as feed. Food and feeding behavior of the guppy. J.W. 150 . Can. K. 431. 33.E. Kim J. Dahlgren. 2011 and the Treatment 3 (P<0. Journal of Fish Biology. The ornamental fish trade and fish conservation.88%) and 47.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.C. Findings of this study will be useful for the development of fresh water ornamental fish farming in Sri Lanka. Cost for feed during the rearing period for control. It is also advantages to feed Artemia once a day to gain better growth. References Andrews.. Hardy 1996. Moina and microworms can be used in aquariums for feeding fry stages successfully.05). Rs.71. and V.

Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University, December 15-16, 2011

Preliminary Study on Effect of Different Feed Combinations on Captive Breeding of Anemonefish Amphiprion Clarkii
P.R.A. Pathirana, S.C. Jayamanne , N.P.P.Liyanage . Uva Wellassa University. Badulla. Sri Lanka and J. P. R. P. Kumarasinghe Ceylon Aquatics (Pvt) Ltd., Galayaya, Pannala, Sri Lanka Introduction The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka (Buckner, 2004). Harvesting marine species for home aquaria has started in 1980s (Andrews, 1990) and the exports have continued to increase in 1990s (Vallejo, 1990). The trade has expanded to a multi-million dollar business and 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. Approximately 150 species of marine fishes are exported from Sri Lanka and all these come from the wild catches. Even though Sri Lanka has a vast potential for marine ornamental fish trade, it has not developed technology on breeding marine ornamental fish in captivity. Anemone fish, Amphiprion clarkii is a species which has a high demand among marine aquarists due to its attractive colours and behavioural display. The fish is caught from the wild destroying the natural habitats due to improper catching methods and may decrease the population. The genus Amphiprion represent the most important group of captive bred marine species (Olivia et.al, 2006) and the present study aimed to find the possibility of stimulating breeding in Amphiprion clarkii in captivity using two different feeds to reduce the pressure on the natural environment. Methodology Four glass tanks of the size (91.5 cm X 47 cm X 38 cm) were used for the study and all the tanks were set up in a same height providing equal amount of light and temperature. The bottom of each tank was filled with same amount of cleaned coral sand and gravel just enough to cover the bottom. Two cleaned clay pots were placed in each tank providing hiding places and a substrate to deposit their eggs. Each tank was connected to a triple pass type protein skimmer (400 l per hour) and a biological filter (Figure 1). All the tanks were supplied with aeration and were numbered. Purified and disinfected sea water was transported to Pannala from Marawila area. Each tank was filled with a volume of 129 l sea water and recirculation system was in operation throughout the study. Salinity of the water was adjusted around 30 – 31 ppt. Four pairs of anemone fish (Male: around 4 cm, Female around 8 cm) paired out naturally were obtained from the coral reef environment of Tricomalee sea. One pair of fish was introduced to each tank after circulating the water system for 24 hours. Two different feeds were prepared to feed the fish as formulated feed and the mussels. Mussel feed was prepared by grinding cleaned mussels and the formulated feed was prepared by grinding the cleaned ingredients; fish (50%), seaweeds and prawns (20%), cuttlefish (15%), mussel meat (15%) with garlic. Feed preparation was done bi-weekly. Tank number one and three were fed with a formulated frozen feed and tank number two and four were fed with mussel meat at ad

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Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University, December 15-16, 2011

libitum for three times per day. Changing and siphoning of water was done once a week and salinity was adjusted around 30 ppt. Fish were observed three times per day for their behaviors and all the information was recorded. Tanks were specially checked for eggs in the morning and afternoon. Salinity and temperature in the tanks was checked three times a day using a digital salinity meter and a temperature meter (YSI 30) respectively. Ammonia levels were checked with an ammonia meter (HANNA: HI 96733) twice/month and the level of ammonia was maintained between 0 - 0.001 ppt. Data were collected for three months and were analyzed with two proportion z test in MINITAB 14 statistical package.

Figure 1: The water filtering and circulating system Results The fish that were fed with formulated feed diet started pre-spawning behavior after eight weeks after stocking while those fed with mussel did not show any spawning behavior. During the pre-spawning period fish rarely swam around the tank and at first, the female selected a specific place and stayed there and after several days same place was occupied by the male. Then, cleaning of the substratum was started by the female and later both male and female engaged in cleaning. The results indicated that formulated feed has a significant effect (P<0.05) on stimulating spawning behavior in A. clarkii. The pre spawning behavior was limited to a period of fourteen days but spawning did not materialize. The environmental factors, salinity, ammonia, nitrate and nitrite remained constant during the experimental period but the temperature has shown fluctuations. The temperature showed a significant effect on the pre-spawning behavior (P<0.05) and the pre-spawning behavior was interrupted when the temperature increased greater than 27 0C. Discussion The results of the study has shown that the formulated feed has a significant effect (P<0.05) on the breeding of Amphiprion clarkii. When the temperature level began to increase the pre spawning activities were stopped by the fish. According to the previous records, Dalia and Svedang (1997) has shown that water temperature has a very marked effect on the psychological and biochemical process in fish, and a raised temperature regime has a complex effect on fish reproductive, nerve and endocrine system. The

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Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University, December 15-16, 2011

temperature presumably effect on both GtH (Growth Hormone) secretion and the responsiveness of target organ to hormonal stimulation. Increased temperature affects the fat synthesis, metabolism and endocrine system which results in the failure of the generative processes. The histological analysis revealed high frequencies of egg resorption and the gonads developed arhythmically (Dalia and Svedang, 1997) . Most of fish including Amphiprion clarkii, are external fertilizers. The external environment should have the ability to protect the eggs with suitable conditions. When the environmental factors are suitable, gametes are released to the environment by fish after having several behaviors (Pre spawning behaviors). These behaviors are induced by the endocrine state of the fish. According to Dalia and Svedang (1997) if the environmental temperature is raised, it is affected negatively to the endocrine system of the fish. According to Wood and McDonald (1996) there is a close association between reproductive behaviors and endocrine state, and any environmental factor (i.e. Temperature) that interferes with normal endocrine functions may also disrupt behavioral processes. Conclusions The formulated feed used in this study is a good source of nutrients as a brooder feed in breeding anemonefish, Amphiprion clarkii in captivity. The water circulating system which was used in tanks kept low levels of dissolved compounds and ammonia is efficiently removed by the system. The fish can survive without any disturbances up to 300C, but the spawning activities has not taken place in temperatures above 270C and higher temperatures affected spawning activities of Amphiprion clarkii negatively. The results are encouraging and need further research to succeed in breeding of Amphiprion clarkii in captivity.

References Andrews, C., 1990. The ornamental fish trade and fish conservation. J. Fish. Biol. 37: 53-59 Bruckner A.W., 2004. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean. NOAA Fisheries, Office of Habitat Conservation, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA Dalia, L. D. and Svedang, H. 1997. A Review on Fish Reproduction With Special Reference to Temperature Anomalies. 10:14-17 Olivia, J., Fernando K., Raja and Balasubramanian T. 2006. Studies on Spawning in Clown Fish Amphiprion sebae With Various Feed Combination Under Recirclating Aquarium Conditions. 376-381. Vallejo, V. B., 1997. Survey and revive of the Philippine marine aquarium fish industry. 10: 25-26. Wood, E. 1985. Exploitation of Coral Reef Fishs from the Aquarium Trade. 121 Wood, M. C. and McDonald G. 1996. Temperature Effects on the Reproductive Performances of Fish. 159-176.

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About 50.S. 85 OC and 95 OC each with heating times of 10 minutes.260 Metric tons (Mt). Crude tuna oil is produced from tuna waste by steam followed by purification. In Soxhlet method 100 g of sample of prepared tuna head sample was transferred into extracting thimbles. 20 minutes and 30 minutes followed by pressing.S. The temperature was maintained between 60 OC to 80 OC for 6 hours and extracted fish oil was weighed. Ja-Ela. Tuna fish oil was separated using Soxhlet method. Tuna oil differs from other fish oils in the ratio of the C20:5 n-3 (EPA) to the C22:6 n-3 (DHA) fatty acids.000 people in the country are directly involved in the fishery industry. Jayamanne Uva Wellassa University. Oil was extracted with petroleum ether (chloroform and methanol at the ratio of 2:1). Sri Lanka Introduction Sri Lanka is surrounded by a coastline of approximately 1700 Km.Tuna fish oil has been considered as an available source of long chain polyunsaturated Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids. crushed tuna head samples were taken (100 g) and mixed with 10 % of distilled water and digested for 30 minutes at 50 – 60 OC. After 30 minutes 20 mL of 2% Sodium hydroxide was added slowly to avoid soap formation. 2003). Methodology Heads of yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares) weighing more than 20 kg were obtained from tuna processing plant in Ja-ela. It means that the ratio of EPA: DHA in tuna oil around 1:4 is similar to that of human breast milk . The total marine fish production in 2010 was recorded about 332. The mixture was then cooked at a temperature of 80 OC up to 30 minutes with constant 154 . acid silage Soxhlet like methods (Bimbo. In Alkali digestion method. 2010). This study attempted to find out the feasibility of producing Tuna fish oil using fish waste. Every year thousands of tons of fish by-products of high nutrient content are discarded by fish processing plants through the world although they can be utilized for other purposes.C. A sample of 100 g of prepared tuna head were mixed with 20 % water and heated by using a water bath maintaining the temperatures 75 OC. From the total yield about one-third of the catch of fish is not used for direct human consumption but for the production of fishery by products (Balios.) Ltd. while Tuna contributed 88903 Mt to the total (Fisheries year Book. Sri Lanka and S. Kumara Uva Wellassa University.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.000 Sq Km. 2011 Production of Tuna Fish Oil by Utilizing Tuna (Thunnus Albacares) Processing by-Products M. December 15-16. Wet rendering method was carried out according to the Bimbo (1990). Badulla. alkali digestion. Badulla. Sri Lanka Selected tuna heads were separately crushed up using a mechanical crusher to get fine ground particles. 1990). wet rendering. wet rendering method and alkali digestion method respectively. and belongs to an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 517. Rajapakshe Jay Sea Foods (Pvt. especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosa Hexaenoic Acid (DHA). Sri Lanka G.

All the mean values were subjected to One-way ANOVA to find the significant of the methods.0049 Figure 5 Free fatty acid value of soxhlet(1).62%).7 Free fatty acid value Free fatty acid values of different extraction methods 0.6 0. Soxhlet method recorded the highest free fatty acid value (0.04 +/-0.62 0. followed by Alkali digestion method (5.0012 Soxhlet method recorded the highest oil yield of 13.113.655 +/-0. Free fatty acid content of tuna fish oils separated by different methods is presented in Table 1. 0.509 .4 0.wet rendering(2) and alkali digestion method(3).125%).125 0.1 0 1 2 Extraction methods 3 0. Free fatty acid analysis was made by extracting free fatty acids in hot alcohol and titrating with standard alkali medium.125 +/.074 Alkali Digestion 5.046 +/-0. After 30 minutes oil was separated using centrifugation. Wet rendering method was the next oil extraction method which reported the low free fatty acid value (0. December 15-16.29 +/-0. A mean separation was done by using tukey test to find whether there is significant difference among the methods. 155 .509). Results Results of the analysis of oil. using different extraction techniques..113 .5 0. Table 3 Yield of oil extracted using different extraction methods Parameter Yield Free FA Value Soxhlet method 13.296 +/-0.0008 +/. are presented in Table 1.611 .2 0. The lowest free fatty acid value was recorded from oil recovered by the alkali digestion method (0. Wet rendering method showed the lowest oil yield (3.004%).65 +/-0.621 +/.611).061 Wet Rendering 3.. 2011 stirring until the head muscle particles were turned semi colloidal state..3 0.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University.

December 15-16. because a high temperature (85 OC for 20 min) was used. The highest free fatty acid percentage in oil was recorded from Soxhlet method and alkali digestion method recorded the lowest free fatty acid value. 1971). According to the results of this study highest oil yield was obtained using Soxhlet method. 1990 . New york:Reinholdpublishing Co. Hence the Soxhlet method is recommended for extracting oil from fish.Proceedings of the Research Symposium of Uva Wellassa University. This is possible due to the fact that lipid cells were ruptured to a great extent with 85 OC (Bimbo (1990). but release of complex lipids to the solution is lower than that of the Soxhlet method (Tanikwa. Alkali digestion method gave the lowest free fatty acid value. The highest oil yield was observed at 85 OC for 20 minute treatment and lowest oil yield observed in lower temperature treatment (75 OC) and also high temperature treatment for long time (95 OC for 20 min. Wet rendering method was carried out according to the method of Bimbo (1990). stansby.fsh oil in nutrition (pp. In alkali digestion method Sodium hydroxide add to digest the fish tissues so it will neutralize some amount of free fatty acid in the oil. A. According to the oil prepared at higher temperatures had higher free fatty acid amount. In alkali digestion method fish tissues are digested with the help of alkali medium (sodium hydroxide 2%) and liberate oil from the fish tissues easily. Solvents such as chloroform and methanol with somewhat higher polarity have high dissolving property and Soxhlet method has reported the highest oil yield. Second highest free fatty acid value was recorded in wet rendering method. 2011 Discussion In this study tuna fish oil was extracted by using different methods and quality was determined by finding the free fatty acid values of the oil.E. 30 min) method.P.141180). In Soxhlet method oil is kept at somewhat higher temperature for long time (50 -60 OC for 6 hours) and hydrolysis of triglyceride was high resulting high free fatty acid value. Among the different time temperature combinations the optimum condition for tuna oil extraction was observed to be heating the sample at 85OC for 20 min. Lipids will dissolve in a variety of solvents. Production of fish oil in M. References Bimbo. This results indicated that the hydrolysis of ester bonds of triglyceride occurred less at lower temperatures as well as oil can undergo hydrolysis in the presence of moisture and heat.ltd 156 . Application of heat accelerate the digestion process to some extent.

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