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COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Abbottabad

Department of Electrical Engineering

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks


Lecture 2: Part I: Classification of Networks Part II: Layered Architecture and OSI model

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Part I

Classification of Networks

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Data flow (simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex)

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Types of connections: point-to-point and multipoint

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Topologies

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Mesh topology

Fully connected mesh topology (five devices) Number of links = n(n1)/2


2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Star topology

A star topology connecting four stations Number of links = n

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Bus topology

A bus topology connecting three stations Number of links = 1 (backbone) + n (drop lines)

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Ring topology

A ring topology connecting six stations Number of links = n


2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Hybrid topology

A hybrid topology: a star backbone with three bus networks


2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Example 1: Identify the topology!

An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet


2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Classification of Networks

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Local Area Networks

LAN with Bus topology

LAN with Ring topology

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Metropolitan Area Networks

A metropolitan area network based on cable TV.


2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Wide Area Networks

A stream of packets from sender to receiver

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Wide Area Networks

A switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN


2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

A heterogeneous network made of four WANs and two LANs

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Wireless Networks

Wireless PAN
2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

Wireless LAN
EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Home Network Varieties


Computers (desktop PC, PDA, shared peripherals Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camera, stereo, MP3) Telecomm (telephone, cell phone, intercom, fax) Appliances (microwave, fridge, water heater, aircon) Telemetry (utility meter, burglar alarm, baby-cam)

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Part II

Layered Architecture

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layered Architecture Example

Tasks involved in sending a letter


2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

OSI Model

Seven layers of the OSI model


2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Interaction between layers

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Data exchange using the OSI model

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 7: Application layer


The application layer is responsible for providing services to the user.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 6: Presentation layer


The presentation layer is responsible for translation, compression, and encryption.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 5: Session layer


The session layer is responsible for dialog control and synchronization.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 4: Transport layer


The transport layer is responsible for the delivery of a message from one process to another.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 4: Transport layer

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 3: Network layer


The network layer is responsible for the delivery of individual packets from the source host to the destination host.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 3: Network layer

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 2: Data link layer


The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the next.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 2: Data link layer

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Layer 1: Physical layer


The physical layer is responsible for movements of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Summary of layers

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

TCP/IP Protocol Suite


The layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite do not exactly match those in the OSI model The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: Host-to-network Internet Transport Application
However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we can say that the TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: Physical Data link Network Transport Application
2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

OSI and TCP/IP Model

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Addresses in TCP/IP

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Example: Physical addresses on LAN


In figure below, a node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87. The two nodes are connected by a link (bus topology LAN). As the figure shows, the computer with physical address 10 is the sender, and the computer with physical address 87 is the receiver.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Ethernet address
Most local-area networks use a 48-bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every byte is separated by a colon, as shown below:

07:01:02:01:2C:4B
A 6-byte (48-bit) physical address.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Example: Logical and physical addresses over a WAN


Figure shows a part of an internet with two routers connecting three LANs. Each device (computer or router) has a pair of addresses (logical and physical) for each connection. In this case, each computer is connected to only one link and therefore has only one pair of addresses. Each router, however, is connected to three networks (only two are shown in the figure). So each router has three pairs of addresses, one for each connection.

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

IP address
Most wide-area networks use a 32-bit (4-byte) logical address written as decimal numbers; every byte is separated by a dot, as shown below:

192.168.10.1
A 4-byte (32-bit) IP address

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Example: Logical addresses for multiple processes


Figure shows two computers communicating via the Internet. The sending computer is running three processes at this time with port addresses a, b, and c. The receiving computer is running two processes at this time with port addresses j and k. Process a in the sending computer needs to communicate with process j in the receiving computer. Note that although physical addresses change from hop to hop, logical and port addresses remain the same from the source to destination.
2011-12 Khurram Aziz Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

Port address
Port address is a 16-bit address represented by one decimal number as shown.

8080
A 16-bit port address represented as one single decimal number

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks

References
Most slides and pictures taken from text and reference book websites Required reading (Any or all of the following)
Stallings, Chapter 1 and 2 Forouzan, Chapter 1 and 2 Tanenbaum, Chapter 1 Kurose and Ross, Chapter 1

2011-12 Khurram Aziz

Department of EE, CIIT Abbottabad

EEE-314: Data Communication & Computer Networks