Protein is one of the essential food ingredients and basic building blocks of our body. Proteins are made up of amino acids. Amino acids (22 amino acids in all) are essential for building, maintaining and repairing muscles. What is the function of protein in our body? Proteins are essential to our bodies for various functions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Growth of body tissue Repair of body tissue Red blood cells Proper functioning of antibodies that resist infection Regulation of enzymes and hormones

What happens if we do not eat enough protein? Protein Deficiency - Loss of body protein can occur due to stress, surgery, haemorrhage, wounds or prolonged illness and also heavy exercise. Protein deficiency may affect growth and tissue development especially the hair, nails, skin and muscle tone. Our body has little capacity to store protein. If the body doesn’t get enough protein it starts to break down muscle for its needs. How much protein do we need daily? According to the RDA recommendations, our daily protein requirement is of 0.8 to 1.0 gram of protein for every kilogram of our body weight. Roughly, 10-15% of your daily calorie intake should come from your daily protein intake. Can we eat more protein than recommended? Increased protein and low carb intake is recommended in treating obesity. The known risk from high-protein diet is for people with kidney disease. On the other hand, increased protein may improve bone density helping prevent osteoporosis. Do people who exercise require more protein? The protein requirements for athletes like runners, cyclists and tri-athletes are from 25 to 50% more (0.5 to 0.72 gram of protein per pound of body weight) than for non active individuals. Example: If your body weight = 55 kgs and your calorie requirement = 2200 calories per day Then your protein requirement = 55 kg x 1 gram per each kilogram = 55 gram. Since 1 gram of protein provides 4 calories, 55 gram of protein x 4 calories/gram of protein = 220 calories from protein per day which is 10% of your calorie intake. What foods have High Protein? Protein rich foods include meat, poultry and fish, eggs, dairy products, seeds and nuts, beans and lentils, grains like wheat, rice, barley and corn, and soy products. High protein foods includes eggs, milk, spinach, soybean, meat, fish, whole grains, rice, beans, legumes, corn, oats, peas and peanut butter which are good sources of high protein. Milk and milk products like cheese and yogurt are high in protein content. The milk contains two high quality proteins, about 20 percent caseins and 80 percent

whey. Whey is quickly broken down into amino acids and absorbed into the bloodstream. Caseins are digested more slowly and provide the body with a steady supply of protein for a longer period of time. Nutrients in 1 Ounce (28 grams) of Shelled Nuts The nutrition data for all the nuts in the following table is for unsalted nuts. The values for fat are rounded to the nearest whole or half number so the various types of fat may vary slightly from the amount of "total fat." Nuts and seeds are high protein foods. If you want to replace animal protein with vegetable protein, then think of pistachios. Pistachio nuts are an excellent source of vegetable protein and fibre, and least amount of calories and fat of all nuts. Sunflower seeds are also high in protein. Shortcut: An ounce of meat or fish has approximately 7 grams of protein. Beef
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Hamburger patty, 4 oz – 28 grams protein Steak, 6 oz – 42 grams Most cuts of beef – 7 grams of protein per ounce

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Chicken breast, 3.5 oz (100 grams) - 30 grams protein Chicken thigh – 10 grams (for average size) Drumstick – 11 grams Wing – 6 grams Chicken meat, cooked, 4 oz – 35 grams

Fish Most fish fillets or steaks are about 22 grams of protein for 3 ½ oz (100 grams) of cooked fish • Tuna, 6 oz can - 40 grams of protein

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Pork chop, average - 22 grams protein Pork loin or tenderloin, 4 oz – 29 grams Ham, 3 oz serving – 19 grams Ground pork, 1 oz raw – 5 grams; 3 oz cooked – 22 grams Bacon, 1 slice – 3 grams Canadian-style bacon (back bacon), slice – 5 – 6 grams

Eggs and Dairy
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Egg, large - 6 grams protein Milk, 1 cup - 8 grams Cottage cheese, ½ cup - 15 grams Yogurt, 1 cup – usually 8-12 grams, check label

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Soft cheeses (Mozzarella, Brie, Camembert) – 6 grams per oz Medium cheeses (Cheddar, Swiss) – 7 or 8 grams per oz Hard cheeses (Parmesan) – 10 grams per oz

Beans and Legumes Tofu, ½ cup 20 grams protein Tofu, 1 oz, 2.3 grams Soy milk, 1 cup - 6 -10 grams Most beans (black, pinto, lentils, etc) about 7-10 grams protein per half cup of cooked beans • Soy beans, ½ cup cooked – 14 grams protein • Split peas, ½ cup cooked – 8 grams
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Nuts and Seeds
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Peanut butter, 2 Tablespoons - 8 grams protein Almonds, ¼ cup – 8 grams Peanuts, ¼ cup – 9 grams Cashews, ¼ cup – 5 grams Pecans, ¼ cup – 2.5 grams Sunflower seeds, ¼ cup – 6 grams Pumpkin seeds, ¼ cup – 8 grams Flax seeds – ¼ cup – 8 grams

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